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Analyzing the Business of Enterprise IT Innovation

CLOUDSCAPE
Cloud Codex, January 2011 Complimentary Copy

CLOUDSCAPE

JANUARY 2011
2011 THE 451 GROUP, LLC, TIER1 RESEARCH, LLC, AND/OR ITS AFFILIATES. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

THE 451 GROUP: CLOUDSCAPE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABOUT CLOUDSCAPE 1

SECTION 1: WHAT IS THE CLOUD?

SECTION 2: CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE ATTRIBUTES

Figure 1: Cloud Infrastructure Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 VIRTUALIZATION AND HARDWARE INDEPENDENCE . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 RAPID PROVISIONING AND SELF-SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3 SCALABILITY AND ELASTICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.4 MULTI-TENANT ARCHITECTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.5 DYNAMIC PRICING MODELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.6 PROGRAMMATIC MANAGEMENT INTERFACES . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.7 PUBLICLY ACCESSIBLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

SECTION 3: DELIVERY MODELS: PUBLIC VS. HYBRID VS. PRIVATE CLOUDS

3.1 DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN PUBLIC AND VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUDS AND INTERNAL PRIVATE CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 2: Cloud Delivery Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 PUBLIC CLOUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3 VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.4 HYBRID CLOUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.5 INTERNAL PRIVATE CLOUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

SECTION 4: THE CLOUD STACK

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4.1 SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Figure 3: Software as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 4 .1 .1 Customer Relationship Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4 .1 .2 Enterprise Resource Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4 .1 .3 Workforce Content, Communication and Collaboration . . . . . . .12 4 .1 .4 Business Process Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
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4.2 PLATFORM AS A SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Figure 4: Platform as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 4 .2 .1 Platform Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 4.3 SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 5: Software Infrastructure as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . .14 4 .3 .1 IT Management as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 4.4 INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 6: Infrastructure as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4 .4 .1 Compute as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4 .4 .2 Storage as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

SECTION 5: EXPANSION OF OUR CLOUD MODEL

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Figure 7: Cloud security taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

APPENDIX: CLOUDSCAPE VENDORS BY SECTOR

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INFRASTRUCTURE-AS-A-SERVICE (IAAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Figure 8: Compute as a Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Figure 9: Stand-Alone Cloud Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Figure 10: Platform-Attached Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 PLATFORM-AS-A-SERVICE (PAAS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Figure 11: Paas From SaaS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Figure 12: Stane-Alone PaaS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 SOFTWARE INFRASTRCUTURE-AS-A-SERVICE (SIAAS) . . . . . . . . . . 24 Figure 13: Problem Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Figure 14: System and Network Monitoring & Management . . . . . . .24 Figure 15: Resource Utilization, Capacity Planning and Billing . . . . . .25 Figure 16: Pre-Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Figure 17: On-Ramps/CloudBrokers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Figure 18: Integration-as-a-service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

SCHEDULE OF CLOUDSCAPE LONG-FORMAT REPORTS


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2011 THE 451 GROUP, LLC, TIER1 RESEARCH, LLC, AND/OR ITS AFFILIATES. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

THE CLOUD CODEX

ABOUT CLOUDSCAPE
CloudScape, the interdisciplinary research and advisory program from The 451 Group and Tier1 Research, provides detailed insight, advice and analysis targeting cloud practitioners. CloudScape draws on the unique expertise of The 451 Group, with its 10-year history of in-depth analysis of grid, utility and cloud computing, and Tier1 Research, the leading analyst company covering hosting, Internet infrastructure and IT services. Insight is delivered via daily commentary, long-format reports, analyst advisory services, events and webinars. A schedule of CloudScape long-format reports can be found at the end of this document . To learn more about this service, contact us at: sales@the451group .com

SECTION 1
What Is the Cloud?
The 451 Group broadly defines cloud computing as a set of business models and technologies that enable IT functions to be delivered and consumed via a third party as a real-time service . With the cloud concept firmly embedded in marketing lingo across the technology landscape, we constantly witness cloudwashing, or the practice of including many legacy products and services under a companys cloud umbrella. To avoid this, we use a two-tiered approach in defining a cloud-based offering: first, we define the consumption model, and then we reference seven cloud characteristics that enable us to better sift through the marketing noise and identify true cloud offerings. Within cloud computing, we draw a distinction between external and internal delivery of IT services. It is our fundamental belief that the cloud is, at its very essence, a service delivery and consumption model. As highlighted above, The 451 Group defines cloud computing as an externally delivered service. We acknowledge the existence of what the broader industry calls private clouds. However, it is The 451 Groups position that the term private cloud obscures the broader cloud computing definition. As a result, we have adapted our cloud coverage. Moving forward, 451 CloudScape will continue to track the market for cloud computing, while our Infrastructure Computing for the Enterprise (ICE) practice will continue to expand its coverage on cloud-enabling technologies. This highlights a subtle but important distinction. We categorize cloud models by service delivery (public, private and hybrid) and the attributes of the technologies (virtualization, automation, billing, etc.) that enable them to be consumed as low-cost, adaptable and flexible services. The 451 Groups definition also highlights the distinction between service delivery

THE 451 GROUP: CLOUDSCAPE

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and consumption. Cloud computing changes the manner in which IT services are delivered. In cloud computing, IT services enabled by hardware and software are repeatable rather than proprietary, the result of a continuing trend over the last 15 years toward the industrialization of IT. What this means is that the ability to deliver specialized IT services can now be paired with the ability to deliver those services in an industrialized and pervasive way. In addition, this new computing paradigm changes the manner in which users consume technology, thereby changing the relationship between those that deliver IT and those that consume it. An evolution in infrastructure technologies toward automation, virtualization, programmatic interfaces, accounting and billing granularity, and multi-tenancy is important to our definition only because it enables the technology to be delivered and consumed in a more flexible/adaptable, affordable and transparent way. The 451 Group defines a cloud infrastructure by using a set of mutually supportive concepts or attributes. There are seven primary attributes that together constitute and define a cloud service infrastructure. Each criterion can be evaluated individually, and there are certainly gradations each criterion isnt an all-or-nothing proposition. That said, each criterion builds on the one before, and there are clear dependencies, with certain cloud properties being difficult to architect without the appropriate supporting attributes. These criteria are designed primarily as a yardstick for examining and evaluating various types of cloud offerings. Through proper use of the criteria, one can determine just how cloudy an ostensible cloud computing or storage offering is, and whether that offering, in fact, qualifies as a cloud using objective metrics. Our definition of the cloud is highlighted graphically in Figure 1. We define the cloud as a service delivery model. The technology enablers are the same as in a traditional model, but it is largely the software overlay that enables the seven attributes and changes the way technology is delivered and consumed.

2011 THE 451 GROUP, LLC, TIER1 RESEARCH, LLC, AND/OR ITS AFFILIATES. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

THE CLOUD CODEX

SECTION 2
Cloud Infrastructure Attributes
We examine each cloud offering and assess its delivery and consumption model using these seven criteria (see Figure 1) that constitute and define a cloud product or service. Each criterion can be evaluated individually, and there are gradations each criterion isnt an all-or-nothing proposition. FIGURE 1: CLOUD INFRASTRUCTURE CRITERIA

Dynamic Pricing Models

Publicly Accessible

Rapid Provisioning & Self-Service

Programmatic Mgmt. Interface

Public Cloud

Internal Private Cloud

Hybrid Cloud

Virtual/Private Cloud

Multi-Tenancy Automation Technology Enablers Network Compute

Virtualization

Scalability & Elasticity

Storage

Enterprise Apps

Security Mgmt. Apps

We use these attributes as a yardstick for examining and evaluating various types of cloud offerings. Through these objective metrics, we can determine just how cloudy a supposed cloud computing or storage offering is, and whether that offering qualifies as a cloud. The seven criteria we use for this analysis to determine what is and what isnt a cloud are examined below.

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2.1 VIRTUALIZATION AND HARDWARE INDEPENDENCE


The most basic attribute of an infrastructure cloud service is that a massive amount of computing or storage resources can be applied to many users simultaneously, with each user utilizing that service without regard to what other users are doing. Similarly, those users should be able to utilize the service without having to worry about details of hardware-level implementation. For these reasons, the first criterion for an infrastructure cloud service is that it be virtualized and hardware independent. In this context, virtualization refers more to the idea of hardware abstraction and user containment than it does to any specific operating system or application.

2.2 RAPID PROVISIONING AND SELF-SERVICE


In an enterprise IT or managed hosting environment, server and storage provisioning can take weeks or even months. This process typically includes exhaustive requirements gathering, acquisition of hardware, installation and testing, software building and a turnover phase. A key benefit of the cloud is in how it enables agility, and agility is tied tightly to the rapid provisioning of compute and storage resources. There can be significant variations in provisioning time depending on the sort of cloud service being provisioned: simpler services can be provisioned in minutes, while more sophisticated services or first-time template configurations are typically provisioned in 30-45 minutes. Self-service portals enable administrators to control and monitor all aspects of the provisioning operation. Self-service is also open to some debate. How much must be done by the user for provisioning to be considered self-service? At The 451 Group, we believe that at a minimum, once the original relationship with the cloud provider internal or external is established, the act of provisioning service should be executed without human intervention on the back end, except in extraordinary circumstances.

2.3 SCALABILITY AND ELASTICITY


While conventional computing and storage architectures present a somewhat static and step-by-step approach to IT, properly designed cloud offerings provide the ability to scale loads both smoothly and dynamically. Specifically, the ability to scale memory, mass storage and CPU resources both upward and downward is extremely valuable.

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THE CLOUD CODEX

What is the difference between scalability and elasticity? A scalable offering is one that can grow or shrink without altering the basic and underlying architecture. This is a key hallmark of successful cloud computing, which must continue to operate for many users without downtime or redesign. Elasticity, on the other hand, is an attribute experienced by the user. Its the ability to use Web-based management interfaces to add or remove CPU, memory and mass storage resources on the fly. Cloud offerings may dynamically add and remove resources based on need rather than on configured values, although such needs-based elasticity is still highly speculative in its execution because the ability of applications or processes to consume resources in an uncontrolled manner is a significant danger.

2.4 MULTI-TENANT ARCHITECTURES


An absolute requirement for any true cloud offering, multi-tenancy is the ability to support not only multiple users on a single complex of servers and storage, but also multiple organizational units and multiple logical groupings of computing and storage capabilities assigned to various users and organizations. Of course, each discrete computing environment must be invisible to users not associated with that environment and must not impinge on or affect other computing environments regardless of the circumstances. While this seems both basic and easy to implement, it is, in fact, a difficult requirement to meet, especially as cloud offerings become more sophisticated. In the simplest case, an end user with a single server or logical storage container must not affect others on the same physical infrastructure, regardless of error conditions, virtual server crashes or the creation of arbitrarily large files or storage volumes. In a more complex case, a cloud environment might have not only storage and compute resources, but also associated virtual firewalls or other network elements. Significant bandwidth consumption by one end user should not affect any other end users network performance or ability to scale their own bandwidth. Another example in a similar vein would be an end user that installs complex firewall rule sets on the computing environments virtual firewall. True multi-tenancy is not achieved if one users complex rule set invokes packet loss on other users sharing the same physical firewall.

2.5 DYNAMIC PRICING MODELS


A dynamic pricing model pay-as-you-go pricing, in the most basic sense is the concept that IT users should be accurately charged for the server and storage resources that they consume. Successful cloud offerings, however, must take this idea several steps further. Accounting granularity is the idea that atomic units of IT utility must be isolated and charged for. Atomic in this sense means that specific capabilities need to be billed for on relatively short time frames.
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2.6 PROGRAMMATIC MANAGEMENT INTERFACES


One of the most sophisticated requirements for cloud offerings is the ability to manipulate and manage cloud resources through programmatic management interfaces. That usually means the ability to provision and manage cloud resources through an API. Basically, anything an end user can do with the Web management interface should also be doable through scripts or applications that end users could write themselves. Why would an end user of a cloud offering wish to exert programmatic control over cloud resources? There are several possibilities, including the desire to resell public services, integrate cloud service offerings into existing portals, and script the provision (and de-provision) of large numbers of servers for batch processing. An example of the latter would be the need to do end-of-month billing. This might require 40 server-equivalents and a significant amount of storage with a specific configuration, which would exist in the cloud only for a few days per month. Rather than manually provisioning that infrastructure every month, a script could be written that would handle the repetitive portions of the task, reducing an hours work to mere seconds.

2.7 PUBLICLY ACCESSIBLE


One of the most controversial of the cloud criteria is the requirement that the cloud be publicly accessible. To be perfectly clear, publicly accessible means the ability to access and manage cloud resources over the public Internet. Needless to say, this requirement applies only to the various sorts of public clouds, rather than private clouds. It also does not preclude other mechanisms for accessing cloud resources, including the use of carrier private-line services or IP VPN services. In fact, many carriers are touting the ability of public cloud services to be accessed via those methods as beneficial for reasons of both security and quality of service. That being said, there is no better mechanism for accessing cloud services than use of the public Internet, and it is likely that many clouds will, one way or another, end up being accessible publicly even those that start out as purely private. This trend introduces additional security complexity to cloud offerings as well as additional questions about availability which can now include carrier networks along the path from end user to the cloud.

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THE CLOUD CODEX

SECTION 3
Delivery Models: Public vs. Hybrid vs. Private Clouds
3.1 DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN PUBLIC AND VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUDS AND INTERNAL PRIVATE CLOUDS
Service providers will develop many distribution models based on users increasing demand for cloud services. Today, there are two main modes of distribution: private and public clouds with a third called hybrid clouds. The key differentiating characteristics between distribution models derive from service/asset ownership and control (how much users care about implementation) and who gets to access the service. As shown in Figure 2, SaaS is a fully cloud-sourced capability, while IaaS and PaaS enable higher tiers with internal resources. FIGURE 2: CLOUD DELIVERY MODELS
Internal Service

SaaS

Internal Service

SIaaS

Internal Service

Internal Service

PaaS

IaaS

Technology Enablers

Public/Virtual Private Cloud

Internal Service

The service and its assets can be owned and controlled by the enterprise using the service, by a third party, or some variation in between. In a completely private cloud computing service, the assets, definition of the service, management tools, costs and risks lie with the customer. The 451 Group does not include private clouds in our CloudScape coverage. Instead, this market will be covered in depth by our ICE practice. In a public cloud service, the assets, definition of the service, management tools, costs and the risks of implementation lie with the service provider. Access can be limited to users at a single enterprise that subscribes to the service, or can be accessible to anyone, or to some partially limited variation. This is dependent on the proprietary nature of the actual service being delivered. When services are true commodities, little attention
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is actually given to who accesses the services. However, when a cloud service is unique (or provides some competitive differentiation/advantage) to a set of business partners, or is proprietary in its capabilities, ensuring private access may be most important. Whether to use a public or private cloud will likely be based on workload, where enterprises, in essence, make risk/reward decisions. For example, an internal test-and-development private cloud service could begin to use services for a limited set of requirements in the public cloud, such as stress testing, while mission-critical applications like financial management (i.e., ERP) continue to live within the four walls of the organization.

3.2 PUBLIC CLOUD


The public cloud is defined as a shared IT service provided to customers via the public Internet. This is an IT capability offered as a service and is not hosted by its own organization. Instead, it is implemented and delivered via a third party. In a public cloud, a customers data is not isolated from others data.

3.3 VIRTUAL PRIVATE CLOUD


A virtual private cloud (VPC) is a public cloud in that it is implemented and delivered via a third party and is accessible via the public Internet. The difference between a VPC offering and a public offering is that the hosting provider isolates a particular companys data from other customers data.

3.4 HYBRID CLOUD


Hybrid services those with both private and public cloud computing elements will likely be the predominant model as enterprises fail to move to either extreme on the public/ private continuum. There is significant confusion between the concepts of cloudbursting and a hybrid cloud. The rule of cloudbursting is that it takes two to tango the only genuine cloudbursting scenario is one in which an internal cloud at an enterprise is used for base IT load, and a public cloud service is used for peak IT load, or bursting. This requires significant coordination and integration. A far more common scenario will be the more inclusive hybrid cloud, which encapsulates the idea of combining internal IT resources with external clouds, but does not require a fully functional internal private cloud. In some cases, organizations will use managed hosting services in combination with public clouds this is also an example of a hybrid cloud approach. Those organizations using hybrid cloud approaches will tend to put static and defined IT loads on internal or hosted servers or storage, while dynamic and bursty loads are handled by the public cloud service.
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The hybrid model allows end users to move between internally hosted software and an identical public cloud service. For example, an enterprise may run a segment of its email population on a combination of SaaS and in-house servers. The seamless movement between internally hosted software and the public cloud requires that the in-house software and SaaS version have identical data models, are synchronized and automatically update licensing schemes.

3.5 INTERNAL PRIVATE CLOUD


An internal cloud is an IT capability offered as a service by an IT organization to its business using cloud-enabling technologies. For example, IT organizations building highly virtualized environments can become infrastructure providers to internal application developers. In a typical IT organization, application developers are required to work through the IT infrastructure operations team to procure and provision the development and production application platform (i.e., hardware, OS, and middleware) necessary to house a new application. In this model, the infrastructure team provides cloudlike IT infrastructure to the application development team (or any other IT team), thereby allowing it to provision its own application platform.

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SECTION 4
The Cloud Stack
4.1 SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE
SaaS is essentially a hosted application that is accessed through a Web browser. The 451 Group defines SaaS as the ongoing support of applications whose core value to the customer pertains to alleviating the maintenance and daily technical operation and support of business and consumer software. This definition does not include hosted application management (AM). A major difference between hosted AM and SaaS is that hosted AM is designed for the management of traditionally licensed packaged applications, whereas SaaS is a newer model of Web-delivered software offered with a subscription instead of a traditional license. Additionally, software on demand is typically run with a single, shared application instance (single-tenancy applications). FIGURE 3: SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE
SaaS

Customer Relationship Management Salesforce Automation Service Automation Marketing Automation

Enterprise Resource Planning Accounting & Finance Human Capital Management Business Intelligence Supply Chain Management

Content & Collaboration

Business Process Management

Web Analytics

The SaaS provider delivers an application based on a single set of common code and data definitions, which are consumed in a one-to-many model by all contracted customers at any time. Customers may be able to extend the data model by using configuration tools supplied by the provider, but without altering the source code. This approach is in contrast to the traditional application hosting model, in which the provider supports multiple application codes and multiple application versions or a customized data definition for each customer.

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THE CLOUD CODEX

4.1.1 CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT


CRM applications automate the horizontal customer-facing business processes within an organization (e.g., sales, marketing, customer support and contact center). These applications collectively serve to manage the entire lifecycle of a customer. They also help an organization build and maintain customer relationships. Sales force automation: SFA applications automate and manage sales account functions (e.g., account/contact information, lead tracking, opportunity management, and sales configuration, analysis and planning). Customer service automation: These applications automate the ongoing management of external customer relationships (e.g., self-service, conferencing, live collaboration, field service and email response management). Marketing automation: These applications automate various marketing functions within an organization. Business intelligence and analytics: These applications identify, analyze and present business data to decision-makers. Common functions of BI technologies include reporting, online analytical processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining and predictive analytics. Business analytics technologies aid in the decision-making process, and have been historically referred to as decision support systems.

4.1.2 ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING


ERP applications automate and optimize a broad set of activities that enable enterprises to more effectively manage their resources. These resources include people, finances, capital, materials and facilities. The resulting applications can include product planning, parts purchasing, inventory maintenance, supplier interaction, order tracking and reporting on resources. Content and collaboration: Collaborative applications enable workers to share information and processes. Included in this category are integrated collaborative environments that enable a framework for collaboration within an enterprise. These collaborative environments are typically based on a shared directory and messaging platform (Cisco WebEx Mail, LotusLive Notes). Also included in this category are stand-alone messaging, instant messaging, and team collaborative and conferencing applications. The broad set of activities supported by ERP applications are enabled through multimodule application software. These modules include accounting and finance, human capital management, business intelligence and supply-chain management. Accounting and finance: These applications are designed to support a number of functions including accounting, financial and treasury, and risk management.

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Human capital management: Human capital management software is designed to help organize, staff, pay and develop an organizations global workforce. HCM software automates business processes that cover the entire span of an employees relationship with the organization. Often included in HCM packages are core HR functions such as personnel records, benefits administration and compensation. Business intelligence: BI is a broad category of applications and technologies for gathering, storing, analyzing and providing access to datato help enterpriseusers make better business decisions. BI applications cover the activities of decision-support systems, query and reporting, OLAP, statistical analysis, forecasting and data mining. Supply-chain management: These applications help with the management of material and information flow in a supply chain.

4.1.3 WORKFORCE CONTENT, COMMUNICATION AND COLLABORATION


The 451 Group defines workforce applications as software that facilitates collaboration either internally or externally with partners. Workforce offerings are focused on those tools that enable the sharing of content, and enable parties to expand their communications capabilities. Functions included here are enterprise content management tools (email management, records management and digital asset management) and collaborative tools including email, e-learning, instant messaging, search and information access, team collaboration and Web conferencing.

4.1.4 BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT


The 451 Group defines BPM as software for automating and managing a business process. This market covers a full spectrum of process automation software, such as user interaction software, including portals, data capture, business process modeling and orchestration, and workflow software for moving people, documents and data throughout a process.

4.2 PLATFORM AS A SERVICE


The 451 Group defines PaaS as an in-cloud platform for the development and deployment of cloud application software that is analogous to an on-premises application server, with added multi-tenant elasticity and other cloud-enabling features. PaaS offerings are designed to support the entire application development lifecycle, and we include various elements in our platform management segmentation (development, testing, deployment, runtime, hosting and delivery). Included in this category are vendors that provide the entire stack of PaaS functionality and those that partner with a third party (i.e., a hoster) for the infrastructure component.

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THE CLOUD CODEX

FIGURE 4: PLATFORM AS A SERVICE


PaaS

PaaS from SaaS

Stand-Alone

Platform Management

Pre-Production

On-Ramps & Brokers Integration as a Service

The most commercially successful PaaS offerings are those in which multiple applications can share resources and user information, subject to tight controls. SaaS-attached PaaS arrangements where a central application provides a critical mass of users, and other smaller applications attach themselves have proved more popular than stand-alone offerings. This component of the PaaS landscape is dominated by SaaS providers like salesforce.com, whose Force. com offering leverages its existing platform to build, deploy and deliver SaaS applications and house development environments as a proxy for regular IT infrastructure.

4.2.1 PLATFORM MANAGEMENT


Platform management broadly refers to software that enables the provisioning and utilization of cloud environments. We dissect the platform management segment into three categories: preproduction, on-ramps and cloud brokers, and integration as a service. A brief discussion of each category is provided below. Preproduction: Preproduction is an umbrella cloud segment that includes vendors that build cloud-based copies of existing IT environments. This includes on-demand IT environments for test and development, IT operations, ERP migrations, training, demonstrations, proofs of concept and sales evaluations. Several vendors in this category evolved from the test lab automation market and have expanded their wares for a cloud world. On-ramps and cloud brokers: The capabilities of on-ramp service providers are designed to move services into production by reducing potential variations and minimizing risk. On-ramp provider offerings manage the resources required to package, build, test and deploy services in production. In addition to offering a console from which users can manage their cloud deployments, on-ramp providers may offer prepackaged, cloud-ready templates for commonly used server and application configurations. In the context of external cloud services, the difference is that all the operational responsibilities are in preparation for
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running a service external to the enterprise not internal. Cloud brokers are a bit different in that they provide a value-added economic function when matching workloads to a best execution venue. Integration as a service: Integration as a service started out as the integration of on-premises applications with their SaaS peers salesforce.coms CRM applications being the most popular in the latter category. Its an emerging market, with some players already expanding into other cloud layers. Informatica is one of the integration-as-a-service frontrunners, having unveiled as 2009 drew to a close its first PaaS offering in the shape of a multi-tenant enterprise integration stack for the creation of reusable data-integration and data-quality mappings. Pervasive Software is the other vendor leading the integration-as-a-service charge via its DataCloud hosted multi-tenant integration platform, which was delivered on Amazon EC2 at the tail end of 2009 in a bid to provide facilities for data integration and data quality and profiling, too as flexible, elastic services. We see this sector further evolving with activity from data management heavy hitters like IBM, Oracle, Microsoft, SAP BusinessObjects and SAS Institute.

4.3 SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE


SIaaS stands for software infrastructure as a service. The SIaaS layer includes management and security software delivered as a service. SIaaS is different from SaaS only in that the applications are not enterprise applications but, instead, are focused on managing, monitoring and securing the IT infrastructure. In SIaaS and SaaS, applications are delivered and consumed in the same manner. FIGURE 5: SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE
SIaaS

IT Management as a Service

Security

System & Network Monitoring & Management Resource Utilization, Capacity Planning & Billing

Problem Management

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THE CLOUD CODEX

4.3.1 IT MANAGEMENT AS A SERVICE


IT management software in a traditional environment is typically used for systems and network management, capacity planning, performance data analysis, performance tracking or monitoring, and simulation software, as well as service-level management. Because much of the operational data from a service provider is abstracted from the end user, functionality tends to mainly be focused on monitoring and performance analysis, as well as resource accounting software or resource utilization and billing. IT management as a service consists of three subsegments: systems and network monitoring/management; resource utilization, capacity planning and billing; and problem management. Systems and network monitoring & management as a service: Cloud monitoring tools drill down from the application code through the VM to the underlying physical server and network layer. The most effective way to monitor cloud workloads without heavy overhead is with monitoring tools that are themselves cloud services. Cloud analytics tools are used to ensure that performance data can be accurately measured and interpreted. These analytics tools must be able to analyze multitier, multisystem (virtual or physical) and multivendor/OS environments. A good analytics or diagnostic tool runs algorithms over the performance-monitoring products to detect correlations. The goal is to identify the root cause of an application slowdown the particular server misconfiguration or network device outage that is causing one part of the website to hang. Its a mathematically complex and difficult task, and the analytics packages that have evolved for in-house enterprise applications will need even more sophisticated capabilities to meet the needs of a multi-tenanted, cloudbursting environment. Resource utilization, capacity planning and billing: Resource utilization enables companies to better utilize server resources by running workloads that are flexible as to when they are run alongside primary applications. These can be workloads such as reporting, data analysis, media conversion, Web crawling, search indexing and other compute-intensive workloads and maintenance tasks. Capacity-planning vendors provide insight into the cloud environment. This enables customers to establish new workload and capacity management strategies based on previous events. As for billing and chargeback capabilities, simply stated, without them, there can be no cloud. Billing systems must be cloud-aware. There is simply no way to utilize a general IT billing system because many of the concepts, like granular billing and nonphysical assets, are, if not unique to the cloud, then nearly so. Billing functions are often bundled into a broader cloud product, so, therefore, the billing vendors included in our analysis are limited to those with a stand-alone billing capability.

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Problem management: Problem management software tracks, records and manages problems related to the IT infrastructure and operations. This category includes IT helpdesk applications and related problem determination and resolution applications, including knowledge bases. Event management tools automate the analysis and response of the systems to non-scheduled system and application events. Included in this segment are event management applications, event correlation and root-cause analysis software, and event-action engines.

4.4 INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE


The IaaS layer consists of virtual or physical hardware resources (e.g., compute, storage, network) offered as a service. IaaS relies heavily on server virtualization. One of the leading players in this space, Amazon, has gained significant traction, highlighting the power of the cloud and the fact that customer adoption is growing fast. The 451 Group defines IaaS as a shared IT infrastructure (compute and storage) architecture provided through on-demand services. IaaS vendors provide raw physical capacity for cloud computing. Services at this layer may include any combination of hosting and storage. At its simplest, IaaS is about providing pooled computing and storage services to users. IaaS vendors provide outsourced servers, OS, storage, datacenter space, network equipment, etc., via a virtualized environment paid for by end users on an on-demand basis. Under the IaaS banner, we delineate revenue by compute-as-a-service (CaaS) and storage-as-a-service (StaaS) offerings. FIGURE 6: INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE
IaaS

Compute as a Service

Storage as a Service

4.4.1 COMPUTE AS A SERVICE


CaaS is the provisioning of computing resources (access to raw compute or server capacity) on demand. CaaS providers offer the ability to rent rather than own IT resources. This cloud computing layer involves the delivery of virtual or physical resources as a service, priced via a consumption-based model, where usage is metered similar to a utility.

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4.4.2 STORAGE AS A SERVICE


StaaS represents a new way of delivering storage capacity to individuals, businesses and their applications. Cloud storage services generally have two defining characteristics: capacity is offered and billed for on an on-demand basis, and storage is provided by and often located at a third-party service provider. StaaS involves the ability for applications to invoke various common reusable functions across heterogeneous storage provided as a service to achieve functions like thin provisioning, replication, de-duplication, tiered storage, virtual tape, etc. Such services are consumed via a consumptionbased model, where usage is metered similar to a utility.

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SECTION 5
Expansion of Our Cloud Model
As the cloud computing market evolves, so, too, will our research coverage. This section covers the likely trajectory of our research coverage moving forward. In this section, we highlight markets both established and emerging that we plan to begin covering. We are focused on building out coverage of the pervasive cloud computing market in a focused, planned and pragmatic way. In building out our cloud model at The 451 Group, we are concerned first with creating a rigorous process through which we identify true cloud offerings in the market. We are focused first on quality, then broadness and deepness of individual market coverage. In light of this, we will leverage this document as a means to define the ongoing evolution of the cloud computing market. We are currently in the process of filling out our coverage of other components of the cloud stack. It is important to note again that this is a living, breathing document that will expand as the cloud market expands. This document and further iterations of it will complement the efforts of our Market Monitor organization. Updates to this document will be synchronized and reflected in our Market Monitor: Cloud Computing forecasting process. These efforts will bring the vendor total in our cloud database to more than 250, spanning more than 17 segments. The following represents the expected additions to our coverage of the cloud computing market. Cloud security: Security permeates every layer and aspect of technology, and the cloud is no exception. Our cloud security market sizing will examine security delivered and consumed as a service and will include an analysis of the categories listed below. FIGURE 7: CLOUD SECURITY TAXONOMY

Cloud Security

Identity & Entity Security as a Service

Data & Information Security as a Service

Application Security as a Service

Host/Endpoint Security as a Service

Network Security as a Service

Security Management as a Service

Online backup and disaster recovery: At present, we believe cloud storage and online backup, disaster recovery and archiving are distinct services. Over time, however, we expect these sectors to merge indeed, many online backup, disaster-recovery and archiving providers are now reinventing themselves as cloud storage providers.

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Cloud services: Another category that will be included in the next iteration of our cloud analysis is cloud services, beginning with consulting and systems integration. IT services vendors such as IBM, CSC, Accenture, Unisys, Capgemini and HP/EDS have launched cloud services divisions, and some have inked partnerships with cloud service providers to cater to client demand for cloud understanding and implementation. While services revenue is not included in this analysis, revenue generated by the aforementioned vendors via PaaS, IaaS, SaaS and enabling technologies has been included where appropriate. Application development services: Under application development services, we include data management (Amazon SimpleDB, Microsoft SQL Data Services), content distribution (Amazon CloudFront, Akamai, Limelight Networks) and messaging (Amazon Simple Notification Service and VMwares Rabbit Technologies). These sectors are either in the early stages with few competitors and unclear plans for those that are participating, or on the way to becoming what we consider a true cloud service, but not quite there yet. Therefore, while there is activity in these areas, a detailed analysis of the application development services sector, if warranted, will be included in future cloud Market Monitor reports. Business process clouds: Business process clouds (BPCs) are externally provisioned, one-to-many business process services based on highly standardized processes defined in a one-to-many technology platform. Here, the service provider manages the direct business inputs as well as business processes. The biggest difference between SaaS and BPCs is that with a BPC, the client receives not only an application but an entire managed process. BPC providers include Internet-age pureplay providers like PayPal and older traditional providers like ADP, which have infused their offerings with cloud-enabling technologies. Industry-specific cloud: We expect to see more in the way of industry-specific clouds. These service providers will largely operate in a broad set of differentiated niche markets. There are a few examples, including Accentures Navitaire revenue management platform for the airline industry.

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APPENDIX
CloudScape Vendors by Sector
INFRASTRUCTURE-AS-A-SERVICE (IAAS)
FIGURE 8: COMPUTE AS A SERVICE
VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

Amazon Arsys AT&T Attenda BlueLock British Telecom Carpathia Carrenza Cloud Central Colt CSC DediPower Digital Ribbon ElasticHosts ENKI Flexiant Gandi Hewlett-Packard (EDS) Hosted Solutions Hosting.com IBM iomart Joyent KDDI Layered Tech Logicworks Macquarie Telecom Navisite NetMagic NTT OpSource Oracle Peak 10

Seattle, WA La Rioja, Spain Dallas, TX London, UK Indianapolis, IN London, UK Ashburn, VA London, UK Canberra, Australia London, UK Falls Church, VA Reading, UK Orlando, FL London, UK Mountain View, CA Livingston, UK Paris, France Palo Alto, CA Raleigh, NC Louisville, KY Armonk, NY Glasgow, UK Sausalito, CA Tokyo, Japan Plano, TX New York, NY Sydney, Australia Andover, MA Mumbai, India Tokyo, Japan Santa Clara, CA Redwood Shores, CA Charlotte, NC

EC2 Flexible Cloud Server Synaptic CaaS Real Time Infrastructure Virtual Coud Virtual Datacenter Service InstantOn Carrenza Infrastructure Services CloudCentral Servers Cloud Infrastructure Services Trusted Cloud Public Cloud DEP & CPR Cloud Hosting PrimaCloud FlexiScale Gandi Cloud VPS EDS FlexSafe Cloud Stratus Trusted Cloud Cloud VPS/Enterprise Blue Cloud CloudXtra & CloudSure SmartMachines & SmartDataCenter KDDI Cloud Server Service GridLayer Logicworks Enterprise-Class Cloud Cloud Services NaviCloud CloudNet, CloudServe, PrivateCloud NTT America Cloud OpSource Cloud Hosting Cloud Compute Peak 10 Cloud Plus

Horizon Data Center Solutions Plano, TX

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Rackspace RagingWire Savvis SDT, Ltd. ServePath SoftLayer Technologies Star Technology Services SunGard SymetriQ TDS (VISI) Terremark ThinkGrid UK2 Group Unisys United Internet (1 & 1 ) Verizon Business Virtustream Vitacore Systems Voxel Wipro

San Antonio, TX Sacramento, CA Town & Country, MO Ascot, UK San Francisco, CA Dallas, TX Gloucester, UK Dublin, Ireland Edinburgh, UK Eden Prairie, MN Miami, FL London, UK London, UK Blue Bell, PA Montabaur, Germany Basking Ridge, NJ Bethesda, MD Ashburn, VA New York, NY Bangalore, India

Cloud Servers & Cloud Sites Cloud Solution Savvis Cloud Compute Hosts Unlimited GoGrid Cloud CloudLayer The Star Platform Hosting365 SymetriQ Cloud VISI ReliaCloud vCloud Express/Enterprise Cloud ThinkGrid Cloud Services VPS.NET Unisys Secure Cloud Dynamic Cloud Server CaaS Cloud Services: IaaS Public Cloud Solutions VoxCLOUD The Wipro Cloud

Cloud Storage
FIGURE 9: STAND-ALONE CLOUD STORAGE
VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

AT&T CSC Egnyte Nasuni Nirvanix PEER 1 Hosting Swisscom Wipro (Infocrossing) Zetta

Dallas, TX Falls Church, VA Mountain View, CA Natick, MA San Diego, CA Vancouver, BC Worblaufen, Switzerland Bangalore, India Sunnyvale, CA

Synaptic Storage CloudExchange Egnyte Local Cloud Nasuni Filer Nirvanix Storage Delivery Network CloudOne Swisscom Cloud Services Cloud Storage Zetta Virtual Volume Online

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FIGURE 10: PLATFORM-ATTACHED STORAGE


VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

Amazon Arsys Google Hosted Solutions IBM iomart Group Joyent Layered Tech Microsoft NaviSite NTT Rackspace Salesforce.com Savvis Servepath SoftLayer Technologies Terremark Unisys Verizon Business

Seattle, WA La Rioja, Spain Mountain View, CA Raleigh, NC Armonk, NY Glasgow, UK Sausalito, CA Plano, TX Redmond, WA Andover, MA Tokyo, Japan San Antonio, TX San Francisco, CA Town & Country, MO San Francisco, CA Dallas, TX Miami, FL Blue Bell, PA Basking Ridge, NJ

Amazon S3 Cloud Storage AppEngine & Big Table Stratus Cloud Storage Smart Business Storage Cloud iomart Cloud SmartMachine & SmartDataCenter LT Depot Azure & SSDS NaviCloud Cloud Files CloudFiles Force.com Project Spirit GoGrid Cloud Hosting CloudLayer Storage vCloud Express/Enterprise Cloud Unisys Secure Cloud Verizon Cloud Storage

PLATFORM-AS-A-SERVICE (PAAS)
FIGURE 11: PAAS FROM SAAS
VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

Adobe Appian Google Intalio Intuit NetSuite Relational Networks (Long Jump) Salesforce.com SAP (Coghead) Unisys

San Jose, CA Reston, VA Mountain View, CA Palo Alto, CA Mountain View, CA San Mateo, CA Sunnyvale, CA San Francisco, CA Walldorf, Germany Blue Bell, PA

LiveCycle ES2 Appian Anywhere AppEngine Intalio Cloud PaaS Inuit Partner Platform SuiteCloud Long Jump Force.com Coghead ClearPath Solutions

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FIGURE 12: STANE-ALONE PAAS


VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

10gen Appistry Bungee Caspio Cerelink CloudSoft Cordys DabbleDB DataWeb Engine Yard Etelos G2iX GigaSpaces GridGain Systems Heroku IBM Joyent Magic Software Makara Microsoft Pegasystems Qrimp Rollbase Software AG Stax Virtual Global VMware WaveMaker WorkXpress Xeround

New York, NY St. Louis, MO Orem, UT Mountain View, CA Corrales, NM Edinburgh, UK Putten, Netherlands San Francisco, CA Seattle, WA San Francisco, CA San Mateo, CA El Segunda, CA New York, NY Pleasanton, CA San Francisco, CA Armonk, NY Sausalito, CA Or Yehuda, Israel Redwood City, CA Redmond, WA Cambridge, MA Muskogee, OK Saratoga, CA Darmstadt, Germany Seattle, WA Morgantown, WV Palo Alto, CA San Francisco, CA Carlisle, PA Bellevue, WA

MongoDB CloudIQ Compute Bungee Connect Caspio Bridge Elastic cloud platform Monterey Platform Cordys Platform Dabble DB DataWeb Platform Cloud Services Platform Etelos Platform Morph Application Platform eXtreme Application Platform (XAP) GridGain Heroku Rational Application Developer Smart Platform uniPaaS Cloud Application Platform Azure BPM PaaS Qrimp Rollbase Cloud Platform ARISalign Elastic Java App Platform for EC2 TeamHost Platform SpringSource QuickStart WorkXpress 5GL Platform Xeround

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SOFTWARE INFRASTRCUTURE-AS-A-SERVICE (SIAAS)

IT Management as a Service
FIGURE 13: PROBLEM MANAGEMENT
VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

Altair BMC CA Technologies Cloudscale Hewlett-Packard IBM Majitek

Troy, MI Houston, TX Islandia, NY San Mateo, CA Palo Alto, CA Armonk, NY Melbourne, Australia

PBS Works BSM for Cloud Computing Service Desk Manager On-Demand Cloudcel Service Manager Service Request Manager CloudSystem

FIGURE 14: SYSTEM AND NETWORK MONITORING & MANAGEMENT


VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

Appistry BMC CA Technologies Compuware eG Innovations enStratus Networks Hewlett-Packard IBM ManageEngine Monitis Monolith Nastel Technologies New Relic OpTier Precise Puppet labs Quest Software Tap in Systems WaveMaker Ylastic

St. Louis, MO Houston, TX Islandia, NY Detroit, MI Iselin, NJ Minneapolis, MN Palo Alto, CA Armonk, NY Pleasanton, CA San Jose, CA St. Charles, IL Melville, NY San Francisco, CA New York, NY Redwood Shores, CA Portland, OR Buffalo Grove, IL San Francisco, CA San Francisco, CA Atlanta, GA

Appistry CloudIQ Manager Service Insurance Nimsoft & eHealth Cloud Monitoring Gomez Cloud Ready Monitoring enStratus Cloud Management Cloud Assure Tivoli Monitoring Management Suite Monitoring as a Service Monolith AutoPilot M6 Suite RPM OpTier BTM Suite Transaction Performance Management (TPM) Puppet FogLight Tap In Cloud Management Services WaveMaker Cloud Edition Ylastic

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FIGURE 15: RESOURCE UTILIZATION, CAPACITY PLANNING AND BILLING


VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

Aria Systems Freedom OSS Itheon Librato MetraTech Monexa SatoriTech Vindicia Zuora

Media, PA Newton, PA Bedford, UK Santa Clara, CA Waltham, MA Vancouver, BC Los Gatos, CA Redwood City, CA Redwood City, CA

Aria Billing & Payments cloudMQ Cloud Silverline MetraNet Subscription Billing SatoriAnalytics Vindicia Z-Billing

Platform Management
FIGURE 16: PRE-PRODUCTION
VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

LoadStorm IBM Hatsize Hewlett-Packard SOASTA Quest (Surgient) CloudShare (IT Structures) SkyTap Citrix (VMLogix) Collabnet Aptana (Cloud Connect) Cloud Testing Neustar (BrowserMob)

Dillon, CO Armonk, NY Calgary, Alberta Palo Alto, CA Mountain View, CA Austin, TX Menlo Park, CA Seattle, WA Santa Clara, CA Brisbane, CA San Mateo, CA Alresford, UK Sterling, VA

LoadStorm IBM Smart Business Development & Test Cloud TrueLab Cloud Assure CloudTest Quest Cloud Automation Platform (Hosted Offering) CloudShare SkyTap LabManager Cloud Edition TeamForge Aptana Studio Cloud Testing Load Testing

FIGURE 17: ON-RAMPS/CLOUD BROKERS


VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

Abiquo Appistry British Telecom CA Technologies Cloud Services Cloud.com CloudBroker CloudKick CloudSwitch

Redwood City, CA St. Louis, MO London, UK Redwood City, CA Esslingen, Germany Cupertino, CA Zrich, Switzerland San Francisco, CA Burlington, MA

AbiCloud CloudIQ Manager VDC public enterprise cloud AppLogic CloudStudio Cloud Stack CloudBroker Hybrid CloudKick CloudSwitch Enterprise

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CohesiveFT Cycle Computing Dyn Inc Elastra Enomaly Eucalyptus Systems Freedom OSS Kaavo OnApp Platform Computing RightScale rPath TIBCO (DataSynapse) Univa UD Zimory

Chicago, IL Hicksville, NY Manchester, NH San Francisco, CA Toronto, Ontario Goleta, CA Newtown, PA Stamford, CT London, UK Markham, Ontario Santa Barbara, CA Raleigh, NC Palo Alto, CA Lisle, IL Bonn, Germany

VPN-Cubed CycleCloud Dynect Platform Elastra for Amazon Web Services SpotCloud (excluding ECP software) Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud Freedom OSS Cloud On-Ramp IMOD The OnApp platform Platform Cluster Manager Cloud Management Platform rPath TIBCO Silver (On-Ramp) Univa UD Zimory

FIGURE 18: INTEGRATION-AS-A-SERVICE


VENDOR HEADQUARTERS PRODUCT

Apatar Boomi HubSpan IBM Informatica Jitterbit MuleSoft Pervasive (Data Cloud) SnapLogic Talend TIBCO

Minsk, Belarus Berwyn, PA Seattle, WA Armonk, NY Redwood City, CA Oakland, CA San Francisco, CA Austin, TX San Mateo, CA Los Altos, CA Palo Alto, CA

Apatar AtomSphere Business Integration in the Cloud Cast Iron Cloud 9 Jitterbit Mule Data Integrator Data Cloud Data Integration Platform Data Integration TIBCO Silver

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SCHEDULE OF CLOUDSCAPE LONG-FORMAT REPORTS


Below is the working calendar of CloudScape reports, including some already completed and others to be delivered in 2011. Upcoming topics and delivery dates are subject to change at any point without notice.

Cloud E-Discovery (November 2010)


Analysts: Kathleen Reidy and Nick Patience Hosted and SaaS e-discovery offer new options for the enterprise, as more customers look to in-source the process or coordinate among service and legal teams. While the broader market continues to determine risk tolerance for both cloud adoption and internal e-discovery outsourcing, ESI is already being hosted in private and public clouds by law firms and providers. For early enterprise adopters, hosted and SaaS options can provide an attractive on-ramp for on-demand, self-service, pay-per-use e-discovery without extensive capex investment or IT infrastructure. This report offers a market overview of e-discovery hosted inside and outside the firewall. It focuses on the benefits and risks of cloud e-discovery, adoption trends and inhibitors, market drivers, current vendor and service-provider offerings and the future direction of the market, particularly for enterprise customers.

Mobile Device Management in the Cloud (November 2010)


Analyst: Chris Hazelton As smartphones and tablets drive deeper into the enterprise, IT needs to provide the tools necessary to manage these devices. Security requirements, regulations and the management of mobile applications will continue to drive demand for mobile device management. But enterprise MDM has yet to hit its stride, with several small players in this market. The cloud presents an opportunity to expand the reach of these products, with access to sales and support from large MSPs and mobile operators. As the smartphone and tablet take more overall computing share from laptops and desktops, the need for MDM will only accelerate. Cloud-based MDM will provide a low-cost alternative to on-premises offerings. This report examines the economic drivers behind cloud-based MDM, and highlights where the industry stands in this period of transition. It includes analysis of the economics of mobile cloud computing and detailed vendor profiles.

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Cloud Computing Is Set To Reshape the Asia-Pacific ICT Market (December 2010)
Analyst: Agatha Poon The markets of Asia-Pacific hold immense opportunities for exploitation and growth in cloud computing. Nevertheless, there is great diversity among individual markets, from the underdeveloped Asian markets (Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam) and the developing giants of the region (China and India), to the highly developed and mature markets (Japan, Australia, Korea). In this report, we examine the evolution of cloud computing in Asia-Pacific, identify key demand trends, evaluate the role of hosting companies and telecom providers in shaping the competitive landscape, and discuss the top challenges that service providers face when providing various cloud services. In addition, we review key market trends that affect the continued development of cloud computing in both developed and developing Asia.

Elevation: Application Securitys Rising Importance in Cloud Computing (March 2011)


Analyst: Wendy Nather Now that the network and platform layers are becoming increasingly commoditized and outsourced, the enterprises span of security control is being forced up the stack which is a good thing, because most of todays attacks are focused on the applications. In addition, the whole cloud computing model requires applications to run the platforms that run the applications (and so ad infinitum), which means that all of those need to be secured. This report dives into the target-rich environment of application security, and discusses ways to sort out the cloud from the vapor.

The State of SaaS, 2011 (March 2011)


Analyst: Sean Hackett In determining the state of the SaaS market, we have surveyed traditional and emerging software providers, together with current and potential users, about their plans. The resulting analysis provides readers with a comprehensive view of multiple software segments and a barometer on adoption of this fast-growing delivery model. This report examines SaaS adoption across multiple application segments. It assesses big-picture trends in the market and highlights what they mean for certain competitive segments. The report also includes a five-year SaaS market forecast.

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The State of SIaaS, 2011 (May 2011)


Analyst: Sean Hackett In determining the state of the SIaaS market, we have surveyed software vendors and service providers, together with current and potential users, about their plans. The resulting analysis provides readers with a comprehensive view of multiple software segments and a barometer on adoption of infrastructure applications, including IT management and security functions delivered as a service. This report examines SIaaS adoption across multiple segments. It includes a five-year SIaaS market forecast and highlights big-picture trends that are impacting the markets development. In addition, the report profiles key vendors and market segments and tracks the competitive landscapes trajectory, identifying areas most likely to be disrupted by the cloud servicedelivery model.

Telecom Providers Activity in the Cloud (May 2011)


Analyst: Agatha Poon The market for traditional telcos is changing dramatically. Unlike other technology trends that come and go, cloud computing will have a lasting effect. The incumbent telecommunications firms are under increasing pressure from all ends, threatening to marginalize them. This report examines the cloud activities of several global telecom firms and provides an overview of their current capabilities and plans, as well as our take on where we think telcos will best fit in the changing cloud ecosystem. It also contains market-share analysis of the top competitors in the space.

The State of PaaS, 2011 (June 2011)


Analysts: William Fellows and Sean Hackett In determining the state of the nascent PaaS market, we have surveyed software vendors, service providers, and current and potential users about their plans. The resulting analysis provides readers with a comprehensive view of the PaaS application development model, which is rapidly expanding to encompass the entire application development lifecycle. We address what this means for competitors across the entire cloud stack (SaaS, SIaaS, IaaS). This report serves as a barometer on adoption and the state of change in the PaaS market. It assesses big-picture trends and highlights what they mean for various segments. The report also includes a five-year PaaS market forecast. In addition, the report profiles key vendors and market segments and tracks the competitive landscapes trajectory, identifying areas most likely to be disrupted by the cloud service-delivery model.

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The State of IaaS, 2011 (August 2011)


Analyst: Agatha Poon In determining the state of the IaaS market, we have surveyed traditional hardware providers, broader services firms (including hosting providers, IT outsourcers and systems integrators), and current and potential users about their plans. This report examines IaaS adoption across multiple segments. It includes a five-year IaaS market forecast and highlights big-picture trends that are impacting the markets development. In addition, the report profiles key vendors and segments and tracks the competitive landscapes trajectory, identifying areas most likely to be disrupted by the cloud servicedelivery model.

ISV Activity in the Cloud (September 2011)


Analyst: William Fellows The market for traditional ISVs is changing dramatically. Unlike other technology trends that come and go, cloud computing will have a lasting effect. As a result, traditional players face the perils of disruption if they dont become service providers, while emerging players can capture the explosive growth associated with entrance to a changing market. The potential for profit and the inability of the traditional players to compete has driven increased competition. This report examines leading traditional and emerging ISVs across a number of software segments and highlights their cloud activities, and where we think they will move next. It assesses areas of opportunity and where disruption is likely to occur next. The report also contains market-share analysis of the top competitors in the space.

Global IT Service Providers Activity in the Cloud (October 2011)


Analyst: Sean Hackett The market for traditional managed services is changing dramatically. Unlike other technology trends that come and go, cloud computing will have a lasting effect. As a result, traditional players face the perils of disruption, while emerging players can capture the explosive growth associated with entrance to a changing market. The potential for profit and the inability of the traditional players to compete has driven increased competition. This report examines leading traditional and emerging managed service players and highlights their cloud activities, and where we think they will move next. It also contains market-share analysis of the top competitors in the space.

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Cloud Computing Professional Services (December 2011)


Analysts: William Fellows and Sean Hackett The onset of cloud computing, with all its promise of simplicity, has left enterprises completely confused. This report examines what vendors, service providers and traditional consultants are doing to aid enterprises in their decision-making. Moving to the cloud does not absolve an organization of its responsibility to defend itself against the inherent risks of pushing workloads beyond its own walls. Enterprises will increasingly solicit outside firms to adapt. At the end of the day, the shift to the cloud will increase the burden on the internal IT organization to ensure business continuity.

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ABOUT THE 451 GROUP

The 451 Group is a technology analyst company. We publish market analysis focused on innovation in enterprise IT, and support our clients through a range of syndicated research and advisory services. Clients of the company at vendor, investor, service-provider and end-user organizations rely on 451 insights to do business better.

ABOUT TIER1 RESEARCH

Tier1 Research covers consumer, enterprise and carrier IT services, particularly hosting, colocation, content delivery, Internet services, software-as-a-service and enterprise services. Tier1s focus is on the movement of services to the Internet what they are, how they are delivered and where they are going.
2011 The 451 Group, Tier1 Research and/or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of this publication, in whole or in part, in any form without prior written permission is forbidden. The terms of use regarding distribution, both internally and externally, shall be governed by the terms laid out in your Service Agreement with The 451 Group, Tier1 Research and/or its Affiliates. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. The 451 Group and Tier1 Research disclaim all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Although The 451 Group and Tier1 Research may discuss legal issues related to the information technology business, The 451 Group and Tier1 Research do not provide legal advice or services and their research should not be construed or used as such. The 451 Group and Tier1 Research shall have no liability for errors, omissions or inadequacies in the information contained herein or for interpretations thereof. The reader assumes sole responsibility for the selection of these materials to achieve its intended results. The opinions expressed herein are subject to change without notice.

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