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1. According to Transition to a New World, Elizabeth I could be called as a legend in England history. She was a symbol of how great England was in the 16th century. In every field during her era, England grew its power through her confident leadership. Her personality was depicted as proud, cool, and outstandingly smart. She was a lovable queen whom people loved very much. One of her uniqueness that the fact she never married, that is why, sometimes she was called as a virgin queen. In addition, Illustrated Guide to British History calls Elizabeth I as a cautious leader. Even though she was Protestant and had a six-year conflict with Spain, she tried so hard avoiding wars with them, the great Catholic power at that time. In the case of the Puritans, actually she stood against them, but she still tolerated their action. As known as remarkably intelligent, through her considerable political skill, she faked the confrontation to make them back off. Meanwhile, in managing her financial parliament, she used her own money.

When Elizabeth I ruled England from 1558-1603, religion issue dominated the main problem of her era. The conflict between Protestants and Catholics was a continuous problem left by the previous queen of England and Ireland, Mary. Since it was reported that more than 300 Protestants were killed during Mary s time, there was like a scent of revenge since Elizabeth I was Protestant. However, it was clear that Elizabeth did not want to have confrontation with Catholics. However, problem came from Philip II, as the leader of Spanish troop and the husband of Mary; he did want Protestants took a big part in England. As Spain was a big armada, Philip II also wanted to rule all part of Europe. There was also Mary Stuart, Elizabeth s cousin who was previously saved by Elizabeth due to her mistakes as Queen of Scotland to Scottish people. Elizabeth tried to make Scottish back to believe in her queen. She managed the marriage between Mary Stuart with British man, Duke of Norfolk to make the relationship between England and Scotland still safe. However, later it was known that Norfolk has a relationship with Spain, which at that time also wanted to rule England. At this point, Mary Stuart started to help her husband and Spain to

conquer the dynasty of Elizabeth I. The climax appears when finally Mary Stuart s letter which was about her plan to kill Elizabeth, known by Walsingham, it led Mary Stuart to her dead.

2. In the film, Elizabeth is portrayed as a wise leader. Queen Elizabeth I: How many Catholics are there in England, sir? Cabinet Minister #1: [snorting] Immense numbers, Majesty. Cabinet Minister #2: Half the nation cling to the old superstitions. Queen Elizabeth I: What would you have me do? Hang half the people in England, or just imprison them? Cabinet Minister #2: We must act, Majesty! Our inaction is perceived as weakness! Queen Elizabeth I: If my people break the law, they shall be punished. Until that day, they shall be protected. Cabinet Minister #1: Majesty, we have proven reason to fear every Catholic in the... Queen Elizabeth I: [cutting in] Fear creates fear. I am not ignorant of the dangers, sir. But I will not punish my people for their beliefs. Only for their deeds. I am assured that the people of England love their Queen. My constant endeavor is to earn that love.

Elizabeth, who embraced Protestantism, did not want to punish people who embrace Catholic. He just punish people who violate the law, different beliefs were not against the law, except for high treason.

Plot to assassinate Elizabeth, Mary Stuart involve in it. Walsingham insisted that Mary was executed for high treason. In here she was in a dilemma and deterred because Mary is her cousin.

Sir Francis Walsingham: Mary Stuart must die! Queen Elizabeth I: MUST? Mary Stuart must die? Where is written? Who says so? Have I ordered it? Sir Francis Walsingham: Majesty, this is no time for mercy. Queen Elizabeth I: [shouting] Don't preach at me, old man!

Although she was reluctant, she still agreed and not thwarts the beheaded punishment. She also dared to confront the consequences of Mary's execution, which is the war against Philip of Spain.

Sir Francis Walsingham: Forgive me, Your Majesty, I have failed you. Queen Elizabeth I: How have you failed me? What am I to forgive you for? Sir Francis Walsingham: Phillip of Spain is a God-fearing man who cannot declare war without a just cause. I intercepted every letter Mary Stuart secretly dispatched, but failed to see Spain knew I was reading them. They waited for her to write the words that in my eyes would confirm her treason. Sir Francis Walsingham: [ashamed] Forgive me. I am trapped in my own web. Queen Elizabeth I: And I ordered Mary's execution. I murdered God's anointed Queen. And now God's most dutiful son makes Holy War to punish me.

As Queen, Elizabeth is a smart also humorous. This is evidenced when the Raleigh out on an expedition and found a colony.

Sir Walter Raleigh: We have named it Virginia, after our Virgin Queen. Queen Elizabeth I: "Virginia"? And when I am married, will you rename it to "Conjugia"?

The joke was made in public and this illustrates that she is a humorous person. As Queen, she also wanted to form this image, so she is not feared by his people, but loved.

Conversation with the Archduke Charles in German and give such advice is a wise attitude, even Charles had said so.

Queen Elizabeth I: [in German] You play the game very well, my young friend. But don't you sometimes feel an overwhelming desire to say what you're really thinking? Archduke Charles: I daren't even think what I'm really thinking.

Queen Elizabeth I: You re thinking perhaps that you d far rather be home. Archduke Charles: You re very wise, you re Majesty.

As Queen, Elizabeth is the Queen of the brave. She led the battle against Spain. She was also a good encouragement when giving a speech to the army at Tilbury before the war.

Queen Elizabeth I: [to her army, lined up in front of her at Tilbury] My loving people. We see the sails of the enemy approaching. We hear the Spanish guns over the water. Soon now, we will meet them face-to-face. I am resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all. While we stand together no invader shall pass. Let them come with the armies of Hell; they will not pass! And when this day of battle is ended, we meet again in heaven or on the field of victory.

Besides that, Elizabeth has similarly with her father, Henry VII. They are skillful, dignified, persuasive, and popular, symbolizing in their own glittering persons the national sense of patriotism and hostility to Spain and the Roman Church. She not only completed the establishment of the Church of England but has become a legend and a synonym for the flowering of English achievement and self-confidence in every field of endeavor. Proud, cool, and remarkably intelligent, she loved flattery but never let it lead her astray when important matters were at stake. She more than held her own as a Machiavellian statesman with her contemporaries. Her people loved her more than did those who knew her best. She never married, and in her early years she played off foreign and domestic suitors against each other with excellent political results. Like her father, she enjoyed getting her success as cheaply as possible. Under her able minister Burleigh and Walsingham she maintained and heightened the administrative efficiency of her government. (Brinton, Christopher, and Wolf, pg. 297)

3. Elizabeth figure is a responsible leader; however, when compared with Bess and Mary she is lonely and has no freedom. She gave her life for her people. She never felt the love of her life, also never married. Eventually, Bess married with Raleigh and

had a child. Mary even married three times: first, she married Francis, Dauphin of France, and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and finally James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell. They both ever felt love in their life, but not with Elizabeth. Also Elizabeth's life is very restrictive and controlled.

Sir Walter Raleigh: You like your ladies to jump at your command? Queen Elizabeth I: Do you think that way? To tell you the truth, I'm very very tired of always being in control. Sir Walter Raleigh: Nonsense! Queen Elizabeth I: What? Sir Walter Raleigh: You eat and drink control. Queen Elizabeth I: Is that so?

Elizabeth did not even like herself. She felt people liked her because there is something behind it. She also felt envious of Bess as Bess could have what he cannot had, which is also the beauty and freedom. Queen Elizabeth I: Is it true that I ve never known the pleasure of being liked for myself? Elizabeth Throckmorton: I hope you believe I like you for yourself, my lady. Queen Elizabeth I: Is anyone ever liked simply for themselves? I doubt it. Are you? Men like you because you re pretty and because you have the ear of the Queen. Elizabeth Throckmorton: No doubt. Queen Elizabeth I: Him, too. He likes you because he wants my favor. You do realize that. Elizabeth Throckmorton: Yes, my lady. Queen Elizabeth I: And the other things too, of course. But then, all men want that. Male desire confers no distinction. Oh, I envy you, Bess. You re free to have what I cannot have. You re my adventurer.

Actually, she was also worried about the age of growing old and not has a husband.

Queen Elizabeth I: More lines on my face. Where do they come from? Elizabeth Throckmorton: Smile lines, my lady. Queen Elizabeth I: Smile lines? When do I ever smile?

Elizabeth is also a feminist. She never complained to get an exemption because she was a woman. In fact, she plunged straight into the battle with her army. She did not marry because she felt responsible to her people, so she put aside her personal affairs. But behind the figure that looks strong as a leader, Elizabeth remained a woman who also needs a man by her side. This happens when Mr. Raleigh came to England after his expedition from the New World. She was attracted to him.

Queen Elizabeth I: [speaking about Walter Raleigh] He interests me, talk to him. Elizabeth Throckmorton: Him, Your Majesty? Queen Elizabeth I: [smiling] Him. She is a wise Queen, tolerant, and great; ironically, she felt lonely in her life and soul. Elizabeth, never married, never even been kissed. Queen Elizabeth I: In some other world, in some other time, could you have loved me? Sir Walter Raleigh: I know only one world and in this world, I have loved you. Queen Elizabeth I: There's something you could do for me - something I have not known for a very long time. But it's not to be spoken of afterwards. It must be forgotten. But just for now, a kiss? [Raleigh kisses Elizabeth] Queen Elizabeth I: I die.

4. This film takes place in 1585, where Elizabeth I becomes Queen (1558-1603) and at this time that Britain was in the golden age. Term of the golden age itself is a period in the areas of business where big task has been achieved. Britannia symbol was first used in 1572 and frequently thereafter to mark the era of Elizabeth as a renaissance of national pride inspired by the ideals of classical, international expansion, and the victory over the enemy hates Spanish navy. In terms of the entire century, John Guy

(1988) argues that "under the rule of Tudor, England are in a healthy economy, wider, and more optimistic than at any time in a thousand years." At this time it is the culmination of Renaissance England, which is an art movement and culture. This is the age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back home, the Protestant Reformation became more accepted by the people, almost certainly after the Spanish Armada retreated.

Elizabethan age is also a plot and conspiracy, often political in nature and often involves the highest levels of Elizabeth community. One of the big conspiracies is the Babington Plot - Catholic plot in 1586 to kill Queen Elizabeth, a Protestant, and put Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic, on the throne of England. This causes the execution of Mary. Long-term goal is an invasion by Spanish troops of King Philip II and the Catholic League in France, leading to the restoration of Catholicism in England. The main conspirators were Sir Anthony Babington (1561-1586), a young Catholic nobleman. Britain's leading Catholic loyal to Elizabeth and rejected an offer to support the plot. The actual designer was Don Bernardino de Mendoza in Paris and King Philip II in Madrid. In this film, Elizabeth is faced at the altar of the Cathedral of St Paul's Old by Anthony Babington with a pistol filled with powder but no shot. In real Babington Plot against the queen foiled while it is still being planned.

Some of the events that occurred during different times during the life of Elizabeth displayed simultaneously. Like the war, narrated in 1585, but in fact happened in 1586. In addition, Bess Throckmorton become pregnant with Walter Raleigh s child in the summer of 1591 three years after the defeat of Armada, not immediately before.

Indeed, this movie wants to show England in its golden ages with many taking place setting at a magnificent palace. In addition, too many take the scene in the church because at this time of upheaval did occur between Protestants and Catholics. 5. As historical movie, some Mise-en-Scene aspects are the most aspect which dominates the whole film due to its genre as historical film. Setting, costume, and

lighting, are clearly helpful in building the genre. From the first scene of the movie, the setting of the film already in a palace. It shows that the director wants to convey a direct impression about this movie which is clear about a kingdom. As we have mentioned a brief in number four, there are many scenes take a place in the church. It symbolize that religion is one of the biggest things to do at that time. It can show how religious British people are in the 16th century. For the costume, we really notice to Elizabeth I s dress. In the movie, Elizabeth I likes dressing in this kind of dress. As in ()3:30 and 06:40). The top of the dress is long, stiff and pointed. The sleeves are long and wind wide, of course with the ruff open near her face. Regarding to that costume, the movie becomes very England, because the costume wore by Elizabeth I is the type of dress which famous for a queen at that time.

One aspect that we want to focus about the movie is about lighting. For the lighting, the first time when Philip II appears (1:51), the lighting is dark, only the light from candle which lighten the place. It can be a symbol about the ambition that stays deeply as his desire to conquer England. Dark also brings the impression that he will use any way to get what they want. On the other way around, when Elizabeth I appear for the first time (03:25), even though the lighting still not bright enough, the lighting which come from the sun since she stands exactly in front of the big window, gives an impression about how bright she is. Later, many scenes in the movie when Elizabeth I included, has a bright lighting. It also can symbolize how powerful England is at that time in her era. In the scene (05:24), when Elizabeth I have a short trip with gondola, the lighting is also so shining. It brings a scent of joy since the scene brings

the story about her who is having time with her right hands. Here, the bright lighting can portray the message of cheerfulness. Furthermore, when Elizabeth is tried to be killed, (58:14) there is also a shining light behind her. It is like symbolizing her innocence, just like an angel and her role as the lovable leader in the movie. Another interesting aspect from the movie is about sound. Even though there are diegetic and non-diegetic sound in this film, we think that non-diegetic sound is the best one which perfect the story as a good movie. From (02:00) there is non-diegetic sound that is like a colossal sound. It is like people singing, yet there is nobody singing at that scene. Since it appears in the very first part of the movie, again, the director wants to convey message that the movie will be about history. In (58:21), when Elizabeth wants to be killed, the backsound sounds thrilling, moreover the sound from the shooter s breath which we can hear. It shows that actually the shooter also fears about killing Elizabeth. Also, we will not forget the sound when Mary Stuart will be executed (1:08:35), the sound is mysteriously scary and sounds not in hurry. Moreover, her expression which does not show funk, it becomes ironic since the backsound is not about happiness. Furthermore, many scary and mysterious sounds in this movie can reflect the horrible problem occur during this movie. The sound can be a symbol, telling that the movie is full of conflict and scary solution.

References: Brinton C., Christopher J. B., Wolff R. L. (1964). West. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Boyle, D., Brown A., Chandler, M., Harding, D., Lewis, B. R., Sutherland, J. (2000). Illustrated Guide to British History. London: Parragon Book. British Costumes: Fashion through the Ages from http://www.historic-

uk.com/CultureUK/Clothing-TudorsandStuarts.htm