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Physics Review Questions: Kinematics

Instructions: On a separate sheet of paper answer the following questions Chapter 1 The Nature of Science 1) List the five steps of the scientific method. Which of these steps is absolutely essential in order for information gathered by this method to be considered scientific? 2) Distinguish between the terms fact, law, hypothesis and theory. 3) What determines whether a hypothesis is scientific? 4) Describe the circumstances under which a hypothesis must be changed or abandoned. Explain why this constant refinement is a strength of science? 5) List the assumptions that science makes. Chapter 2 Linear Motion 6) Define speed and velocity verbally, give the equation for speed, and list some units used for measuring speed. 7) Define acceleration, give the formula for finding acceleration and list some units used for measuring acceleration. 8) The average speed of a car is 50 mph. How far will it travel in 10 hours? 9) A ball is dropped from rest from a tall cliff. Answer the following questions assuming there is no air resistance. A) How fast does the ball fall after 1,2,3,4, and 5 s? B) How far does the ball fall after 1,2,3,4, and 5 s? C) What is the acceleration of the ball after 1,2,3,4, and 5 seconds? 10) A ball is thrown straight upward with an initial speed of 20 m/s. A) What is the speed of the ball at the top of its path? B) What is the acceleration of the ball at the top of its path? C) How long does it take for the ball to reach the top of its path? D) What is the speed of the ball when it returns to the same height it started at? E) How does the time the ball is going up compare to the time it is going down? 11) Suppose you stood at the edge of a cliff and threw a ball up with a certain speed. Suppose that you also threw another ball down with the same speed. Which ball would have the greater speed in striking the ground below? 12) A) How far will a freely falling object released from rest fall in 1 second? B) In 2 seconds? C) In 10 seconds? D) In 1/10 th of a second? E) In 100 seconds? 13) What is the speed of a car that accelerates at 2 m/s2 for 10 seconds from a position of rest? 14) A ball rolls from rest down an inclined plane tilted at 30 degrees to the horizontal and accelerates at 5 m/s2 to the bottom in 2 seconds. How long is the inclined plane? 15) How fast must a ball be thrown straight upward in order that it remains in flight for 10 seconds? Chapter 3 Projectile Motion 16) How do vector quantities differ from scalar quantities? State which type of quantity the following are: a) acceleration b) velocity c) mass d) time e) momentum f) energy g) force.

17) Describe how to add two vectors using the parallelogram rule. Draw a picture illustrating this method. 18) What does it mean to decompose a vector? Draw a picture illustrating the decomposition of a vector. What is special about vector components that are perpendicular to one another? 19) An object is projected horizontally with a speed of 30 m/s. A) What is its horizontal speed after 1,2,3,4, and 5 seconds? B) What is its vertical speed after 1,2,3,4, and 5 seconds? C) How far has it moved horizontally after 1,2,3,4, and 5 seconds? D) How far has it moved vertically after 1,2,3,4, and 5 seconds? E) What is its acceleration in the vertical and horizontal directions? 20) One bullet is fired from a horizontal rifle while another simply falls from rest at a height equal to that of the rifle. A) Which bullet will hit the ground first? B) Which bullet will have the greater vertical speed when it hits? C) Which bullet will have the greater horizontal speed when it hits? D) Which bullet will have the greater vertical acceleration when it hits? 21) Harry Hacker is playing shuffleboard on an ocean liner that travels due North at 3 m/s on the blue Caribbean. He makes a starboard shot (toward the east), relative to the deck of 4 m/s. What is the velocity of the puck relative to the stationary stars? 22) John and Tracy look from their 80 m high-rise balcony to the swimming pool below. The pool lies not directly below but 20 m from the bottom of their building. A) How fast will they have to jump horizontally to succeed in reaching the pool? B) If the pool is 20 m long, estimate Johns and Tracys upper limit for initial horizontal velocity for success. 23) A cannonball shot with an initial velocity of 141 m/s at an angle of 45 degrees follows a parabolic path and hits a balloon at the top of its trajectory. A) Neglecting air resistance, how fast is the cannonball going when it hits the balloon? B) What is the acceleration of the cannonball just before it hits the balloon? 24) Suppose you jump straight upward while in a train traveling 200km/hr on a straight track. Where will you land-at the same place, in front or in back of your jumping place? 25) A newspaper boy walks a series of 100 m city blocks. His route takes him 5 blocks east, then 3 blocks north, then 4 blocks west and finally 2 blocks south. How far away is he from his starting point?