# UNIT V Cost of Capital

Objectives The objectives of this unit are to : • • • discuss the concept and importance of cost of capital distinguish among various classes of cost of capital illustrate the computation of cost of long term debt, preferences shares, equity shares and retained earnings • discuss and illustrate the various weighting approaches and the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). • Narrate misconceptions about cost of capital.

Structure 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 Introduction Meaning and Importance Meaning of Cost of Capital Importance Classification of Cost of Capital Computing Cost of Capital of Individual Components Cost of Long-term Debt Cost of Preference Capital Cost of Equity Capital

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5.4.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11

Cost of Retained Earnings Weighted Cost of Capital Some misconceptions about Cost of Capital Summary Keywords Self Assessment Questions Further Readings Answers

5.1

Introduction

The cost of capital is an important financial concept. It links the company's longterm decisions with the wealth of the shareholders as determined in the market place. Whenever, a business organizations raises funds, it has to keep in mind its cost. Hence computation of cost of capital is very important and finance managers must have a close look on it. In this unit, we shall discuss the concept, classification, and importance of cost of capital the process of computing cost of capital of individual components, weighted cost of capital, importance of cost of capital and a few misconceptions.

5.2

Meaning and Importance

The term cost of capital refers to the minimum rate of return which a firm must earn on its investments so that the market value of the company's equity shares does not fall.

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5.2.1

Meaning of Cost of Capital

Hampton, John defines the term as "the rate of retur n the firm requires from investment in order to increase the value of the firm in the market place". The following are the basic characteristics of cost of capital : i) ii) Cost of capital is a rate of return, It is not a cost as such. This return, however, is calculated on the basis of actual cost of different components of capital. iii) A firm's cost of capital represents minimum rate of return that will result in atleast maintaining (If not increasing) the value of its equity shares. iv) v) It is related to long term capital funds. Cost of capital consists of three components : a) Return at Zero Risk Level. (r0) b) Premium for Business Risk (b) c) Premium for Financial Risk (f) vi) The cost of capital may be put in the form of the following equation : K = ro + b + f Where K = Cost of Capital ro = Return at Zero Risk Level b = Premium for Business Risk f = Premium for Financial Risk

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A firm's cost of capital has mainly three risks : • Return at Zero Risk Level : This refers to the expected rate of return when a project involves no risk whether business or financial. • Premium for Business Risk : Business risk is possibility where in the firm will not be able to operate successfully in the market. Greater the business risk, the higher will be the cost of capital. • Premium for Financ ial Risk : It refers to the risk on account of pattern of capital structure. In other words, a firm having a higher debt content in its capital structure is more risky as compared to a firm which has a comparatively low debt content.

5.2.2

Importance

The determination of the firm's cost of capital is important from the point of view of the following : i) It is the basis of appraising new capital expenditure proposals. This gives the acceptance / rejection criterion for capital expenditure projects. ii) The finance manager must raise capital from different sources in a way that it optimizes the risk and cost factors. The source of funds which have less cost involve high risk. Cost of capital helps the managers in determining the optimal capital structure. iii) iv) It is the basis for evaluating the financial performance of top management. It helps in formulating appropriate dividend policy.

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v)

It also helps the organization in developing an appropriate working capital policy.

5.3

Classification of Cost of Capital

There is n fixed base of classification of cost of capital. It varies according to o need, process and purpose. It may be classified as follows : • Explicit Cost and Implicit Cost : Explicit cost is the discount rate that equates the present value of the funds received by the firm net of underwriting costs, with the present value of expected cash outflows. Thus, it is `the rate of return of the cash flows of financing opportunity’. On the other hand, the implicit cost is the rate of return associated with the best investment opportunity for the firm and its shareholders that will be foregone if the project presently under consideration by the firm were accepted . In the other words, explicit cost relate to raising of funds and implicit costs relate to usage of funds. • Average Cost and Marginal Cost : The average cost is the weighted average of the costs of each components of funds. After ascertaining costs of each source of capital, appropriate weights are assigned to each component of capital. Marginal cost of capital is the weighted average cost of new funds raised by the firms. • Future Cost and Historical Cost : In financial decision making, the relevant costs are future costs. Future cost i.e expected cost of funds to finance the projects is ascertained with the help of historical costs.

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Specific Cost and Combined Cost : The costs of individual components of capital are specific costs of capital. The combined cost of capital is the average cost of capital as it is inclusive of cost of capital from all sources. In capital budgeting decisions, combined cost of capital is used for accepting / rejecting the proposals.

Activity I 1) Define the following : i) Explicit Cost ii) Future Cost iii) Average Cost iv) Marginal Cost

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

2) Illustrate with examples the distinction between explicit cost and implicit cost. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

5.4

Computing Cost of Capital of Individual components

There are four basic sources of long term funds for a business firm : (i) Long-term Debt and Debentures (ii) Preferences share capital, (iii) Equity share capital, (iv) Retained Earnings. Through all of these sources may not be tapped by the firm for funding its activities, each firm will have some of these sources in its capital structure.

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The specific cost of each source of funds is the after-tax cost of financing. It can be before-tax, provided the basis is the same for all the sources of finance being considered for calculating the cost of capital. The procedure for determining the costs of debt, procedure for determining the costs of debt, preferences and equity capital as well as retained earnings is discussed in the following sub-sections.

5.4.1

Cost of Long Term Debt

Debt may be issued at par, or at premium or at of discount. It may be perpetual or redeemable. The technique of computation of cost in each case has been explained in the following paragraphs.

(a) The formula for computing the Cost of Long Term debt at par is Kd = (1 – T) R where Kd = Cost pf long term debt T = Marginal Tax Rate R = Debenture Interest Rate For example, if a company has issued 10% debentures and the tax rate is 50%, the cost of debt will be (1 - .5) 10 = 5%

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(b) In case the debentures are issued at premium or discount, the cost of debt should be calculated on the basis of net proceeds realised. The formula will be as follows : I Kd = ------ (1 – T) NP where Kd = Cost of debt after tax I = Annual Interest Payment

NP = Net Proceeds of Loans T = Tax Rate

Illustration No. 1 : A company issue 10% irredeemable debentures of Rs. 10,000. The company is in 50% tax bracket. Calculate cost of debt capital at par, at 10% discount and at 10% premium Solution : Rs. 1,000 = ----------------- * (1 - .50) Rs. 10,000

Cost of debt at par

= 5% Rs. 1,000 = ----------------- * (1 - .50) Rs. 9,000

Cost of debt issued at 10% discount

= 5.55%

Cost of debt issued at 10% premium

Rs. 1,000 = ----------------- * (1 - .50) Rs. 11,000

= 4.55%

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(c) For computing cost of redeemble debts, the period of redemption is considered. The cost of long term debt is the investor’s yield to maturity adjusted by the firm’s tax rate plus distribution cost. The question of yield to maturity arises only when the loan is taken either at discount or at premium. The formula for cost of debt will be

Discount Premium I + --------------- (In case of Premium, --------------- will be subtracted) mp mp ---------------------- * 100 (1 – T) p + np ----------2 where mp = maturity period p = nominal or par value np = net proceeds i.e. (Par value – Discount + Premium)

Illustration No. 2 : A firm issued 100 10% debentures, each of Rs. 100 at 5% discount. The debentures are to be redeemed at the end of 10th year. The tax rate is 50%. Calculate cost of debt capital. Solution : 500 1,000 + -------10 1,050 Cost of Debt Capital = ---------------------- * ------------ * .50 10,000 + 9,500 9,750 ---------------------2 = 5.385%

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(d) In case of underwriting and other issuing costs, they are adjusted in the same way as discount is being adjusted in net proceeds and other calculations.

Illustrations No. 3 : A company raised loan by selling 250 debentures with 10% rate of interest at premium of Rs. 5 per debentures (Par value = Rs. 100), redeemable at the end of 10th year. Underwriting and other issuance costs amounted to 3% of the proceeds. The tax rate is 50%. Calculate cost of debt capital. Solution : 1,250 7,8750 2,500 - -------- + ----------10 10 = ------------------------------------- (1 - .5) * 100 25,000 + 25463 -------------------2 = 4.865%

Cost of Capital

(e) Yield to maturity method of computing cost of debt capital is an approximation method. A better method is that which converts yield to maturity into a discount rate. James C. Van Horne says “the discount rate that equates the present value of the funds received by the firm, net of underwriting and other costs with the present value of expected outflows. These outflows may be interest payments, repayment of principal or dividends”. It may symbolically written as : n (cash outflows) t np = ∑ -------------------t=1 (1 + K) t where np = net amount available for use

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(cash outflows) different periods

t

= amount of interest after tax + amount of repayment of principal in

K = discount rate

Illustration No. 4 : A company has issued 11% debentures for Rs. 2,00,000. The underwriting, brokerage and other issuance costs amount to Rs. 10,000. The terms of debenture issue provide for repayment of principal in 5 equal instalments starting at the end of the first year. The tax rate is 60%. Calculate cost of debt capital. Solution :

Cash inflow = Rs. 2,00,000 - Rs. 10,000 = Rs. 1,90,000 Cash outflows Year Installment Interest Rs. Rs. 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 22,000 17,600 12,200 8,800 4,400 Total Rs. 62,000 57,600 53,200 48,800 44,400 Discount Factor 14% .877 .769 .675 .592 .519 Present Value 54374 44294 35910 28890 23044 186512 Discount Present Factor Value 12% .893 55366 .797 .712 .630 .576 45907 37875 30744 25175 195067

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(195067 – 190000) 12% + ---------------------------- (14 – 12) (195067 – 186512)

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5067 12 + ---------- * 2 = 13.184% 8555

(f) Effective cost of debt is lower than the interest paid to the creditors because the firm can deduct interest amount from its taxable income. The higher the tax rate, the lower will be the effective interest rate and the cost of debt.

Illustration No. 5 : There are two firms, A and B. The firm A has no debt and is totally financed by equity capital. The firm B has Rs. 200 lakhs outstanding debt and pays an interest rate of 10%. The firm’s ne t income after-taxes are calculated using three tax rates, 0, 25 and 50 percent and the resulting values of net incomes are compared. Assume that the earnings before interest and taxes of both firms is Rs. 100 lakhs each. Calculate cost of debt capital. Solution : Tax Rates and Effective Cost of Debt Rs. in lakhs 0% tax rate 25% tax rate 50% tax rate Firm A Firm B Firm A Firm B Firm A Firm B ________________________________________________________________________ 1. Earnings before- interest 100 100 100 100 100 100 and taxes 2. Interest 3. Taxable Income 4. Taxes 5. Net income after taxes (NIAT) 0 100 0 100 20 80 0 80 0 100 25 75 20 80 20 60 0 100 50 50 20 80 40 40

________________________________________________________________________ (a) Difference (b) Effective rate 20 10% 15 7.5% 10 5%

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Notes : NIAT of firm A – NIAT of firm B. (a) + Rs. 200 lakhs of outstanding debt of firm B. If no taxes were paid, the only difference between the net incomes of the two firms would be the interest expenses incurred by the firm B. As the tax rate increases, this difference diminished. In the case of 0% tax rate, we can say that the effective rate of debt is 10% (Rs. 20/Rs. 200 = 10%). In the case of 25% and 50% it is 7.5% and 5% respectively. A simple formula for computing the cost of debt may be stated as follows : Effective cost of debt = Interest rate * (1.0 – tax rates) substituting the date from the above example. 1) Effective cost of debt at 0% tax rate = 10% * (1.0 – 0.00) = 10% 2) Effective cost of debt at 25% tax rate = 10% * (1.0 – 0.25) = 7.5% 3) Effective cost of debt at 50% tax rate = 10% * (1.0 – 0.50) = 5%

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Activity 2 1. A firm in tends to issue 10,000 10% debentures each of Rs. 10. What is the cost of capital if the firm desires to sell at 5% premium. The tax rate is 50%.

________________________________________________________________________

2. A firm issued 10,000, 10% debentures of Rs,. 10 each at a premium of .5% with a maturity period of 20 years. The tax rate is 50%. Find the cost of capital.

________________________________________________________________________

3. A company raised loan of Rs. 25,000 by 10% debentures at 10% discount for a period of ten years, underwriting costs are 3% and tax rate is 50% ________________________________________________________________________

5.4.2

Cost of Preference Capital

The preference share represents a special type of ownership interest in the firm. Preference shareholders must receive their stated dividends prior to the distribution of any earnings to the equity shareholders. In this respect preference shares are very much like bonds or debentures with fixed interest payment. The cost of preference shares can be estimated by dividing the preference dividend per share by the current price per share, as the dividend can be considered a continuous level payment.

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Dividend Cost of Preference Capital = --------------------------------Market Price – Issue Cost

For example, A company is planning to issue 9% preference shares expected to sell at Rs. 85 per share. The costs of issuing and selling the shares are expected to be Rs. 3 per share.

The first step in finding out the cost of the preference capital is to determine the rupee amount of preference dividends, which are stated as 9% of the share of Rs. 85 per share. Thus 9% of Rs. 85 is Rs. 7.65. After deducting the floatation costs, the net proceeds are Rs. 82 per share. Thus the cost of preference capital : Dividend per share = --------------------------------Net proceeds after selling Rs. 7.65 = ----------- = 9.33 % Rs. 82

Now, the companies can issue only redeemable preference shares. Cost of capital for such shares is that discount rate which equates the funds available from the issue of preference shares with the present values of all dividends and repayment of preference share capital. This present value method for cost of preference share capital is similar to that used for cost of debt capital, the only difference is that in place of `interest’ stated dividend on preference share is used.

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Illustration No. 6 : A company issued Rs. 100 preference shares with a 7% dividend on a price of Rs. 110 with a provision to redeem the capital at the end of 5 year period. Calculate cost of preference share capital. Year 1 2 3 4 5 Dividend 7 7 7 7 7 ---35 ---100 Principal 7 7 7 7 107 Rate .935 .873 .816 .763 .713 Present Value at 7% 6.545 6.111 5.712 5.341 76.291 -------100 --------

----- ----100 135

----- -----

There is no need to use any other discount rate. The cost of preference capital is 7%.

5.4.3

Cost of Equity Capital

“Cost of equity capital is the cost of the estimated stream of net capital outlays desired from equity sources” E.W. Walker. James C. Van Horne defines the cost of equity capital can be thought of as the rate of discount that equates the present value of all expected future dividends per share, as perceived by investors. The cost of equity capital is the most difficult to measure. A few problems in this regard are as follows : i) The cost of equity is not the out of pocket cost of using equity capital.

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ii)

The cost of equity is based upon the stream of future dividends as expected by shareholders (very difficult to estimate).

iii)

The relationship between market price with earnings is known. Dividends also affect the market value (which one is to be considered). The following are the approaches to computation of cost of equity capital :

(a)

E / P Ratio Method : Cost of equity capital is measured by earning price ratio.

Symbolically Eo (current earnings per share) ----- * 100 Po (current market price per share) The limitations of this method are : • • • Earnings do not represent real expectations of shareholders. Earnings per share is not constant. Which earnings-current earnings or average earnings (It is not clear). The method is useful in the following circumstances : • • • The firm does not have debt capital. All the earnings are paid to the shareholders. There is no growth in earnings.

(b)

E / P Ratio + Growth Rate Method : This method considers growth in earnings. A

period of 3 years is usually being taken into account for growth. The formula will be as follows : Eo (1 + b) 3 ------------Po

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Where (1 + b)

3

= Growth factor where b is the growth rate as a percentage and

estimated for a period of three years.

For example, A firm has Rs. 5 EPS and 10% growth rate of earnings over a period of 3 years. The current market price of equity share is Rs. 50 Rs. 5 (1+.10) 3 ------------------ * 100 Rs. 50 Rs. 5 (1.331) ------------------ * 100 Rs. 50 6.655 --------------- * 100 50

=

= 13.31%

(c)

D / P Ratio Method : Cost of equity capital is measured by dividends price ratio.

Symbolically

Do (Dividend per share) ----- * 100 Po (Market price per share)

The following are the assumptions : i) ii) iii) The risk remains unchanged. The investors give importance to dividend. The investors purchase the shares at par value.

Under this method, the future dividend stream of a firm as expected by the investors are estimated. The current price of the share is used to determine shareholders’ expected rate of return. Thus, if Ke is the risk-adjusted rate of return expected by investors, the

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present value of future dividends, discounted by Ke would be equal to the price of the share. Thus,

D1 D2 D3 D4 P = ------------- + ------------- + ------------- + ------------(1 + Ke) 1 (1 + Ke) 2 (1 + Ke) 3 (1 + Ke) 4 where, P = price of the share

D1 ……. Dn = dividends in periods 1,2,3,….n, Ke = the risk adjusted rate of return expected by equity investors.

Given the current price p and values for future dividends `Dt’ , one can calculate Ke by using IRR procedure. If the firm has maintained some regula r pattern of dividends in the past, it is not unreasonable to expect that the same pattern will prevail. If a firm is playing a dividend of 20% on a share with a par value of Rs. 10 as a level perpetual dividend, and its market price is Rs. 20, then D P = -------Ke 2 20 = -------Ke 2 Ke = -------- = 10% 20 (d) D / P + Growth Rate Method : The method is comparatively more realistic as i) it appreciation.

considers future growth in dividends, ii) it considers the capital Thus

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D1 Po = -------Ke - g where, Po D1 Ke G

D1 or Ke = ------- + g Po

= the current price of the equity share = the per share dividend expected at the end of year 1. = the risk adjusted rate of return expected an equity shares. = the constant annual rate growth in dividends and earnings. The equation indicate that the cost of equity share can be found by dividing the

dividend expected at the end of the year 1 by the current price of the share and adding the expected growth rate.

Illustration No. 7 : Raj Textiles Ltd. wishes to determine its cost of equity capital, Ke. The prevailing market price of the share i Rs. 50 per share. The firm expects to pay a s dividend of Rs. 4 at the end of the coming year 2003. The dividends paid on the equity shares over the past six years are as follows : Year 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 Dividend (Rs.) 3.80 3.62 3.47 3.33 3.12 2.97

The firm maintained a fixed dividend payout from 1996 onwards. The annual growth rate of dividends, g , is approximately 5 percent. Substituting the data in the formula

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Rs. 4 Rs. 50 = -----------Ke - 0.05

Ke

Rs. 4 = ------------ + 0.05 Rs. 50 = 0.08 + 0.05 = 13%

The 13% cost of the equity share represents the return expected by existing shareholders on their investment so that they should not disinvest in the share of Raj Textiles Ltd. and invest elsewhere.

(e) Realised Yield Method : One of the difficulties in using D / P Ratios and E / P Ratios for finding out Ke is to estimate the rate of expected return. Hence, this method depends on the rate of return actually earned by the shareholders. The most recent five to ten years are taken and the rate of return is calculated for the investor who purchased the shares at the beginning of the study period, held it to the present and sold it at the current prices. This is also the realized yield by the investor. This yield is supposed to indicate the cost of equity share on the assumption that the investor earns what he expects to earn. The limiting factors to the usefulness of this method are the additional conditions that the investors expectation do not undergo change during the study period, no significant change in the level of dividend rates occurs, and the attitude of the investors towards the risk remain the same. As these conditions are rarely fulfilled, the yield method has severe limitations. In addition, the yield often differs depending on the time period chosen.

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(f) Security’s Beta Method : An investor is concerned with the risk of his entire portfolio, and that the relevant risk of a particular security is the effect that the security has on the entire portfolio. By “diversified portfolio” we mean that each investor’s portfolio is representative if the market as a whole and that the portfolio Beta is 1.0. A security’s Beta indicate how closely the security’s returns move with from a diversified portfolio. A beta of 1.0 for a given security means that, if the total value of securities in the market moves up by 10 percent, the stock’s price will also move up, on the average by 10 percent. If security has a beta of 2.0, its price will, on the whole, rises or falls by 20 percent when the market rises or falls by 10 percent. A share with –0.5 percent beta will rises by 10 percent, when the market falls by 20 percent. A beta of any portfolio of securities is the weighted average of the betas of the securities, where the weights are the proportions of investments in each security. Adding a high beta (beta greater than 1.0) security to a diversified portfolio increase the portfolio’s risk, and adding a low beta (beta less than zero) security to a diversified security reduces the portfolio’s risk.

How is beta determined ? The beta co-efficient for a security (or asset) can be found by examining security’s historical returns rela tive to the return of the market. As it is, not feasible to take all securities, a sample of securities is used. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) uses these beta co-efficients to estimate the required rate of return on the securities. The CAPM, specifies that the required rate on the share depends upon its beta. The relationship is : Ke = riskless rate + risk premium x beta

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where, Ke = expected rate of return. The current rate on government securities can be used as a riskless rate. The difference between the long-run average rate of returns between shares and government securities may represent the risk premium. During 1926-1981, this was estimated in USA to be 6 percent. Beta co-efficient are provided by the published date or can be independently estimated. The beta for Pan Am’s stock was estimated by Value Line to be 0.95 in 1984. Long-term government bond rates were about 12 percent in November 1984. Thus the required rate of return on Pan Am’s stock in November 1984 was – Required Rate = 12% + 6% * 0.95 = 17.7 % The use of beta to measure the cost of equity capital is definitely a better approach. The major reason is that the method incorporates risk analysis, which other methods do not. However, its application remains limited perhaps because it is tedious to calculate Beta value.

Activity 3 1. A firm has Rs. 3 EPS and 10% growth rate of earnings over a period of 3 years. The current market price of equity share is Rs. 100. Compute the cost of equity capital.

________________________________________________________________________ 2. The current dividend paid by the company is Rs. 5 per share, the market price of the equity share is Rs. 100 and the growth rate of dividend is expected to remain constant at 10%. Find out the cost of capital.

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________________________________________________________________________ 3. A firm issues 8.1 % non-redeemable preferences shares of Rs. 10 each for Rs. 1000, underwriting costs are 6% of the sale price. Compute the cost of capital if shares are issued at discount of 2.5 percent and at premium of 5%. ________________________________________________________________________

5.4.4

Cost of Retained Earnings

Some authors do not consider it necessary to calculate separately cost of retained earnings. They say that the cost of retained earnings is included in the cost of equity share capital. They say that the existing share price is used to determine cost of equity capital and this price includes the impact of dividends and retained earnings. There are authorities who also suggest that cost of retained earnings is to be determined separately. Two alternative approaches are there : i) ii) One is to regard cost of equity capital as the cost of retained earnings. The concept of external yields as suggested by Ezra Soloman. It assures investment of retained earnings in another firm. Symbolically Cost of Retained Earnings = D1 ( -------- + G ) ( 1 – TR ) (1-B) Po = Ke ( 1 – TR) ( 1 – B ) where

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Ke = Cost of equity capital based on dividends growth method TR = Shareholder’s Tax Rate B = Percentage Brokerage Cost

For example, A firm’s cost of equity capital is 12% and tax rate of majority of shareholders is 30%. Brokerage is 3% = 12% ( 1 – 30% ) ( 1 – 3% ) = 12 * .70 * .97 = 8.15%

5.5

Weighted Cost of Capital

Weighted cost of capital is also called as composite cost of capital, overall cost of capital, weighted marginal cost of capital, combined cost of debt and equity etc. It comprises the costs of various components of financing. These components are weighted according to their relative proportions in the total capital.

5.5.1

Choice of Weights

The weights to be employed can be book value, market values, historic or target. Book value weights are based on the accounting values to assess the proportion of each type of capital in the firm’s structure. Market value weights measure the proportion of each type of financing at its market value. Market value weights are preferred because they approximate the current value of various instruments of finance employed by the company.

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Historic weights can be book or market weights based on actual data. Such weights however would represent actual rather than desired proportions of various types of capital in the capital structure. Target weights, which can also be based on book or market values, reflect the desired capital structure proportions. If the firm’s historic capital structure is not much different from `optimal’ or desired capital structure, the cost of capital in both the cases is mostly similar. However, from a strictly theoretical point of view, the target market value weighting scheme should be preferred. Marginal weights are determined on the basis of financing mix in additional new capital to be raised fo r investments. The new capital to be raised is marginal capital. The propositions of new capital raised will be the marginal weights.

Activity 4 1. How is the cost of retained earnings computed ?

________________________________________________________________________

2. List out there types of weights which may be used for computing weighted average cost of capital of the firm.

________________________________________________________________________

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5.5.2

Calculating The Weighted Cost of Capital : A Few Examples

In this subsections, two problems are solved :

Illustration No. 8 : A firm has the following capital structure and after tax costs for the different sources of funds used :

Source of Funds

Amount Rs.

Proportion % 20 10 30 40 100

After tax cost % 4.50 9.00 11.00 10.00

Debt Preference Shares Equity Shares Retained Earnings

40,00,000 20,00,000 60,00,000 80,00,000 2,00,00,000

Calculate cost of weighted capital by using book value method. Solution : Method of Financing Proportion % Debt Preference Shares Equity Shares Retained Earnings 20 10 30 40 Cost % 4.50 9.00 11.00 10.00 0.90 0.90 3.30 4.00 9.10% Weighted cost

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Illustration 9 : M. Ltd. is a consumer products company with well-established brand names. The cost of capital is estimated at the end of 2001 for use in evaluating investment proposals in 2002. The data is as follows : Financial data for M Ltd. Source Book Value in Rs. 0000 Debentures (7.5%) Debentures (9.5%) Debentures (14%) Other debtTotal Total debt Preference Shares (7%) Equity Shares 45 50 75 210 380 20 720 Market Value in Rs. 0000 29 42 78 192 341 10 824 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 13.2 14.0 Current Interest Rate %

Equity Share Data Years 1996 Dividend per Share Earnings per share Price per share 24.0 50.0 2.97 3.73 4.21 4.83 4.86 4.95 1.45 1997 1.60 1998 1.77 1999 2.05 2000 2.28 2001 2.48

Explanatory Notes • Interest rates on the three debentures issues were set at the rate (13.2%) on the recently issued debentures of the firm which is selling close to par. This was considered to be the best estimate.

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Other debt include different types of loans from financial institutions and other privately placed debentures.

• •

Market value is based on interest rates provided in the firm’s annual report. Preference share is Rs. 100 par : current market price is s. 50 per share.

Since the firm’s dividend and earnings have been growing steadily since 1996, the constant growth model can be used to estimate cost of equity. Through dividends have growth at a slightly higher rate than earnings, one may assume that shareholders would expect them to grow at the same earnings (10.8%). Also assume, on the basis of the past record that the shareholders expect a dividend of Rs. 2.60 in 2002. Calculate cost of capital. Solution : D = ------- + g p Rs. 2.60 = ------------ + 0.108 Rs. 50 = 16% If the investors expect the dividends to grow at the higher rate (11.3%), the cost of equity capital works out to 16.5%. Applying the beta method, we obtain a somewhat higher number. Beta for M Ltd. is assumed to be 0.85. Interest rate on government bonds (riskless rate) in 2001 would be say, 12 percent. The market risk premium is 6%. Thus Ke = Riskless rate + Risk premium * beta = 12% + 6% * 0.85 = 17.1%

Ke

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Thus the cost of capital for M Ltd. : Amount Rs. Debt Preference Shares Equity Shares Total 341 10 824 1175 0.29 0.01 0.70 1.00 7.1 14.0 17.0 17.0 2.1 0.1 11.9 14.9 Weight Cost Weight * Cost

Weighted Average Cost of Capital : 14.1%

Explanation • • Market value of debt, preference and equity shares are used. Current interest rate on debt is adjusted for tax rate of 46 percent, which is the firm's effective rate 13.2% (1-0.46) = 7.1%. • Current preference dividend rate of 14% is used.

Activity 5 1. Compare Beta value of equity shares of any one company listed on Indian stock exchanges and list out the problems you faced in this regard.

________________________________________________________________________

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2. Compute overall cost of capital of an Indian company of your choice. List out the steps you took for this purpose and the problems faced by you.

________________________________________________________________________

3. Try to know from the Finance Manager of an Indian Company : i) Do they compute the overall cost of capital of their company ?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ii) If yes, for what purpose ?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ iii) If not, why not ?

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. What is Weighted Average Cost of Capital ?

________________________________________________________________________

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5. The following details are available : Equity (Expected Dividend 12%) Tax Rate 10% Preference 8% Loan Rs. 10,00,000 50% Rs. 5,00,000 Rs. 15,00,000

Your are required to calculate Weighted Average Cost of Capital ?

________________________________________________________________________

5.6

Some Misconceptions about Cost of Capital

The cost of capital is a central concept in financial management linking the investment and financing decisions. A few misconceptions in this regard are as follows: i) ii) iii) the concept of cost of capital is academic and impractical. It is equal to the dividend rate. Retained earnings are either cost free or cost significantly less than external equity. iv) v) vi) Depreciation has no cost. The cost of capital can be defined in terms of an accounting based manner. If a project is heavily financed by debt, its weighted average cost of capital is low.

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5.7

Summary

The cost of capital is the minimum acceptable rate of return on new investments. The basic factors underlying the cost of capital for a firm are the degree of risk associated with the firm, the taxes it must pay, and the supply of and demand of various types of financing. The term cost of capital refers to the minimum rate of return a firm must earn on its investments so that the market value of the company's equity shares does not fall.

In estimating the cost of capital, it is assumed that, (1) the firms are acquiring assets which do not change their business risk, and (2) these acquisions are financed in such a way as to leave the financial risk unchanged. In order to estimate the cost of capital, we must estimate rates of return required by investors in the firm's securities, including borrowings, and average those rates according to the market values of the various securities currently outstanding.

While the cost of debt and preference capital is the contractual interest / dividend rate (adjusted for taxes), the cost of equity capital is difficult to estimate. Broadly, there are six approaches to estimate the cost of equity, namely, the E / P method, E / P + Growth method, D / P method, D / P + Growth method, Realised yield method and using the Beta co-efficient of the share. Weighted cost of capital is computed by assigning book weights or market weights.

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Key words

Cost of Capital is the minimum rate of return that will maintain the value of the firm's equity shares. Marginal Weights are determined on the basis of financing mix of additional capital. Cost of Equity Capital is the discount rate which equates present value of all expected dividends in future with net proceeds per share / current market price. Business Risk is a possibility when the firm will not be able to operate successfully in the market. Financial Risk is the possibility when the firm will not earn sufficient profits to make payment of interest on loans and / or to pay dividends.

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Self -Assessment Questions / Exercises

1) Why is the cost of capital the minimum acceptable rate of return on an investment ? 2) How is the Cost of Debt Capital ascertained ? Give examples. 3) How will you calculate the Cost of Preferences Share Capital ? 4) Which method of calculating the cost of equity shares would be most appropriate for the following firms : a) A profitable firm that has never paid a dividend, but has had steady growth in earnings.

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b) An electricity company that has paid a dividend every year for the last eighty years. 5) How would you find the cost of capital for proprietorship or partnership ? Can you think of any ways to do this "? List them. 6) "Retained earnings does not have cost" comment. 7) Discuss various uses of the concept of Cost of Capital. 8) Determine the cost of capital for the following securities. These are issued by different firms and the tax rate is 40 percent. a) A seven year debenture with a coupon interest of 10 percent. The debenture matures in five years and has a current market price of Rs. 90 as against its par value of Rs. 100. b) A preference share pays 7 percent dividend. Par value is Rs. 100 per share and its current market price is Rs. 80.

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Upadhaya, K.M. “ Financial Management, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. Schall, Lawernce D and Haley Charles W., Introduction to Financial Management, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, London, New Delhi, Fourth (International Students') Edition. Van Horne James W., Financial Management and Policy, Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersy.

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Khan, M.Y. and Jain P.K. “ Financial Management - Text and Problems”, Tata Mcgraw Hills, New Delhi. Chandra, P., Fundamentals of Financial Management, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi. Maheshwari, S.N., Financial Management - Principles and Practices, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi. Singh, J.K. “ Financial Management - Text and Problems” Dhanpat Rai & Co. Delhi. Srivastava, R.M., “Financial Management”, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut. Kulkarni, P.V. & Satya Prasad, B.G., “Financial Management – A conceptual approach”, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai.

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