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CONTENTS

PREAMBLE

1.

SCOPE
PHILOSOPHY & GENERAL

1 4

SCENARIOS
General

Demands
Generation Despatches LOADING LIMITS STATE VOLTAGE LIMITS 7 8

STANDARDS
General State Operations Considerations A. Transient Stability B. Voltage StJbility .--Steady State Oscillatory Sr;ability .POWER COMPENSATION
,

12

Reactors
VAR Compenstors---PLANNiNG CRITERIA PEAKING. CAPABILITY THERMAL OF GENERATING STATIONS. LIMIT 14 17 21 LfNE LOADING AS FUNCTION OF LENG'fH LINE LOADING OPERA1'IONAL STANDARDS ANNEX- V DATA PREPARATION FOR TI<ANSMISSION PLANNING STUDIES

23 25

27 29

"~C"

':;""r"~

,+:,"~~~;'~~+.c,

PREAMBLE
The objective of system planning is to evolve a power system with a level of adequacy and security based on

vis-a-vis acceptable degree of adequacy and security. The on the factors such as availability of generation vis-a-vis size and configuration of the system, control and cornmunicat.vl1

.vario~s factors affecting

approaches system used .fong most

is the" performance commonly,

acceptable are being

system probabilistic rather and easy

performanc~". in to apply. of reliable failure bY a few .Hence nature, For

operating

experience

availability equipment compiled

namely .Such data are presently being

to

adopt

deterministic adoption of

approach probabilistic

for

the appr~ach

present (An in line

with Action with the

.progressive ~

, Keeping

this

manual

covers

the .~

planning

criteria AC

proposed -132 kV

to &

be

used

in and

above

leading to an All India Power Grid.

.is also annexed to the manual.

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'~~

,~

~"'~"C'"

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~~J~?~;:?:...:~:'~' ~

1.

SCOPE
The Planning Criteria detailed herein are primarily meant for Long Telm Perspective (10 years and above) and Medium Telm (5-10 years) Transmission Planning Studies of large inter-connected power systems. The manual covers in detail the planning philosophy, load demands and gener.ation despatches to be considered and security standards. It also indicates the broad scope of system studiesand gives guide-lines for provision of reactive compensation and for planning of substations as are relevant to perspective transm: .-;sionsystem planning. A list of definitions of telms used in the manual is also appended.

t~
.2

2.

PLANNING
The transmissior

PHILOSOPHY

& GENERAL

GUIDELINES

system shall be planned on the basjs ofJ'egional self-

suft-iciency with'an ultimate objective of evolving a National ~ower Grid. Theregjonal self-sufficiency criteria based on load generation balance may still dictate to have inter-regional exchanges with adequate inter-co!1nection capac'ity at appropriate points taking into account the topology of the two networks, the plant mix consideration, generation shortages due to forced outages, diversity in weather pattern and load fore'casting errors in either regions. Such inter-regional power exchanges shall also be considered in these studies.

2.2

The system shall be evolved based on detailed power system studies which shall include Power Flow Studies

i)

2.

Adoption of multi-voltage

level and multi-circuit

tr~lnsmission lilles

The choice shall be based on cost,

reliability, right-of-way requirements,

energy losses. down time (in caseof upgradation and reconductoring options)

I~
2.5

etc. The adoption of existing or emerging semi conductor based technology (e.g. FACTS) in transmission upgradation may also be kept in view. In case of generating station close to a major load centre, sensitivity of its complete closure with loads to be met (to the extent possible) from other generating stations (refer para 33.3) shall also be studied.

2.6

In case of transmission system associated with Nuclear Power Stations there shall be two independent sources of power supply for the purpose,of providing start-up power facilities:. Further the angle between sta11-up power source and the NPP switchyard maintained within 10 degrees. should be, as far as possible,

2.7

The evacuation systetl1 tor sensitive power stations viz., Nuclear Power Statiolls, shall generally be planned so as to tennin::te it at large load centres to facilitate islanding of the power station in case of contingency.

2.8

Where only two circuits are planned tor lines instead of a double circuit line.

evacuation

of power from a

generating station, these should be ( as far as possible) two single circuit

2.9

Rractive power

flow through ICTs shall be minimal. Nom1'ally it shall not

exo,'ed 10% of the rating of the ICTs. Wherever voltage on HV side of ICT is less than 0.975 pu no reactive power shall flow through ICT.

2.10

'I il~mlal/Nuclear

Gelleratillg

ullits shalillomlally

not run at leading power

f,lctor. However, forthe purpose of charging generating unit may be allowed

to operate

at leading power

factor as per the respectivt

capability

cUlve

Inter-regional links shall, in the present context, be planned as asynchronous ties unless otherwise pelmitted from operational consideration.

LOAD-GENERATION
The load-generation pragmatic

SCENARIOS
out so as to reflect in load demand in a and

scenarios shall be worked

maImer the daily and seasonal variations

generation availability.

LOAD DEMANDS
3.2.1
The profile o~'annual and daily demands will be de~ermined from past data. These data will usually give the demand at grid supply points and for the whole system identifying the annual and daily peak demand.

Power (MW)
The system peak demands shall be based on the l,ltest reports of Electric Power Survey (EPS) Committee. In case these pe(lk load figures are The load demands at other more than the peaking availability. the loads will be suit,lbly ,ldjusted substation-wise to match with the availability. periods (seasonal variations and minimum loads) shall be derived b,lsed on the annual peak demand and past pattern of lo(ld v,lri,ltiolls. From practical considerations the load variations over the, year shall be considered as under:

Active 3. 3.

Annual Peak Load Seasonal variation in Peak loads (corresponding to high themlal and high hydro generation) Minimum load. Load relevant where Pumped Storage Plants are involved or inter-regional exchanges are envisaged.

power (MVAR)
power plays an impol1ant role in EHV transmission system planning and hence forecast of reactive power demand on an area-wise or substation-wise basis is as important asactive power forecast. This forecast would obviously require adequate data on the reactive power -demands at the different substations as well as the projected plans for reactive power
~:

For developing an optimal power system, the utilities must clearly spell out
." .-'-~-~"~ ~ ~-'_:~:.-~."---' ':_~ " '~--~

.This will require compilation

of past data in order to arrive at

accurate load forecast. Recognising the fact that th is data is -~ ' ." it is suggested that pending availability of such data, load power ..-peak factor at 220/132KY voltage leve!s shall be taken as

load condition and 0.9 lag during agricultural

light 'load conditioll

feeding predominantly

loads where power factor

as 0.75 and 0.85 for peak load and light load conditions In areas where power factor is less than the limit ..be the responsibility of the respective utility specified to bring

.
~

the load power


at appropriate

factor

to

these limits

by

providing

shunt (.,-apa(.'i~()rs

places in the system.

GENERATION
3.1
Generation detelmined m,lintenance despatch judiciously

DESPATCHES
of Hydro and Thermal/Nuclear units would be

on the basis of hydrology

,lS well

as scheduled

program of the Gener,lting Station~. The norms for working of difterent types of gener,lting units is given level of output sh,.ll be taken

out the peaking av,.il,lbility

at Annex I.ln case of nuclear units the minimum as not less th,m 70% of the rated capacity.

3.3.2

Generation despatches corresponding Sh,lll be considered depending

to the following

operating conditions of t.hc

on the n,lture

,111(\ cllal~lcteristics

system
Annual Peak Load
Maximum themlal generation

Maximum hydro generation


Annual Minimum Load

Special area despatches


Special de;spatches corresponding power factor, wherever applil :Ible to high agricultur,1110ad witll l<.)w

3.3

Off peak conditions with maximum Storage stations exist and if envisaged

pumping

load wl1ere Pumped exchanges,

also with the inter-regional

Complete closure ora generating station close to a major load centre.


y

3.3.3

The generation despatch for purpose of can"ying out sensitivity studies corresponding to complete closure of a generating station close to a major load centre shall be worked out by increasing generation at other stations to the extent possible keeping in view the maximum likely availability at these stations" ownership pattenl, shares, etc.

4.
4.

PERMISSIBI"E

LINE LOADING

LIMITS
such as voltage

Pem1issible line loading limit depend on many factors regulation,

stability and cun-ent carrying capacity (thennal capacity) etc.

While Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) gives a general idea of the loading capability of the line, it is usual to load the short lines above SIL and long lines lower than SIL (be.cause the stability li!'litations). S IL at different voltage of levels is given at Annex -II. Annex-II also shows line loading(in telmsofsurge "impedance loading of uncompensated line )as a function of line length assuming a voltage regulation of 5% and phase angular difference of 300 between the two ends of the line. In caseof shunt compensated lines. the SIL will get reduced by a factor k, where k= ,/(l-degree of compensation)
line loading as determined permissible from the CUlve is limit shall be

For lin~~~~~~se permissible higher than the thermal restricted to thelmalloading

loading limit, limit.

loading

4.2

Thennalloading

limits are generally decided by design practice on the basis

of ambient temperature, maximum permissible conductor temperature, wind velocity, etc. In Inqia, the ambient temperatures obtaining in the various pai1s of the country are different and vary considerably during the various seasons of the year. Designs of transmission line with ACSR conductors in EHV systems will nonnally be based on a conductor temperature limit of 75 (\C. However, for some of the existing lines which have been designed for a conductor temperature of 65 () the 10ading shall be correspondingly reduced~ C In the case of AAAC conductors, maximum conductor temperature limit will be taken as 85 0 C. The maximum pennissible line loadings iri respect of standard sizes of ACSR and AAAC transmission linesfordifferent conductors employed in EHV

ambient temperatures and differentmaximum

conductor temperatures are given in Annex -llI and the same can be followed if pennitted by stability and voltage regulation consideration.

5.

STEADY STATE VOLTAGE LIMITS


The steady state voltage shall be maintained within the limits given below

Note The step change in voltage may exceed the above limits where
simultaneous double circuit outages of400 kY resources at sensitive nodes. lines are considered. I.n such cases it may be necessary to supplement dynamic YAR

TEMPORARY 800 kV system

OVERVOI.TAGES~!Q.-~~Q_19~d 1.4 p.u. peak phase to neutral

rejection. (653 kV = I p.ll.)

420 kV system I.S'p.u. peak phase to neu.tral( 343 kV = I p.u.)

i~

SWITCHING OVERVOLTAGES ) 420 kV system 2.5p.u.feak phase to neutral ( 343 kY = 800 kV system 1.9p.u. peak phas'e to neutral (653 kY =
~

p.u. ) p.u. )

SECURITY STANDARDS:
6.1
The security standards are dictated 11Y the operational requirements

A brief write-up on the same is given at Annex -IV.

For the pllr~")I.)Sl' transmission plannill~ of shall be t~oll()\\!('J:

the following

security standards

6.2

STEADY STATE OPERATION


i)

As a general rule, the EHV

grid system shall

be capable of

withstanding witl~out necessitating load shedding or rescheduling.of generation, the follov!ing contingencies:
Outage of a 132 kY D/C line or, Outage of a 220 kY D/C line or, Outage of 400 kY single cirl'tl it line or, Outage of 765 kY single circuit line 9r Outage of one pole of HYDC Outage of ,ill Interconnecting Bipolar line or Transfonner

6.

The above contingencies shall be considered assuming a precontingency system depletion (planned outage) of kY double circuit comdor line or 400 kY and not emanating from another 220 single circuit line in another the same substation. All the

generating plants shall operate within their reactive capability CUlves and the network voltage profile sh,ill also be m,iint,iined within voltage limits specified in para 5.
The power evacuation system from major generating station/

ii)

complex

shall be adequate to withstand outage of a 400 kV Double

Circuit line if the ten"ain indicates such a possibility.

iii)

In case of large load complexes with demands exceeding 1000 MW the need for load shedding in theevt:ntof outageofa400kY Double circuit

line shall be assessed and kept minimllm.

System strengthening required, case-to-case

ifany, on account of this siiall be planned on an individual

basis." The maximum angular separation between any two adjacent buses shall not norn1ally exceed 30 degrees.

iv)

6.3

STABILITY

CONSIDERATIONS
Stability

A.

Transient

i)

The system shall remain stable under the contingency of outage of single largest unit. The system shall remain stable under the contingency of a temporary single-phase-to-ground fault on a 765 sic kV line close to the bus assuming single pole opening of the faulted 10

ii)

phase from bo.thevds s/ in 100 msec (5 cycles) and successful reclosure (dead time I sec). The system shall beabletosulvivea single phase-to-ground fault on a 400 kY tine close to the bus as per following criteria:
-.

iii)

A. 400 kV SIC line: System shall be capable of withstanding a pelmanent fault. A~cordingly, single pole opening (100 msec) of the faulted phase and unsuccessful reclosure (dead time I se'c.) followed by 3-pole opening (100 msec) of the faulted line shall be considered. B. 400 kY D/C lime: System shall be capable of withstanding a pemlanent fault on one of the circuits when both circuits are in selvice and a transient fault when the system is already depleted with one circuit un~ermainte1;1ance/outage. Accordingly, 3 pole opening (100 msec) of the faulted circuit shall be considered when both circuits are assumed in operation (si!1gle pole opening and unsuccessful auto-reclosure is not considered generally in long 400 kY D/C lines since the reclosure facility is bypassed when both circuits are in operation, due to difficulties in sizing of neutral,grounding reactors) and single pole opening (100 msec) of the faulted phase with successful reclosure (dead time I sec) when only one circuit is in selvice.
In case of 220/132 kY networks, the system shall be ,lble to sulvive a three-phase fault with ,l t~,lultclearing time of 160 msec (8 cycles) assuming 3-pole opelling,
-~

v)

The system shall be able to sulvive a fault in HVDC converter station resulting in pem1anent outage of one of the poles of HVDC Bipoles

Besides the abo,,'e the s~v.\'tenl may also he sllhjected to rare contin,gencie.\' like outage of HVDC hipole, delayed .taliit clearance mle to .\'fLlck

h,"eaker condition.\' etc. The impact (~f the.\'e on .\'~vs[em stahilit~v "I(IY also he .\'tudied H'hile workin,~ Ollt the (Iefe/lce mechanisnls ,'e(flli,'cd in s~vstem operation i.\'landing, etc. j'llch as load sheddin,~, ,-~eneration reschcdllli'l,~,

Voltage stability Each bus shall operate above knee point of Q- V CUlve under normal as well as the contingency conditions as discussed above in para 6.2.

c.

Steady State Oscill<ltory

Stability

The steady state oscillatory stability may be evaluated through Eigenvalue analysis. In caSl: all the real pal1s of Eigen-values of linearized system 0matrix are negative, the system niay boeconsidered to have steady state oscillatory stability.

7.

REACTIVE

POWER

COMPENSA

l"ION

Shunt Capacitors
Reactive Compensation should be provided as far ,lS possible in the low voltage systems with a view to meeting the reactive power requirements of load close to the load points thereby avoiding the need for VAR tr,msfer

'7.1 B.

from high voltage system to the low voltage system. In the cases where network below .132/220 kV Voltage level IS not represented in the system planning studies, the shunt capacitors required for meeting the reactive power requirements of loads shall be provided at the .132/220kV buses.

7.2

Shunt Reactors
Switchable re:actors shall be provided at EHV substations for controlling voltages within the limits defined in the Para 5 without resorting to not cause switching-off of lines. The size of reactors should be such mat under steady state condition, switching on and off of the reactors shall a voltage change exceeding 5%. The standard sizes (MVAR) of reactors are

7.2.2

Fixed line reactors may be Frequencyovervoltage

provided

to

control Temporary Power

[after all voltage regulation action has taken place]

within the limits as defined in para 5 under all probable operating conditions. Line reactors (switchable/controlled /fixed) may be provided if it is .not possible to charge EHV line without exceeding the voltage limits defined in para 5. The: possibility of reducing pre-charging voltage of the charging end shall also be considered in the context of establishing the need for

7.2.3

reactors.

7.3

Static VAR Compens~ltion

(SVC)

Static Var Compensation shall be provided where found necessaryto damp the power swings and provide the system stability under conditions defined

7.3. 7.2.

in the para 6 on "Security Standards ". The dynamic range of static compensators shall not be utilized under steady state operating condition as far as possible.

SUB-STATION
18.

PLANNING

CRITERIA

The requirements in respect ofEHV sub-stations in a system such as the total load to be catered by the sub-station of a particular voltage level, its MV A capacity, number of feeders pelmissible etc. are impol1ant to ~he planners so as to provide an idea to them about the timt' for going in for the adoption of next higher voltage level sub-station and also the number of substations required for meeting a particular quantum of load. Keeping these in view the following criteria have been laid down for planning an EHV substation:

8.2

The maximum fault level on any new substation bus should not exceed 8u % of the rated rupturing capacity or the circuit breaker. The 20% margin is intended to take care ot" the increase in short-circuit levels asthe system grows. The rated breaking current capability of switchgear at different voltage levels may be taken as

83

Higher breaking current capability would require major design change in the tenninal equipment and shall be avoided as far as possible.

14

8.

X.4

The capacity of any single sub-station at different voltage levels shall not nonnallyexceed :

Size and number of interconnecting transformers (ICTs) shall be planned in sucha way that the outage of any single unit would not over load the remaining or the underlying system. condition shall not cause disruption of more than lour feeders system and two feeders for 400 k V system and one feeder for

15

D EFINITI 0 NS
System Elements: All switchable components of a transmission system such as Transmission lines, tran~fornlers, reactors etc.

2.

Contingency:

Temporary removal of one or more system elements from

service. The cause or reason for such removal may be a fault, .planned maintenance/repair etc. Single Contingency: The contingency arising out of removal of one

i)

system element from service. Double Contingency: The contingency arising out of removal of two

ii)

system elements from selvice.lt includes a D/C line, two SIC lines in same con-idor or different corridors, a SIC line and a transfolmer etc. Rare contingency: Temporar)' removal of complete g~nerating all the incoming &

iii)

station or complete sub-station (including stuck breaker condition. Annual Peak Load: being studied. It is

outgoing feeders and transfolmers) from service, HVDC bipole and

It is the simultaneous maximum de'lnand of the system based on latest Electric Power Sl!rvey (EPS) or total

peaking power availability, whichever is less.

4.

Minimum

Load:

It is the expected

minimum

system demand and minimun1

and is load

detei111ined from average ratio of annual peak load observed in the system tor the last 5 years.

"

3.

Damping:

A system is said to be adequately damped when halving time of

the least damped electro-mechanical mode of oscillation is not more than

5 seconds.

10.

Oscillatory

Stability:

When voltage or

rotor

angle

oscillations are

positively damped following a grid disturbance, the syste'm is said to have oscillatory stability.
I

11.

Voltage.Stability:

It is the ability ofasystem to maintain voltage sothat when

Joadadmittance is increased, load powerwill also increase so that both power and voltage are controllable.

12.

Transient Stability:

This refers to the stability

following

a major

disturbance (faults. opening of a major line. tripping of a g( ilerator) and relates to the first few swings following disturbance.

13.

Temporary overvoltages: Theseare powerti'equency overvoltages produced in a power system due to sudden load rejection, single-'pha~)c-to -ground f1lU etc. Its,

14.

Switching overvoltages : These overvoltages generated Juring switching of . lines, transfonners and reactors rnICI'Osec.
Surge Impedance Loading: It is tile unit power factor load overa resistance

etc.

having

wave

fronts 250/2500

line such that series reactive loss (11X) along the line is equal to shunt capacitive gain (yJy). Under these conditions the sending end :lnd receiving

end voltages and current areequal in magnitude but different in phase position.

16.

Thermal

capacit},

of line: It is the amount of cun-ent that call be carried by

a line conductor without exceeding its design operating temperature.


19

15. ~ 9.

ANNEX

-I

(refer para 3.3.1)

PEAKING CAPABILITY

OF GENERATING STATIONS.

The peaking availability of generating units would be taken on the basis of the latest nonns laid down by CEA. The spinning reseIVe of 5% for Thennal, Nuclear, Hydro generation and Backing down allowance of 5% for Gas based generation as laid in the present nonns of Generation Planning Criteria of CEA may not be taken into consideration for Transmission Planning due to continuing peaking shortage of power in all the regions during eighth plan period and beyond. Nonns for peaking Capability of Thennal Stations: The peaking capability of generating units would be computed as given below.

N,ote:
ii)

i)

CAF= 1OO-(PMR+FOR +POR) PCF=CAF-CAF x A C In case of Eastern and North-Eastern Regions forced outage rate will. be ,increased by 5%.

21

Norms for peaking capability of Hydro stations


3%

4.5 % 1.0 %
100 -( CM + FOR) CAF -CAF = 92.5 % x AC = 91.5 %

Norms for peaking Capability of Gas based Stations: The gas based power stations are grouped into two categories namely base load stations and peak load stations. The base load stations are nonnally C~ombined cycle power plant which have Gas Turbine units and Steam Turbine units. The peak load stations are open cycle Gas Turbines which are generally used for meeting peak load for about 8 Hours inadayat80% of their rated capacity. For combined cycle gas based power station, the peaking capability would be as given below:
Aux.

consumption

(AC)
% 1.04.0

Note:

CAF=J OO-(PMR+FOR+POR) PCF=CAF-CAF x AC

22

Norms for peaking capability of Hydro stations Capital Maintenance (CM) Forced'Outage rate (FOR) Auxiliary Consumption (AC) Peaking Capability Factor (PCF) = = = = 3% 4.5 % 1.0 % 100 -(CM + FOR) = 92.5 %

Capacity availability factor (CAF) =

CAF -CAF x AC = 91.5 %

Norms for peaking Capability of Gas based Stations:


The gas based power stations are grouped into two categories namely base load stations and peak load stations. The base load stations are noffi1ally (~ombined cycle power plant which have Gas Turbine units and Steam Turbine units. The peak load stations are open cycle Gas Turbines which are generally used for meeting peak load for about 8 Hours in a day at 80 % of their rated capacity. For combined cycle gas based power station, the peaking capability would be as given below:

Note:

C A F = 1 00 -(P M R + FOR + PO R ) PCF=CAF-CAF x AC

22

ANNEX-III
(refer para 4.2)

THERMAL

LOADING

LIMITS

radiations = 1045W/sq.mt., Wind velocity = 2kM/hour coeff. = 0.8, Emissivity coeff = 0.45 Age> I year

25

ANNEX-IV
OPERA' '{ONAL Sl~NDARDS
The operational standards nonnally define the expected level of power system perfonnance underdifferent conditions of system operations and thus provide the guiding objectives ,for the planning and design of transmission systems. In the absence of any detailed document on operational standards, the following objectives are considered in the context of tonnulating the manual: The system parameters (voltage and frequency) shall be as close to the nominal values as possible and th'~reshall be no overloading of any system element under normal conditions and different feasible load-generation conditions. .

The system parameters and loading of system elements shall remain within prescribed limits and not necessitate load shedding or generation re-scheduling in the event of outage of any single system element over and above a pre.contingency system depletion of another element in another corridor. In the case of 220 kV and .132 ~V systems this shall hold good for outage of Double Circuit lines.. In case of power evacuation from m(!jor gent1rating station/complex (when the terrain indicates possibilities of tower failure) the system shall withstand the outage of two 400 kV circuits if these are 011 same tower. Also in th~ case of the large loa9 complexes with demands exceeding 1000 MW the impact of outage of two incoming 400 kV circuits (if these are on the same towers) shall be .. minImum.

3.

The system shall remain in synchronism without necessitating load shedding or islandin& in the event of Single-phase-to-ground fault (three- phase fault U1the case of 220 kV and 132 kY systems) assuming successful clearing of fault by isol,uing/opening of the faulted system elenlent. The system shall have adequate margins in terms of voltage and steady state oscillatory stability. ~"_." No more than four22U kY feeders/two 400 kY feeders/one 765 kY feeder shall be disrupted in the event of a stuck breaker situation.

4.

5.

27

2.

ANNEX-V

DATA PREPARATION FOR TRANSMISSION PLANNI'NG STUDIES


Actual system data wherever available should be used; In cases where data. is not
I

available standard data given below can be assumed.


Load flow & Short circuit
,

studies

...

..

.i) ii)

Load power fact9r shall be taken as per para 3.2:3 of the manual Reactive power limits for generator buses Call be taken as Qmax = Fifty percent of active generation Qrnin = (-) Fifty percent of Qmax iii) '

Desired voltage of generator (PV) buses may be taken between 1.03 and 1.05 for peak load conditions and between 0.98 to 1.0 for light load conditions. Line parameters (p.u. / km / ckt at 100 MVA bas~ )
,.

iv)

v)

Transfoffi1er its own studies

reactance basetheMY A) all traIisfoffi1ers

Generating should

Unit

Inter-connecting taps and 12.5 Load On % Tap,

In planning (At

be kept %. nominal 14-15 at

Changer operational

(OLTC) margin.

should

not

be considered.

The

effect

of

the

taps

should

be

kept

as

LY

.."""".."

For Short circuit studies transient reactance (X'd). of the synchronous machines shall be used. [Although sub-transient reactance rX"d) is generally lower than transient reactance and therefore short circuit levels computed using X"d shall be higher than thol;e computed using X'd, but since circuit breaker would operate only after 100 msec from fault initiation, the effect of sub-transient reactance would not be present.] . For short circuit studies for asymmetrical faults vector group of tr_ansfolmers shall be considered. Inter-winding reactances in case of three windirig:transformers shall also be considered. -; For evaluating short circuit levels at generating bus ( 11 kV, 13.8 kV etc.) that unit along with its unit transformer shall be represcI1tedseparately.

Transient Stability Studies


Transicnt stability studies shall be (Jarried out on regional basis. Export/Import to/from neighQouring region shall be represented as pass.iveloads.

Voltage Dependency of the system loads


Active loads (P) shall be taken as P == Po(V /V 0) Reactive loads (Q) shall ,be taken as Q = Qo( V/V 0) 2

Frequency Dependency of the system loads


Active loads (P) shall be taken as P = Po(f/fo) Reactive loads (Q) shall be taken as independent of frequency. where Po' Q 0' V 0 and fo are values at the initial system' operating conditions

Synchronous machines may be represented as given below


(for all regions except North-eastern region)

Machine Size less than 30 MW 30 to 100 MW


100 to 190 MW 200 and above

To be represented as may be represented as passive loads. ' Classical model Transient model Sub-transie,nt model ( IEEE type 1) .( IEEE type 2 for Hydro) ( IEEE type 3 for Theffi1al) (IEEE type 4 for Hydro) (IEEE type 5 for Theffi1al)

30

TYPICAL PARAMETERS FO~HERMAL

& HYDRO MACHINES

MACHINE

DATA-THERMAL/HYDRO MACHINE RATING (MW)


THERMAL 500

MACHINE
PARAMETERS

HYDRO
210 200

Rated Voltage (kV) Rated MV A Inertia Constant(H)

21.00 588.00 3.07 14 o.2. 31 2. 19

15.75 247.00 2.73


0.18

13.80 225.00 3.5

Reactance
Leackage (Xl) Direct axis (Xd) Quadrature axis (Xq) Transien t reactance Directaxis (X'd) .Quadratureaxis (X' q) Sub- transient reactance Directaxis (X"d) Quadrature axis (X" q) OpenCircuitTime Cont Transient Directaxis (T'do) Quadrature axis (T'qo)
2.23
2.11

0.16 0.96
0.65

0.27
0.70 0.212

0.27 0.53

0.27
0.65 0.18

0.214 0.245

0.233

0.23

9.0 2.5 0.04 0.2


Source
MIS Sharar

7.0 2.5

9.7 0.5

Sub-transient
Direct axis (T" do ) . Quadrature axis (T"qo) 0.04
0.2
Hea\')' ,

0.10
""""--~

0.05

Lrd.

31

'rricals

TYPICAL PARAMETERS FOR EXCITERS

f8"

,..
tI'"
J8"'.

~
ra.

U
.

."

~,

l+sTR VRmax
r--

KA i+STA

-~l+sTE

UF

...

vs

v R@!L/

~~~-

-llL+s TFI

"--

~.
~

32

~ L:-' .-

--. H. V.D.C. data: No standardised DC control model has beendeveloped so far as this model is usually built to the load requirements of the DC tenninals. Based on the pastexperience in carrying out stability studies,the following models have been suggestedfor rectifier and invertortenninals.

DC CONTROL

MODEL

FOR RECTIFIER

(POWER CONTROL)

CURRENT ORDER REGULATOR


Id "

CURRENT REGULATOR
ALRX ,\LRX

1t

-':'-!

MIN

Vdi

~2,; .1

;;{
.
,

1=1

~:;~~
--7 '
-

ALF,\

:= : = :.= : = : =
Vaci

-A.LR.N{MAX I~~./~ -

~J
-~
.i

1:-;:1;; j

-ALR.N-

~
-)10', Vacr

VMIN

VM

TYPICAL ALAN VDCOL


ALRX TR K TI
IMN

VALUES
.5

90 0.002

~~::=JL ~ I~~
I

20
0.02 0.10 0.85 0.30
ALFO
I

VMAX VMIN

ALFO

+s

I:

-'

'

ALRxI
Id

i\LO:\"

CURRENT RE(; ULA TO R CURRENT ORDER REGULATOR

D C CONTROL

MODEL FOR INVERTOR


33

--. ~
~

E.M. T.P. Studies: System shall be, to the extent possible, represented in detail. Parallel circuits/ alternate paths shall also be considered. At least one source shall be represented as type 59 (detail representation). Saturation cliaracteristics of transt:'oi111ers. .and reactors shall also be considered. ';Voltage Stability Studies :These studies are calTied out using loadflow analysis

program by creating a fictitous synchronous condenser at lllo~t voltage ~ensitivc bus i.e. :bus is converted into PV bus. By reducing desired voltage of this bus M VAR generation/ absol-ption is monitored. When voltage is reduced to some level it may be obsel"Vedthat MYAR absol-ption does not increase by reducing voltage fU11her inst~ad it also gets reduced. The voltage where MY AR absorption does not increase any further is known asKnee Point of Q- V curve. The knee point of Q- V curve represents the point of voltage instability. The horizontal 'distance' of the knee point to the zero-MVAR vertical axis measured in MVARs , is therefore an indicator of the proximity to the voltage collapse.
i