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Class XI: Maths
Chapter 3: Trigonometric Functions
Top Formulae
1. 1 radian =
180
57 16
o
o
' =
π
approximately
2. 1
o
= 0 01746
180
o
radians . radians
π
= approximately
3.
s= r θ
Length of arc= radius × angle in radian
This relation can only be used when θ is in radians
4. Radian measure= Degree measure
180
π
×
5. Degree measure =
180
×
π
Radian measure
6. Trigonometric functions in terms of sine and cosine
1
cosec x , x n ,where n is any int eger
sinx
= ≠ π
1
2 1
2
sec x , x ( n ) , where n is any int eger
cos x
π
= ≠ +
sinx
tanx , x (2n 1) , where n is any int eger
cos x 2
π
= ≠ +
1
cot x , x n , where n is any int eger
tanx
= ≠ π
7. Fundamental Trigonometric Identities
sin
2
x + cos
2
x = 1
1 + tan
2
x = sec
2
x
1 + cot
2
x = cosec
2
x


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8 Values of Trigonometric ratios:

6
π

4
π

3
π

2
π
π

2

sin 0
1
2

1
2

3
2
10 0 –1 0
cos 1
3
2

1
2

1
2
0 –1 0 1
tan 0
1
3

1 3
not
defined
0
not
defined
0

9. Domain and range of various trigonometric functions:

Function Domain Range
y = sin x
2 2
π π (

(
¸ ¸
,
[–1, 1]
y = cos x
0 π (
¸ ¸
,
[–1, 1]
y = cosec x { } 0
2 2
π π (
− −
(
¸ ¸
,
R – (–1,1)
y = sec x
0
2
π ¦ ¹
π − (
´ `
¸ ¸
¹ )
,
R – (–1, 1)
y = tan x
2 2
π π | |

|
\ ¹
,
R
y = cot x ( ) 0 π ,
R

10. Sign Convention
I II III IV
sin x + + – –
cos x + – – +
tan x + – + –
cosec x + + – –
sec x + – – +
cot x + – + –


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11. Behavior of Trigonometric Functions in various Quadrants
I quadrant II quadrant III quadrant IV quadrant
sin
increases from
0 to 1
decreases from
1 to 0
decreases from
0 to –1
increases from
–1 to 0
cos
decreases from
1 to 0
decreases from
0 to –1
increases from
–1 to 0
increases from
0 to 1
tan
increases from
0 to ∞
increases from
–∞ to 0
increase from 0
to –∞
increases from
–∞ to 0
cot
decrease from
∞ to 0
decreases from
0 to –∞
decreases from
∞ to 0
decreases from
0 to –∞
sec
increases from
1 to ∞
increase from
–∞ to –1
decreases from
–1 to –∞
decreases from
∞ to 1
cosec
decreases from
∞ to 1
increases from
1 to ∞
increases from
–∞ to –1
decreases from
–1 to –∞
12. Basic Formulae

(i) cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y
(ii) cos (x - y) = cos x cos y

+ sin x sin y
(iii) sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y
(iv) sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y
If none of the angles x, y and (x + y) is an odd multiple of
2
π
, then
(v) tan (x + y) =
tanx tany
1 tanxtany
+


(vi) tan (x – y) =
tanx tany
1 tanx tany

+

If none of the angles x, y and (x + y) is a multiple of π, then
(vii) cot (x + y) =
cot xcot y 1
cot xcot y


(viii) cot (x – y) =
cot xcot y 1
cot y cot x




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13. Allied Angle Relations
cos x
2
π | |

|
\ ¹
= sin x
sin x
2
π | |

|
\ ¹
= cos x
con x
2
π | |
+
|
\ ¹
= –sin x sin x
2
π | |
+
|
\ ¹
= cos x
cos (π – x) = –cos x sin (π – x) = sin x
cos (π + x) = –cos x sin (π + x) = –sin x
cos (2π – x) = cos x sin (2π – x) = –sin x
cos (2nπ + x) = cos x sin (2nπ + x) = sin x

14. Sum and Difference Formulae
(i) cos x + cos y =
x y x y
2cos cos
2 2
+ −

(ii) cos x – cos y =
x y x y
2sin sin
2 2
+ −


(iii) sin x + sin y =
x y x y
2sin cos
2 2
+ −

(iv) sin x – sin y =
x y x y
2cos sin
2 2
+ −

(v) 2cos x cos y = cos (x + y) + cos (x – y)
(vi) –2sin x sin y = cos (x + y) – cos (x – y)
(vii) 2sin x cos y = sin (x +y) + sin (x – y)
(viii) 2cos x sin y = sin (x + y) – sin (x – y)

15. Multiple Angle Formulae
(i) cos 2x = cos
2
x – sin
2
x = 2 cos
2
x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin
2
x =
2
2
1 tan x
1 tan x

+

(ii) sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x =
2
2tanx
1 tan x +

(iii) tan 2x =
2
2tanx
1 tan x −

(iv) sin 3x = 3 sin x – 4 sin³ x
(v) cos 3x = 4 cos³ x – 3 cos x
(vi) tan 3x =
3
2
3tanx tan x
1 3tan x





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16. Trigonometric Equations
No. Equations General Solution Principal Value
1 sin θ = 0 θ = nπ, n∈Z θ = 0
2
cos θ = 0
θ = (2n + 1)
2
π
,
n∈Z
θ =
2
π

3 tan θ = 0 θ = nπ θ = 0
4
sin θ = sin α θ = nπ + (-1)ⁿ α
n∈Z
θ = α
5 cos θ = cos α θ = 2nπ ± α n∈Z θ = 2α, α > 0
6 tan θ = tan α θ = nπ + α n∈Z θ = α

14. (i) sin θ = k = sin (nπ + (–1)ⁿ α), n є Z
θ = nπ + (–1)ⁿ α, n є Z
cosec θ = cosec α ⇒ sin θ = sin α
θ = nπ + (–1)ⁿ α, n є Z
(ii) cos θ = k = cos (2nπ ± α), n є Z
θ = 2nπ ± α, n є Z

1] R – (–1. 2    0. 1] [–1. π    π π  − 2 . π −     2  π π − 2 .com . Sign Convention I sin x cos x tan x cosec x sec x cot x + + + + + + II + – – + – – III – – + – – + IV – + – – + – Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. π ) Range [–1.2 8 Values of Trigonometric ratios: 0° π 6 1 2 3 2 1 3 sin cos tan 0 1 0 π 4 1 2 1 2 1 π 3 3 2 1 2 3 π 2 10 0 not defined π 0 –1 0 3π 2 –1 0 not defined 2π 0 1 0 9.1) R – (–1. 2  − {0}   π 0. 1) R R y = sec x y = tan x y = cot x 10. 2    ( 0. Domain and range of various trigonometric functions: Function y = sin x y = cos x y = cosec x Domain  π π − 2 .topperlearning.

Behavior of Trigonometric Functions in various Quadrants I quadrant sin increases from 0 to 1 decreases from 1 to 0 increases from 0 to ∞ decrease from ∞ to 0 increases from 1 to ∞ decreases from ∞ to 1 II quadrant decreases from 1 to 0 decreases from 0 to –1 increases from –∞ to 0 decreases from 0 to –∞ increase from –∞ to –1 increases from 1 to ∞ III quadrant decreases from 0 to –1 increases from –1 to 0 increase from 0 to –∞ decreases from ∞ to 0 decreases from –1 to –∞ increases from –∞ to –1 IV quadrant increases from –1 to 0 increases from 0 to 1 increases from –∞ to 0 decreases from 0 to –∞ decreases from ∞ to 1 decreases from –1 to –∞ cos tan cot sec cosec 12. then 2 (v) tan (x + y) = (vi) tan (x – y) = If none of the angles x.com . y and (x + y) is a multiple of π.topperlearning. Basic Formulae (i) cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y (ii) cos (x .y) = cos x cos y + sin x sin y (iii) sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y (iv) sin (x – y) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y If none of the angles x.3 11. then (vii) cot (x + y) = cot x cot y − 1 cot x cot y cot x cot y − 1 cot y − cot x (viii) cot (x – y) = Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. y and (x + y) is an odd multiple of tan x + tan y 1 − tan x tan y tan x − tan y 1 + tan x tan y π .

topperlearning. Sum and Difference Formulae (i) cos x + cos y = 2 cos (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) x+y x−y cos 2 2 x+y x−y cos x – cos y = −2 sin 2 sin 2 x+y x−y cos sin x + sin y = 2 sin 2 2 x+y x−y sin x – sin y = 2 cos 2 sin 2 2cos x cos y = cos (x + y) + cos (x – y) –2sin x sin y = cos (x + y) – cos (x – y) = sin (x +y) + sin (x – y) = sin (x + y) – sin (x – y) π  sin  + x  = cos x 2  sin (π – x) = sin x sin (π + x) = –sin x sin (2π – x) = –sin x sin (2nπ + x) = sin x (vii) 2sin x cos y (viii) 2cos x sin y 15.4 13. Multiple Angle Formulae (i) cos 2x = cos2 x – sin2 x = 2 cos2 x – 1 = 1 – 2 sin2 x = 1 − tan2 x 1 + tan2 x (ii) sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x = (iii) tan 2x = 2 tan x 2 tan x 1 + tan2 x 1 − tan2 x (iv) sin 3x = 3 sin x – 4 sin³ x (v) cos 3x = 4 cos³ x – 3 cos x 3 tan x − tan3 x (vi) tan 3x = 1 − 3 tan2 x Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www.com . Allied Angle Relations π  cos  − x  = sin x 2  π  sin  − x  = cos x 2   π  con  + x  = –sin x 2  cos (π – x) = –cos x cos (π + x) = –cos x cos (2π – x) = cos x cos (2nπ + x) = cos x 14.

n є Z θ = nπ + (–1)ⁿ α.com . 1 2 3 4 5 6 14. n∈Z π θ = (2n + 1) . n є Z (ii) cos θ = k = cos (2nπ ± α). n є Z Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side Log on to www. α > 0 θ=α (i) sin θ = k = sin (nπ + (–1)ⁿ α).topperlearning. 2 n∈Z θ = nπ θ = nπ + (-1)ⁿ α n∈Z θ = 2nπ ± α n∈Z θ = nπ + α n∈Z Principal Value θ=0 π θ= 2 θ=0 θ=α θ = 2α. n є Z θ = 2nπ ± α.5 16. Trigonometric Equations No. n є Z cosec θ = cosec α ⇒ sin θ = sin α θ = nπ + (–1)ⁿ α. Equations sin θ = 0 cos θ = 0 tan θ = 0 sin θ = sin α cos θ = cos α tan θ = tan α General Solution θ = nπ.