Experimental music refers, in the English-language literature, to a compositional tradition which arose in the mid-20th century

, applied particularly in North America to music composed in such a way that its outcome is unforeseeable. Its most famous and influential exponent was John Cage (Grant 2003, 174). More loosely, the term "experimental" is used in conjunction with genre names to describe music within specific genres that pushes against their boundaries or definitions, or else whose approach is a hybrid of disparate styles, or incorporates unorthodox, new, distinctly unique ingredients (Anon. [n.d.]a). Similarly, it has sometimes been used to describe "transethnic" music: the mixture of recognizable music genres. A quite distinct sense was current in the late 1950s to describe computer-controlled composition, and the term at that time also was sometimes used for electronic music and musique concrète. "Experimental music" has also been used in music journalism as a general term of disapprobation for music departing from traditional norms. Contents [hide]

* 1 Origin and definition * 2 History o 2.1 Influential antecedents o 2.2 New York School o 2.3 Microtonal music o 2.4 Musique concrète o 2.5 Abortive critical term o 2.6 Fluxus o 2.7 Minimalism o 2.8 Transethnicism o 2.9 Free improvisation * 3 Experimental popular music o 3.1 1960-1980 o 3.2 1980-2000

According to Cage's definition. due to their focus on sound as such rather than compositional method (Rebner 1997). 1). titled “Amerikanische Experimentalmusik". "an experimental action is one the outcome of which is not foreseen" (Cage 1961. as well as Cage. John Cage was also using the term as early as 1955. though he never wholly abandoned "musique expérimentale" (Palombini 1993a.o 3. the publication of Cage's article was anticipated by several months in a lecture delivered by Wolfgang Edward Rebner at the Darmstädter Ferienkurse on 13 August 1954. and Henry Cowell. Publication of Schaeffer's manifesto (Schaeffer 1957) was delayed by four years. Malcolm Goldstein. and develops the term "experimental" also to describe the work of other American composers (Christian Wolff. Rebner's lecture extended the concept back in time to include Charles Ives. 19. elektronische Musik.3 2000-present * 4 Concepts * 5 Common elements * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links [edit] Origin and definition The Groupe de Recherches de Musique Concrète (GRMC). tape music. organized the First International Decade of Experimental Music between 8 and 18 June 1953. This appears to have been an attempt by Schaeffer to reverse the assimilation of musique concrète into the German elektronische Musik. 18). Earle Brown. Edgard Varèse. by which time Schaeffer was favoring the term "recherche musicale" (music research). Meredith Monk. In Germany. . 557). Palombini 1993b. Michael Nyman starts from Cage's definition (Nyman 1974. and instead tried to subsume musique concrète. 39). 197). and world music under the rubric "musique experimentale" (Palombini 1993. and he was specifically interested in completed works that performed an unpredictable action (Mauceri 1997. under the leadership of Pierre Schaeffer.

yet. The word "experimental" in the former cases "is apt. especially. John Tilbury. for whom "The identity of a composition is of paramount importance" (Nyman 1974. that they can now be the subject of a description?" That is. makes this distinction. Stockhausen. 5). encompassing such areas as "Cageian influences and work with low technology and improvisation and sound poetry and linguistics and new instrument building and multimedia and music theatre and work with high technology and community music. 222).very generally. Xenakis. experimental music requires a broad and inclusive definition. "for the most part. when these activities are done with the aim of finding those musics 'we don't like. In a recent dissertation. 5). avant-garde music can be viewed as occupying an extreme position within the tradition. Cornelius Cardew. . Benjamin Piekut argues that this "consensus view of experimentalism" is based on an a priori "grouping". and Bussotti). John Cale. He finds laudable exceptions in the work of David Nicholls and. and Keith Rowe (Nyman 1974. David Nicholls. 1997. 78–81. Toshi Ichiyanagi. among others. saying that ". Nyman opposes experimental music to the European avant-garde of the time (Boulez. 13). if you will". David Cope also distinguishes between experimental and avant garde. Terry Riley..). 7). 2 and 9). Warren Burt cautions that. 2–5).Morton Feldman. Berio. "a series of ands. while experimental music lies outside it" (Nicholls 1998. La Monte Young. describing experimental music as that "which represents a refusal to accept the status quo" (Cope. as well as composers such as Gavin Bryars. 318). providing it is understood not as descriptive of an act to be later judged in terms of success or failure. too. Birtwistle.' [citing Herbert Brün] in a 'problem-seeking environment' [citing Chris Mann]” (Burt 1991. so that "an explanation of experimentalism that already assumes the category it purports to explain is an exercise in metaphysics.. 93–115). Kagel. but simply as of an act the outcome of which is unknown" (Cage 1961. Steve Reich. experimental music studies describes [sic] a category without really explaining it" (Piekut 2008. not ontology" (Piekut 2008. Frederic Rzewski. Amy Beal (Piekut 2008. Philip Glass. etc. and concludes from their work that "The fundamental ontological shift that marks experimentalism as an achievement is that from representationalism to performativity". as "a combination of leading-edge techniques and a certain exploratory attitude". rather than asking the question "How have these composers been collected together in the first place.

[citation needed] Cage's earliest influential innovation was the Prepared piano. or even pre-eminent. on the other hand. 298). second edition 1999). 194– 95). holding that "there is no single. 106–107 and 266). seen as precedents to and influences on John Cage. Related: Merce Cunningham John Cage began writing music in the early 1930s. Carl Ruggles. and John Becker (Nicholls 1990). These include Charles Ives. Earle Brown. in the scientific sense of "experiment" (Hiller and Isaacson 1959): making predictions for new compositions based on established musical technique (Mauceri 1997. Isaacson used the term in connection with computer-controlled composition. Lejaren Hiller and L. Christian Wolff. Charles and Ruth Crawford Seeger. especially as that term was defined at length by composer Michael Nyman in his book Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond (1974. are sometimes referred to as the "American Experimental School". as well as the techniques of "total serialism" (Meyer 1994. but it is for his work from the mid-40s on that has earned him his reputation as the father of American experimental music. In the late 1950s. but rather a plethora of different methods and kinds" (Meyer 1994. David Tudor. and Stockhausen. such as Berio.Leonard B. 237). The term "experimental music" was used contemporaneously for electronic music. which completely altered the sonic possibilities of a grand piano (See: Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano). includes under "experimental music" composers rejected by Nyman. There is a considerable overlap between Downtown music and what is more generally called experimental music. [edit] History [edit] Influential antecedents A number of early twentieth-century American composers. Meyer. [edit] New York School Artists: John Cage. In the same . Henry Cowell. M. Boulez. particularly in the early musique concrète work of Schaeffer and Henry in France (Vignal 2003. experimental music. Morton Feldman.

and thereby dismiss various kinds of music that did not conform to established conventions (Mauceri 1997. is a form of electroacoustic music that utilises acousmatic sound as a compositional resource.period Cage had reached the conclusion that since the only characteristic shared by all sounds (if total silence is included as a sound) was duration. [edit] Microtonal music Main article: Microtonal music Harry Partch as well as Ivor Darreg worked with other tuning scales based on the physical laws for harmonic music. which is tolerated but subject to inspection. all . "musical splitting of the atom". "alchemist's kitchen". In 1955. nor to elements traditionally thought of as 'musical' (melody. Pierre Boulez identified it as a "new definition that makes it possible to restrict to a laboratory. "atonal". [edit] Abortive critical term In the 1950s. which must be regarded as "abortive concepts". The compositional material is not restricted to the inclusion of sonorities derived from musical instruments or voices. The theoretical underpinnings of the aesthetic were developed by Pierre Schaeffer. See also spectral music. La Monte Young is known for using this technique when he began working on his minimal drone pieces which consisted of layers of sounds in different pitches. if you only listen to them with the same intent. beginning in the late 1940s. metre and so on). harmony. since they did not "grasp a subject" (Metzger 1959. This was an attempt to marginalize. rhythm. the term "experimental" was often applied by conservative music critics—along with a number of other words." also known as "the silent piece. Cage's "4'33". [edit] Musique concrète Main article: Musique concrète Musique concrète (French. "concrete music")." demonstrated Cage's belief that all sounds are equally interesting. the only logical compositional strategy was to determine a durational structure which would be filled in an indeterminent manner. 21). literally. and "serial"— as a deprecating jargon term. 189).[citation needed]. For this music they both developed a group of experimental musical instruments. such as "engineers art".

but an open category. [edit] Minimalism For main article see: Minimalist music In the 1960s LaMonte Young became interested in drones of various types. Once they have set limits to the danger. especially those created by live performers. the good ostriches go to sleep again and wake only to stamp their feet with rage when they are obliged to accept the bitter fact of the periodical ravages caused by experiment. 430 & 431). [edit] Fluxus For full article. "There is no such thing as experimental music … but there is a very real distinction between sterility and invention" (Boulez 1986. since by the "genre's" own definition the work it includes is "radically different and highly individualistic" (Mauceri 1997. 9). this attempt to construct a genre was as abortive as the meaningless namecalling noted by Metzger. "outsider" composers. Another known musical aspect appearing in the Fluxus movement was the use of primal scream at performances. in part because the subtle changes that occurred within the overtone series could create melodies that .]). 190). "experimental music" began to be used in America for almost the opposite purpose. Furthermore. characterized by an increased theatricality and the use of mixed media. Whatever success this might have had in academe. the characteristic indeterminacy in performance "guarantees that two versions of the same piece will have virtually no perceptible musical 'facts' in common" (Nyman 1974.d. in an attempt to establish an historical category to help legitimize a loosely identified group of radically innovative. Yoko Ono used this technique of expression (Bateman [n. 5). "because any attempt to classify a phenomenon as unclassifiable and (often) elusive as experimental music must be partial" (Nyman 1974. Charlotte Moorman Fluxus was an artistic movement started in the 1960s. It is therefore not a genre. Starting in the 1960s.attempts to corrupt musical morals." He concludes. see Fluxus Artists to be added: Nam June Paik. derived from the primal therapy.

Martin Scherzinger. all fall into the category of rhythmic minimalism. driving pulse. Jaffe 1983. Terry Riley. especially those identified with specific ethnic groups. Chou Wenchung. Steve Reich. [edit] Transethnicism The term "experimental" has sometimes been applied to the mixture of recognizable music genres. Philip Glass and. These works are highly repetitive. in many cases the musicians make an active effort to avoid overt references to recognizable musical genres. Michael Blake. Lubet1999).[citation needed] Riley's In C or Glass' Music in Fifths provide examples of such pieces. since it can be considered both as a technique (employed by any musician who wishes to disregard rigid genres and forms) and as a recognizable genre in its own right. as found for example in the music of Laurie Anderson. a minimalist approach with a steady.would otherwise have gone unnoticed. concepts and techniques copied for traditional classical music as well as modern classical . At the end of the 1960s rock groups like The Beach Boys and The Beatles began adding musical influences outside the common field of popular music of those days: non-western music and musical instruments as well as ideas. Kevin Volans. and Rüdiger Meyer (Blake 1999. to a lesser degree.[citation needed] Steve Reich. with many gradual changes. The term is somewhat paradoxical. Zappa later became mainly famous for his rock music. [edit] Free improvisation For main article see: Free improvisation Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the taste or inclination of the musician(s) involved. [edit] Experimental popular music [edit] 1960-1980 In 1963 Frank Zappa appeared in the Steve Allen Show where he did an experimental music piece called Playing Music on a Bicycle. a performance very similar to John Cage's Water Walk of 1960 in the I've Got a Secret show.

d. based on the ideas of LaMonte Young (Chatham) and Harry Partch (Branca)[citation needed] Chatham worked for some time with LaMonte Young and afterwards mixed the experimental musical ideas with punk rock in his piece Guitar Trio. Frank Zappa. The self-titled debut album of This Heat was recorded between February 1976 and September 1978. etc. combined with more traditional performance. DNA. Brian Eno. Change later on moved more up to Free improvisation. Lydia Lunch started incorporating spoken word with punk rock and Mars explored new sliding guitar techniques. experimental music with movies. DNA and James Chance are other famous no wave artists. It is alternatively seen. electronic music. [edit] 1980-2000 Tellus Audio Cassette Magazine started in 1983 releasing a magazine with added cassette tapes focusing broadly on experimental music from the past as well as from the present. Besides those mainstream artists. La Monte Young. Pere Ubu. heavy uses and multiple combining of stomp boxes and other electronic sound effects. electronic soundscapes.music.]b). Cage and the minimal music as well as adding new extended techniques like audio feedback.]). to create dense. Rhys Chatham and Glenn Branca composed multi guitar compositions in the late 1970s. a group of underground artists like The Velvet Underground. Cabaret Voltaire. Other pop musicians who made experimental music are Captain Beefheart. just like Fluxus. White Noise and The Residents began incorporating the experimental musical aspects of Varese. Robert Fripp. John Zorn. They experimented with all kinds of new recording techniques like reverse tape recording. as an avant-garde offshoot of 1970s punk. and characterized by heavy use of tape manipulation and looping. however. eerie.d. [n. Lee Ranaldo and Thurston Moore experimented . The Residents started in the seventies as an idiosyncratic musical group mixing all kinds of artistic genres like pop music. and a genre related to experimental rock (Anon. Faust. often mixed performance art with music (Masters 2007). Throbbing Gristle experimented with electronic noise and cut-up techniques with short pieces of tape with recorded sound on it. Fred Frith as well as Keith Rowe began exploring new experimental possibilities with prepared guitars. Diamanda Galás. Arto Lindsay neglected to use any kind of musical practise or theory to develop an idiosyncratic atonal playing technique. Pink Floyd. In the seventies Chris Cutler began experimenting with an eclectic drum kit with all kinds of added sound possibilities acoustic as well as electric. Can. The No Wave movement was closely related to transgressive art and. Boyd Rice. comic books and performance art (Ankeny [n.

He worked with series of radios all positioned differently for receiving different FM and AM frequencies and making new experimental musical compositions with all these derived sound signals. Starting around 2000. Usually unwanted noises of skipping CDs.heavily with altered tunings and playing with a third bridge technique with screwdrivers jammed between the strings and the neck. Non rock-related acts. but is reluctant to describe her work as anything but "pop music. [edit] 2000-present The band Neptune built a series of self-designeds among which a microtonal 13-TET guitar (Hasse 2007) to create new sounds. As this distinction was misunderstood. Micachu also makes other instruments herself. or in place of. but the first on the Table of the Elements’ Radium imprint label (Crumsho 2008). the term is often (and somewhat inaccurately) used interchangeably with. "indeterminacy". Closely related to the circuit bending is the musical genre EAI of which Merzbow is the most famous artist. such as Aphex Twin. Einsturzende Neubauten created their own instruments made out of scrap metal and building tools. . electric hum and the like were used to create (often minimalistic) pieces and conceptual albums ranging from near conventional Microhouse to abstract Sound Art. … maybe experimental pop" (Parkin 2008). [citation needed] [edit] Concepts Aleatoric music . Following the krautrock movement of the 1970s.A term coined by Werner Meyer-Eppler and used by Boulez and other composers of the avant-garde (in Europe) to refer to a strictly limited form of indeterminacy. German musicians started to experiment with unusual song structures and instruments. also called "controlled chance". have explored new experimental techniques like placing pictures in spectrograms and returning them to audio signals. the Glitch movement led by the label Mille Plateaux and artists like Alva Noto added a new genre to the spectrum of experimental electronic music. and have released their fourth or fifth CD. Also Aphex Twin as well as Jim O'Rourke experimented with circuit bending to create new experimental music.

causing resonating bell-like harmonic tones at the pick-up side. For example. 31. * "Prepared" instruments—ordinary instruments modified in their tuning or sound-producing characteristics. Music in which the composer introduces the elements of chance or unpredictability with regard to either the composition or its performance. This term is used by experimental composers.A pitch interval that is smaller than a semitone. for example. and sometimes regarded as improper.Graphic notation . strings on a piano can be manipulated directly instead of being played the orthodox.Music which is written in the form of diagrams or drawings rather than using “conventional” notation (with staves. keyboard- . etc. A different form is not hanging objects on the strings. clefs. innovative. guitar strings can have a weight attached at a certain point. either equally or unequally. but divide the string in two with a third bridge and play the inverse side. Microtones . divided the octave into 22. performers and scholars working in experimental music in the United States. This includes quarter tones and intervals even smaller.Related to 'chance music' (one of Cage's terms). Yuri Landman Some of the more common techniques include: * Extended techniques: Any of a number of methods of performing with voice or a musical instrument that are unique. and in other countries influenced by Cagean aesthetics. [edit] Common elements Moodswinger. etc). * Unconventional playing techniques—for example. 72. 43. 53. notes. and then used this scale as a basis for composition. Indeterminate music . Composers have. changing their harmonic characteristics (Keith Rowe is one musician to have experimented with such prepared guitar techniques). Cage's prepared piano was one of the first such instruments. microtones. Britain.

. [n. Hans Reichel. non-conventional written/graphic 'instructions' actively interpreted by the performer(s).]b.. /AvantGarde//Experimental: Genre". death growls..based way (an innovation of Henry Cowell's known as "string piano"). Artists such as Harry Partch. Allmusic. George Brecht. * Creating experimental musical instruments for enhancing the timbre of compositions and exploring new techniques or possibilities. Artists such as Meredith Monk. and Krzysztof Penderecki. duration.. Neptune. Yoko Ono. Allmusic. * Use of graphic notation.d. and doors slamming.d.. Iner Souster. Berio's Sequenza III for female voice (1965) utilizes many of these techniques. [n.. /Pop/Rock/Punk/New Wave/No Wave". George Crumb. Explore by . [n. or making a clicking noise.]. Annea Lockwood. Jason..com. * Extended vocal techniques — any vocalized sounds that are not normally utiliized in classical or popular music. Allmusic.. screaming. Bradford Reed. tunings.] "The Residents: Biography". * Anon. [edit] References * Ankeny. Explore by . * Use of sound sources other than conventional musical instruments such as trash cans.]a. * Bateman. volume). or the tuning pegs on a guitar can be rotated while a note sounds (called a "tuner glissando").d. "Explore Music . such as moaning. "Biography of Yoko Ono". Shahbeila.com. Luigi Russolo. rhythms or scales from nonWestern musical traditions. This practice continued through composers/artists such as La Monte Young. * Playing with deliberate disregard for the ordinary musical controls (pitch. [n. howling. * Anon. * Incorporation of instruments. a dozen or more piano keys may be depressed simultaneously with the forearm to produce a tone cluster (another technique popularized by Cowell). "Explore Music . Website of Hugh .com. telephone ringers.d.

Western Connecticut University.p. 1986. 1988 (cloth) ISBN 99911-780-1-5 [In particular the essays "Experimental Music". Lejaren. Middletown. 7–12.] * Cope. * Crumsho. 1959. * Hasse. 1999 ISBN 0-7145-1043-2 (pbk). Unaltered reprints: Weslyan University press. "Australian Experimental Music 1963–1990". pp. translated by Martin Cooper. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. autriches et musique". 1971. "Experiment. Michael. Isaacson. and Music". Nouvelle Revue Française. edited by Izak J. in his Orientations: Collected Writings.com (5 December). 1968. Gearwire. "Experimental Music Semiotics". Morag Josephine. 1966. "Heavy Metal Is Just That for the Heavy-Lifting Jason Sanford of Neptune". Michael. 2008. New Allies: American Experimental Music in West Germany from the Zero Hour to Reunification. 2003. 2007. Experimental Music: Composition with an Electronic Computer. and L. "Dusted Reviews: Neptune—Gong Lake" Dusted Magazine 2008 (February 19). Leonardo Music Journal 1. 1975 (unknown binding). 1961. no. 1969. John. (Accessed 15 February 2009) * Beal. [n. Ostriches. M. 1991. Silence: Lectures and Writings. Amy C. Pierre. 13– 17. ISBN 0-674-64375-5 Originally published as "Expérience. Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. 174–76. 1999. * Burt. Communication Department. * Boulez. 1967. * Hiller. Mass: MIT Press. 1:5–10. ISBN 0-520-24755-8 * Blake. no. ISBN 0-02-864737-8. 1967 (cloth). 1971.McCarney. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2 (December): 173–91. * Grant. Cambridge. * Cage. pp. 2006. and "Experimental Music: Doctrine". Techniques of the Contemporary Composer. New Music. International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 34. 1973 ISBN 0-7145-0526-9 (cloth) ISBN 0-7145-1043-2 (pbk). "The Emergence of a South African Experimental Aesthetic". London: Marion Boyars. 1997. In Proceedings of the 25th Annual Congress of the Musicological Society of Southern Africa. Gretchen. 1970. New York. 430–31. Grové. Warren. no. London: Calder & Boyars. 1966 (pbk). New York: McGraw-Hill Book . Pretoria: Musicological Society of Southern Africa. 36 (December 1955): 1. David. 1973 (pbk ["First Wesleyan paperback edition"].]: Reprint Services Corporation. New York: Schirmer Books. 1986.

2008. New York: Columbia University. Carlos. 2007. Frank X. New York. London: Studio Vista. Heintze. * Parkin. "The Last Days of the Avant Garde. 4 (November): 542–57. Perspectives of New Music 35. Ph. Music. New York." In Cambridge History of American Music. 1993a. ISBN 0-02871200-5. 1 (Winter): 105– 22. 1983. no. "Micachu: Interview". * Metzger. James R. Time Out London (February 26). ISBN 978-1-906155-02-5 * Mauceri. 1998. * Lubet. "Testing.D. * Palombini. London: Black Dog Publishing. Computer Music Journal. the Arts. ISBN 0-521-34578-2 * Nicholls. 1999. NY: General Music Publishing Co. 3 (Autumn): 14–19. Benjamin. ISBN 0-521-45429-8 * Nyman. ISBN 08153-2144-9* Masters. Die Reihe 5: "Reports. American Experimental Music. David. Leonard B. No Wave. David. "From Experimental Music to Musical Experiment". Alex. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Music and Letters 74. Marc. translated by Leo Black. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. and Ideas: Patterns and Predictions in Twentieth-Century Culture. Lee David. or How to Tell Your Glass from Your Eno". "Indeterminate Origins: A Cultural theory of American Experimental Music". "Avant-garde and Experimental Music. 1994. Second edition. Chris. In Perspectives on American music since 1950. 1997. Carlos. No. "Abortive Concepts in the Theory and Criticism of Music". Drexel Library Quarterly 19. Analysis" (English edition): 21–29) * Meyer. 1959. * Jaffe. ISBN 0-289-70182-1. Testing …: New York Experimentalism 1964". Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press. "Machine Songs V: Pierre Schaeffer: From Research into Noises to Experimental Music". 1990. 1890–1940. New York: Schirmer Books. no. Second edition. 1953: Towards an Experimental Music". * Piekut. Heinz-Klaus.Company. 2008. NY: Cambridge University Press. 1993b. diss. . "Pierre Schaeffer. ISBN 0-521-65297-9 * Palombini. 17. ISBN 0-226-52143-5 * Nicholls. 1974. Michael. no. 1999. edited by . 1 (Winter): 187-204.

: Prentice-Hall. Catherine. no. Positionen: Beiträge zur Neuen Musik 22 (February): 17–20. 3:178–89. Second edition. 1978. 2 (May-Aug): 217–37. Acta Musicologica 61. Nikša. Joaquim M. Rombach Wissenschaften: Reihe Musicae 2. Derek.. "Amerikanische Experimentalmusik". * Schaeffer. Paris: Richard-Masse. "Die musikalische Avantgarde als ahistorische Utopie: Die gescheiterten Implikationen der experimentellen Musik". International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 9. Marc (ed. ISBN 0-7123-0506-8 * Experimental musical instruments (magazine). 1995. Mavericks and Other Traditions in American Music. . Wolfgang Edward. 2 (April): 224–46. "Was ist experimentelles Musiktheater? Mitglieder des 'Ensemble Modern' befragen Hans Zender". ISBN 0-13607044-2. 1 (June): 53–77. 1985–1999. 1980. no. Englewood Cliffs.). La revue musicale no. 1992. London: British Library National Sound Archive.J. A periodical (no longer published) devoted to experimental music and instruments. 18–23. Ashbourne: Moorland. "Avant-Garde or Experimental? Classifying Contemporary Music". Pierre. * Bailey. New Haven: Yale University Press. Michael. no. 236 (Vers une musique experimentale). Conn. Christopher. * Broyles. edited by Gianmario Borio and Hermann Danuser. "Musical Improvisation: Its Nature and Practice in Music". "Towards an Aesthetic of Experimental Music".* Rebner. edited by Pierre Schaeffer. In Im Zenit der Moderne: Geschichte und Dokumentation in vier Bänden—Die Internationalen Ferienkurse für Neue Musik Darmstadt. * Cameron. 1997. N. The Musical Quarterly 63. * Benitez. (ISBN 2-03-511354-7) [edit] Further reading * Ballantine. * Ensemble Modern.: Praeger. 1977. 1946-1966. 2003. Freiburg im Breisgau: Rombach. "Vers une musique experimentale". 1957. 1996. * Gligo. 1989. 2004. Dialectics in the Arts: The Rise of Experimentalism in American Music. Westport. "Expérimentale (musique)". 4 vols. In Dictionnaire de la Musique. Paris: Larousse. * Vignal.

Dieter. 1998. James. no.net . * Holmes. In Das Musiktheater: Exempel der Kunst. ISBN 019-315471-4 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-315468-4 (pbk. and Burlington.) * Lucier. Thomas B.) ISBN 978-0-415-95782-3 (pbk. "Experimentelles Musiktheater seit 1946". trans. Christopher. Bayerische Akademie der Schönen Künste: Jahrbuch 8:131-54. Boston: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 3-7024-0263-2 * Shultis. "An einem hellen Tag: Avantgarde und Experiment". edited by Otto Kolleritsch. 14–24. VT: Ashgate. * Henius. 13–14. Aldershot. * Saunders. 1987. Carla. "Experimentelles Musiktheater". 2008. Vienna: Universal Edition. "Musikalisches Experimentiertheater.) * Sutherland. Third edition. Electronic and Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology and Composition. Gisela Gronemeyer MusikTexte: Zeitschrift für Neue Musik. Silencing the Sounded Self: John Cage and the American Experimental Tradition. ISBN 978-0-415-95781-6 (hbk.dedicated to experimental music [hide]v · d · eExperimental music Related contemporary . 2002. 6:489–92. ISBN 0-9517012-6-6 [edit] External links * Experimental music at the Open Directory Project * Experimental-Music. The New Music: The Avant-Garde Since 1945. 2001. 92 (February). 1994. 1977. Kommentare aus der Praxis". pp. ISBN 9780-7546-6282-2 * Schnebel. Melos/Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 3. London: Sun Tavern Fields.* Henius. Reginald. The Ashgate Research Companion to Experimental Music. Carla. 1994. Roger. second edition. 2009. London and New York: Routledge. New Perspectives in Music. no. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Alvin. Hants. ISBN 1-55553-377-9 * Smith Brindle.

classical music genres Aleatoric music · Avant-garde music · Electroacoustic music · Free jazz · Musique concrète · Noise music · Tape music Experimental popular music genres Art rock · Art punk · Avant-garde metal · Experimental rock · IDM · Industrial music · Math rock · No Wave · Noise rock · RIO · Glitch · Deep electronica Extended techniques 3rd bridge · Circuit bending · Prepared guitar · Prepared piano · Scordatura · Turntablism Related visual art genres Cymatics · Experimental musical instrument · Experimental luthier · Fluxus · Sound art · Sound installation · Sound sculpture · Soundscape .

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