## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Phase-ﬁeld modeling of the formation of lamellar nanostructures in diblock copolymer thin ﬁlms under inplanar electric ﬁelds

Xiang-Fa Wu* and Yuris A. Dzenis

Department of Engineering Mechanics, Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0526, USA Received 27 June 2007; revised manuscript received 4 February 2008; published 26 March 2008 Recent experiments show that external inplanar electric ﬁeld can be employed to guide the molecular self-assembly in diblock copolymer BCP thin ﬁlms to form lamellar nanostructures with potential applications in nanotechnology. We study this self-assembly process through a detailed coarse-grained phaseseparation modeling. During the process, the free energy of the BCP ﬁlms is modeled as the Ginzburg-Landau free energy with nonlocal interaction and electrostatic coupling. The resulting Cahn-Hilliard CH equation is solved using an efﬁcient semi-implicit Fourier-spectral algorithm. Numerical results show that the morphology of order parameter formed in either symmetric or asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms is strongly inﬂuenced by the electric ﬁeld. For symmetrical BCPs, highly ordered lamellar nanostructures evolved along the direction of the electric ﬁeld. Phase nucleation and dislocation climbing in the BCP ﬁlms predicted by the numerical simulation are in a good agreement with those observed in recent BCP electronanolithography. For asymmetrical BCPs, numerical simulation shows that nanodots are guided to align to the electric ﬁeld. Furthermore, in the case of high electric ﬁeld, nanodots formed in asymmetrical BCPs may further convert into highly ordered lamellar nanostructures sphere-to-cylinder transition parallel to the electric ﬁeld. Effects of the magnitude of electric ﬁeld, BCP asymmetry, and molecular interaction of BCPs on the self-assembly process are examined in detail using the numerical scheme developed in this study. The present study can be used for the prediction of the formation of nanostructures in BCP thin ﬁlms and the quality control of BCP-based nanomanufacturing through optimizing the external electric ﬁelds. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.77.031807 PACS number s : 83.80.Uv, 81.16.Rf, 82.35.Jk, 89.75.Kd

I. INTRODUCTION

Thin ﬁlms of diblock copolymers BCPs bear the natural tendency to form periodical morphology in nanoscale that provides an efﬁcient technique to produce nanostructured materials and nanodevices 1–7 . With the aid of proper external ﬁelds, molecular self-assembly in BCP thin ﬁlms can be guided to form long-range ordered nanostructures. This has evoked increasing interests due to its promising applications in nanotechnology-based products such as high-density random-access memory devices, increased capacitance gate devices, acoustic transducer arrays, photonic imaging arrays, etc. 8–13 . To date, quite a few techniques have been developed for the fabrication of long-range ordered nanostructures in BCP thin ﬁlms e.g., chemically patterned substrates 14–20 , topological templates 13,21–25 , electric ﬁelds 26–34 , elastic ﬁelds 35–37 , shear ﬂows 38–45 , etc. . One may ﬁnd that external electric ﬁeld may be among the most efﬁcient means, which has attracted substantial attention since the original work achieved in Russell’s and Jaeger’s groups 26–28 . Recent endeavor has also been dedicated to understanding the alignment mechanisms and the molecular self-assembly process in BCP thin ﬁlms in electric ﬁelds. For instance, it was reported recently that when subjected to an inplanar electric ﬁeld of sufﬁcient magnitude, sphere-to-cylinder domain transition happened in polystyrene-b-poly methyl methacrylate PS-b-PMMA thin ﬁlms 32 . In such process, in attempting to reduce the

***xfwu@unlserve.unl.edu
**

1539-3755/2008/77 3 /031807 10

global free energy of the PS-b-PMMA thin ﬁlms, the spherical microdomains that nucleated in the thin ﬁlms were gradually deformed into ellipsoids and consequently interlinked to form cylindrical lamellar microdomains along the direction of the applied electric ﬁeld. Accordingly, efﬁcient computational modeling of phaseseparation process provides a convenient method to understand and predict the nanostructure formation process in BCP thin ﬁlms. Two basic numerical schemes have been employed extensively. The ﬁrst is based on the dynamic selfconsistent ﬁeld SCF simulation, and the second is the cell dynamics simulation CDS . In principle, CDS can be implemented to capture the entire evolution process of the molecular self-assembly, which is also more time-efﬁcient compared to SCF. For SCF, the large demand of the computational time is mainly due to the heavy calculation of the path integrals for the chain conformation. In addition, several research groups have examined the sphere-to-cylinder transition process in BCP thin ﬁlms by using either SCF 46–52 or CDS 32,53–55 . Predictions based on the computational models were very close to those observed in experiments. This indicates the power of computational modeling in nanodevice design and prediction of nanostructure formation. Due to the rapid increase of computational cost with increasing problem scale, explicit CDS can be only fulﬁlled on a computational cell with intermediate number of grids. Large scale CDS modeling, especially in the case of general three-dimensional modeling, has to resort to the computational capacity of supercomputers. Also, the time step used in CDS has to be very small in order to satisfy the stability requirement of the explicit algorithms. Thus, further research is still desired in

©2008 The American Physical Society

031807-1

¯ k . x 5 where k = k2 + k2 with kx and ky as the variables in the x y Fourier domain. the molecular chain length. It shows great numerical stability and computational efﬁciency in time iteration. r is the local position vector. and magnitude of the applied electric ﬁeld on the molecular selfassembly process in BCP thin ﬁlms.20 . the free energy of the BCP thin ﬁlms is modeled as the Ginzburg-Landau free energy with nonlocal interaction and electrostatic coupling 56–60 . 4 . Thus. 0 A and B are the dielectric constants of the pure A and B homopolymer phases of the BCP ﬁlm. we are going to further examine the effects of BCP asymmetry. Hereafter. Here = 0 A − B 2E2 / kT . G r . Among these efforts. y .. CDS . the volumetric integrals above can be reduced to those with respect to the substrate surface. t is the Green’s function for the Laplace equation such that 2G = − r − r . As a result. t . and variables with upper bars denote the double Fourier transforms of the corresponding variables in the physical space. t = − r . 4 Molecular self-assembly in BCPs can be described by using the Landau-Ginzburg phenomenological model of phase separation. 2 and then rescaling it with M yields the dimensionless CH equation on the substrate surface t = 2 − + 3 − 2 + − 0 .t − 0 K 2 r. Substituting Eq.e. t is the local volume fraction of the A monomer in the A-B BCP. MODEL FORMULATION AND NUMERICAL PROCEDURE In this study. Similar derivation is also available in the literature 53–55. To do so.. 031807 2008 enhancing the computational efﬁciency and numerical reliability in modeling the molecular self-assembly in BCPs. and the mobility M. 2 where M is the mobility to be considered as constant for convenience. IV. therefore the time steps used in iterations can be selected much larger than those used in the conventional coarse-grained phaseseparation modeling e. t is the double Fourier transform of x . 2 t = 2 − + 3 − 2 + − 0 + x2 . II. we present the results from a detailed numerical study of the molecular selfassembly in BCP thin ﬁlms subjected to an inplanar electric ﬁeld. the order parameter . i. in this study. 3 . 1 into Eq. Thus. This process can be modeled by the CH equation or model B in the Hoherberg-Halperin notation 64 such that t = M F .t + r. by performing double Fourier transform with respect to the spatial variables x and y at two sides of Eq. we adopt the efﬁcient semi-implicit Fourier-spectral method 61–63 to solve Eq. i. stable phases will form through phase separation in order to reduce the global free energy of the BCP system. 4 . For instance. an additional term contributed by the electric ﬁeld is added into Eq. the above free energy functional recovers that of a symmetric BCP. the time-dependent free energy functional for a general BCP conﬁned on a ﬂat substrate free of external ﬁeld can be expressed 56–60 as F = k BT f r. 5 in the time domain for the use of the semiimplicit numerical scheme. The modiﬁed CH equation 4 can be solved conveniently by means of explicit ﬁnite difference methods within a representative computational cell under periodic boundary conditions well discussed in the literature. respectively. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. K is a constant to delineate the phase boundary energy.XIANG-FA WU AND YURIS A. monolayer as used in BCP nanolithography recently 6–11. t exp −i kxx + ky y dxdy. III. by using this numerical scheme.r . During the process. and is a compound dimensionless parameter. Conclusions and potential applications of the present study are addressed in Sec. 0 is the mean value of the order parameter averaging spatially. t + + = − − x .g. r .t − 2 dr + A0 2 G r.. 3 where is a compound dimensionless phenomenological parameter that characterizes the nonlocal A-B potential A0.18.t 1 0 drdr .t r . r . after a quench from the high-temperature disordered melting state to a temperature below the microphase segregation temperature. The derivation of the governing CH equation of the BCP thin ﬁlms and relevant numerical algorithm are presented in Sec. f r . In reality.e. 0 is the vacuum permittivity. t is the local coarse-grained free energy density of mixing that takes the Landau form such that f r . i. molecular interaction. The key idea is that treating the linear terms im- 031807-2 .. the BCP ﬁlms are assumed very thin. kB is the Boltzmann constant.t . 5 separately.e. In order to discretize Eq. Numerical results for the evolution of lamellar nanostructures in symmetric BCP ﬁlms and the sphere-to-cylinder domain transition in asymmetric BCP ﬁlms are detailed in Sec. DZENIS PHYSICAL REVIEW E 77. where the interface energy between the BCP and the substrate is assumed constant and therefore ignored since it does not affect the phase separation process in the present study.62 . The derivation of the electric contribution is based on linear perturbation theory. T is the absolute temperature. t − 1. The resulting Cahn-Hilliard CH equation is solved using an efﬁcient semi-implicit Fourier-spectral algorithm 61. we deal with the terms in Eq. This numerical scheme has been examined successfully in capturing the evolution of phase domains in BCP thin ﬁlms on chemically patterned substrates 63 . we obtain the CH equation 4 in the time-Fourier domain ¯ t = k2 ¯ − 3 − k 2¯ − ¯ − ¯ 0 − k 2¯ .65. t is the local concentration difference between two different BCP monomers that are assumed as A and B such that r . t = 2 r . in this study. where r . y . This numerical scheme is unconditionally stable. When an external electric ﬁeld is adopted along the x axis in the given BCP system. For 0 = 0. t 4 / 4. ¯ k .66 . II.16. t 2 / 2 + r .

. 2 b that for stronger monomer interaction = 0. tn . As a matter of fact. One can observe that the phase separation consists of phase nucleation and phase coarsening. the formation of lamellar nanostructures in BCP thin ﬁlms can be accelerated through applying lateral electric ﬁeld of high magnitude. However. respectively. tn at all spatial grids xi . independent of the spatial grid size.e. By using the efﬁcient semi-implicit Fourier-spectral scheme in this study. 1 shows those of the BCP ﬁlm in the electric ﬁeld of sufﬁcient magnitude = 0. the double Fourier transform and its inverse of the order parameter at each time step can be implemented by means of the efﬁcient twodimensional fast Fourier transform 2D FFT and its inverse 2D IFFT . 2 c and 2 d give these in a lateral electric ﬁeld of = 0. 1.e. the parameter is selected as 0. tn at time step n. evaluate 3 xi . Compared to those in Fig. . molecules in BCP ﬁlms free of electric ﬁeld have more degrees of freedom DOFs to move than those of electriﬁed BCP ﬁlms. numerous phase dislocations are detected in the simulation. 7 In the above numerical iteration. numerical results in Fig. . The left column in Fig.002 around the average values designated in the following.. One can observe that phase dislocations exist in the lamellar nanostructures during the process of phase coarsening. 1. lamellar nanostructures are formed along the direction of the electric ﬁeld as shown in the right column in Fig. while treating the nonlinear term explicitly can avoid directly solving the nonlinear equation at each time step during the numerical iteration. It has been validated that the present semi-implicit Fourier-spectral method is unconditionally stable in the sense that given a ﬁxed set of physical parameters. x which leads to the iteration format as ¯ n+1 = ¯n + 1+ + ¯ 0 − k2 k2 x 2 3n 4 3n − k4¯ n+1 − ¯ n+1 + ¯ 0 6 t t −k +k . . A. in the very beginning of phase separation. 1 also shows that besides the formation of lamellar nanostructures. This is because the molecular motion in a lateral electric ﬁeld belongs to constrained motion. Hereafter.PHASE-FIELD MODELING OF THE FORMATION OF… PHYSICAL REVIEW E 77. 031807 2008 plicitly can reduce the stability constraints. simulation of the phase separation free of electric ﬁeld has also been performed. tn+1 . When subjected to lateral inplanar electric ﬁeld. and 0 in Eq. In the following simulations. In addition. The size of the computational cell in each simulation is ﬁxed as 256 256. such that for all t tc. Figure 2 b shows the results free of electric ﬁeld. y j .2.1. III. the present numerical scheme is capable of remarkably enhancing the computational efﬁciency and simultaneously improving the numerical stability.5 is ﬁxed for the time integration of all cases in this study.2 . Figs.1 and 0. higher rate of phase separation. NUMERICAL RESULTS Within the framework of above computational scheme. tn and ¯ pq k . y j and time step n + 1.. the morphology of order parameter for either neutral or electriﬁed BCP ﬁlms has tended to be stable though it continues evolving and coarsening afterwards. y j . 2 a shows the morphology of order parameter of the above BCP thin ﬁlms = 0. tn+1 and then obtain xi . 1 and 2. Fig. 2 b –2 d show the morphologies of order parameter of the BCP ﬁlms with = 0. Due to use of the semi-implicit algorithm in the time domain and the Fourier-spectral scheme in spatial domain. 1. and 5000 during the phase separation process free of electric ﬁeld = 0 . 4 Perform 2D IFFT to invert ¯ pq k . when subjected to weak lateral electric ﬁeld. After 5000 iterations in each case. and 0 on the self-assembly process in the BCP thin ﬁlms within a 2D computational cell under periodic boundary conditions. For the purpose of examining the effect of molecular interaction on the phase separation process. 2 Perform 2D FFT to determine 3 k .5 .2 after 5000 iterations. BCP ﬁlm 1000. we obtain the ﬁnal form of the discretized equation ¯ n+1 − ¯ n / t = k2¯ n+1 − k2 − k2¯ n+1 .1 at ﬁve sequential instants t = 10. As a result. Among these. Sufﬁcient large time step of 0. As a result. respectively. y j . After 1000 iterations. 100. while the right column in Fig. pq 3 Evaluate relation 7 to determine ¯ pq k . we examine the effects of .8 . Phase separation of symmetric BCP ﬁlms in electric ﬁeld Let us ﬁrst consider the phase separation process in symi. the rate of electriﬁed phase separation in the very beginning is lower than that free of the electric ﬁeld t = 100 for instance . compared to that of the left column in Fig. one can ﬁnd that three parameters i. there always exists a time threshold tc. and therefore is much more efﬁcient than the classic CDS. The typical operations from time step n to n + 1 are the following: 1 With xi . 1 indicates in the symmetric the morphologies of order parameter = 0.e. after the beginning stage of phase nucleation. tn+1 at all spatial grids xi . The initial concentration of the order parameter is assumed to have a Gaussian ﬂuctuation of magnitude 0. 0 = 0 in a metric BCP thin ﬁlms of varying and lateral electric ﬁeld along the x axis. Consequently. i. Furthermore. to show the effects of the BCP incompatibility and external electric ﬁeld on the phase separation. For comparison. The dislocations gradually disappear through climbing and molecular diffusion under the action of the electric driving force. well-developed serpentine and lamellar nanostructures have formed in both neutral and electriﬁed BCP thin ﬁlms as shown in Figs.62 .1 after 5000 iterations. Fig. 5 dominate the entire phase separation in the BCP thin ﬁlms. the time step has been selected very large in the iterations t = 0. One can observe in Fig. the time steps can be selected as orders of those utilized in the conventional explicit Euler forward method.05 and 0. the extent of the corresponding phase separation is 031807-3 . the above scheme is stable for all spatial grid sizes 61. y j . and 0 are related to the BCP molecular structures and is linked to the combined effect of the external electric ﬁeld and the BCP dielectric properties. electric ﬁeld has no signiﬁcant effect on the extent of phase separation due to the characteristic of the global action exerted by the electric force on the molecular chains of the BCP ﬁlms. 1 indicate that electric ﬁeld has no noticeable effect on the rate of phase separation. while Figs. Furthermore.

8 . and 5000 in the case of lateral inplanar electric ﬁeld . respectively. The right column are those obtained at the same ﬁve sequential instants t = 10. and 5000 in the phase separation process free of electric = 0. 1000. f . 1000. respectively. as indicated as e . 031807-4 ﬁeld.1 and 0=0 .XIANG-FA WU AND YURIS A. DZENIS PHYSICAL REVIEW E 77. g . 100. 100. 1. as indicated as a . Color online The morphology of order parameter numerical results of order parameter in symmetric BCP thin ﬁlms = 0. and h . c . and d . b . The left column are the at ﬁve sequential instants t = 10. 031807 2008 FIG.

1 . III A. we also examine the phase separation process in the same BCP thin ﬁlm in weak electric ﬁeld = 0. 3 shows the morphologies of order parameter in neutral and electriﬁed asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms = 0. Phase separation of asymmetric BCP ﬁlms in electric ﬁeld Now let us consider the molecular self-assembly in asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms. b = 0. In this case. 2 c and 2 d ﬁelds indicate that a variety of phase dislocations exist due to the slow formation of lamellar nanostructures under weak electric driving forces.1 in electric ﬁeld .PHASE-FIELD MODELING OF THE FORMATION OF… PHYSICAL REVIEW E 77.35 at ﬁve sequential instants t = 10. the morphology of order parameter in Fig. Color online The morphology of order parameter in symmetric BCP thin ﬁlms 0 = 0 after 5000 iterations. 3. lower than that with weak monomer interaction such as = 0.1 in electric ﬁeld . The left column are these free of electric ﬁeld. When subjected to relatively high lateral electric ﬁeld. 4 a shows a variety of intermediate phase struc- 031807-5 . 3 shows that lamellar nanostructures begin to form in the very beginning of the process. Based on the above numerical scheme. After 5000 iterations. and d = 0. coarsening of the random nanodots accompanies with the annihilation of unstable nanodots usually in relatively smaller size through molecular diffusion.05 in electric ﬁeld . one can observe that well-deﬁned morphologies of random nanodots and lamellar nanostructures have formed after 5000 iterations. for instance . due to the introduction of electric ﬁeld of high magnitude. respectively. 1000.1 see Fig.2 . sphere-to-cylinder domain transition happened in the very beginning of the process. Figs. c = 0. the phase separation process in this case also consists of phase nucleation and phase coarsening to reduce the global free energy of the BCP system.05 and 0 = 0. Similar to that of symmetric BCPs as discussed in Sec. In the cases of relatively weak electric = 0. 100. a = 0. phase dislocations nucleate and then climb to reduce the global free energy. 031807 2008 FIG. and 5000. Fig. From Fig. 2. Furthermore. while the right column are those in lateral electric ﬁeld = 1.8 .2 and = 0 free of electric ﬁeld .2 and = 0. For asymmetric BCP ﬁlms free of electric ﬁeld. the right column of Fig.1 and = 0. it can be found that with the aid of the electric driving force. In order to examine this transition.05 and 0.1.2 and = 0. B.

100. f . respectively. 1000. b . 1000. as indicated as e . as indicated as a . The left column are at ﬁve sequential instants t = 10. The right column are those results obtained at the same ﬁve sequential instants t = 10. c .8 .05 and 0 = 0. respectively. 031807 2008 FIG. DZENIS PHYSICAL REVIEW E 77. g . Color online The morphology of order parameter the numerical results of order parameter in asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms = 0. and 5000 in the case of lateral inplanar electric ﬁeld 031807-6 . and h . electric ﬁeld. and 5000 in the phase separation process free of = 1. 3. 100.XIANG-FA WU AND YURIS A.35 . and d .

15. similar to those observed in recent experiments 32. the morphology of order parameter in BCP thin ﬁlms has been determined through detailed phaseseparation modeling. t and I kx . 4 b . and = 0. 0 = 0. and Figs.4 in electric ﬁeld . the morphology of order parameter includes random nanodots and nanoislands as shown in Fig. we further consider the evolution of domain size by introducing the transient average domain size Ry t along the y direction. a = 0.05. In this section. and = 0.PHASE-FIELD MODELING OF THE FORMATION OF… PHYSICAL REVIEW E 77. In the latter cases.02. 4 c and 4 d show the intermediate lamellar nanostructures of the BCP ﬁlms in relatively weak electric ﬁelds with = 0. and = 0 free of electric ﬁeld . the inverse of the transient average wave numbers ky t 63. 10 In the above.t = 1 ¯ kx. and d = 0.ky .4 asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms = 0. which is deﬁned by where N = L is the total number of grids within the computational cell.02. after 5000 iterations.t 9 kx ky In relations 8 and 9 ky is the variable in Fourier domain. This formation process can be accelerated by increasing the magnitude of electric ﬁeld. b = 0. and cylinders.t ky t = kx ky 8 . S kx. 0 = 0. the lamellar nanostructures are still evolving.2 and 0.t ¯ − kx. Color online The morphology of order parameter in asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms after 5000 iteration. ky .2 in electric ﬁeld . and S kx .4. Domain size evolution I kx.35.15.ky. ky are the coefﬁcients of 2D FFT of 2 031807-7 . ky .02. 4. and ¯ kx . 0 = 0. In the case free of electric ﬁeld. where kyS kx. t is the element of the structure factor matrix deﬁned by 67–69 S kx. ellipsoids. 031807 2008 FIG. we also investigate the phase separation process in neutral = 0 and electriﬁed = 0.02 and 0 = 0. tures including spheres. 0 = 0.ky.15.2 in electric ﬁeld .53 .2 and 0. c = 0. In addition.− ky.t − N 2 C.15 . is the average order parameter.67–69 as Ry t = 2 / ky t . and = 0.ky.ky. respectively.

031807-8 . In the case of symmetric BCP thin ﬁlms = 0. one can draw the conclusion that the adoption of lateral electric ﬁeld can decrease the transverse domain size Ry t for both symmetric and asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms. and it can also be used for the analysis and prediction of the process of nanostructure formation in BCP thin ﬁlms. the stable Ry t is reduced to 13. while in lateral electric ﬁeld = 0. Figs. x . CONCLUDING REMARKS In this study. Variation of the domain size Ry t vs the time of the asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms = 0. 031807 2008 Dimensionless domain size (Ry) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 500 b=0 (Free of electric field) b=0. The present study also indicates that external electric ﬁeld has no noticeable effect on the extent of phase separation. y . usually formed free of electric ﬁeld. 6. the stable Ry t is close to 20. It can be observed that the domain size along y direction Ry t in each case decreases abruptly in the very beginning of phase separation i.8 . the corresponding stable Ry t is reduced to around 17.1 and 0 = 0 during the molecular self-assembly process. respectively. The entire process of forming lamellar nanostructures consists of phase nucleation and phase coarsening through climbing of phase dislocations and molecular diffusion. the stable Ry t is close to 17. the domain size decreases accordingly with the formation of ordered lamellar nanostructures due to the “electric stretching” effect.35 case of asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlm free of electric ﬁeld. Numerical results indicate that lateral electric ﬁeld can be employed to form ordered lamellar nanostructures in both symmetric and asymmetric BCPs.5. For asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms in electric ﬁeld of sufﬁcient magnitude. sphere-to-cylinder transition happened during the formation of lamellar nanostructures. IV. 1–4.5. 5 and 6 show the evolution of domain size of the BCP thin ﬁlms in above simulations. It shows that the semi-implicit Fourier-spectral algorithm adopted in this study can obviously enhance the computational efﬁciency and numerical stability. Moreover. In practice..8 . Such “electric stretching” decreases the domain size of the random nanostructures in BCP thin ﬁlms perpendicular to the direction of the inplanar electric ﬁeld. we have examined the molecular selfassembly in both symmetric and asymmetric BCP thin ﬁlms by solving the resulting CH equation numerically. into highly ordered lamellar nanostructures along the direction of the inplanar electric ﬁeld as shown in Figs.8 (In electric field) 1000 1500 2000 2500 Dimensionless time (t) FIG. Detailed morphology of order parameter of the BCP thin ﬁlms and the evolution of domain size have been examined. 5. With deﬁnition 8 . FIG.e.35 during the molecular self-assembly process. In addition. In the = 0.05 and 0 = 0. the phase nucleation stage . and then tends to constant through phase coarsening in both the symmetric and asymmetric BCP ﬁlms. This is because the lateral electric ﬁeld is able to “organize” the random nanostructures. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Partial support of this work by the NSF/AFOSR/ARO/ ARL is greatly appreciated.1 and 0 = 0 free of electric ﬁeld. Thus. thus electrically guided molecular self-assembly in BCP thin ﬁlms can be utilized efﬁciently in manufacturing highly ordered nanostructures and nanodevices.XIANG-FA WU AND YURIS A. t and the unit in the computational cell. the numerical method presented in this study can be used for intelligent BCP-based nanomanufacturing for targeted nanostructures through optimizing the applied electric ﬁeld.05 and 0 = 0. DZENIS 60 PHYSICAL REVIEW E 77. The rate of phase separation in the BCP thin ﬁlms depends upon both the type of molecular chain structures and the magnitude of electric ﬁeld. lateral electric ﬁeld can be introduced conveniently. when introducing a lateral electric ﬁeld = 1. Variation of the domain size Ry t vs the time of the symmetric BCP thin ﬁlms = 0.

L. 1602 1980 . 8 M. Rev. Ludwigs. Adv. Fasolka and A. Mayes. GoldbeckWood. J. Russell.PHASE-FIELD MODELING OF THE FORMATION OF… 1 I. 21 L. Weinheim. R. 8083 1998 . Phys. 2 M. J. 30. A. Phys. E. S. and V. Cheng. H. Phys. Mater. G. J. Soft Matter 2. W. Ryan. V. Russell. J. Y. I. P. Tsori and D. Waller. 1878 2005 . Lett. 15. Morkved. Andelman. 37 G. P. Wu. Olszowka. Surface and Interfacial Aspects of Biomedical Applications Plenum. 27 P. Shen. 036104 2006 . S. Tournilhac. Kim. 47 Y. M. Zhu. Karim. Müller. A. Gang. 8. D. F. Cheng. P. 1998 . 4 I. and P. and H. Tsarkova. Chen. L. Mayes. Comput. Q. R. A. Daoulas and M. J. G. S. T. A. Rockford. S. Scott. Woody. 25 K. Elhadj. J. M. Kornﬁeld. Rottler. Physical Properties. Polymer 39. V. T. A. 713 2005 . M. C. J. J. Zvelindovsky. Commun. Oxford. J. Macromol. M. I. 50 M. M. M. and L. DeRouchey. 1048 2006 . Lopes. Muller. L. Norde. Sov. Ross. Ocko. W. Muller. Ward. 55 A. 931 1996 . Gido. Ross. 41 S.-H. MRS Bull. P. 4399 1998 . Bates. 1599 2003 . J. Sethuraman. H. 16. Elbs. W. Nealey. 46 Y. H. N. 125. A. 34 V. H. Ochiai. Chem. Helfand. and C. and T. S. and P. Lin. 12 M. Jaeger. Matsen. D. L. 13 C. and P. Xu. Phys. New York. D. and P. and P. R. 23 J. Wang. Katz. Nature London 424. Edwards. 35 D. J. A. 33 J. Theory Simul. A. Jaeger. H. A. J. Lopes and H. Mater. M. 11518 2005 . S. 1736 2004 . S. J. Register. J. Hamley. Ohta and K. Srolovitz. P. Macromolecules 35. Lee. Phys. Weinheim. R. Macromolecules 32. 1995 . F. 11 H. Tirrell and A. Arya. Russell. Macromolecules 36. Phys. Rottler. 39 H. Register. S. Polymer 39. Shen. Lin. Kramer. 60 G. Muller. Waller. 3444 2005 . and T. Sevink. 124. Phys. and G. W. A. 1487 2001 . W. V. 36 D. Schick. Langmuir 21. Z. Adv. Terrill. 125. Fraaije. 125. 17. P. V. 40 Z. MRS Bull. A. Thomas. J. A. M. Srolovitz. V. V. 323 2001 . F. S. Dzenis. Mansky. A. Y. Vancso. Phys. 89. Adv. Hashimoto. 4679 1998 . Colfen and S. Part B: Polym. 508 2003 . Bein. Lu. Winter. Liu. Register. W. Lett. 031807-9 . 42 D. J. Thomas. 30. Brazovskii. and P. Krausch. J. Fredrickson and E. A. S. and J. Smith. A. Nature London 414. Yoon. Stoykovich. 700 2005 . 15 W. 44 I. J. 30 S. G. 17 N. H. E. 54 M. M. Niu. Yu. J. and C. Macromolecules 31. Z. 96. 074906 2006 . and R. G. 2621 1986 . P. M. J. Phys. Appl. 90. 1442 2005 . 38 D. E. and E. and T. L. 28 T. Macromolecules 13. 19 C. Whitesides. Ferrier. 43 G. Macromolecules 37. 7 M. E 60. Macromolecules 26. Huse. Cheng. W. Rockford. Opin. Rev. 3871 1998 . M. A. J. and G. Phys. 45 M. M. M. 82. H. Rev. and G. Mochrie. O. 30. Russell. H. and G. Yoon. Jaeger. 154905 2006 . W. Langmuir 21. Y. Chaikin. N. Castelletto and I. 95. Noda. 174707 2006 . Theory Simul. Macromolecules 31. G. Chem. J. Xu. A. Chen and J. P. D. H. Lett. Hahm. 727 2005 . Pispas. P. 11518 2005 . P. J. A. Chaikin. C. Mater. 30. J. Fredrickson. H. Winey. J. 823 2004 . Chou. Zettl. Pitsikalis. 14. M. Mansky. D. Rychkov. J. Weinheim. Stoykovich. A. 5766 2005 . M. 145504 2003 . Annu. Block Copolymer-Synthetic Strategies. Mays. Nakatani. A. Hund. Mater. Macromol. B. 952 2005 . Hayward. Nat. Polym. 18 M. 57 L. J. Kim. H. MRS Bull. 735 2001 . Q. Solak. Y. Fraaije. 5161 2002 . 721 2005 . J. H. Rev. J. Nealey. E. 426 2004 . Schick. 108. J. Sebastian. Tsori. Russell. J. and G. Kyrylyuk. M. Abetz. Okamoto. 30. D. 29 A. Segalman. 7236 1993 . Ger. A. V. 30. 24 J. Z. D. Morkved. Harrison. 14 L. S. W. 52 M. 207 2005 . Angelescu. Hexemer. P. Phys. Leibler. 697 1987 . Macromolecules 19. J. 22 R. Morse. Lett. Chem. Lett. Polis. W. Y. C. Gronski. Zvelindovsky. 3. Floudas. de Pablo. R. Y. and P. G. E. Kuntermann. Boker. Hadjichristidis. D. Leiston-Belanger.. New York. Kawasaki. Hansel. 258302 2005 . Todd. JETP 41. Adamson. E. and H. P. Winter. H. Macromolecules 37. Takahashi. F. 4668 1999 . M. Kyrylyuk and J. Sci. MRS Bull. Wu and Y. Sevink. Russell. Scott. 61 L. C. 3 N. and T. and K. Phys. 87. Arya. J. Phys. A. 411 2003 . H. 82. Panagiotopoulos. 040801 2006 . H. Deshpande. Y. Y. T. Science 273. 2602 1999 . Q. A. B. H. Phys. P. C. Krausch. Rev. H. 6652 2005 . Chaikin. E. Sci. Nealey. J. Gido. De Pablo. 59 G. Andelman. R. Science 290. 525 2005 . Kim. J. O. M. I. Leibler. Register. L. Adamson. A. B. 034902 2006 . Z. Hamley. Urbas. 51 M. M. Zhu. 128301 2006 . 30. E. Zhu. Tikare. S. H. M. Y. 62 J. Macromolecules 25. Hahn. Karasz. I. MRS Bull. Curr. V. 30. A. Chaikin. G. 736 2005 . MRS Bull. 5 V. W. Panagiotopoulos. and D. M. and H. 135502 2002 . Morkved. 26 T. 3564 1999 . and P. F. F. A. Res. and T. Urban. 9 T. Ehrichs. T. Chem. Ger. Angelescu. Waddon. Rev. Chen and J. N. P. 3272 2003 . V. S. 63 X. 147 1998 . Rev. W. Chaikin. E. Soft Matter 2. Science 308. 31. 4175 1992 . Y. MRS Bull. J. Mater. Xu. 58 T. Hawker and T. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 77. 2535 1987 . Solid State Mater. Mochrie. Stoykovich. 85 1975 . Y. 96. Edwards. P. E. Chaikin. P. Macromolecules 38. I. Macromolecules 34. Phys. 031807 2008 31 T. A. Rev. Saraf. Q. J. 125. Smith. H. S. 53 A. Rev. and T. and S. Mansky. Ger. A. M. 164716 2006 . Kumar and J. E 74. Solak. 6980 2004 . Jaeger. F. M. Sibener. 16 S. Matsushita. 6 F. D. Boker. S. D. 49 C. M. 871 2003 . Chem. 48 C. D. Phys. Lett. Scherdel. Lin and M. M. Andelman. Kitade. 12. Pinna. Russell. M. 705 2005 . 2625 2004 . Chem. 32 T. Solak. and E. S. D. Y. Phys. Matsen. Zvelindovsky. V. A. O. 56 S. Phys. Gupta. H. Langmuir 21. Boncheva and G. A. 2003 . J. Han. Knoll. MRS Bull. Matsen. 1558 2000 . J. 43. and P. H. Russell. and Application Wiley. Macromolecules 20. dePablo. 20 E. L. The Physics of Block Copolymer Oxford University Press. 1089 2006 . Lett. 10 J.

Fukuda. Macromolecules 28. Rev. Oono. Phys. 65 K. Quan. Rev. Amundson. A 38.XIANG-FA WU AND YURIS A. Rev. 031807 2008 A. Helfand. Phys. S. 1542 1988 . Phys. Oono and S. Oono. Puri and Y. 031807-10 . D. 2698 1993 . Smith. Rev. Halperin. Shinozaki and Y. Puri. 8788 1995 . Phys. 66 67 68 69 PHYSICAL REVIEW E 77. Macromolecules 26. 434 1988 . Onuki and J. Mod. E. C. and S. A. A 45. R2161 1992 . DZENIS 64 P. Y. A 38. X. Hohenberg and B. 49. I. 435 1977 .

- Poster RootW
- Nsds 8 Small
- KSR-Numerical Methods
- Problem 1
- Computing Project 1 (Projectile)
- Registered Course Outline Mathematical Methods
- 1
- Numerical Analysis Differential Equations
- Pre Print 58
- SNM R08 AprilMay 10
- GALERKIN’S INDIRECT VARIATIONAL METHOD IN ELASTIC STABILITY ANALYSIS OF ALL EDGES CLAMPED THIN RECTANGULAR FLAT PLATES.pdf
- Presentation (2)
- 70 Numerical Integration Techniques
- timeintegration v1
- FIU - EGM3311 - Syllabus Summer 2015
- Tony Sumaryada and Alexander Volya- Thermodynamics of pairing in mesoscopic systems
- CHAPTER I
- Antonio J. Gil - Structural analysis of prestressed Saint Venant–Kirchho hyperelastic membranes subjected to moderate strains 2006
- Ortegrity
- 145_05
- The Newton Raphson Method
- AcSIR_Engineering Science_Courses.pdf
- 2005 Stability of methods for advanced differential equations with piecewise continuous arguments
- النون لينر مال الابلايد
- Numerical Integration
- c5-2
- ADVANCES IN WELL TESTING ANALYSIS USING NUMERICAL WELL TESTING AND RESERVOIR SIMULATION; A FIELD CASE
- Functions of Matrices Theory and Computation~tqw~_darksiderg.pdf
- HYDRUS1D_4
- Dynamic Plate Loading Test

Skip carousel

- Simulation and Modeling MCQ'S
- tmp79F5.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for cs4334.501.09f taught by Janos Turi (turi)
- tmp51DE.tmp
- ANALYSIS OF A TWO DIMENSIONAL RECTANGULAR FIN USING NUMERICAL METHOD AND VALIDATING WITH ANSYS
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math6313.501.08f taught by Janos Turi (turi)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for cs4334.501 06f taught by Bentley Garrett (btg032000)
- Mathematical Methods for Numerical Analysis and Optimization
- tmpED85.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for phys3330.501.08f taught by Roy Chaney (chaneyr)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for phys3330.501 06f taught by Roy Chaney (chaneyr)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee6481.021.06u taught by Cyrus Cantrell (cantrell)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math6313.501.10s taught by Janos Turi (turi)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for phys3330.501.09f taught by Roy Chaney (chaneyr)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math4334.501 06f taught by Bentley Garrett (btg032000)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math6313.501.11f taught by Janos Turi (turi)
- tmp846E
- tmpDC91.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math6318.501.09s taught by Janos Turi (turi)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math4334.501 05f taught by Bentley Garrett (btg032000)
- tmp4AB5.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math6313.501.10f taught by Janos Turi (turi)
- CFD Analysis of Air Flow Modelling in Apple Cold Storage

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading