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1. Protectorate- political unit that depends on another state for its protection 2.

Direct rule-type of rule where local elites were removed from power and replaced with officials from a mother country 3. Indirect rule- European colonial policy in which traditional local power structure is incorporated in colonial administrative structure 4. King Leopard II- Belgian king from 1865 to 1909; developed Congo river basin, making possible the formation of the Congo Free State in 1885, annexed in 1908 as the Belgian Congo (now Congo Kinshasa) 5. Congo- republic in central Africa; achieved independence from Belgium in 1960 6. Ethiopia-most persistent and uncompromising anti-imperialist conscience and spirit of Africa as a result of direct armed confrontation with the allied international forces of imperialism 7. Liberia-place where freed slaves from US could have lived; founded in 1821 8. Social Darwinism- a belief, popular in the late Victorian era in England and elsewhere; strongest and fittest should survive and flourish in society, while the weak should die out 9. White Man’s Burden-characterization for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise; poem by Rudyard Kipling 10. Berlin Conference- regulated European colonization and trade in Africa; called by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck (18841885) 11. British East India Company- English joint-stock company formed for pursuing trade with East Indies; controlled India for many years; traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpeter, tea, opium 12. Sepoy Mutiny- high caste Hindus that were unhappy with British interference; tried to stir up nationalism 13. Jewel in the Crown- India was considered the Jewel of the crown; ruled by British for most of the 19th century and part of the 20th century until 1947 when India achieved independence 14. Satyagraha-philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistant developed by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi; deployed several campaigns 15. Non-violent Civil Disobedience- refusal to obey laws, demands, and commands of government; main method in nonviolent resistance 16. Gandhi- political and spiritual leader of India during the time period where India sought to gain independence; founded satyagahara

INC. 1842.in response to imperialist expansion. unequal treaty that ended Opium War 24. they were forced to sign these severely unbalanced treaty after they were unable to resist military pressure 21.Unequal Treaties. Opium War. and William Wedderburn. became nation’s dominant political party after independence 18.Commerce Matthey Perry= Commodore of US navy that made Japan open door to west 27. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee.founded in 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume. minor party after independence. force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent 19. Monomohun Ghose.Spheres of influence.revolution in Japan that changed the Tokugawa shogunate rule 28. military or political influence . and milission evangelism 26.the unbalanced treaties signed by several East India states. political party in British India that played role in Indian independence.(aka Anglo-Chinese Wars) trade disputes and diplomatic difficulties between China and British as China tried to limit opium traffic 20.civil war in China led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan 25. Dadabhai Naoroji. Bengal in 1906. Dinshaw Wacha.Treaty of Nanjing. growth of cosmopolitan influence. economic.Meiji Restoration.British policy that made countries trade with them 23.founded at Dhaka.signed August 29.an area or region which a state or organization has significant cultural. Surendranath Banerjee. Extraterritoriality.Open Door Policy. Muslim League.Taiping Rebellion.state of being exempt from jurisdiction of local law 22.Boxer Rebellion. (Indian National congress) leader of Indian independence movement.17.