ENGINE LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEMS AND ITS FUNCTION Lubrication is as important for reliable engine operation as air, fuel

, and heat are to combustion. Lubrication is considered to be one of the most important factors in the operating life of an internal-combustion engine. The lubrication requirements of shipboard machinery are met in various ways, depending on the design of the machinery. It is important not only that the proper type of lubricant be used, but also that the lubricant be supplied to the engine parts at the specified flow rate and temperature and that provision be made for removal of any impurities that enter the system. After studying the information in this chapter, you should be able to understand the basic theories of lubrication, the factors affecting lubrication, the functions and characteristics of greases and lubricating oils used aboard ship, and the design and function of components in various lubricating oil systems, including tanks, pumps, coolers, and filtering devices that you, as an Engine-man, may be required to operate or maintain. You should also be able to understand the importance of standards and procedures and how they are established and enforced through the Lube Oil Quality Management Program. For proper operation of an engine, the contacting surfaces of all moving parts of the engine must be prevented from touching each other so that friction and wear can be reduced to a minimum. Sliding contact between two dry metal surfaces under load will cause excessive friction, heat, and wear. Friction, heat, and wear can greatly be reduced, of course, if metal-to-metal contact is prevented. When a clean film of lubricant is used between the metal surfaces, metal-to-metal contact is automatically reduced. The lubricating film used between load bearing surfaces in machinery is provided by a specified oil or grease.

It is the most expensive motor oil. However. where it is recirculated directly back into the engine by the oil pump. making it the logical choice for most passenger cars and light racing. lightweight. 5W30. MultiGrade Multigrade. for serious racers. is slightly bulky and is inadequate to deal with the extreme shifts in motion." and the lower number represents the lowest temperature at which this oil performs well. In this measurement. The main benefit to a wet sump system is its easy modification for oil control and power since it is the original system included in a car's engine. indicates the oil's ability to handle both hot and cold temperatures. "W" stands for "winter. keeps the engine cleaner and maintains viscosity longer. a measurement of oil thickness and ability to handle high temperatures. such as SAE30. Single Grade Single grade is the designation from the Society of Automotive Engineers. A dry sump system pumps oil from the oil pump and filters it to an outside tank where it is then recirculated back into the engine. Synthetic Synthetic motor oil flows better than conventional motor oil. OIL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION Wet Sump A wet sump system for oil circulation in an engine is commonly found in passenger cars. In a wet sump system oil is stored in the oil pan. Synthetic Blends Synthetic blends provide some benefits of synthetic oil while not costing as much. for instance. It limits power. The main advantage to the dry sump system is . The wet sump system is also low-cost. simple and common. Dry Sump A dry sump system is most commonly found in race cars for its additional power.TYPES OF OIL Conventional Conventional motor oil is a byproduct of the crude-oil refining process and is the least expensive of the three types. there are distinct disadvantages to the wet sump system.

Other vehicle hydraulic systems. light aircraft. the relief valve becomes the "path of least resistance" as the valve is forced open and a portion of the fluid is diverted through the auxiliary route. lubricating. The blow down is usually stated as a percentage of set pressure and refers to how much the pressure needs to drop before the valve reseats. allows the use of higher-capacity fluid bearings and also assists in cooling the engine. pressurized oil is increasingly used as a hydraulic fluid to power small actuators. the valve will close. are often equipped with an oil filter. The blow down can vary from roughly 2–20%. The main disadvantages to the dry sump system are its complexity. the pressure inside the vessel will drop. such as those on jet aircraft. As well as its primary purpose for lubrication. or fire. and some valves have adjustable blow downs OIL FILTERS An oil filter is a filter designed to remove contaminants from engine oil. require . One of the first notable uses in this way was for hydraulic tappets in camshaft and valve actuation. When the set pressure is exceeded. The relief valve is designed or set to open at a predetermined set pressure to protect pressure and other equipment from being subjected to pressures that exceed their design limits. or hydraulic oil. instrument or equipment failure. As the fluid is diverted. gas or liquid–gas mixture) is usually routed through a piping system known as a flare header or relief header to a central.increased power through reduced oil splash. or wind age. increased oil capacity due to the external oil tank and continuous lubrication. The diverted fluid (liquid. Oil system components OIL PUMP The oil pump in an internal combustion engine circulates engine oil under pressure to the rotating bearings. Once it reaches the valve's reseating pressure. This lubricates the bearings. Increasingly common recent uses may include the tensioner for aiming or variations for variable valve timing systems.and offroad motor vehicles. A chief use of the oil filter is in internal-combustion engines in on. PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE The relief valve (RV) is a type of valve used to control or limit the pressure in a system or vessel which can build up by a process upset. high cost and its limited use as a mainstream oil circulating system. The dry sump system also allows for lower engine placement because of its shallower oil pan. Oil filters are used in many different types of hydraulic machinery. Gas turbine engines. such as those in automatic transmissions and power steering. The pressure is relieved by allowing the pressurized fluid to flow from an auxiliary passage out of the system. and an improved ring seal between the oil pan and engine block. and various naval vessels. the sliding pistons and the camshaft of the engine. elevated gas flare where it is usually burned and the resulting combustion gases are released to the atmosphere. oil.

after-treatment devices such as diesel particle filters (D. also hydrodynamically centers the journal in its shell and cools the bearings. blocked oil gallery or the wrong grade of oil. such as the main bearings. OIL SEPARATOR Oil separators are designed to skim oil out of effluent water sources to prevent contamination from waste water that is not treated in sewage facilities. Excessive oil pressure may indicate a blocked filter. transport.the use of oil filters. it was described in the chapter on fuel system. and the minimum pressure allowed by the manufacturer's tolerances is usually given at this point.F. Its purpose is to cool the oil as it passes through the coils and it only operates when the engine is running. Other components such as cam lobes and cylinder walls are lubricated by oil jets. Oil pressure is higher when the engine is cold due to the increased viscosity of the oil. OIL PRESSURE Oil pressure is an important factor in the longevity of most internal combustion engines. Oil pressure is lowest under hot idling conditions. and also increases with engine speed until the relief valve opens to divert excess flow. resulting in oil dilution by fuel (or "fuel dilution"). The American Petroleum Institute has set a standard for oil separators that prevent spillage of oil from becoming entrained in effluent water sources and contaminating the environment. big ends and camshaft bearings. Oil dilution system combines the services of both fuel system and the oil system. oil production. combined with the rotation of the shaft. and wear is therefore confined to initial start-up and shutdown. and recycling facilities also employ filters in the manufacturing process. Sufficient oil pressure ensures that the metal of the rotating shaft (journal) and the bearing shell can never touch.) or den Ox systems need to be periodically re-generated. OIL DILUTION On-line measurement of oil dilution is of interest in light of new environmental regulations imposed on today's high-performance engines. In particular. OIL RESERVOIR . With a forced lubrication system (invented byFrederick Lanchester).P. Such a bearing is known as a fluid bearing. The oil pressure. oil is picked up by a positive displacement oil pump and forced through oil galleries (passageways) into bearings. Aside from these uses. OIL COOLERS Oil coolers are essentially small radiators that are situated in front of an engine's cooling system in an automobile. Such re-generation process is typically performed by using post-injection cycles that can induce a transfer of fuel to the lubricant. Low oil pressure indicates worn bearings on the crank shaft or a broken oil pump.

There are control valves that have complete control over the fluid and will automatically distribute it through the machine's tubes and hoses. OIL SCAVENGE SYSTEM The subsystem of a gas turbine engine lubrication system that collects the oil after it has lubricated the bearings and gears and returns it to the oil tank. Process . The fluid power used for these machines is a high-pressured liquid. The naturally occurring hydrocarbons. The advantage of using a hydraulic machine is that it can produce large amounts of power that is transferred into the machines tubes and hoses. Scavenging oil system as a part of recirculatory oil system HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEM Function A hydraulic system is used in machines that need fluid power to make them work. are trapped by overlying rock formations with lower permeability. such as crude oil or natural gas. Reservoirs are found using hydrocarbon exploration methods. which is the mechanical device that is used for controlling and moving a particular mechanism. called hydraulic fluid. The hydraulic fluid is transmitted through the entire machine and will reach the different hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors in the machine.is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations. All this power is used in the actuators.

. and get the desired power for your machine. so a master cylinder can have the ability to drive more than one slave if needed. to transmit force from one location to another. you need to measure the sizes of the pistons.A hydraulic system works because the force that is applied at a point is transmitted to a second point by using an incompressible fluid. An oil-filled pipe connects them to one another. while decompressing the other to reach your optimum power. but water. and it happens all over again. The pipe can be any shape or length--all it needs to do is separate the two pistons. there are limitless opportunities to use hydraulic power in industry. Two pistons are positioned into two glass cylinders that are filled with oil. To make this work. Benefits The benefit of using a hydraulic system is that it is simple to multiply more force if needed. while still making them relative to each other. an increase in pressure anywhere within a system of confined fluid creates an equal increase at every other point in system. According to Hydraulics & Pneumatics. This allows the transfer of forces through the hoses and pipes of a hydraulic system. First. ethylene glycol or synthetic fluids are also possible. The larger force equals the smaller force times the ratio of the areas of the pistons. Hydraulic power can multiply an applied force to permit the lifting or moving of heavy objects. Pascal's Law According to Pascal's Law. To do this. Working Fluid Hydraulic systems require a working fluid to take a force created in one place and apply it elsewhere. because the oil is incompressible. Then the all of the force is applied on the second piston. This makes the hydraulic system work efficiently. After you have determined the numbers. and because of this ability. most hydraulic systems use mineral oil. one of the pistons experience a downward force then that force is transmitted to the next piston using the oil in the pipe. Once you determine the difference between the two. and plug those numbers into this formula Pi times r2. such as oil or water. all you have to do is change the size of one of the pistons and cylinder. Force Increase A small force applied to a piston of a small diameter will apply a larger force at a piston of larger diameter elsewhere in a hydraulic system. This allows the moving heavy objects with minimal force. Sometimes the pipe will look like a fork in the hydraulic system. you will need to raise one of the pistons. you will know how much force is needed to reach your desired power. PRINCIPLE OF HYDRAULIC POWER Hydraulic systems use an incompressible fluid.

Valves direct the flow of hydraulic fluid and change its pressure. o Low speed. gerotor. Actuators. to impart translational mechanical motion upon a component outside the system. position. Pumps move hydraulic fluid and create pressure. velocity. axial. They convert mechanical force into hydraulic force. level. Possible components include pumps to create high pressure and move fluid through the system. linear. Actuators change the direction hydraulic fluid flows. such as pistons and hydraulic motors. convert hydraulic force into mechanical force. and radial) o Gear pumps (cast iron & aluminum). fork lifts and the control surfaces (like ailerons and rudders) on ships and aircraft. Hydraulic Pumps and Motors o Piston pumps and motors (fixed & variable volume. Reservoirs store hydraulic fluid. tandem o Vane pumps o High pressure hydraulic pumps (open & closed loop) o Hydrostatic pumps and transmissions. Example Applications Examples of the application of hydraulic power include hydraulic jacks. Hydraulic System Components Hydraulic systems are built out of five basic components. proximity. vehicle lifts. or stop its flow. speed.System Components Hydraulic systems vary in their design from small lifting pumps to systems that fill compartments on ocean vessels. pressure and force control High. Pumps can also charge accumulators. high torque. geroler. medium & low pressure filtration Fluid analysis Fluid sampling Filter carts and portable / offline filtration units Kidney loop filtration system Filtration . & angle) Single and multi axis motion controllers Closed loop position. Filters clean it. bent axis. torqlink o Electronic controlled pressure and flow Electronic Controls o o o o o o o o o o o o Electro-hydraulic control of valves & pumps Electronic monitoring and control of entire machine CANbus / J1939 communication protocol Parker IQAN control Sensors (rotary. which use compressed gas to store energy and maintain pressure on the system.

At McCoy Sales. single acting o Industrial cylinders.Purification units o Reservoir accessories o Water removal filters o Competitive replacement elements o Moisture sensors o Laser particle counters Actuators o Mobile cylinders. For existing applications. EHA Winches o Planetary. and sell hydraulic system components for many standard and challenging applications. proportional valves o Relief. We design. pressure reducing. we have the parts you need. vane Accumulators o Piston. Bladder. Diaphragm o Oil. rack and pinion. sequence valves o DIN cartridge valves o Threaded cartridge valves o Integrated manifolds Compact Power Units o Oildyne o Electrohydraulic actuators. mill cylinders o Rotary. Our system design capabilities and extensive line of hydraulic components makes us a one-stop solution for your hydraulic needs . engineer. a team of experts will help you find the specific part that works in your unique hydraulic system application. and basic Kanban value-added services. telescopic. We also provide kitting. custom inventory management. subassembly. tie rod. we also provide complete hydraulic repair services. welded. Water Service o Carbon fiber o Hydraulic Valves o Directional control valves o Electrohydraulic servo. double acting. recovery and worm gear PTO's Heat Exchangers o Air to Oil o Water to Oil From hydraulic mobile cylinders and winches to hydraulic solenoid valves.

efficiency loss. HYDRAULIC FLUID Hydraulic fluids. it does not seal sufficiently. Compressibility increases with pressure and temperature and has significant effects on high-pressure fluid systems. fabrication. in order to consistently and effectively transmit power. slight volume reductions can occur under certain pressure ranges. It is a hydraulic fluid's most important characteristic and has a significant impact on the operation of the system. garbage trucks. engineering. therefore. Our breadth of products provides you with a number of hydraulic system options you cannot get elsewhere. and assembly. Wear Resistance . We work with both MROs and OEMs. aircraft flight control systems. mobile and industrial markets. This leads to leakage and wear of parts. brakes. power steering systems. and cavitation. transmissions. the fluid will be more difficult to pump through the system and may reduce operating efficiency. It causes servo failure. Compressibility Compressibility is a measure of the amount of volume reduction due to pressure.HYDRAULIC DESIGN McCoy Sales is an ISO 9001:2008 registered company providing complete hydraulic system design. lifts.[1] Examples of equipment that might use hydraulic fluids include excavators and backhoes. All hydraulic fluids must be able to retain optimum viscosity during operation in cold or hot temperatures. and industrial machinery. When a hydraulic oil is too thick (high viscosity). Common hydraulic fluids are based on mineral oil or water. When hydraulic oil is too thin (low viscosity). We are a Parker designated Hydraulic Technology Center and Mobile Technology Center. Hydraulic systems like the ones mentioned above will work most efficiently if the hydraulic fluid used has low compressibility. are the medium by which power is transferred in hydraulic machinery. bringing you high quality hydraulic components to get you going quickly and efficiently. also called hydraulic liquids. Characteristics of a Good Hydraulic Fluid Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of a hydraulic fluid's resistance to flow. it is important for a hydraulic oil to have low compressibility. Although hydraulic oils are basically incompressible.

This enables systems to stay clean without sacrificing critical performance requirements such as antiwear. Hydraulic fluids are designed to be filtered with modern filtration systems without fear of the additive being depleted or removed from the system. The result of poor thermal stability is the formation of sludge and varnish which can clog filters. improve the stability and extend the life of the fluid. and mix with the hydraulic oil. Water can cause rusting of hydraulic components. Hydraulic oils can be formulated with very high levels of thermal stability to minimize these issues and help extend the life of the hydraulic fluid and the components of the hydraulic system. A hydraulic fluid under high pressure can contain a large volume of dissolved or dispersed air bubbles. the quality of the hydraulic oil will deteriorate quickly.Wear resistance is a hydraulic fluid's ability to reduce the wear rate in frictional boundary contacts. Hydraulic oil formulations contain rust and corrosion inhibitors which prevent the interaction of water or other chemical species from attacking metal surfaces. Antiwear hydraulic fluids contain antiwear components that can form a protective film on metal surfaces to prevent abrasion. Hydraulic oils must contain additives that counteract the process of oxidation. valves and other components resulting in decreased oil flow or the system going on bypass. Foam Resistance Foam results from air or other gases becoming entrained in the hydraulic fluid. Antiwear additives naturally degrade over time and this process can be accelerated at higher temperatures. foam can seriously affect the operation and lubrication of machinery. In addition. Blockage can eventually result in unplanned downtime. as these antiwear agents decompose at high temperatures. the air bubbles expand and produce foam. Thermal Stability Thermal stability is the ability to resist breakdown at elevated temperatures. Without these additives. Rust and Corrosion Protection In many systems. Because of its compressibility and poor lubricating properties. and contact fatigue. acids are formed which attack bronze and yellow metals in piston pumps and other hydraulic system components. When this fluid is depressurized. Antiwear additives enhance lubricant performance and extend equipment life. . water can react with some additives to form chemical species which can be aggressive to yellow metals. These contaminants can precipitate from the lubricant and block filters. rust protection or foam inhibition. In addition. water can enter as condensation or contamination. Oxidation Stability Oxidation stability is a hydraulic oil's resistance to heat-induced degradation caused by a chemical reaction with oxygen. Filterability Water can react with additives in hydraulic fluids forming oil insoluble material. scuffing. Air enters a hydraulic system through the reservoir or through air leaks within the system. minimize flow and increase downtime.

Highly refined mineral oils permit water to separate or demulsify quickly. some of the additives used in hydraulic oils promote emulsion formation. preventing the water from separating and settling out of the fluid. helping to extend the life of the equipment. it can be used in brakes. Ships are not the only place oil-based hydraulic fluid is used. Hydraulic oils are tested against a variety of seal materials to ensure that the hydraulic fluid will be compatible with seals under various conditions. Determining what type of hydraulic fluid to use is mainly a personal preference decision. Hydrolytic Stability When hydraulic fluids come into contact with water. This can result in hydraulic system failure. On the other hand. the water can interact with the additive system of the hydraulic oil resulting in the formation of acids. If this 'wet' fluid is circulated through the system. TYPES OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS Hydraulic fluid is used to run different machinery such as transmissions in cars. Each type of hydraulic fluid are made of different chemicals and have different characteristics. Most hydraulics systems utilize rubber seals and other elastomers to minimize or prevent hydraulic oil leakage. forklifts and factory machinery. Demulsibility Water that enters a hydraulic system can mix or emulsify with the hydraulic oil. shock absorbers . crack and eventually leak. Some hydraulic fluids smell while other have no smell at all and some hydraulic fluids are more environmentally friendly than others. The petroleum-based hydraulic fluid do not have foam when running through the system.Proper foam inhibitors modify the surface tension on air bubbles so they more easily break up. Demulsifier additives are incorporated to promote water separation from hydraulic fluids. hydraulic oil exposure can seals to swell excessively preventing hydraulic valves and pistons from moving freely. Oil-based Hydraulic Fluid Most hydraulic fluids used on ships and are oil or petroleum-based fluids that prevent corrosion on the different metals used in the ships engine. However. Exposure of the elastomer to the lubricant under high temperature conditions can cause the rubber seals to harden. Hydraulic fluids that lack hydrolytic stability hydrolyze in the presence of water to form oil insoluble inorganic salts that can block filters and valves inhibiting oil flow. Seal Compatibility Leaking hydraulic fluids can cause many issues from simple housekeeping problems to more serious safety concerns and lubrication failures. Properly formulated hydraulic fluids are designed to contain additives that are resistant to interactions with water. it can promote rust and corrosion.

It is quite stable chemically. electric. as well as additives to inhibit foaming and prevent the formation of corrosion. a filter to keep the fluid clean. Detergent Additive Hydraulic Fluids Detergent additive hydraulic fluids are considered a flame resistant hydraulic fluid. Since several types of hydraulic fluids are . A servo is a cylinder with a piston inside that turns fluid power into work and creates the power needed to move an aircraft system or flight control. but can become flammable at certain temperatures. Each system incorporates different components to meet the individual needs of different aircraft. or engine driven). has good lubricating properties. The hydraulic fluid is pumped through the system to an actuator or servo. selector valve to control the direction of flow. has very little viscosity change with temperature. Synthetic Hydraulic Fluid Synthetic hydraulic fluid was developed because other oil-based fluids are flammable and engineers wanted to prevent this flaw. this type of hydraulic fluid can emulsify water and disperse the water from the machine parts. and is dyed for identification. This means that the fluid can be applied to one or both sides of the servo. The selector valve allows the fluid direction to be controlled. Servos can be either single-acting or double-acting servos based on the needs of the system. this type of hydraulic fluid also has a tendency of building up sludge in the gear cases and needs to be replaced more often then the synthetic type hydraulic fluid. Synthetic hydraulic fluid is not made from natural sources like the oilbased hydraulic fluid and is a combination of different chemicals. The relief valve provides an outlet for the system in the event of excessive fluid pressure in the system. and therefore provides power in one direction with a single-acting servo. The drawback of this type of hydraulic fluid is that it deteriorates gaskets and seals quicker than the others. The petroleum-based hydraulic fluid is the most common fluids in use today.7644 fluids has been used in the past when hydraulic system isrequirements were not so severe as they are today BASIC DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM A basic hydraulic system consists of a reservoir. The oil-based hydraulic fluid also had a hazard of exploding under high-pressure situations. This is necessary for operations like the extension and retraction of landing gear where the fluid must work in two different directions. This chemical combination is what makes the synthetic hydraulic fluid flame resistant. VEGETABLE BASE FLUID MIL. depending on the servo type. A mineral-based fluid is the most widely used type for small airplanes.and some aircraft. This type of hydraulic fluid.H. Besides being flammable. pump (either hand. and an actuator. The use of synthetic hydraulic fluid is for highly flammable or other hazards may exist with the use of other types of hydraulic fluid. relief valve to relieve excess pressure. which is a kerosene-like petroleum product. This detergent type hydraulic fluid is used when operating the machinery or part causes a build-up of sludge or there is water present.

Sphaera's interactive instructor-led CBT is simple yet effective. Buttons on screen provide the instructor with full control over the amount of force applied whilst pressure and force are clearly indicated numerically and through use of color. POH.commonly used. Refer to the AFM. Because each piston has a different surface area. or the Maintenance Manual. In order to create that extra force. the smaller piston has to be moved by twice the distance. make sure your airplane is serviced with the type specified by the manufacturer. Pressure is a property of the system (not the pistons) and is therefore experienced equally by each piston. the force exerted on each piston will be different. even though the pressure is the same. For the demonstration of how a simple hydraulic system works. SIMPLE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM A simple hydraulic system such as that within a hydraulic jack consists of two different sized cylinders connected by a pipe. If the larger piston is twice the area of the smaller piston then the force on the larger piston will be twice as great. It was this principle that was understood by Joseph Bramah when he patented the Bramah Press in 1795. According to Pascal's Law. . pressure exerted on the smaller piston is transmitted through the fluid to act on internal surface of the larger piston.

and thus purges itself of air. HYDRAULIC LINES . This space allows the fluid to foam. The basic hydraulic reservoir has a space above the fluid even when they are full. It contains enough fluid to supply the normal operating needs of the hydraulic system and an additional supply to replace fluid lost through minor leaks.HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR The hydraulic reservoir is the fluid storehouse for the hydraulic system. Additionally. the reservoir allows the settling of any impurities and separation of air from the fluid before reuse in the system.

a selector valve is one that is engaged at the will of the pilot or copilot for the purpose of directing fluid to the desired actuating unit. at the same time. Replacing hydraulic lines is relatively easy. and. Whenever the lines begin to crease. Selector valves may be located in the pilot’s compartment and be directly engaged manually through mechanical linkage. . which. displacement.Just like any other part of a machine. and gravity pumps. it's easier to replace them instead of repairing them. Actuating cylinders having ports in piston rod. Their names describe the method for moving a fluid. such as liquids. gases or slurries. Pumps fall into three major groups: direct lift. kink. hydraulic lines acquire some serious wear and tear over the life of your motor. Fluid pressure moves the piston. break or leak. In the strict sense of the term. ACTUATING CYLINDER A cylinder and piston arrangement in which hydraulic or pneumatic pressure is converted into work. A selector valve directs fluid under system pressure to the desired working port of an actuating unit (double-acting). It is true that selector valves may be placed in this classification. SELECTOR VALVES Selector valves are used in a hydraulic system to direct the flow of fluid. in turn. so roll up your sleeves and get to work. does the work. or they maybe located in some part of the aircraft and be engaged by remote control. Some aircraft maintenance instruction manuals (MIMs) refer to selector valves as control valves. but you should understand that all control valves are not selector valves. Remote-controlled selector valves are generally solenoid operated PUMPS A pump is a device used to move fluids. This is not true of all control valves. directs return fluid from the opposite working port of the actuating unit to the reservoir. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action.

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