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S-01

afrmative Non-past N

negative N

BASIC
Examples

1. I am a high school student.

2. I am not a university student.

7. A: 2 Are you a second-year high school student? B: Yes, I am.


3. I am Nakayama.

8. A: Are you Kimura-san?


4. Nakayama-san is a Japanese.

B: No, I'm not Kimura.


5. 18 Mari-san is 18 years old.


6. A: Is Kimura-san a high school student?

9. A: Are you Kimura-san? B: No, I'm not.


B: Yes, s/he is a high school student.

10. A: Are you Kimura-san?


B: No, I'm Tanaka.

Grammar Notes
A. N is afrmative. N negative. is N is interrogative. (Examples 1,2,6) B. You can state N1's name, grade/form, nationality, or age using the patternN1 N2 . (Examples 3~5) C. The Answer to the question N1 N2 can have variations. (Examples 6~10) D. In cases when it is understood what N1 is,N1 is sometimes omitted. (Examples 6~10) E. inN1 andis pronounced as "wa".

EXPANSION

1
Examples

11. A: I am Kimura.

B: Are you Kimura-san? A : Yes.

13. A: What did you have to eat this morning? B: I had bread and fruit.

12. A: Where is the dining room? B : It's over there.

14. A: Until what time do you have your part-time job?


B: 4 Until 4 o'clock.

Grammar Notes
F. You can conrm what the speaker said by partly repeating what s/he said by saying N . (Example 11) G. When the answers being sought is N and the answers to the question are in the forms , you can reply with N . (Examples 12~14) To the Teacher is a particle. N1 represents the topic, and N2 the explanation about N1. is In the spoken form, N often becomes N . N andN are polite expressions.

Related items S-13 S-06 S-03 N A AN V

Activities 1-4 What is the time? 1-5 What is your favourite thing? 1-6 Introducing Myself

S-02

N2: things that N1 likes or dislikes

BASIC
Examples

4. A: Do you like swimming? B: 2. No, I don't. I don't like sports. 5. A: 3. A: What do you like? Tanaka-san, do you like tennis? B: B: I like apples. Yes, I do. 6. A: Which subject do you like? 1. I like music.

B: I like mathematics.

Grammar Notes
A. This pattern is used for stating N1's likes and dislikes. (Examples 1~6) B. In the cases when it is understood what N1 and N2 are, N1 N2 are and sometimes omitted. (Examples 3~6) To the Teacher a adjective. is In the spoken form, often becomes. is another way of asking.

Related items S-27 P-23 S-06 N A AN A AN

Activities 1-3 What is your favourite number? 1-5 What is your favourite thing? 1-6 Introducing Myself

P-01 ( and )

BASIC
Examples

1. 2 Mari-san and Kenji-san are second-year high school students.


3. There are a book and a notebook on the desk.


2. I like movies and music.

4. We have soccer training on Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

Grammar Notes
A. used for connecting nouns. (Examples 1~4) is B. Nouns combined with can be used as a single noun in the sentence. (Examples 1~4) To the Teacher a particle. is When connecting sentences, or V form are used.

Related items P-13 P-14 ( and ) ( with )

Activities 1-3 What is your favourite number? 1-5 1-6 What is your favourite thing? Introducing Myself

P-02

( point of time )

N: hour, time

BASIC
Examples

1. 7 I get up at half past 7 in the morning.


3. A: What time do you get up?


2. 11 I go to bed at 11 o'clock.

B: 7 I get up at 7 o'clock.

4. I play tennis on Sunday.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates the time an action takes place at N. (Examples 1~4) B. N indicating the time could be in terms of hours, days or dates. (Examples 1~4)

EXPANSION
Examples

5. 6 15 We had a soccer match on the 15th of June. 6. A : When will you play tennis? B: I will play tennis tomorrow.

7. A: What did you do on Saturday?


B: I watched a movie.

8. I travelled during the summer break.


9. We're going to have a party for Kenji-san's birthday

Grammar Notes
C. indicates the time an event takes place. (Example 5)

D. Such words as or can be followed by. (Examples 8,9) E. cannot be preceded by words like or the interrogatives. (Example 6) F. There are cases when the days of the week are sometimes not followed by. (Example 7) To the Teacher a particle. is

Related items P-07 P-15 P-18 P-21 P-26 (location) (purpose) (frequency per unit) (goal) (indirect object marker)

Activities 1-7 What time do you get up?

P-03

BASIC
Examples

1. 3 3 I am a third-year student. Tanaka-san is a third-year student, too. 2. I like bread. I like rice, too.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that there is the similar object beside N1. (Example 1,2) B. N andare replaced by. (Example 1,2)

EXPANSION
Examples

1. I do the laundry on Sunday. I do my house cleaning, too.


4. I went to Hokkaido during summer vacation. I also went to Okinawa.


2. The newspaper is in the lobby. There's one in the library, too.


5.

3. 6 6 5 The clock bell rings at 6. It rings at 5 past 6, too.

I play tennis with Tanaka-san every week. Sometimes, I also play with Kimura-san.

6. I received a letter from Nakayama-san. I received one from Tanaka-san, too.

Grammar Notes
C. N is replaced by . (Example 3) D. can be attached to the particles . (Examples 4~8) To the Teacher a particle. is In the case that the assumption is shared by common sense or culture, it is not revealed.

Computer games are popular also among adults.

Related items P-23

Activities 1-6 Introducing Myself

P-04

BASIC
Examples

3. A: 1. A: Is Nakayama-san a university student? Is studying interesting to you? B: B: Yes, it is. Yes, s/he is. 4. A: 2. A : What time do you get up? Do you like fruits? B: B: 8 No, I don't. I get up at 8.

Grammar Notes
A. Placingat the end of the sentence creates interrogative sentences. (Examples 1~4) To the Teacher a particle. is Intonation of interrogative sentences is a rising tone.

Related items P-10

Activities 1-4 1-5 1-7 What is the time? What is your favourite thing? What time do you get up?

10

V-01

Time

BASIC
Examples

1. 5 It's 5 o'clock now.


3. A: What time do you get up?


2. A: What time is it now?


B: 7 I get up at 7.

B: 4 30 It's 4:30.

4. A: What time do you go to bed?


B: 10 I go to bed at half past ten.

Grammar Notes

A. Number + indicates the time. (Examples 1,3) B. The ways of reading :30are . and (Examples 2,4)

C. is used when asking the time. (Examples 2~4)

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EXPANSION

1
Grammar Notes

D. How to say

E. followed by is for saying the time.


Ex. 10 15

7 3 1 To the Teacher Pay attention to the pronunciation for 4:00( ), 7:00( ), and 9:00( ).

Related items V-05 V-07 Number Duration

Activities 1-2 Numbers 1-4 What is the time? 1-7 What time do you get up?

13

S-03

afrmative Non-past V

negative V

BASIC
Examples

1. 7 I get up at 7o'clock every morning.


3. The TV is located near the piano.


2. I go to school every day.

4. A: Is Tanaka-san in the classroom? B: No, s/he isn't.

Grammar Notes
A. V is afrmative, negative, and is interrogative. is (Examples 1,4) B. This pattern indicates a present habitual action. (Examples 1,2) C. This pattern indicates the current status/condition. (Examples 3,4) D. In cases when it is understood what N is, N is sometimes omitted. (Examples 2)

14

EXPANSION
Examples

5. I won't go to my friend's house tomorrow.


7. A: What will you have?

6. A: Are you going to the swimming pool next Monday?

B: I'll have a sandwich.

B: No, I'm not.

Grammar Notes
E. This sentence pattern indicates a future plan or intention. (Examples 5~7)

To the Teacher V a polite expression. is

Related items S-11 S-01 S-06 V N A AN

Activities 2-2 2-4 2-7 2-8 2-9 Do you have a pen? Beside Me. Where is it? Is the book on the desk? There is a bag on the desk.

2-10 My School 2-11 Going, Coming, Returning

15

S-04

N N

: inanimate things N2: location

: living creatures

BASIC
Examples

1. 1 2 The classrooms for the rst year students are in the second oor.

2. The teacher is in the library.


5. A: Is Tanaka-san in the classroom? B: No, s/he isn't.


3. My dog is in the car.


6. A: Where is the dictionary?


4. A: Is the cassette tape on the desk? B: Yes, it is.

B: It is on the table.

7. A: Where is Mari-san's cat?


B: It is in the box.

Example 6

16

Grammar Notes
A. indicates the existence of inanimate things. (Examples 1,4,6) B. indicates the existence of living creatures. (Examples 2,3,5,7) C. This pattern is used for asking or explaining location of inanimate things or living creatures. (Examples 4~7) D. When asking about the location, used. (Examples 6,7) is E. In cases where it is understood what N1 is, is sometimes omitted. (Examples 4~7)

Related items S-05 S-03 P-07 P-23 N N V ( location )

Activities 2-7 2-8 2-10 Where is it? Is the book on the desk? My School

17

S-05

N N

: inanimate things N1: location

: living creatures

BASIC
Examples

1. There is a telephone by the door.


8. A: Who is in the laboratory now?


2. There is a big tree in the park.

3. There is a dog next door.


B: 2 Yamada-sensei and the second year students are there.

4. There is Tanaka-san.

5. A: Is there a swimming pool in Kobayashi-san's school? B: Yes, there is.


9. (When you want to borrow something) A: Do you have a pen? B: Here you are.

10. (When you want to take a look at an item or want to buy one at a shop)

6. A: Is there a dog in the teacher's house? B: No, there isn't.


A: C D Do you have CDs of classical music? B: Yes, we do.

7. A: What is on the roof? B: There is a basketball court on the roof.

Example 7

18

Grammar Notes
A. indicates the existence of inanimate things. (Examples 1,2,5,7) B. indicates the existence of living creatures. (Examples 3,4,6,8) C. This pattern is used for asking or explaining the existing place of inanimate things or living creatures. (Examples 5~8)

D. When asking about an inanimate thing or living creatures,is used whileis used for people. (Examples 7,8) E. A request can be indicated with the pattern .(Examples 9,10) F. In cases when it is understood what N1 is, 1 is sometimes omitted. (Examples 5~8)

EXPANSION
Examples

11. A: Does anyone have any questions? B: No.


14. A: Sensei, do we have a kanji exam next week?


12. I can't go shopping because I don't have money.


B: Yes, we do. It's on Wednesday.

13. Please hurry up as we don't have time.

15. Yesterday, there was a rock concert at the park.


16. There was a big earthquake in Tokyo.

Grammar Notes
G.N indicates the possession. (Examples 11~13) H. N indicates that events or incidents took place. In this case, is used for indicating the place of the event or the incident instead of . ( Examples 14~16) To the Teacher In the sentenceN that expresses a request,is often omitted as in N.

Related items S-04 S-03 P-07 P-22 N N V ( location ) ( subject )

Activities 2-2 2-4 2-9 Do you have a pen? Beside Me There is a bag on the desk

19

P-05

BASIC
Examples

1. My pen is this one.

7. 9 Tomorrow's exam will be from 9:30. 8. A: Whose bag is this? B: That's mine.

2. There is a swimming pool next to the gym.


3. The scissors are on the desk.


4. Kimura-san is next to Tanaka-san.


5. That one (over there) is a mathematics textbook.


9. A: What's the date of that newspaper? B: That is yesterday's paper.


6. A: Where is the room for Japanese? B: 2 It's on the second oor.

10. 100 Can I have three of the one's for 100 yen?

Grammar Notes
A. connects a noun with another noun. (Examples 1~9) B. modies N2. (Examples 1~9) C. indicates that N1 is the owner of N2. (Examples 1,8) D. indicates the location. (Examples 2~4) E. indicates that N1 is specic kind of N2. (Examples 5,6,7,9) F. In the cases of C and E, if N2 is identied and understood in context, N2 can be omitted. (Examples 8~10)

20

EXPANSION
Examples

11. I am Kimura of Tokyo High School.


13. This is my friend, Tanaka-san.

12. In Japan, we have four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter.

Grammar Notes
G.indicates that N1 is afliated with N2. (Example 11) H. This sentence pattern indicates that N1 is an attribute of N2. (Examples 12,13) To the Teacher a particle. is

Related items S-07 S-28 S-37 A AN N N A AN + N V+N

Activities 2-4 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 Beside me Whose is it? Where is it? Is the book on the desk? There is a bag on the desk. My School.

21

P-06

N: destination, direction

BASIC
Examples

1. 8 I come to school at half past 8.


2. 5 Tanaka-san goes home at 5 o'clock.


4. A: What time will you go to school tomorrow?


3. A: Will you go to the park tomorrow?

B: 8 I'll go at 8.

B: No, I won't.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N is the destination or towards what direction one is moving. (Examples 1~4) B. pronounced as "e". is

To the Teacher a particle. is You can use (point of return) instead of . The following are verbs in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test (JLPT) Level 4 that can be used with .

(to go) (to come) (to return) (to go out) (to go/come

out) (to enter) (to turn)

Related items P-21 (goal)

Activities 2-11 Going, Coming, Returning

22

P-07

(location)
2

N: words indicating location

BASIC
Examples

1. The music room is next to the science room.


2. The teacher is in the canteen.

3. A: Where is the telephone? B: It is over there.


4. There is a piano in Yamada-san's residence.

Grammar Notes
A. is used with the verbs or and indicates the place where N2 is located. (Examples 1~4) B. used in the pattern, N1 N2 , also indicates location. (Example 4) To the Teacher a particle. is When N1 is an incident or an event, the particle for the location used for is indicating the place of the incident/event. (cf.P19)

A soccer match will be held at my high school.


A big earthquake occurred in Japan.

Related items P-02 P-15 P-18 P-21 P-26 P-11 ( point of time ) ( purpose ) ( frequency per unit ) ( goal ) ( indirect object marker ) ( location )

Activities 2-4 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 4-5 Beside Me Where is it? Is the book on the desk? There is a bag on the desk. My School Where?

23

V-02

= the speaker

= the listener

[gure 1]

[gure 2]

BASIC
Examples

1. This is a Japanese textbook.


B: These are chopsticks.


2. The Japanese dictionary is that one.

5. A: (Teacher showing a dictionary and its owner is unknown)


3. That is a gymnastic hall.


4. A: (When you don't know how to say it in Japanese)

Whose dictionary is this?


B: That is Nakayama-san's dictionary.


What is that?

6. A: (Holding a bag in one's hand)

Is Kimura-san's bag this one? B: No, that one.

Example 4

24

7. A: Which is Tanaka-san's eraser? B: That one is.

8. A: What is this poster for? B: This one? This is a poster for a concert.

Example 8

Grammar Notes
A. refers to the specied objects. (Examples 1~8) B. When you ask for unidentied things, used. (Examples 7) is C. When the speaker is in a different domain from the listener, are categorized as in gure 1. (Examples 4~7) D. When the speaker is in the same domain as the listener is, are categorized as in gure 2. (Example 8) To the Teacher are demonstratives. Please see Appendix-2 Demonstratives (p.259) for a summary of demonstratives.

Related items V-03 V-04 V-09

Activities 2-5 What is that?

25

V-03

= the speaker
N

= the listener
N N

[gure 1]

[gure 2]

BASIC
Examples

1. 2 This room is a classroom for second-year students.

B: That one is Tanaka-san's.


2. That book is mine.


6. (Looking at a photo)

3. Yamada-sensei is that person.


A: Who is this person?


4. (At a classroom during class)


B: That person is Nakayama-san.

A: Sensei, is that kanji read as "go" B: This one? Yes, it is. 5. A: Whose bag is that? B: Which bag?

A: That black one.

Example 6

26

7. (Showing someone around the school)


A: What is that building?

B: That is the auditorium.

Example 7

Grammar Notes
A. refers the specied objects. (Examples 1~7) B. N is used when asking which one is the specied objects. (Example 5) C. When the speaker is in a different domain from the listener, is categorized as in gure 1. (Examples 4,6) D. When the speaker is in the same domain as the listener is, is categorized as in gure 2. (Example 7) To the Teacher are demonstratives. (Examples 1~7) Please see Appendix-2 Demonstratives (p.259) for a summary of demonstratives. Take note of the word order in cases when N is modied with adjectives.

That beautiful woman is Yamamoto-san.

That big bag is mine.

Related items V-02 V-04 V-09

Activities 2-6 Whose is it?

27

V-04

= the speaker = the listener

[gure 1]

[gure 2]

BASIC
Examples

1. (Showing someone around the school)


1 This is a classroom for rst-year students.


2. (Showing someone around the school)


6. A: Excuse me, where is the toilet? B: Over there. A: Thank you.


That is the library.


7. A: Where is the teacher's car? B: Over there.

3. (Showing someone around the school)


That is the ofce. 4. Mari-san's bag is there.

5. There is a teacher over there.

Example 7

28

8. A: Where is my hat? B: It is there. A: Where is it? B: It's behind you.

?
2

Example 8

Grammar Notes
A. refer an specied places. (Examples 1~8) B. is used when you ask about unknown places. (Example 6~8) C. When the speaker is in a different domain from the listener, is categorized as in [gure 1]. (Examples 1,2,3,6,7) D. When the speaker is in the same domain as the listener is, is categorized as in [gure 2]. (Example 8) To the Teacher are demonstratives. Please see Appendix-2 Demonstratives (p.259) for a summary of demonstratives.

Related items V-02 V-03 V-09

Activities 2-10 My School

29

S-06

A AN

afrmative A( adj) AN( adj) A AN

negative A AN

BASIC
Examples

1. A: Does that ice cream taste good? B: Yes, it does.


4. A: Is that umbrella sturdy?


B: No, it isn't.

2. A: Are Japanese dishes hot and spicy?

B: No, they aren't.

5. A: Is your room tidy? B: No, it isn't.


3. A: Is supermarket big?

B: Yes, it is.

6. A: How is Japanese food? B: It's delicious.

Grammar Notes
A. You can describe the nature, characteristics (colour, shape, size, etc) and the condition of N using this sentence pattern. (Examples 3~5) B. You can express the opinion and the impression of the speaker about N. (Examples 1,2,6) C. When you ask for the opinion or the impression about something, the question could be . (Example 6) D. When it is understood in context what N is, can be omitted. (Examples 1~6) E. adjectivehas an exceptional conjugation. afrmative negative

30

To the Teacher Japanese adjectives fall into two categories. The ones ending with for modifying nouns are called -adjectives(A), and the ones ended with are called -adjectives (AN). Negative forms areA andAN . In the spoken form,AN often changes intoAN . Please note that -adjectives (in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4) are not -adjectives. When asking about the state of things, such as shape or colour, N is used. is never used. So, be sure not give the following example:

A: B: .

Related items S-12 S-07 S-01 S-03 A AN A AN N N V

Activities 3-5 3-7 3-8 Adjective Bingo Is it new? What kind of shop is it?

31

S-07

A AN N

BASIC
Examples

1. That store has new computers.


7. A: What kind of movie is it?


2. There is a kind shop keeper in that department store.


B: It's an old Japanese movie.


8. A: C D What kind of CD will you buy?


3. I'll buy some sweets.


B: C D I'll buy a CD with quiet music.


4. I watch interesting movies. 5. A: What kind of bag is it?


9. A: Which shoes will you buy?


B: I'll buy the black ones.

B: It's a sturdy bag.


10. A: What kind of music do you like?

6. A: What kind of food is ?


B: I like quiet music.

B: It's a sweet snack.

Grammar Notes
A. A AN modies N. (Examples 1~8) B. A AN denes N by showing N's nature or characteristics such as colour, shape, size and so on. (Examples 1~8) C. When asking about N's nature or characteristics, you can ask with N. (Examples 5,6,7,8,10) D. In cases when it is understood what N, modied byA AN is, can be used instead of N. (Examples 9,10)

32

To the Teacher Japanese adjectives fall into two categories. The ones ending with modifying nouns for are called -adjectives(A), and the ones ended with are called -adjectives (AN). In cases when two or more words are used to modify a noun, take note of the words in relation to the modications.

For example, in in example 7, modies and


modies. In C D in example 8,modiesand


modiesC D .

Related items S-06 P-05 S-28 S-37 A AN N A AN+N V+N

Activities 3-5 3-6 3-9 Adjective Bingo What sort of bag is it? What do you want?

33

S-08

N: the object which the speaker wants

BASIC
Examples

1. A: I'll take this one/This one, please. B: Certainly.


5. A: (During dinner at a friend's place)

2. A: 8 Excuse me, can I have eight red roses?

Excuse me, could I have water, please? B: Sure.

B: 1200 Here you are. That will be 1200 yen. 3. A: Can I have a hamburger and a salad, please? B: Sure.

6. A: (At the tourist bureau)


4. A: Excuse me, can I have two colas?

Excuse me, could I have a map of this town? B: Sure, here you are.

B: Two colas, right?

Grammar Notes
A. N is used for shopping. (Examples 1,2) B. N is used for ordering something in a restaurant. (Examples 3,4) C. N is used when the speaker politely asks the listener for something which is for the benet of the speaker. (Examples 5,6)

34

EXPANSION
Examples

7. Sensei, may I have a handout of the homework?


8. Sensei, can I have a conversation tape?

Grammar Notes
D. N is used to ask for something that the speaker wants to get and which the speaker has a right to request. (Examples 7,8)

To the Teacher When shopping or ordering in a restaurant, is sometimes omitted. N indicates the object. (See p.38) N is used in a situation or in the context or the relationship in which someone obviously has right to ask for something. So, be careful when choosing the situation or the context for practice. For conversations between the students and the teacher in the classroom, it would be advisable to use only N in order to avoid confusion.

Related items S-16 P-08 V ( direct object marker)

Activities 3-2 3-4 How many do you want? At the Hamburger Shop

35

S-09

N: the object which the speaker wants to have

BASIC
Examples

1. I want a computer now.


2. A: What do you want for your birthday?


B: Let me see. I want a new bicycle.

3. (Looking at a catalogue) A: Which one do you want? B: I want this one and that one.

4. A: Do you want a car? B: No, I don't.

Grammar Notes
A. is treated like an adjective. The conjugation is the same as other adjectives. B. This sentence pattern expresses the speaker's desire to have something. (Examples 1~4)

C. You can ask the listener's wish with the form N . (Examples 2~4) D. In cases when it is understood what N is, N can be omitted. (Example 4)

36

To the Teacher This sentence pattern cannot express the wishes of the listener and the third person. It is rude to ask N to elders and one's superiors. You can express what you want and can ask for something with the formN . In this case, what you want should not be something special, and the person whom you ask it from is someone who is expected to be able to provide what you want.

A:

Excuse me, I'd like to have some white paper.

B:

Here you are.

2 A:

Well, I'd like to have a red ballpoint pen.

B:

Here you are.

When what you want is an object,N is used, and if what you seek is a form of action, V is used.

Related items S-06 S-34 A AN V

Activities 3-9 What do you want?

37

P-08

(direct object marker)

N: the object of action V

BASIC
Examples

1. I eat a hamburger.

5. A: What will you eat?

2. Tanaka-san drinks cola.


B: I'll have a sandwich.


3. C D I buy a CD.

6. A: Will you watch a movie tomorrow?

4. 3 I buy three stamps.

B: No, I won't.

Grammar Notes

A. is used with verbs that express action such as and indicates that N is the object of the action.Examples 1~6 B. is pronounced as "o".

38

To the Teacher is a particle. In the case ofN ( verbs), N is also acceptable unless the noun accompanied by is not in the same sentence. verbs in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4 are as follows:

Correct usage

Incorrect usage

inN is (direct object marker)(See p.34)


Please give me three of these cakes.

Related items P-19 P-20 (point of detachment) (route)

Activities 3-2 3-3 3-4 How many do you want? I'll have a hamburger, please At the Hamburger Shop

39

P-09

(price per unit)


(1)

:price N:words displaying the number and quantity (2)

N1: words displaying range

BASIC
Examples

1. While shopping

2. (While shopping)

A:

Can I have three chocolate cakes and ve cheese cakes please?


A: How much?

B: 500 They are 500 yen for three.

B: 2800 Here you are, That will be 2800 yen altogether.

Grammar Notes
A. in the structure chart1indicates that N is the number or the quantity that serves as the measure for calculating an amount. (Examples 1,2)

40

EXPANSION
Examples

3. Three of us went to the swimming pool


4. The exams will nish tomorrow.


5. Mt Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan.

Grammar Notes
B. in the structure chart (2) shows that N1 is limited to the situation or range. (Examples 3~5)

To the Teacher is a particle.


If the number that serves as the unit of measure is1such as 100 , is not used.

Related items P-11 P-17 P-27 V-06 (location) (means/ingredients) (cause/reason) Counters

Activities 3-4 At the Hamburger Shop

41

P-10

BASIC
Examples

1. A: Are the dishes in restaurant good? B: Yes, they are.


4. (At a restaurant) A: A sandwich and a juice please? B: A sandwich and a juice, right?

2. A: 5. A: Did you use a new computer? This is Tanaka-san's wallet, right? B: B: No. No, it's not. A: 6. A: It's handy. This is a Japanese newspaper, isn't it? 3. A: B:

The bus is leaving soon. Let's get on quickly. B: Sure.

No, that's a Chinese newspaper.

Grammar Notes
A. andare attached to the end of a sentence.Examples 1~6 B. is used when the speaker provides the listener with information that s/he does not know about. Examples 1,2,3,5,6 C. is used for conrming whether the information or awareness of the speaker is the same as the listener's one.Examples 4~6

42

EXPANSION
Examples

7. A: Donuts of that shop are delicious, aren't they? B: Yes, they are.

8. A: It was an interesting movie, wasn't it? B: It sure was.

Grammar Notes
D. is used to show the speaker agrees with the listener, or is for asking for the assent of the listener. (Examples 7,8) To the Teacher andare particles.

Related items P-04

Activities 3-3 3-4 3-8 5-4 Ill have a hamburger, please. At the Hamburger Shop What sort of shop is it? It was delicious.

43

V-05

Number

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000

44

To the Teacher Units more than 10,000 are as follows. 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000

10,000 10,000,000 100,000,000are read as respectively. 1,000is calledas well. The numbers4 7and9have two different ways of reading. Deciding which reading to be use depends on what kind of object is to be counted. Please see V-01 Time (p.12), V-06 counters (p.46), Appendix-5 Counters (P.268). Please note that the pronunciation of some numbers change (printed in oblique letters in the chart) Take note of common mistakes such as: 10 100

Related items V-01 V-06 V-07 Time Counters Duration

Activities 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 How much is it? How many do you want? Ill have a hamburger, please At the Hamburger Shop

45

V-06

Counters

: number

: counters

BASIC
Examples

1. 5 There are ve umbrellas over there.


7. There are two banks in front of the station.


2. I'll buy ve cakes.

These are bank and bank.

3. ( When ordeing )

8. A: How many handkerchiefs are there?

Three hamburgers please.

B: 3 There are three. 9. A: How much is this ball-point pen?

4. (When ordering)

Can I have two spaghettis?


B: 100 That's 100 yen.


5. 10 3 I'll buy ten stamps and three postcards.


10. A: How many colas did you buy?


6. 2 1 There are two dictionaries and a magazine on the teacher's desk.

B: 6 I bought six. 11. A: How many balls do we have? B: 15 We have 15.

46

Grammar Notes
A. number countersindicates quantity. B. Deciding which counter to use depends on the shape or the qualities of the objects to be counted.

C. Things to be counted and the number are placed in the following order. (Examples 1~10)

D. The way of countingis different from other counters. Numbers greater than 10 are counted as .Examples 3,4,11 To the Teacher When asking the amount of quantity,can be used instead of

the interrogatives , etc. Please note that particles should not be placed after counters. Be careful of the word order when expressing the number and the object to be counted. For example, be aware avoid saying . 3 Pay attention to the changes in pronunciation of some numbers and counters. See Appendix-5 Countersp.268. Teachers are advised to teach only the necessary counters.

Related items V-05 V-07 Number Duration

Activities 3-2 3-3 3-4 How many do you want? Ill have a hamburger, please At the Hamburger Shop

47

S-10

negative

BASIC
Examples

1. I don't go to the library so often.


3. My room is not so spacious. 4. I don't like cake very much.

2. A: Do you watch the news on TV every morning? B: No, I don't watch it very often.

Grammar Notes
A. V indicates that an action is not done frequently. (Examples 1, 2) B. A and AN indicates that the level or quality is not very high. (Examples 3, 4)

48

EXPANSION
Examples

5. A: Did you get tired yesterday?

B: No, not so much.


7. A: Did you understand the lesson? B: No, I didn't understand it very well.

6. A: Was the train crowded yesterday?

8. B: We don't have many tall buildings in the town where I live. No, not so much.

Grammar Notes
C. V indicates that an action is not done frequently. (Examples 5~8) To the Teacher In spoken form, sometimes becomes. Take note of the conjugation of adjectives as in A .

Related items S-43 S-23 negative interrogatives + negative

Activities 4-4 Always, sometimes, hardly ever 4-9 Crossword Puzzles

49

P-11

( location )

N: the place where action V takes place

BASIC
Examples

1.

I have lunch at a restaurant.


3. A: Where do you usually play tennis?

2. A: Where do you buy shoes?

B: I play tennis at the tennis court in school.


B: I buy them at a department store.

4. 9 3 We have classes at school from 9 to 3.


5. There was an earthquake in Osaka.

Grammar Notes

A. is used with verbs indicating action such as , and indicates that N is where the action takes place. (Examples 1~3) B. is used with verbs such as, and indicates that N is the place where an event or an incident occurs. (Examples 4,5)

50

EXPANSION
Examples

6. We won yesterday's match.


7. 100 I got a perfect score/ 100 points in the kanji exam.

Grammar Notes
C. indicates the time when an action is carried out. (Examples 6,7) To the Teacher is a particle.

Related items S-06 P-05 S-37 S-28 A AN V+N N A AN + N

Activities 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-9 7-5 Where? Tanaka's day A Typical Week in Ito's week Crossword Puzzles Where?

51

P-12

N1: Starting time or position N2: End time or position

BASIC
Examples

1. I go to school from Monday to Friday.


4. A: When do we have the exams?


2. 6 8 I have a part-time job from half past 6 to half past 8.


B: 10 15 From the 10th to15th.


3. A: What time does the baseball match begin?

5. A: What time do we have Japanese class?


B: 10 11 From 10:30 to 11:30.

B: 10 It will begin at 10.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N1 is the starting point if N1 is a word that expresses time. (Examples 1~5) B. indicates that N2 is the ending if N2 is a word that expresses time. (Examples 1,2,4,5) C. It is not necessary to use bothN andN . (Example 3)

52

EXPANSION
Examples

6. I take a bus from home to school.

7. A: How much does it cost to go from here to Tokyo station?

B: 210 210 yen. 8. 5 10

4
Example 6

Today I studied from page 5 up to page 10.

Grammar Notes
D. indicates that N1 is the beginning of the range if N1 is a word that expresses location. (Examples 6~8) E. indicates that N2 is the end of the range if N2 is a word that expresses location. (Examples 6~8) To the Teacher andare particles.

Related items P-25 P-28 ( reason )

Activities 4-7 7-5 7-6 7-8 A Typical Week in Ito's Life Where? From home to school What is the best tour to take?

53

P-13

( and )

BASIC
Examples

1. I read comics and magazines on Sundays.


2. I eat bread, egg, and so on.


4. I shop at department stores and supermarkets.


3. In my room I have things like a desk, a bed and a TV.

5. There are postboxes in front of post ofces or near stations.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern can connect several nouns together. (Examples 1~5) B. is used for showing a number of relevant items as examples, and implies that other relevant items exist. (Examples 1~5) C. The nouns joined bycan be used as a single noun in the sentence. (Examples 1~5) D. This sentence pattern can be used in the formN1 N2 . (Examples 2,3)

To the Teacher is a particle. The difference of withis in whether all of the relevant items are to be mentioned or not. Be aware thatis used for people, not.

Related items P-01 ( and )

Activities 4-6 Tanaka's Day

54

V-07

Duration

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ?

BASIC
Examples

1. 2 I practice the piano for two hours every day.


2. A: How many hours do you sleep every day?


5. A: 10 Let's have a break for 10 minutes. B: Sure.


6. A: How long do you study everyday?


B: 8 I sleep for about 8 hours.


B: 1 About an hour. 7. A: How long will it take?

3. 7 1 I have supper around 7 o'clock everyday. Then, I watch TV for about half an hour.

B: 5 It takes about 5 minutes.

4. 20 It takes 20 minutes to get to school from my house.

56

Grammar Notes

A. andexpresses the duration of time. (Examples 1~7) B. When asking for the duration of time, can be used in place of

. (Examples 6,7) and


C. is used more often than.(Example 3) To the Teacher


andare counters.

There are times whenmay also be expressed as.


10 10 I rest for 10 minutes.


cannot be used together with.


1 15 I practice for an hour and 15 minutes.

Please note that the pronunciation of some numbers change (printed in oblique letters in the chart)

Related items V-05 V-01 V-08 Number Time

Activities 4-3 I have about seven hour's sleep 4-6 4-7 Tanaka's Day A Typical Week in Ito's Life

57

V-08

: Duration

: Hour

: Amount of money

: Quantity

BASIC
Examples

1. A: About how many hours do you sleep every day?


4. A: Around what time do you usually go home?


B: 8 I sleep for about 8 hours.

B: 6 I go home around 6 o'clock.


2. A: How much money do you have in your wallet?

5. 7 I wake up around 7 o'clock.

B: 3000 (I have) About 3000 yen.


3. A: C D Around how many CDs do you have?


B: 30 About 30.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates an approximate duration, price and amount. (Examples 1~3) B. indicates an approximate time. (Examples 4,5) C. is attached after the time. However, it can be omitted in the case of the time (Examples 5) D. Interrogatives asking for the duration, amount of money or quantity can be followed by , and interrogatives asking for the time can be followed by. (Examples 1~4)

58

EXPANSION
Examples

6. 3 Cherry blossoms bloom around March.


7. 1980 The number of cars has increased since about 1980.

Grammar Notes

E. can be preceded by . (Examples 6, 7) To the Teacher


They cannot be used with time expressions such as . The numbers followed byorare normally numbers that do not include

smaller units such as 1000 .

Related items V-01 V-06 V-07 Time Counters Duration

Activities 4-2 4-3 My Day I have about seven hour's sleep 4-6 4-7 Tanaka's Day A Typical Week in Ito's Life

59

S-11

afrmative Non-past Past V V

negative V V

BASIC
Examples

1. I watched a movie yesterday.


2. A: What did you do on Sunday?


4. A: Did you nish the exam? B: Yes, I did.

B: I cleaned my room.

5. A: Did you close the door?

3. A: Did you study Japanese last night? B: No, I didn't.

B: Yes, I did.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern expresses a past action. (Examples 1~3) B. This sentence pattern expresses that an action has been completed. (Examples 4,5) C. In cases when it is understood what N1 is,N1 is sometimes omitted. (Examples 2~5)

60

EXPANSION
Examples

6. There was a big tree near the gate of the school long time ago.

7. We had a dog when I was a child.

Grammar Notes
D. This sentence pattern indicates a condition or the state of things in the past. (Examples 6,7)

To the Teacher As V often indicates that the action has been completed with, it should be taught before teaching .

A: Have you had lunch? B: No, I haven't.

Related items S-03 S-12 S-13 V A AN N

Activities 5-2 5-4 5-5 5-6 Did you watch television? It was delicious The Holidays Letters

61

S-12

A AN

adjective afrmative Non-past Past A A negative A A

adjective afrmative Non-past Past AN AN negative AN AN

BASIC
Examples

1. This bag was expensive.


5. A: Did you enjoy the trip?

2. The park was very quiet.


B: Yes, I enjoyed it very much.

3. I met Tanaka-san the day before yesterday. S/he wasn't looking very good.

6. A: How was Hokkaido?

B: It was very cold.


4. The food at the party wasn't good.

7. A: How was the movie yesterday? B: It wasn't very interesting.

62

Grammar Notes
A. The sentence pattern is used to express the nature or the characteristics of N. (Example 1) B. This sentence pattern indicates a condition or the state of things in the past. (Examples 2,3,6) C. We can state the speaker's opinion or impression about an event or an incident in the past. (Examples 4,5,7) D. We can ask the about a condition or a state of things in the past with the pattern N . (Example 6) E. We can ask for opinions or impressions about the past asking with the patternN . (Example 7) F. The conjugation of the the adjectiveis exceptional. afrmative Non-past Past negative

To the Teacher Japanese adjectives are categorized into two kinds. Those ending with are called adjectives(A), and those ending withare called adjectives (AN). In the spoken form,AN often becomesAN . For the negative forms, there are alsoA andAN . Be sure not to confuse the adjectives (in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4) as adjectives.

Related items S-06 S-11 S-13 A AN V N

Activities 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 Was it fun? It was delicious The Holidays Letters

63

S-13

afrmative Non-past Past AN AN

negative AN AN

BASIC
Examples

1. It was ne yesterday.

2. This was a park a long time ago.


4. Yesterday's lunch wasn't onigiri.

3. 1970 My father was a principal at a junior high school until 1970.

5. A: Did you have a day-off the day before yesterday?

B: No, I didn't.

Grammar Notes
A. N2 provides a description about the past of N1. (Examples 1~5) B. When it is understood in context what N is, can be omitted. (Example 5) To the Teacher In the spoken form,N often takes the formN . N andN are polite expressions.

Related items S-01 S-11 S-12 N V A AN

Activities 5-4 5-6 It was delicious Letters

64

S-14

BASIC
Examples

1. A: Let's go home together. B: Sure.

3. A: How about having lunch together?

B: Sure. Let's have lunch together.

2. Now, let's sing.

4. A: How about going to the swimming pool?

B: That's a good idea. Let's go.

Grammar Notes

A. V can be made by taking outfromV like. B. This sentence pattern is used for inviting someone to do something together. (Examples 1,2) C. This sentence pattern is used when accepting an invitation. (Examples 3,4) To the Teacher This sentence pattern is used for expressing the speaker's wish. V might sound slightly pushy as it only makes the speaker's intention known without asking the sentiments of the listener. Therefore, this is best asked if the possibility of the listener's acceptance of the invitation is high. By comparison,V and,V is more polite than because the speaker is asking the listener's feelings. V can be used for instructions.

(When the teacher begins the lesson) Let's begin. It is best to teach the formV as an answer to an invitation, together with the teaching ofV .

Related items V-03 V V-15 V

Activities 5-7 Would you like to go to the movies? 5-8 Invitations

65

S-15

BASIC
Examples

1. A: Why don't we go home together?

B: Yes, shall we?

2. A: How about going skating?

B: That's a good idea. Let's go.


4. A: Do you want to come to my house tomorrow? B: Thanks for the invitation, but I won't be available tomorrow.

3. A: Do you want to play tennis Saturday afternoon?


5. A: Do you want to go see a movie? B: Sorry but I will have a part-time job.

B: Saturday? Sorry, I'm not free on Saturday.

Grammar Notes

A. V can be made by taking outfromV like . B. This sentence pattern is used for inviting someone to do something together. (Examples 1~5) C. When accepting invitations, the answers are as follows: (Examples 1,2) V V Yes. Let's V Yeah. Let's V

V That's a good idea. Let's V D. When declining invitations, the answers are as follows:

= a bit (It is a bit inconvenient for me.)

I'm sorry, (give the reason)

66

To the Teacher V is used to ask the listener whether s/he intends to perform an action which the speaker mentions. This is more polite than the expressionV which reveals only the speaker's feeling. The expression for acceptance and refusal is not fixed. Therefore, teachers should introduce a variety of patterns.

Related items S-14 S-03 V V

Activities 5-7 Would you like to go to the movies? 5-8 5-9 Invitations Posters

67

P-14

( with )

N: a person or people with whom one does action V

BASIC
Examples

1. I went to a department store with Tanaka-san.


4. I talked with a friend of mine over the phone. 5. A: With whom did you play tennis?

2. I took a trip with my family during the summer holiday.


B: I played with Tanaka-san.

3. I watched a movie with Sato-san last week.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N is the partner in doing something. (Examples 1~5) B. When asking who the partner is,is used. (Example 5) To the Teacher is a particle. can be replaced with . However, it is not applicable to cases that

always needs a partner and which cannot be done by oneself, such as .


Nakayama-san married Yamamoto-san.


I fought junior high school students with friends of mine. (= My friends and I fought with junior high school students.)

68

Related items P-01 ( and )

Activities 5-5 5-6 5-7 The Holidays Letters Would you like to go to the movies? 5-9 Posters

69

P-15

( purpose )

: Hour N: purpose of movement V1: an action which serves as the purpose of movement V

BASIC
Examples

1. 5. A: My father will go shopping at a department Where are you going? store tomorrow. B: I'm going to the park. 2.

Tanaka-san came to study in my country.


3. I'm going to see a basketball game next week.


A: What are you going there for?

B: To play basketball.

4. I'll go home to get a thing that I left behind.

Grammar Notes

A. V1 can be made by taking out fromV as in . B. indicates that N and V1 are movements with purposes. (Examples 1~5) C. If N or the place where the action indicated by V1 is taken, i.e. the destination of movement is expressed, the particle used. (Examples 1,2,4) is

D. Asking what one's purpose can be expressed with V . (Example 5)

70

To the Teacher is a particle. N should be nouns related to the action. List of nouns in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test Level 4:

name of sports etc. V2 should be a verb which expresses movement. List of verbs in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4:

The destination is also the place where the action is taken. However, be sure not to use the particle .

5
Related items P-02 P-07 P-18 P-21 P-26 (point of time) (location) (frequency per unit) (goal) ( indirect object marker) 5-8 5-9 Activities 5-5 5-6 5-7 The Holidays Letters Would you like to go to the movies? Invitations Posters

71

P-16

(conjunctive)

BASIC
Examples

4. 1. A: How do you nd Japanese? B: Whereas I drink cola, Tanaka-san drinks It is difcult, but interesting. juice.

2. Although Hayashi-san often talks with his/her friends on the phone, s/he doesn't really do so with his/her family members.

5. I had a lot of exams, but I didn't feel tired.

3. Whereas Tanaka-san plays tennis, Kimura-san doesn't.

Grammar Notes
A. connects S1 and S2. B. InS1 S2, indicates that S1 and S2 are in contrast to each other. (Examples 1~5)

72

EXPANSION
Examples

6. A: Sensei, I would like to use the gymnasium next Saturday. May I? B: Sure.

9. (On the phone)


7. I watched a new movie yesterday. It was interesting.


A: This is Kobayashi of Tokyo senior high school. May I please speak to Kenji-san? B: Certainly.

8. I have many hobbies, but I now like computer games best.

10. (On the phone) A: Is Kenji-san in? B: Kenji is not here now. A: Well, I'll call him later.

Grammar Notes
C. S1 is a supplementary explanation to S2, and it can be introductory remarks . (Examples 6~9) D. You can give a turn to the listener by omitting S2. (Example 10) To the Teacher is a particle. In cases when N1 and N2 are the same,N1 may be omitted. Also, in cases when it is understood what N1 is,N1 is sometimes omitted. In the spoken form, oris used for connecting sentences instead of

Related items P-22 P-25 ( subject ) ( reason )

Activities 5-6 8-6 11-3 Letters Telephoning Interview

73

S-16

BASIC
Examples

1. 15 Please look at page15.


4. Could you please explain it one more time?


2. Please listen to the conversation in the tape.


3. Please write down the answer.

5. A: Excuse me. Could you please open the window? B: Sure.

Grammar Notes
A. V is used for politely giving instructions or orders. (Examples 1~3) B. V is used for requesting something to be benecial to the speaker in a polite manner. (Examples 4,5)

To the Teacher When you want to limit the agents of the action, this can be indicated by adding.

Female students, please stand up.


Second year students, please come to school at 8 tomorrow. V is a form of question whether the listener accepts a request or not.

74

Related items C-01 S-29 S-08 V form (V ) V N

Activities 6-2 6-3 6-4 9-2 9-5 I am the teacher Please could you? Please write your name Please do not use a pen Take care of yourself

75

S-17

BASIC
Examples

1. A: May I have lunch in the classroom? B: Yes.

B: Yes, go ahead.

2. A: Can I go to the playground now? B: Yes, you can.

4. A: Can I borrow a word processor? B: I'm sorry, but (I don't think that's possible).

3. A: May I borrow this?

5. A: Can I go out? B: No.

Grammar Notes
A. V is used for asking permission from the listener. (Examples 1~5) B. When you allow something to be done after being asked, the replies are as follows. (Examples 1~3) Yes. Yes, you can/may. Yes, go ahead.

C. When you don't allow something to be done, the replies are as follows. (Examples 4,5) No. I'm sorry, but.

76

To the Teacher stronglyare worded refusals and are often used in cases where something is not allowed based on rules or laws.

A: May I look in the dictionary?

B: No. Please don't . V is an item in the syllabus of the Japanese Prociency Test Level 3. V is an expression for giving permission.

You may look at the answer now.

It is better to focus on this expression of asking permission for classroom practice.

Related items C-01 S-54 V form (V ) V

Activities 6-5 Where is it?

77

S-18

A AN V

BASIC
Examples

1. 4. Tanaka-san wrote his/her name politely. Please clean up the room.


2. Let's study quietly.


5. Please write bigger.


3. The teacher spoke a bit fast.

6. Please gather quickly.

Grammar Notes
A. A andAN modify V. (Examples 1~6) For modifying nouns adjectives(A) adjectives(AN) N N For modifying verbs V V

B. Adverbs express the appearance of an action. (Examples 1~3) C. Adverbs express the appearance as a result of an action. (Examples 4~6)

To the Teacher A AN inA AN V is the adverbial usage of an adjective. Take note of the conjunction of the adjective in A V .

Related items S-39 S-06 S-07 A AN N A AN A AN N

Activities 6-2 6-4 I am the teacher Please write your name

78

S-19

BASIC
Examples

1. A: Have you already memorized kanjis?

B: Yes, I have.

2. A: Have you already written down the answer? B: No, I haven't.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that an action has been completed. (Examples 1,2) B. indicates that an action was not completed. (Examples 2)

80

EXPANSION
Examples

3. A: Do you still have any? B: No, it's all gone.


6. A: Is Nakayama-san's elder brother already a university student?

4. A: Is the teacher still in the classroom? B: Yes, s/he is.

B: No, he is still a high school student.

5. A: Is it still hot?

B: No. It's gotten cooler.

Grammar Notes
C. indicates that the expected change did not happen and the condition is same as it was. (Examples 3~6) D. indicates that a change has occurred and the condition has changed. (Examples 3,5,6)

To the Teacher is used as an answer in cases where an action has not been completed yet. This can be replaced with V . (Example 2) Sometimes, it is used for stating whether someone has experienced something based on an assumption. Be careful not to show examples that make the students confused with the usage for the completion of an action.

A: Have you already tried the new computer game? B: Yes, I have. For practicing the use ofindicating completion/incompletion, it is recommended to use V as in example 2.

Related items S-11 V

Activities 6-2 I am the teacher

81

C-01
Group 1

V form (V )

V form V form
Group 2

Group 3

V dictionary form (V ) V form


Group 1 Group 2

Group 3

82

To the Teacher V form (V )is one form of verb conjugation. V form (V )is treated as follows.

Please stand up. Could you say it again? May I be absent from school tomorrow?

Kobayashi-san is wearing a blue shirt.

5 6 I got up at 6 and went jogging.


6 I brush my teeth after breakfast.


It is written in the letter.


The verbs that become are only . It is difcult to distinguish verbs in group 1 and "-imasu/-iru" verbs in group 2 based on this form. As the number of the verbs in group 2 is limited, it is recommended to have students memorize the verbs in group 2 to avoid confusion. Verbs in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4:

Related items C-02 V form (V )

Activities 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 form Bingo I am the teacher Please could you? Please write your name Where is it?

83

P-17

(means/ingredients)

N: means, ingredients

BASIC
Examples

1. 4. Sensei wrote the answer with red chalk. We can draw pictures using the computer.

2. A: 5. A: How do you come to school, Mari-san? Do you eat onigiri with chopsticks?

B: I come by train.

B: No, we eat it by hand.


3. A: 6. A: Sensei, what does this word mean? How will you send that luggage?

B: Please look it up the dictionary.

B: I'll send it by airmail.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N is a means or an instrument for doing V. (Examples 1~6)

B. When asking what means or instruments were used to do something, is used. (Examples 2,6)

84

EXPANSION
Examples

7. Let's make sandwiches with eggs and vegetables.

8. We can make juice from fruit.


9. A: What is that doll made of?


B: This is made of paper.

Grammar Notes
C. indicates that N are the ingredients used for making something. (Examples 7~9)

D. When asking what the ingredients are, is used. (Example 9) To the Teacher is a particle.

. is sometimes replaced by

Related items P-09 P-11 P-27 (price per unit) (location) (cause/reason)

Activities 6-2 6-3 6-4 7-5 7-6 7-8 9-8 I am the teacher Please could you? Please write your name Where? From home to school What is the best tour to take? Let's Cook

85

P-18

(frequency per unit)

N: duration

: frequency

: duration

BASIC
Examples

1. 1 3 I clean three times a week.


5. 1 1 I swim for an hour a day.


2. 1 1 6. 1 2 We have a medical check-up once a year. I practice the piano two hours a day.

3. 2 We have Japanese exams once every two weeks.


4. 1 3 We have exams three times a term/ semester.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N is the duration that serves as basis for measuring frequency or duration. (Examples 1~6) B. N timesindicates the frequency within a certain period. (Examples 1~4) C. N durationindicates the duration of an action or an event over a certain period. (Examples 5,6) To the Teacher is a particle.

86

Related items P-02 P-07 P-15 P-21 P-26 (point of time) (location) (purpose) (goal) ( indirect object marker)

Activities 6-7 School Timetable

87

S-20

BASIC
Examples

1. I've been to Japan.

2. I've eaten tempura.

4. A: Have you ever seen sumo? B: Yes, I have.


3. A: Have you been to Disneyland? B: No, I haven't.

5. A: I haven't climbed Mt. Fuji.


B: Then, let's go together next time.

Grammar Notes
A. We can state whether someone has experienced doing V by using this sentence pattern. (Examples 1~5) B. In cases when it is understood what V is, V is sometimes omitted. (Examples 3,4)

88

To the Teacher The difference between andV . V Objective description of an action in the past An action in the past as an experience An action being non-habitual Uniqueness of an action

no no

I have had Japanese tea.


I have had tea. In the sentence patternV , the following words are not applicable. Words indicating immediate past: yesterday, the day before yesterday etc. Words indicating the exact time which do not show the range of time: ~ o'clock, year 19XX etc. V is an item in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 3. Attention to the limitation of use should be paid for the practice.

Related items S-11 C-02 V V form (V )

Activities 7-2 7-4 Unusual Experiences Let's go on a trip!

89

S-21

V V

BASIC
Examples

3. 1. I played tennis and went swimming during I often watch movies and go swimming pool my summer vacation. together with friends.

2. My brother reads books and watches TV on Sundays.

Grammar Notes

A. The form ofV can be made by adding toV form in as . B. This sentence pattern is used for showing examples of actions. This implies that there are another relevant actions. (Examples 1~3)

90

EXPANSION
Examples

4. I go back and forth from Tokyo to Osaka by plane.


5. It rains off and on.

Grammar Notes
C. This sentence pattern indicates that two conditions or actions are interchangeably repeated. (Examples 4,5)

Related items C-02 S-03 V form (V ) V

Activities 7-3 7-4 Travel Memories Let's go on a trip!

91

S-22

Interrogatives + positive

: interrogatives

BASIC
Examples

1. A: Did you go somewhere during the winter vacation ?


3. A: Someone is over there.


B: Yes. I went to Hokkaido.


B: Noticing someone

2. A: Why don't we eat something?

Oh, that's Tanaka-san.

B: OK. Let's have something.

4. A: There is something over there. B: What? Where?

Grammar Notes
A. interrogatives + indicates an unspecied object, time or location. (Examples 1~4) B. Particles are preceded by interrogatives + . (Example 1) C. Wheninterrogatives + is used as a word accompanied by (subject)(See p.104) or (object)(See p.38), (subject)and (object)may be omitted. (Examples 2~4) To the Teacher The object forinterrogatives + can be narrowed down by addingN + N A AN + Nafter interrogatives + .

I want to drink something cold.


2 Let's go to see a movie some time whenever you're free. The usage ofinis different. In some cases, and are not omitted. However, to keep the students from getting confused, it is best not to teach this at this point.

Related items S-23 Interrogatives + negative

Activities 7-3 Travel Memories

92

S-23

Interrogatives + negative

BASIC
Examples

1. A: Is anybody there? B: No, no one is here.


2. As I didn't have any money, I didn't buy anything.

3. A: Did you go somewhere during the vacation? B: No, I didn't go anywhere.

4. A: Did you see anybody?

B: No, I didn't see anybody.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used when totally negating the target, time or place. (Examples 1~4) B. Particles are placed between interrogatives and. (Examples 3,4) C. Wheninterrogatives + is used as a word accompanied by (subject)(See p.104) or (object)(See p.38), (subject)and (object)are omitted. (Examples 1,2) To the Teacher is introduced as an adverb that expresses frequency in this book, so it will not be introduced here.

Related items S-22 S-10 S-43 Interrogatives + positive negative negative

Activities 7-3 Travel Memories

93

C-02
Group 1

V form (V )

V form V form
Group 2

Group 3

V dictionary form (V ) V form


Group 1 Group 2

Group 3

94

V form V form
Group 1 Group 2

Group 3

To the Teacher V form (V )is one form of verb conjugation. V form (V )is used as follows.

1 I have been to Kyoto.


2 I do my homework after having breakfast.


3 The movie I saw yesterday wasn't very interesting.


4 I think Kimura-san didn't go on a trip as s/he is ill.


5 Tanaka-san might have gone home. V form (V )is placed at the end of the sentence and is used as plain form. It is difcult to distinguish verbs in group 1 and "-imasu/-iru" verbs in group 2 based on this form. As the number of the verbs in group 2 is limited, it is recommended to have students memorize the verbs in group 2 to avoid confusion. Verbs in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4:

Related items C-01 V form (V ) C-05 Plain form ( )

Activities 7-1 If you can tell me what it is, I'll give it to you 7-2 Unusual Experiences 7-3 Travel Memories 7-4 Let's go on a trip

95

P-19

(point of detachment)

N: words expressing location and point

BASIC
Examples

1. 7 I leave home at 7 every morning.


3. I got off the plane at Narita Airport and went to the hotel by taxi.

2. I get off the bus in front of the station.

Example 2

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N is the starting point. (Examples 1~3) To the Teacher is a particle. The verbs indicating in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4

which can be used with are and .

Related items P-08 P-20 (direct object marker) (route)

Activities 7-5 7-6 Where? From home to school

96

P-20

(route)

N: words expressing location and point

BASIC
Examples

1. This bus passes in front of Tokyo University and goes to Tokyo Station.

3. Please walk on the right side of the road.


4. Please turn left at the third corner.

2. A: Did you cross the long bridge?


B: Yes. I crossed the bridge and went to the island.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N is a passing point when expressing movement. (Example 1) B. indicates that N is a route when expressing movement. (Examples 2~4) To the Teacher is a particle. The verbs indicating movement in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test Level 4 which can be used with are as follows:

Related items P-08 P-19 (direct object marker) (point of detachment)

Activities 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 Where? From home to school Where is the station? What is the best tour to take?

97

P-21

(goal )

N: words expressing location and point

BASIC
Examples

1. I get on a bus in front of the station.


2. Please put the luggage there.


3. A: Have you tried hot springs? B: No, I haven't.


4. A: JAL001 What time does JAL ight number 001 arrive at the airport?

Example 1

B: 8 It will arrive at the airport at 8 in the evening.


5. 8 I went home at 8 yesterday.


6. Nakayama-san climbed a mountain.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N is the goal of the action. (Examples 1~6)

98

To the Teacher is a particle. may sometimes be replaced by.


I go to school. The verbs which can be used with in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4 are as follows;

Related items P-02 P-07 P-15 P-18 P-26 P-06 (point of time) (location) (purpose) (frequency per unit) (indirect object marker)

Activities 7-2 7-5 7-6 7-8 Unusual Experiences Where? From home to school What is the best tour to take?

99

S-24

BASIC
Examples

1. Kobayashi-san is now reading a book in the library .


5. A: How long have you been studying Japanese?


2. A: Oh, Tanaka-san is walking.


B: I've been studying since last year.


B: (Noticing Tanaka-san and calling him/her.)


6. Yamamoto-san lives in Tokyo.


7. Tanaka-san is wearing glasses.


Tanaka-san!

3. A: What is Tanaka-san doing now?

8. Kobayashi-san is standing in front of the gym.


B: S/he is having a meal.

9. A: Do you know Yamada-sensei ?

4. I jog every morning.

B: No, I don't.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern indicates continuity of an action. (Examples 1~3) B. This sentence pattern indicates a present habitual practice. (Examples 4,5) C. This sentence pattern indicates that the result of an action that has been continued. (Examples 6~9)

100

EXPANSION
Examples

10. A: Do you have a Japanese dictionary?

B: I'm sorry, I'm using it now.


11. A: Can I talk to Kimura-san?


B: Kimura-san is on the phone now.

Grammar Notes

D. You can usefor turning something down. For example, example 10 implies that s/he has a dictionary, but s/he can't lend it because s/he is using it while example 11 relays the meaning that Kimura-san cannot come to the phone. (Examples 10,11)

To the Teacher

also conveys the meaning of being in a destination or as a result of the subject's movement.

A: Hello, is Mari-san there?


B: No, she's gone shopping.


. (Example 9) Please note that the negative form of is

Related items C-01 S-41 S-03 S-11 V form (V ) V V V

Activities 8-4 8-5 Which person is it? A part-time job

101

S-25

V: dictionary form

BASIC
Examples

1. My hobbies are collecting stamps and reading books.

3. It is fun to study foreign languages.

2. I like playing video games with friends.

Grammar Notes
A. attaches to the dictionary form of verbs and transforms it into a nominal form. B. V , like nouns, can become a component of a sentence. (Examples 1~3) C. V inV can accompany N N N . (Examples 1~3)

to make cakes

I make cakes

to swim in the sea


I swim in the sea


to write letters to friends To the Teacher

I write letters to friends

is in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 3.

Related items C-03 S-26 S-69 V dictionary form (V ) V N (nominalization)

Activities 8-2 8-3 What is your hobby? What do you do with your friends?

102

C-03
Group 1

V dictionary form (V )
Group 2

Group 3

To the Teacher V dictionary formis one form of verb conjugation . V dictionary formis used as follows:

1 My hobby is taking pictures.


2 I can write kanji.


3 I have breakfast before going to the school.


4 This is the sandwich I'll have for lunch today.


5 I think Yan-san understands Japanese


6 I take the train when I go to the school.

7 It will be ne tomorrow. As this form is used for indexing dictionaries, this is called the dictionary form. TheV dictionary formis located at the end of the sentence and may be used as a plain form. It is difcult to distinguish verbs in group 1 and "-imasu/-iru" verbs in group 2 based on this form. As the number of the verbs in group 2 is limited, it is recommended to have students memorize the verbs in group 2 to avoid confusion Verbs in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4:

Related items C-05 Plain form ( ) Activities 8-1 8-2 8-3 Dictionary form practice What is your hobby? What do you do with your friends?

103

P-22

(subject)

BASIC
Examples

1. 4 Cherry blossoms bloom in April.


6. A: Who are coming to the party?


2. It snows a lot in winter.


3. There is a telephone in my room.


B: Kobayashi-san and his/her friend(s) are coming.


4. Students are practicing soccer on the play ground.


7. A: Which subjects are interesting?


B: Social science and mathematics are interesting to me.


5. Yan-san will make a speech in Japanese tomorrow.

8. A: Who is Tanaka-san?

B: The person next to Kimura-san.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N1 is the subject of the sentence. (Examples 1~8) B. shows the subject of an action, existence or condition. (Examples 1~8) C. is used for expressing phenomena, incidents and conditions. (Examples 1~5) D. When the subject part is the information being sought, is used for the answer. (Examples 6~8)

104

To the Teacher is a particle. In cases where the part of the subject is subject to comparison and when the subject becomes the topic, is used instead of . is used for giving information which the speaker thinks the listener does not know.

A: Tanaka-san will come tomorrow. B: I see.

Related items P-16 (conjunctive)

Activities 8-5 8-6 8-7 A part-time job Telephoning The Japanese School System

105

P-23

BASIC
Examples

1. My home is in Tokyo.

7. I live with my parents, while my brother lives by himself.


2. Cherry blossoms are beautiful.


3. A: What is Tanaka-san like?

8. I like dogs, but I don't like cats.


B: She is a beautiful person.


4. A: Is there a dictionary on the desk?


9. I play tennis with Yoshida-san, but not with Tanaka-san.


B: No. there isn't. There's no dictionary (here).


10. I've already written a letter to Tanaka-san.


5. A: Have you read this book?


11. 10 It takes 10 minutes on foot from the station.


B: Yes, I've read that book.


12. There is a TV in my room.

6. A: What is your job?


B: I'm teaching Japanese at senior high school.

106

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N1 is the topic of the sentence. (Examples 1~6, 10,11,12) B. is used for stating N in comparison to other things. (Examples 7~9) C. cannot be used with interrogatives. D. can be used with other particles. (Examples 9~12) N N N N E. is pronounced as "wa". To the Teacher is a particle. can be used a number of times in a sentence.

I stayed at home yesterday.

used for expressing the subject cannot be used in subordinate clauses etcand noun modifying clauses, AN NV N A . expressed as the topic can be attributed to information already shared by the speaker and the listener.

A: I saw Yamamoto-san yesterday. B: Did you?


A: Yamamoto-san was with Tanaka-san.

Related items P-03

Activities 8-5 8-7 A part-time job The Japanese School System

107

P-24

BASIC
Examples

1. 100 Excuse me. Could you lend me just 100 yen?


5. 3 Only the third year students participated in the game.

2. 10 Let's have a break just for 10 minutes.


6. We study only hiragana.


3. Only Hayashi-san didn't come.

7. Please don't use anything but a dictionary.

4. I bought only juice.

Grammar Notes
A. is preceded by N indicating the object, degree, range and/or quantity, and limits and emphasizes these qualities. (Examples 1~7) B. The ending of the sentence can be both positive and negative. (Examples 3,4) C. When is used with particles , it is followed by these particles. andmay be omitted. (Examples 5~7)

108

To the Teacher is a particle. When is used with particles , it can be preceded or followed by the particle.

The teacher speaks only in Japanese.

Only that shop has this one.

Related items S-43 negative

Activities 8-5 A part-time job

109

P-25

(reason)

BASIC
Examples

1. Tomorrow is Sunday, so I won't go to school.


6. As doctors even have to work at night, their lives are hard.


2. Yesterday was a holiday, so school was closed.


7. A: As the rain stopped, let's go out. B: Sure.


3. I caught a cold, so I won't swim.


4. I'm all right now, so please don't worry.


8. A: How did you know my telephone number?


B: Because I heard it from Kobayashi-san.

5. As I took a medicine, I'm all right now.

110

Grammar Notes
A. connects S1, which ends with the conjugationto S2. (Examples 1~7) B. indicates that S1 is the reason for what S2 expresses. (Examples 1~7) C. When asking the reason, S2 is used.Example 8 D. In cases when it is understood what S2 expresses, S2 is sometimes omitted. Example 8 E. N2 can be placed at the beginning of a sentence.Example 3

To the Teacher is a particle. In answer to questions which seek a reason or explanation,plain form can also be used.

A: Is Tanaka-san also coming tomorrow?

B: No, s/he won't. A: Why?


B: Because s/he is ill. The sentence ending of S1 can also take on the plain form In cases when N1and N2 are the same,N1 may be omitted. Also, in cases when it is understood what N1 and N2 are,N1 and/orN2 may be omitted. Compared towhich is also used for stating a reason, is used for presenting the reason based on the speaker's subjective judgement. If you want to state the reason indirectly or with (more) respect, is recommended. Please note that is in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 3.

Related items P-12 P-27 P-29 S-30 S-31 (cause/reason) A AN N VV

Activities 8-5 A part-time job

111

S-26

V N

BASIC
Examples

1. 2 5 Second-year students can use the gym from 5 o'clock.

4. 200 Nakayama-san can swim 200 meters.


2. You can't practice basketball today.

5. 50 I can write 50 kanji characters.


6. A: Can Nakayama-san drive? 3. A: B: No, s/he can't. Can I make an overseas phone call with that phone? B: Yes, you can.

Grammar Notes
A.V is an action which N1 can perform. (Examples 1,2,4,5) B. N is the noun which appears in "N" as inN verb.Examples 3,6 C. This sentence pattern indicates that it is possible to do N orV . Examples 1~3 D. This sentence pattern indicates that the speaker has the ability to do N orV . Examples 4~6 E. In cases when it is understood what N andV are, N andV may be omitted. (Examples 3,6

112

To the Teacher is the potential form of. In this pattern only volitional verbs can be used. The following non-volitional verbs cannot be used.

(These verbs are in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4) Apart from verb, it is also possible to use the formN . The following are examples in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4.

V is an item in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 3.

Please note that the expressions andhave a different usage. Be careful during drills as not many verbs can be used with this pattern.

Related items C-03 S-25 S-52 V dictionary form (V ) V V (potential)

Activities 9-6 9-7 Test of Sporting Ability A Health Check

113

S-27

N A AN

BASIC
Examples

1. Tanaka-san has long hair.


6. A: Do you have a headache?

2. Tanaka-san is tall.

B: No, I don't.

3. Nakayama-san is strong.

7. A: Tanaka-san, are you all right?


4. My cat has beautiful eyes.

B: I feel a bit sick.

5. My throat felt sore since yesterday.

Grammar Notes
A. N2 A AN is a description of N1. B. This sentence pattern is used for stating the qualities or characteristics of human beings or living things.Examples 1~4. C. This sentence pattern is used for stating the physical condition of human beings or living things.Examples 5~7 D. In cases when it is understood what N1 is,N1 may be omitted.Examples 6,7

114

EXPANSION
Examples

8. This town has narrow roads.


9. This picture's colours are beautiful.


12. Tanaka-san is good at basketball.

10. This camera is easy to use.


13. I'm poor at singing.


11. C D That store sells reasonable priced CDs.

14. I'm good at playing the piano.

Grammar Notes
E. This sentence pattern is used for stating the qualities, condition and characteristics of things or places. Examples 8~11 F. This sentence pattern is used for expressing one's strong point or if one is "good" or "poor" at something. However, the speaker cannot useto refer to him/herself.

In place of, it is better to use .Examples 12~14 To the Teacher In cases when the qualities, characteristics and physical condition are mentioned, N2 should be a part of N1. For example, this would include parts of body, distinct attributes and so on. The difference betweenN1 N2 A AN andN1 N2 A AN . N1 N2 A AN subject usage

N1 N2 A AN N1 N2 Description of characteristics of N2

N1 Precise description about N1


Tanaka-san has long hair. In cases when N1is a person, be careful when using adjectives which may carry negative

meaning such as (dirty)or (dark). Also, take note of nuances in the meaning of adjectives within different cultures.

Related items S-02 S-06 N A AN

Activities 9-4 9-5 10-2 The Alian Take care of yourself Who is it?

115

S-28

N A AN + N

BASIC
Examples

1. Tanaka-san is a woman with long hair.


2. Kuro is a dog that likes sh.


4. I'd like to go skiing with someone who is good at skiing.


3. That tall person is my teacher.

5. I was given a book with beautiful pictures for my birthday.

Grammar Notes
A. The patternN1 A ANmodies N2.Examples 1~5 B. This pattern becomes a component of a sentence as a noun.Examples 1~5 To the Teacher is sometimes used instead ofinN1 .

Tanaka-san is a woman with long hair.

InA AN N, AAN can take the negative or past plain form. However, it is advisable to not use these together during drills.

1 Do you have food which is not so spicy?


2 What was the most interesting thing about Japan?

Related items P-05 S-06 A AN S-07 A AN N S-27 N A AN S-37 V+N

Activities 9-7 A Health Check 10-2 Who is it?

116

S-29

V : V form +

BASIC
Examples

1. Don't drink coffee.


3. Don't use a dictionary during exam.


2. Don't take a bath today.

4. A: Don't forget your homework. B: Certainly.

Grammar Notes

A. V can be made by addingtoV formas in . B. This is used when instructing someone not to do something.Examples 1~4

To the Teacher In the case of giving instructions, it should be in the context of a relationship where it is expected that the listener will follow or obey the instructions of the speaker. For example, a doctor and a patient, the teacher and students in the classroom, a receptionist and a customer. It can express a speaker's firm request. In this case, there are no limitations to its application in terms of relationships such as the one mentioned above.

Please don't turn off the switch as we are using the computers. During role play drills, take careful note of the relationship between characters.

Related items C-04 S-06 V form (V ) A AN

Activities 9-2 9-5 Please do not use a pen Take care of yourself

117

C-04
Group 1

V form (V )

V form V form
Group 2

Group 3

V dictionary form(V ) V form


Group 1 Group 2

Group 3

118

To the Teacher V formis one form of verb conjugation. V formis used as follows.

1 Please don't eat hot and spicy food.


2 For those who (still) do not understand, please ask sensei.


3 I think Yamada-san won't be coming today.


Please turn the lights off whenever you are not using the classroom.

5 It won't rain tomorrow. This may be placed at the end of a sentence, and used in the plain form. Take note of the conjugations of the verbs in group 1, that becomein the formandinV dictionary form.

Please note that it does not become

It is difcult to distinguish verbs in group 1 and "-imasu/-iru" verbs in group 2 based on this form. As the number of the verbs in group 2 is limited, it is advisable to have students memorize the verbs in group 2 to avoid confusion. Verbs in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4:

Related items C-05 Plain form ( )

Activities 9-1 9-5 form quiz Take care of yourself

119

S-30
(1)

A AN N

(2)

BASIC
Examples

(1)

1. The big and black bag is mine.


8. A: These are good glasses, aren't they?


2. Yesterday, I bought a small and handy camera.


B: Yes. They are light and tough.


3. I want to marry a kind and gentle person.


9. Kimura-san likes sports and is good at tennis.


10. Kawakami-san's father is a doctor and a professor.


4. The lively and cheerful teacher is Yamada-sensei.


5. This is Professor Kawakami of Tokyo University who is also a medical doctor.

11. Tanaka-san is tall and Kobayashi-san is short.


6. A: Which building is Sakura Manshion?


B: 5 (Sakura Manshon is) the ve story brown building there.


12. Kimura-san is good at tennis and Kobayashi-san is good at soccer.


13.

(2)

7. This ower is small and red.

Tanaka-san's father is a lawyer and Kawakami-san's father is a professor.

120

Grammar Notes
A. You can connect two or more nouns/ adjectives to modify N. (Examples 1~6)

B. You can connect two or more sentences with the formA AN N . (Examples 7~13)

To the Teacher Words with negative connotations cannot be connected to the ones with positive connotations. For connecting negative ones and positive ones, (conjunctive)is used.

These socks are strong and inexpensive.


These socks are strong, but expensive. The following is also a type of connection used.
A AN N

A AN N

Tanaka-san has large eyes and wears glasses.

A AN N indicates the cause or the reason for the followingA AN N Vin some cases.

10

1 This book is difcult to understand as it is written with a lot of kanji.


2 I could not go to the school due to high fever.

Related items S-31 VV

Activities 10-1 10-2 10-5 What is round and red? Who is it? Please write to me

121

S-31

VV

BASIC
Examples

1. I'll meet a friend of mine at the station and go to the concert together with him/her tomorrow.

4. (While teaching how to make origami)


Fold it into two, and cut with scissors.


2. A: Can you tell me your plans for tomorrow? B: 7


5. Let's sit down and have lunch over there.


6. I go to school on foot everyday.


8 I'll get up at 7, have breakfast at the canteen, and practice from 8.


7. I study Japanese by listening to tapes.

3. I want to go to Japan and watch sumo.

Grammar Notes
A. V can connect two or more sentences.Examples 1~7

B. Regardless the form of V etc formcan be made.Examples 1~7 V C. This sentence pattern is used for stating the sequence of actions. In this case, the agent of the two actions should be the same person. Examples 1~4 D. This sentence pattern is used for stating the condition when an action is taken. In this case, the agent of the two actions should be the same person.Example 5 E. This sentence pattern expresses methods or means used to carry out the action. In this case, the agent of the two actions should be the same person.Examples 6,7

122

EXPANSION
Examples

9. During the summer vacation, Nakayama-san dived in the sea and Yamamoto-san climbed a mountain.

Tanaka-san lives in Tokyo and Yamamoto-san lives in Osaka.


11. We couldn't play baseball as it rained.


10.

12. School was closed as a big typhoon came.

Grammar Notes
F. This sentence pattern is used for stating actions taken by more than two people, for stating a condition or two or more incidents.Examples 9,10 G.V1 expresses the cause and V2 shows the effect inV1 V2 . Examples 11,12 To the Teacher Difference between V and V V actions in sequence parallel actions a number of successive sentences clarity of context

V up to 2 sentences

several

Tanaka-san came, and then Kimura-san left.


After Tanaka-san came, Kimura-san left. Difference betweenV andreason expressing cause and effect. V clarity of context objectivity

10

I can't get in as the bus is crowded.


I don't want to get in the bus because it's crowded. Be careful not to useto connect sentences. Related items C-01 V form (V ) S-30 A AN N S-33 V S-32 V Activities 10-4 Plans for Sunday 10-7 How do you do things?

123

S-32

BASIC
Examples

1. 3. I went to school without taking bringing my Tanaka-san didn't go to school and stayed lunchbox. at home. 4. Please answer without looking at the book. 2.

Let's take the bus instead of the train today.

Grammar Notes

A. V can be made by addingtoV formas in B. V1 indicates that the action V1 is not taken but V2 is taken instead. Examples 1,2 C. V1 indicates the condition when the action V2 is takenExamples 3,4 To the Teacher V is form ofV form. Whether a sentence will indicate a condition or not depends on the semantic relationship between V1 and V2.

Examples where V1 and V2 take different subjects such as

will not be not introduced here.

Related items C-04 S-31 V form (V ) VV

Activities 10-7 How do you do things?

124

S-33

BASIC
Examples

1. Sato-san works part-time after school is over.


6. Yamamoto-san gave explanations after drawing a map.

2. We had a match after the rain stopped.


3. Let's start dinner after Kobayashi-san comes.


4.

After Tanaka-san made a speech, Nakayama-san made his.


5. Tanaka-san goes to bed after brushing his teeth.

Example 5

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern indicates that V1 happens before V2.Examples 1~6 B. This sentence pattern is used for clearly stating sequential relation of two actions or incidents.Examples 1~6 C. N2 can be placed at the beginning of the sentence.Examples 2,5,6

126

To the Teacher The subject N1 in V clause always takes. The difference betweenV andV : V sequence of actions clarity of context objectivity

V several

up to 2 sentences

After Tanaka-san sang a song, Yamamoto-san played the piano.


After Tanaka-san sang a song, Yamamoto-san played the piano. or Tanaka-san sang a song and Yamamoto-san played the piano. In cases where N1 and N2 are the same, the sentence takes the formN V1 V2 . This form is not difcult to remember so it is advisable to introduce this rst.

Related items C-01 S-31 S-36 S-57 V form (V ) VV

Activities 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 Which one do you do rst? Plans for Sunday Please write to me My Friend

10

127

S-34

BASIC
Examples

1. I'd like to travel during the next holiday with friends.


3. A: What would you like to be in the future?


B: I want to be a Japanese teacher.


2. I don't feel like going anywhere tonight.

4. A: What kind of music would you like to listen to?


B: I'd like to listen to Japanese music.

Grammar Notes

A. V can be made by taking outfromV as in . B. is conjugated in the same way as adjectives. C. This sentence pattern indicates the speaker's wish or desire.Examples 1~4 D. V is used for asking the listener's wish or desire.Examples 3,4

128

To the Teacher In the cases of explicitly expressing desire or physiological drive, the object marker is sometimes replaced by.

1 (On a hot day, after running)


I want to drink water.


2 A:

What would you like to have?

B:

Let's see, I want to have a sandwich.

V can be used for indirectly expressing desire or for asking permission.


1 A:

Excuse me, I'd like to talk to Yamada-sensei.

B:

Yes. Just a moment please.


2 A:

Sensei, I want to go to the toilet.

B:

Sure. Go ahead.

is not appropriate for making a request to someone unfamiliar or someone to whom one must show respect. N is used in cases where the object one desires or wishes for is a thing. V cannot be used for expressing the desire in the second person or third person. Also, as this is a direct expression of desire, it could be inappropriate depending on the situation or the listener. Take note of this during drills.

10
Related items S-09 N Activities 10-5 10-8 Please write to me My Future

129

P-26

(indirect object marker)

N: the person who serves as the object of the action V

BASIC
Examples

1. Yamada-sensei lent Tanaka-san a book.


2. Kimura-san showed a picture of his/her family to his/her friend.

3. A: Please pass this to sensei. B Sure.


4. A: Who will call Tanaka-san? B: I will.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N is the object of the action.Examples 1~4 To the Teacher is a particle. Verbs in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4 which are used withindirect object marker are as follows.

can be used both withandif these particles indicate the partner.


I met a friend of mine at the station. (indicates the partner whom one is to meet)

I met a friend of mine at the station. (indicates the partner whom one shares with the action of meeting.)

130

Related items P-02 P-07 P-15 P-18 P-21 (point of time) (location) (purpose) (frequency per unit ) (goal)

Activities 10-5 Please write to me

10

131

S-35

N3:nouns which are associated with actions or nouns which indicate incidents

BASIC
Examples

1. Tanaka-san writes in his/ her diary before going to bed everyday.


2. Students knock on the door before entering the teachers' room.


3. Before taking the train, the man bought a ticket.

Example 3

4. I had lunch before going to the swimming pool.


5. I went home before it started raining.


6. Before Yamamoto-san went to America to study, Nakayama-san went to study in Germany.


7. I bought a suitcase before the trip.

8. I usually jog before breakfast.


9. I submitted the assignment before class.

132

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that the event N2 takes place before V1 or N3. (Examples 1~9) B. The subject N1 ofclause takes. (Examples 5,6) C. Regardless tense of V2, V1 should be in the dictionary form. D. N2 can be placed at the beginning of a sentence. (Examples 1,4,5)

To the Teacher The subject ofclause sometimes takes the particle.


I arrived at home before it rained.

Nouns which can act as N3 are as follows (in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4):

It is not possible to sayV . This form is expressed asV . In cases when N1 is the same as N2, N1 is omitted. Also, in cases when it is understood what N1 and N2 are,N1 andN2 are sometimes omitted.

Related items S-36 S-40 V-03 V dictionary form (V )

Activities 11-1 In what order?

11

133

S-36

N3: Nouns which are associated with actions or nouns which indicate incidents

BASIC
Examples

1. I go to the movies after nishing my part-time job.


2. We tidied up the room after the party was over.

Example 2

3. After reading the textbook, the students wrote their answers.


4. After Nakayama-san asked a question, Tanaka-san asked the same question.


5. A: When will we have lunch?


B: Let's have lunch after looking around the museum.

6. A: May I go out after I check in? B: Sure, you can.


7. We clean the room after our class.

134

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that V2 happens after V1 and N3. (Examples 1~7) B. The subject N1 ofclause takes. (Examples 1,2,4) C. Regardless the tense of V2, V1 should be in form. D. N2 can be placed at the beginning of the sentence.Example 1

To the Teacher N1 sometimes takes. We tidied up the room after the party was over. Nouns which can act as N3 are as follows (in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4):

In cases when N1 and N2 are the same object,N1 can be omitted. Also, in cases when it is understood what N1 or N2 are, N1 andN2 can be omitted. The difference betweenV andV Clear relation between what happens before and after Indicator of procedure (order) Indicator of time (when)

1 After taking off our slippers, we enter Japanese room.


2 Please come after consulting with your teacher.


Please come after consulting with your teacher.

11

Related items S-33 S-35 S-40 C-02 V V form (V )

Activities 11-1 In what order?

135

S-37

V+N

V: plain form

BASIC
Examples

1. This is the book which we will use for tomorrow's class.


2. A: Which person is Tanaka-san?


B: Tanaka-san is the woman who is sitting over there.


9. A: What is the town where Tanaka-san lives like? B: It's a lively town.

10. A: Please raise your hands if you haven't been to museum. B: ( ) Me!

3. That is the senior high school that I attended.

4. This is the picture I drew.


5. A: Who wrote this essay? There's no name on it. B: I'm sorry. I wrote it.

11. I like songs made by the Beatles.

12. A:

6. The dishes made by my mother are very delicious.

Excuse me. Could you pass me the book there? B: Here you are.

7. The drama I watched yesterday was interesting.


13. Please hand in the paper that you wrote the answer on.

14. The day we went to the beach last week was hot.

8. The book I borrowed at the library yesterday is very interesting.

15. The restaurant where we had the graduation party last month is here.

136

Grammar Notes
A. N1 Vmodies N2.Examples 1~15 B. N1 takes.Examples 3,4,6,9,11 C. V Nbecomes a component of a sentence as a noun.Examples 1~15

This is the book which we will use for tomorrow's class.


The person who wrote this essay is Tanaka-san.


Please pass me the book there.


I met Yamamoto-san at the restaurant where we went to yesterday. To the Teacher N1 Vis a noun modifying clause. N1 sometimes takes instead of. However, if the sentence is ambiguous, should not be used.

1 the shop which I went to yesterday


2 Yamamoto-san, whose father is working for a hospital. (His/her father is working for a hospital is )

Yamamoto-san, who is working for his/her father's hospital. (Yamamoto-san is working for a hospital) In a noun-modifying clause, which is used for comparison can be used.

A person who drinks coffee, but does not drink tea.

The V in a noun-modifying clause is not inuenced by the tense of the whole sentence. In a noun-modifying clause,V (continuing state of the result of an action) and V (completion) can be used interchangeably.

The teacher who is wearing a red jumper.

11

Related items C-05 P-05 S-07 S-28 Plain form ( ) A AN N N A AN+N

Activities 11-2 11-3 What is it? Interview

137

S-38

S: contents of the story or thought the end of the sentence of S: plain form

BASIC
Examples

1. I think it will rain tomorrow.


7. A: Do you think the dishes in the restaurant where we went are good? B:

2. I think the teacher is in the play ground.


3. A:

Do you think Tanaka-san also went to the party yesterday? B: No. I think s/he didn't.

No, I think they're not very good.


8. I think rooma-ji is convenient.


4. I think kabuki is interesting.


9. I think it was lively here long time ago.


10. 40 I think Tanaka-san's father is around 40 years old. 11. A: Whose bag is this?

5. I think Tanaka-san's dog is very cute.


6. A: Do you think it's also going to be cold tomorrow? B: Maybe.

B: I think that is Tanaka-san's bag.


12. A: What do you think this is? B: Hmm, I don't know.

138

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for stating the speaker's impression or opinion. Examples 4,5,7,8 B. This sentence pattern is used for stating the speaker's conjecture or judgement. Examples 1,2,3,6,9,10,11,12 C. You can ask the listener's impression, opinion, and/or judgement by usingS .Examples 12 To the Teacher is a particle. Please see P30 quotation p.208. is an item in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 3. The negative forms ofareand . However, it is better to practice only withwhich is more commonly used. Be sure that you cannot express the second or the third person's impression or opinion using.

Related items C-05 S-42 S-67 P-30 Plain form ( ) V (quotation)

Activities 11-4 11-5 What do you think? A town in the past, present and the future 11-6 What do you think is going to happen?

11

139

S-39

A AN N

N1: something that changes

BASIC
Examples

1. 5 Kimura-san grew about 5 centimeters.


4. I think Nakayama-san will be famous someday.


2. The cherry tree we planted last year has grown.


5. The room has become clean after cleaning.


3. 6 In winter, it becomes bright around 6:30 in 7. the morning. I want to be a doctor.

6. 4 3 Tanaka-san will be in third year next April.

Grammar Notes
A. A AN N indicates the condition that results after a change in N1.Examples 1~7 B. This sentence pattern is used for indicating changes in a situation.Examples 1~7 To the Teacher A AN N places emphasis on the result of any changes that occur, and should be distinguished fromA AN N which places emphasis on the action that brought about the change. sometimes implies that the condition remains as a result of change even up to the point when the conversation takes place. It's become manageable since they set up a convenience store nearby.

Related items S-18 A AN V S-59 A AN N S-73 V N S-79 V

Activities 11-5 A town in the past, present and future 11-7 The Four Seasons

140

C-05

Plain form ( )

To the Teacher Plain form which comes at the end of the sentence expresses informal style. Plain form is used as follows:

1 This is the tape which I bought yesterday.


2 I think that person is a Japanese teacher.


3 Please call and ask if you get lost.


4 It will rain tomorrow. Summary ofform


Noun adjective adjective Verb

11

Related items C-02 V form (V ) C-03 V dictionary form (V ) C-04 V form (V )

Activities 11-4 What do you think? 11-5 A town in the past, present and the future 11-6 What do you think is going to happen?

141

S-40

N1: the subject of clause

BASIC
Examples

1. When I don't know the kanji, I look it up in a dictionary.


4. When I go abroad, I bring my passport.


2. When I was having dinner, a friend of mine came over.

5. Before I came to Japan, I took a photo at the airport.


3. When I returned home, nobody was in.

6. When I arrived in Japan, I took a photo at the airport.

Example 5,6

7. When I go to bed, I take off my glasses.

12. Lee-san came to Japan when the cherry blossoms were beautiful.

8. After getting up, I put on my glasses.


9. I sing a song when I am happy.


13. I used to go shing when I was in a primary school student.


10. My mother was a nurse when she was young.


11. I often read books in my free time.

14. I didn't like carrots when I was a child.

142

Grammar Notes
A. clause indicates when S2 takes place.Examples 1~14 B. The subject N1ofclause takes.Examples 2,3,12 C. S2 indicates the tense.Examples 1~14 D. clause sometimes indicates the chronological relation between the actions expressed by V1 and V2.Examples 5~8

V1non-past formV2 Take the action V2 before the action V1 nishes.

V1 V2

V1past fromV2

Take the action V2 after the action V1completed.

V1 V2

E. A1 AN1 N3 are not inuenced by the tense of S2.Examples 10~14 F. N2 can come at the beginning of a sentence.Examples 10,12 V1 (Plain form) N1 A1 AN1 N3 V2 A2 AN2 N4

N2

To the Teacher (time)may be attached toclause. When V1 is a static verb etcand V2 is a past form, V1 can be either in the past or non-past form.

When I was in the room, I made a phone call.

When V2 is past form, plain-past form ofA AN Ncan be used inclause. When you want to emphasise that the condition expressed in theclause is different from the present , the tense should be past.

I often swam when I was young.

If cases where N1 and N2 refer to the same object, N1 can be omitted. Also, in cases where it is understood what N1 and N2 are,N1 andN2 are sometimes omitted.

Related items C-05 S-35 S-36 Plain form ( )

Activities 12-2 12-3 12-4 12-6 12-9 When did it happen? What do you say at such times? Useful signs Quiz about Japan Famous people

12

143

S-41

N: the object of action V

BASIC
Examples

1. The window is closed.


6. A: Oh, the cake was cut into pieces.

2. The light was switched off.


B: Well, let's have them.

3. A new movie poster was posted at a platform of the station.


4. 15 The question is written on page 15.


5. A: Is a dictionary sitting on a desk?

B: Yes, it is.

Example 6

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for showing N's condition as a result of a deliberate action. Examples1~6 B. V should be verbs which takedirect object marker .

144

To the Teacher InV , the person who made the action is not important, and the attention is paid only to the resulting condition. N is the actor of the condition expressed inV . The difference betweenV andV V Description of an action Description of a condition Suggestion of a sense of purpose

The window is open. I opened the window.

The difference betweenV andV . V Kind of verb Description of the present condition Deliberate action

V In-transitive verbs +

Transitive verbs +

Someone opened the window and as a result, it is now open. The window is open.

The window is open. (present condition of the window) V can be used for stating that something has been completed for a purpose. In this case, the object takes.

1 A: B: 2 A: B:

Have you talked about next week's schedule with Kobayashi-san? No, not yet.

Have you looked up the kanji?

Yes, I have. Be careful about the usage of particles as some verbs express both "present condition" and "completion". During drills and exercises, it is better to limit the verbs with consideration to their the meaning. It is advisable to use the verbs below (in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 4) for practice.

Related items C-01 S-24 S-72 V form (V ) V V Activities 12-8 How to put out the rubbish

12

145

S-42

S: plain form NB:N N AN AN

BASIC
Examples

1. A: Where is Tanaka-san?

3. A: Did you see the match of the soccer team yesterday?

B: S/he might be in the gymnastic hall.


2. A: I wonder if Tanaka-san is still up?

B:

B: S/he probably has gone to bed.

No. But, they have been training very hard so they probably won.

4. A: What time will Tanaka-san come?


B: 3 S/he will come around 3.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used when making inferences about past and present events. Examples 1~3 B. This sentence pattern is used for expressing predictions about future events. Example 4

146

To the Teacher Plain form ofis. Inferences expressed withare not clearly justiable and are subjective. is sometimes used for asking questions in a courteous manner.

A: I wonder how much is this?

B: 1000 That's 1000 yen.

Related items C-05 S-38 S-68 Plain form ( )

Activities 12-1 Something good might happen tomorrow

12

147

S-43

negative

BASIC
Examples

1. There is only one hotel in this town.


2. 3 It took only three hours from Tokyo to Osaka.


3. 500 I only have 500 yen in my wallet.

4. I only had a sandwich yesterday.


5. You can buy it only in Japan.


6. Only Tanaka-san came.

Grammar Notes
A. is used together with a negative form. B. limits and puts an emphasis on N and follows N that indicates quantity, degree, range and/or objects.Examples1~6 C. can be used together with other articles.Examples 4~6 N N direct object marker N

148

To the Teacher is a particle. is used for emphasizing and highlighting a particular thing.Examples 1,4,5 is used for stating something within limited terms that is against the speaker's expectations and assumptions. This suggests what the speaker feels about these expectations and assumptions.Examples 2,3,6 For example, in example 2, the speaker thought it would take longer. In example 3, the speaker thought there was more money in the wallet. In example 6, the speaker thought that people other than Tanaka-san would come. If replaced with the form positive, it would be hard to convey the speaker's emotions.

Related items P-24

Activities 12-10 Kasa Jizo

12

149

S-44

BASIC
Examples

1. I went home while singing a song.


2. We had lunch while looking at the scenery.


3. We study Japanese while listening to a tape.


4. A child is walking while crying.

Grammar Notes

A. V is made by taking outfromV formas in . B. V1 and V2 have the same agent. C. indicates that V1 and V2 are done at the same time.Examples 1~4 To the Teacher sometimes indicates that V2 happens within the period when situation V1 takes place.

1 I studied at the university while working part-time.


2 Yamamoto-san wrote novels while working for a company.

Related items S-31 S-32 VV V

Activities 12-7 12-9 Famous Places Famous People

150

P-27

(cause/reason)

N: words showing cause and reason

BASIC
Examples

1. Kobayashi-san can't play tennis because of a cold.


2. Tanaka-san was absent from school because he was sick.


3. The trains stopped due to snow.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that N is the cause/reason of action or incident V.Examples 1~3 To the Teacher is a particle. is often something which brings about negative consequences. For example, a disease, a cold, or natural phenomena (rain, snow, wind) etc.

Related items P-09 P-11 P-17 P-25 P-29 S-30 S-31 price per unit location methods/ingredients reason A AN N VV

Activities 12-6 Quiz about Japan

152

S-45

S: plain form NB:N N AN AN

BASIC
Examples

1. (Seeing B with a pained expression) A: What's the matter?


B: I bought a yukata.

5. Excuse me. I don't know how to use this. Could you show me how to use it?

B: I have a tooth ache.


2. (In the kitchen at midnight)

6. I'm going shopping with a friend of mine tomorrow. Do you want join us?

A: What are you doing? B: I'm hungry.


7. I'd like to send an e-mail to my friend. May I use the computer?


3. A: How about going shing together on Sunday? B: Where are you going?

A: I'm going to a lake near Mt.Fuji.


8. I'd like to buy a stamp. Is there a post ofce nearby?

4. A:

You're going home soon, aren't you? Have you already bought some souvenirs?

B: Yes, I have.

A: What did you buy?

Example 2

154

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for asking or stating a condition.Examples 1,2 B. This sentence pattern is used for asking or stating further in detail.Examples 3,4 C. This sentence pattern is used as introductory remarks for a request, an invitation or for asking information.Examples 5~8

13

To the Teacher In the written form,is sometimes used in place of. Please be careful as there are many instances of the incorrect usage ofand sentences.

It is my rst time to come to Japan Stating a fact It is my rst time to come to Japan. ( So, I'm a little anxious.)

Implies that there is a reason or excuse


2 Do I eat this?

Simply asking whether to do something or not.


Do I eat this? Conrming that something is different from the speaker's knowledge or from information s/he has received

Related items C-05 S-01 S-03 S-06 S-11 S-12 S-13 Plain form ( ) A AN A AN

Activities 13-1 Guidance counselling for an exchange student 16-4 16-7 Diary of a policeman Kabuki

155

S-46

BASIC
Examples

1. You had better to take an umbrella today.


2. A: I have a slight headache.


B: Then, you'd better go home today. Take care.

3. A: When you get a present, is it better to open it right away?


B: I think it's okay to open it later, but I always open it at once.

4. A: Wow! What a cute dog!

B: You'd better not get too close, as it might bite you.


5. A sale is coming up soon so I think it's better not to buy now.

6. A: Is it better not to throw plastic waste together with the other waste?

B: No, you can throw them out together.

Example 1

156

Grammar Notes
A. is used for giving advice to do action V, or for asking advice. Examples 1~3 B. is used for giving advice not to do action V, or for asking advice. Examples 4~6

13

C. It is common to attachorat the end of the sentence to tone down the harshness of a statement.Examples 1,2,4,5 To the Teacher V is not used. Vdictionary formandV are not introduced in this book as their usage is different.

Related items C-02 C-04 form (V ) form (V )

Activities 13-1 Guidance counselling for an exchange student 13-6 Homestaying in Japan

157

S-47

BASIC
Examples

1. Children should not drink alcohol.


2. You are not allowed to enter this room.


3. You must not use a mobile phone in the hospital. 4. You mustn't tell a lie. 5. You can't smoke here.

6. A: Why can't we wash our bodies in a bath tub?


B: Because all of the family members use the hot water in the bath tub.

Example 3

158

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern indicates prohibition of the action V.Examples 1~6 B. This sentence pattern is used for stating something which is not allowed or tolerated by social rules or rules in a family. (Examples 1~6)

13

To the Teacher This sentence pattern is sometimes used by parents, doctors or teachers to give advice. In this case, is often attached.

1 You've caught a cold. I'll give you an injection so you mustn't take a bath today.

2 A:

I'm sorry. I forgot to do my homework. Can I submit it tomorrow?


B:

You absolutely mustn't forget to submit it tomorrow.

Difference betweenV and p.117 Expression of strong prohibition V This implies that the listener cannot turn down what the speaker says. This implies that the speaker is asking for the listener's V cooperation not to do something. As an expression of prohibition, this is not as harsh as V . There are other patterns such asA andAN N . However, these are not introduced in this book as the usage is different. Make the students practice using volitional verbs. (Please see P.278 Appendix-12 Volitional Verbs and Non-Volitional Verbs.)

Related items C-01 S-29 form (V )

Activities 13-2 13-6 14-5 You are not allowed to.. Homestaying in Japan Playing Port Ball

159

S-48

BASIC
Examples

1. I tried to use chopsticks for the rst time.


2. This is food from my country. Please try it.


3. I tried to make norimaki by myself, as I learned how to make it. However, it was unsuccessful.

4. A: I haven't worn a kimono. B: So, would you like to try on mine?


5. A: My mother is teaching ikebana at home every week.


B: Ikebana? That's nice. I'd like to try it.


6. A new game centre will open today. Would you like to go with me? 7. A: This is a present for you.

B: Thank you. May I open it now?

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern indicates that the speaker actually tries something in order to nd out the result outcome of the action V.Examples 1~5 B. This sentence pattern may be used as an expression that conveys a more politeness than does.Examples 6,7 C. This sentence pattern cannot be used to express an action in the third person.

160

To the Teacher is volitional verbs. (Please see P.278 Appendix-12 Volitional Verbs and Non-Volitional Verbs.) We do not sayas a negative form. However,is used for invitation as shown in example 5. cannot be used if the speaker did not actually take the action V.

13

Related items C-01 form (V )

Activities 13-1 Guidance counselling for an exchange student 13-6 13-7 Homestaying in Japan I want to try climbing Mt Fuji

161

S-49

BASIC
Examples

1. I learned how to make tenpura when I stayed with a Japanese family.


2. You've getting quite good at using chopsticks.


3. Instructions on throwing garbage is written in this paper has the so please read it when you're not sure.

4. A: Have you tried origami?


B: Yes. But, I only know how to make a crane. A: Well, let's try making a rabbit together.

5. I was at a loss because I didn't know how to get on a bus.


6. A: Young people's ways of speaking are different from adults.


B: I agree. They are different especially when they speak to friends.


7. I don't know how to study kanji. Could you teach me how to do it?

Grammar Notes
A. This pattern expresses method/procedure.Examples 1~7 B. V becomes a component of a sentence as a noun.Examples 1~7

162

To the Teacher Examples of relationships between N and V inN V are as follows:


13

to write kanji

how to write kanji


N V

N V

to get a bus

how to get a bus


Young people speak


young people's way of speaking


N N N N N V

to study Japanese

how to study Japanese


to go to the airport

how to go to the airport


N V

to go from Tokyo Station


how to go from Tokyo Station


N V N V

to go to school

how to go to school

N V

how to associate with Japanese


to associate with Japanese N V to order in a restaurant

how to order in a restaurant

Related items

Activities 13-6 13-7 16-3 16-7 Homestaying in Japan I want to try climbing Mt Fuji Japanese History Kabuki

163

S-50

N1: person who gives something N2: person who receives something N3: an object

BASIC
Examples

1. Yesterday was Yoshida-san's birthday. Tanaka-san gave Yoshida-san a puppy.


2. A: What are you going to give your mother on Mother's day? B: It's a secret.

3. A: What do you think is best thing to give Mari-san as a souvenir? B: How about chopsticks? A: That's a good idea. I'll give it to her.

Example 1

164

4. (On a notice board)


Giving away Japanese conversation tapes. Please contact me if you are interested.

13

5. A: That key holder is cute. Where did you buy it?


B: At Tokyo Disneyland. I'll give you this as I've still got another one. A: Oh, is it OK with you? Thank you very much.

6. My father is wearing the tie we gave him every day.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern indicates that N1gives something to N2.Examples 1~6 B. N2 can never be the speaker. C. In cases when N1 is the speaker or it is understood who N1 and N2 are,N1 and/or N2 are sometimes omitted.Examples 2~5 To the Teacher In a case where N2 is an animal or a plant, is used in place of.

1 I water the owers everyday.

2 I feed the dog. In a case where N2 is the speaker or a family member of the speaker, is used. (Please see P.277 Appendix-11 Giving and Receiving.)

1 Tanaka-san sometimes gives me Japanese stamps.


2 Tanaka-san gave my mother Japanese cakes. Regarding expressions of giving and receiving, it is easier to understand these expressions beginning with the practice of the use of . It is essential to understand the relationship between "inner group" and "outer group" in order to use properly. (Please see P.276 Appendix-11 Giving and Receiving.)

Related items S-51

Activities 13-3 13-5 16-5 Giving and Receiving Presents Lodgings for a sparrow

165

S-52

V (potential)

N : the object of action V V ( ) : Potential form

BASIC
Examples

1. A: I'd like to ask someone to accompany a song. Can anyone play a musical instrument?

B: Yamamoto-san can play the guitar.


2. A: Tanaka-san, why don't we go together to the swimming pool some time?

B: That would be a good idea, but I can't swim.


3. Though I haven't learned katakana yet, I can write my name in katakana.


4. A: Can you come help me tomorrow, too?

B: Well, I'm not so sure about tomorrow..


5. A: Can we also use the computers in the library?

B: Yes. Of course you can.


6. Last year's uniform has gotten too small for me, I can't t into it.

7. I can't read it as there too many unfamiliar kanji.

Example 6

168

Grammar Notes
A. This structure is used to state having the ability or technique to do something expressed by V. (Examples 1~3) B. This structure is used to state the possibility of an action expressed by V under certain conditions (Examples 4~7) To the Teacher is a volitional verb. (Please see P.278 Appendix-12 Volitional Verbs and Non-Volitional Verbs.) The pattern(S26V N ) is used to express the meaning that something is possible to do as the conditions are met. It has a much limited usage than V.

14

Tanaka-san can swim.


1000 18 Tanaka-san can swim 1000 meters in 18 minutes. In cases when N is the channel or means of access for (a verb of) movement or the place where an action is taken, the structure should be.

A bird can y in the sky.

can be used for stating the nature or the function of something. However, this usage is not covered in this book.

A:

Is this water drinkable?


B:

Don't worry, it is.

Related items S-26 C-06 Potential form ( )

Activities 14-2 14-3 14-5 14-8 15-3 Can you swim? School Quiz Playing Port Ball A terrible day How about here?

169

S-53

BASIC
Examples

1. Students must obey school rules (and regulations).


2. There's an upcoming basketball match so they must train everyday.


3. A: In Japanese senior high schools, do all the students have to wear uniforms?

B: No, some schools don't have uniforms.


4. A: 5 Oh, it's already 5 o'clock. It's about time to go home.

B: Oh, Are you already going home?


5. A: Yumiko-san, why don't we go to a concert this coming Saturday?


B: Sorry. I have to go the dentist on Saturday.

Grammar Notes
A. This structure is used for stating that someone is required or obligated to do V. (Examples 1~4) B. V sometimes used for rejecting something such as an is invitation when someone needs to do something else. (Example 5)

170

To the Teacher In the spoken form, V sometimes becomesV V V .


A:

Oh, the bell has rung, so we have to go back to the classroom.

14

B:

Let's hurry up.

The differences amongV ,V ,V andV are as follows: Contents V V V V


General things About the speaker him/herself Specic things About the interlocutor him/herself

1 We have to bring our passports when we go abroad.


2 We have to wear uniforms when we go to school.


(A teacher receiving a report without a name, to the students) In your reports, you must absolutely write down your names.

4 You have to chew more when you eat.

Related items C-04 S-54 V form (V ) V

Activities 14-4 14-5 14-6 18-6 Various School Uniforms Playing Port Ball Turning down invitations Club Activities

171

S-54

BASIC
Examples

1. You don't have to hurry up. We still have time.


2. You don't have to bring training wear everyday. Please bring it only on the day of P.E.

3. A: Sensei ! This assignment is difcult.


B: You don't have to do the questions you don't understand. Just do the ones you know.

4. A: Sensei ! Do you recommend buying this book?


B: You don't have to buy it. There's a copy in the library.


5. A: Senpai, can I be absent from the afternoon training? I've got a cold and a fever.

B: That's all right. Take care.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used when the listener does not need to do V. (Examples 1~4) B. is used when asking a permission not to do V. (Example 5)

172

To the Teacher V is used in the same way asV .V is more formal expression and is an item in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 3.

14
Activities 14-4 Various School Uniforms

Related items C-04 S-17 S-53 V form (V ) V V

173

S-55

BASIC
Examples

1. 100 Yamamoto-san nished learning100 kanji in a one day.

2. A: Have you done your homework? B: No, I haven't. A: Well, why don't we do together?

3. 8 Tomorrow, we're planning to nish preparations for the sports day, so please come to the play ground at 8 o'clock.

4. We don't have time, so let's nish it quickly.


5. 0 I got a 0 points for yesterday's math exam.


6. I got injured by falling down the stairs.


7. A: I'm sorry. I marked your book by mistake.


B: That's all right. Don't worry.

8. B (B looking puzzled.) A: What's the matter?


B: I forgot to bring the textbook. A: Then let's share mine.

Example 5

174

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used especially when rmly stating that an action or conditions expressed by V is about to be or has been completed. (Examples 1~4) B. is used for stating the feelings such as regret or disappointment caused by actions or conditions that are against the speaker's will. (Examples 5~8) To the Teacher In the spoke form sometimes becomes

14

1 A:

What's the matter?


B:

I forgot to do my homework,

2 A:

What happened to the juice that was here?

B:

I drank it all up.

Make your students understand that (non-past tense) also has the meaning of completion. In the case of B, drill your students with non-volitional verbs (p. 279) such as

Related items C-01 S-11 S-19 form (V )

Activities 14-7 14-8 16-4 Apologising A terrible day Diary of a policeman

175

S-56

A AN V

BASIC
Examples

1. There's too much homework. Can you please give us less?


2. It's too windy to y a kite today.


3. I think our school rules are a bit too strict.

4. This game isn't very fun because the rules are too complicated.

5. I practiced too much soccer yesterday. My feet hurt.


6. I ate too much. I've got a full stomach. 7. B (B yawning) A: What's the matter? Do you lack sleep?

B: Yes, I had too much fun till late yesterday.

Example 2

176

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern conveys that the speaker thinks that something expressed by A/AN/V is excessive and thus, not very good. (Examples 1~7)

14
To the Teacher Take note of the differences in meaning between the two negative forms of A AN V . The Form of Negation A/AN/V Conjugation A:A V:V A:A A/AN/V AN:AN V:V

Meaning It indicates that A/AN/V is not excessive. It means that something is too "not A/AN/V".

1 Don't eat too much. Otherwise, you'll get a stomach ache.


My brother should clean the room more often. He does it only once a month.

In the case of adjectives which have a positive connotation such as


, do not use these for practice as the nuance is different from normal usage.

Related items

Activities 14-8 A terrible day

177

C-06
Group 1

Potential form ( )
Group 2

Group 3

To the Teacher Potential form is one form of verb conjugation. form, form, form, formof the potential form have the same conjugation of verbs as group 2.

In the spoken form, the verbs in the group 2 may take the short form.

Some verbs do not have a potential form. Verbs which carry the meaning of possibility or spontaneity: etc

Non-volitional verbs: etcSee p.279

Others: etc

178

To the Teacher

The differences between(potential form of) and

(Intransitive verbs) Intentional action

example

14

You can listen to tomorrow's weather forecast over the phone.


I can't hear anything. Can you turn it up, please?


We can view pictures of Van Gogh at the Tokyo Museum.


We can see a lot of stars in the sky.

Potential forms are used as followings.


1 I couldn't swim at all till last year.


2 1000 I practice at the pool every day, and have become capable of swimming 1000 meters.

Related items C-03 S-52 S-79 V dictionary form (V ) potential

Activities 14-1 14-2 14-3 Relay Can you swim? School Quiz

179

P-28

BASIC
Examples

1. 18 I'd like to get a motorbike license by my 18th birthday.


2. A: By when do I have to submit my homework?


B: 5 It's due Monday. Please submit it on Monday by 5 pm.


3. We have to review the kanji taught this week by examination time next week.

4. Please be sure to give me a reply by tomorrow.


5. 10 We have to decide which university to apply to by the 10th next month.

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that the action of V is completed before the time shown in N. (Examples 1~5) B. This sentence pattern is used for stating the due date or the deadline. (Examples 1~5)

180

To the Teacher The difference between and.


5 I'll come here by 5.

5 I'll stay here till 5.

14

is sometimes preceded by verbs (dictionary form).


8 I'll nish my homework by the time the 8 o'clock drama begins. is a combination of particleand .

It is easy to understand ifV V are used as V for practice.

Related items P-12

Activities 14-5 14-6 Playing Port Ball Turning down invitations

181

S-57

BASIC
Examples

1. Although I'm not fond of spicy food, I can eat curry.


2. How about going bowling if you have time tomorrow?


3. I'd like to buy sneakers if they're not very expensive.


4. The festival will be postponed if it rains.


5. Could you tell me if you know any good shops?


6. A: What do you want to do if you have a million yen?


B: I want to travel around the world.

Example 6

182

7. 5 I'll go home when it turns 5 o'clock.


8. Please call us when you get to the station.


9. A: What do you want to be when you grow up? B: I want to be a chef.


10. A: What should I do if I lose my way?


15

B: Please ask direction from someone at the nearest store.


11. A: Excuse me, could you show me the way to bank?


B: Go straight here, and turn left at the next corner.


You'll nd it on the right hand side just after turning.


12. A: Where do you think should I buy a present to give to Nakayama-san?


B: Why don't you go to street? There are a lot of fashionable shops there, you know.

Grammar Notes
A. This pattern is used for stating that S2 will be carried out in the case that S1 presumed by the speaker to happen takes place. S2 should be in a non-past tense form. (Examples 1~6) B. This pattern is used for stating that S2 will happen after S1 which will inevitably happen takes place. S2 should be in a non-past tense form. (Examples 7~9) C. In the forminterrogatives + V , this pattern is used when asking for advice. (Examples 10~12) D. In the form of, this pattern is used when giving advice or suggestions. (Example 12) E. In the case of A, this can be used together with. (Example 6)

183

EXPANSION
Examples

13. I found that the library was closed when I went there to return a book.

14. I found myself in the neighbouring town when I woke up after falling asleep in a bus.

15. I saw a drama being shot in front of the cinema when I went to see a movie there on Sunday.

Grammar Notes
F. This pattern shows that as a result of an event, something that was unexpected or was noticed occurs.S2 should be in the past form. (Examples 13~15)

To the Teacher A similar expression tointerrogatives V as a way of asking for advise isV . V is an expression which specically shows that advice is being sought about something. In usage F, can be replaced with condition .

I found the department store was closed when I got there. Take note of the differences in usage betweenand conditionp.230.

Related items C-05 P-31 S-33 S-58 Plain form ( ) condition V

Activities 15-1 15-2 15-3 15-4 15-5 Posters Japan Survival (song) How about here? If I were Mayor, .... Recycling

184

S-58

BASIC
Examples

1. Even children have to pay the same amount of fare.


2. Please call me as I'll be up even if it's late at night.


3. Even though you don't like vegetables, you'd better eat them.

4. Even if it rains, the re works festival won't be cancelled.


5. A: Japan experiences a lot of earthquakes, doesn't it?


B: Yeah, but this building will be all right even if an earthquake occurs.

6. Please don't forget this town even after going back to Japan.

7. 10 The store hasn't opened yet, although it's already 10, which is the time it's supposed to open. It's strange, isn't it?

8. Ichiro-san didn't come even at the appointment time.


9. A: My fever didn't go down even though I took the medicine I was given yesterday.

B: Then, you'd better go to hospital.

186

Grammar Notes
A. This pattern is used for stating what is contrary to the presumed condition expressed by S1. Examples 1~6 B. This pattern is used for stating an unexpected incident that occurs after S1 has taken place.Examples 7~9 C. In the case of A, it can be used together with .Example 4

15
To the Teacher Two or more conditions can be expressed using this pattern.

This plate can't be broken even if you hit it or drop it. The difference between and (connective). S1 S2 S1=the speaker's assumption S1=what actually happened or was done S1 S2

Take note of the relation in terms of meaning between andsentences.


If more than half of the people in town oppose, the construction will be cancelled.

Even if more than half of the people in town oppose, the construction won't be cancelled. It will be easier to understand if the usage of A is practiced rst. Take note of the differences in usage between p.242 and.

Related items C-01 P-16 P-32 S-57 form (V ) conjunctive

Activities 15-3 How about here?

187

S-59

A AN N

BASIC
Examples

1. We made the park clean by cleaning up together.

4. (The librarians are talking together.)


2. Could you make it cheaper?


3. (Children are chatting in the library.)


A: Shall we make the letters of the poster bigger? B: Year, that's a good idea. Let's do that.

A: Excuse me, can you be quiet in the library? B: Sorry.

Example 3,4

5. The president made the empty warehouse into a concert hall.


6. Ill-shaped apples are made into juice or jam to be sold.

188

Grammar Notes
A. This structure shows that someone intentionally alters the state of N1. Examples 1~6 B. What changes occur as a result in N1 is expressed by A/ AN/ N2. (Examples 1~6)

To the Teacher The difference betweenA AN N andA AN N S39 A AN N . A /AN /N What the speaker focuses on Something changes

15

A /AN /N The result of the change The subject

The action which brings changes The object

The road in front of my house became muddy due to the ood.


My younger brother and I cleaned and cleared up the road in front of our house. also has a function usage for stating preferencesP.228 S74 V , so take note of this difference.

A: What will you have? B: what is decided I'll have a juice.


change I make vegetables into juice and drink it.

Related items S-39 S-74

Activities 15-4 15-5 If I were Mayor, .... Recycling

189

S-60

V : dictionary or V form

BASIC
Examples

1. This road is dangerous as it has heavy trafc. So please make sure to use the pedestrian crossings when you cross the road.

2. Let's not speak in a loud voice in the train.


3. (At the practice session for a speech contest in a town.)

A: Sensei, how's my speech? B: It's very good. But, you'd better make sure to speak more slowly and clearly at the speech contest.

4. I make sure to turn the heater out soon, if an earthquake hit.

Example 4

5. I make sure to greet the neighbours whenever I see them.


6. I make it a point not to use the car if I can go by bus or subway.

190

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for expressing a decision to do something or not. Examples 1~3 B. is used for stating habitual routines.Examples 4~6 To the Teacher is a volitional verb.See p.278 insometimes indicates a purpose. Thisis not introduced in this book, as this is an item in the syllabus of the Japanese Language Prociency Test Level 2. Take note of this during drills. Take note of the difference between V and p.228.

15

We have decided to clean the park together next Sunday as the result of a discussion with the neighbours. (decision)

Excuse me. Owners please make sure you clean up after your dog (mind-set)

Related items C-03 C-04 S-59 S-79 S-74 V dictionary form (V ) V form (V ) N N

Activities 15-4 If I were Mayor, ....

191

S-61

BASIC
Examples

Example 1

1. Hokkaido is larger than Kyushu.


2. Tokyo is more populous than Osaka is.

3. I prefer Doraemon to Pokemon.


4. A: Shall we go to Nikko by bus or by train?


B: The train is faster, but the bus would be cheaper.


5. A: Which is faster from here to Osaka, by Shinkansen or by airplane?


B: I think by airplane is faster.


6. The commuter train is more crowded in the morning than in the evening.

7. department store has more goods than department store does.

192

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used to express a comparison betweenN1with N2. Examples 1~7 B. N1 is sometimes omitted.Examples 4,5 C. indicates that N1 is the measure for comparison.Examples 1,2,3,6,7 D. A AN V at the end of the sentence has the following variations: A AN : A ANExample 2 V:stative verbV Example 6 A AN adverb+ VExample 7 E. When asking about a comparison of issues between two things,N1 N2 A AN V is used.Example 5 To the Teacher It is possible to follow a different word order such asN2 N1 A AN V.

15

Hokkaido is larger than Kyushu. When making comparisons among three or more things,N1 N2 A AN Vis used.N2 is the range for comparing N1 with other items

Tokyo is the has the largest population in Japan. is a particle. is a formal noun. Other expressions for making comparisons between two things areV1 V2 A AN VandN1 N2 N3 N3 is a noun expressing degree. However, these are not introduced in this book.

Playing is more enjoyable than studying.


Yamamoto-san works harder than Nakayama-san does. It is easier for students to understand if the teacher uses familiar examples that are related to one's own country or town.

Related items S-62 S-63

Activities 15-6 15-7 15-8 Geography Quiz Putting things in order Which shop is the better shop?

193

S-62
(1)

N N

(2)

BASIC
Examples

1. Which dish is more delicious at that restaurant, sh or meat?

2. A: Which do you prefer, hamburger or fried chicken?

B: I like both of them.


3. Which is resistant to earthquakes, an apartment or a house?


4. A: Which is closer, station or station?


B: station is a bit closer.

Example 4

194

5. When is it more crowded in department stores, on Saturdays or on Sundays?

6. A: Which has cheaper goods, supermarket or supermarket? B:

Between supermarket and supermarket, supermarket is cheaper. But, supermarket is even cheaper, you know.

15
Grammar Notes
A. For the sentence pattern in structure chart (1) , it is used when asking the outcome after comparing N1 and N2. Examples 1~5 B. indicates that N1 and N2 are the objects for comparison with each other.Examples 1~6 C. N1 N2 sometimes becomesN1 N2 .Example 6 D. in is sometimes omitted.Examples 3~4

E. A AN V A AN V A AN V are used when one answers that both the objects are of the same degree.Example 2

EXPANSION
Examples

7. A: Which do you prefer, by sea mail or by air mail?


9. A:

B: By air mail, please.

How do you wish to pay, by cash or by credit card?


8. A: Which would you like to have, coffee or tea? B: Either will do.

B: By cash, please.

Grammar Notes
F. The sentence pattern in structure chart (2) is used when asking which of the two objects has been selected.Examples 7~9 G. indicates that N1 and N2 are the objects for selection.Examples 7~9 H. When you do not make a selection and nds either to be acceptable, is used.Example 8

195

To the Teacher For three or more items, is not used. The interrogative word is chosen depending on the object of comparison and selection. Person Place time things when there are no clear options When there is a clear option

N N

etc

A: B:

Which fruit do you like best?

I like strawberries best.

2 A:

Which one do you like best, apples, oranges or grapes?

B:

I like grapes best.

is a particle. When asking about an action or condition,V1 V2 A AN V is used. However, this is not introduced here.

A: Which do you prefer, doing sports or watching sports?


B: I prefer watching. It is easier for students to understand if the teacher uses familiar examples that are related to one's own country or town.

Related items S-61

Activities 15-6 15-8 Geography Quiz Which shop is the better shop?

196

S-63

N N

BASIC
Examples

1. This year's summer is hotter than last year's, isn't it?


2. A: This shrine has a large turnout and is lively.


B: Yes, but during the New Year, there are much more people than there is now.

3. A: How do you feel?


B: I feel better than yesterday.

4. A: How's your new digital camera?


B: It is much more convenient than a normal camera because you can instantly view the pictures you take over the monitor.

5. A: Is this temple older than the one we saw a little while ago?

B: No, that one is older.


6. Today, the road was less busy than usual so we got here earlier.

7. Buddhism was introduced to Japan earlier than Christianity was.

198

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for explaining N1 in comparison to N2. (Examples 1~7) B. indicates that N2 is the standard for comparison. (Examples 1~7) C. A/AN/V in the end of the sentence has a variation such as the following: A/AN: N A/AN (Example 2) V: static verbsV (Example 6) A AN adverb + V (Example 7) D. When asking about N1, N1 orN1 A/AN/V are expressions used. To the Teacher In describing N1 which stands out the most in when comparing three or more items, the sentence should beN1 N2 A/AN/V(N2 is the eld where N1 is the object of comparison)

16

Winter solstice has the least number of daylight hours in a year.

The sentence patternN1 N2 N3(N3 is a noun showing a degree of something) is not introduced in this book.

Tanaka-san works harder than Yamada-san does.

is a particle. In order to clarify its difference with the pattern(p.192), it is advisable to practice using sentences that present situations where it is clearly understood that N1 is the topic.

Related items S-61

Activities 16-1 Comparing your own country with Japan 16-7 Kabuki

199

S-64

interrogatives

S/N/A/AN/V1: plain form NB:N N AN AN

BASIC
Examples

1. Let's check whether there are our seats or not.


2. Excuse me. Please ask him/ her in (language) whether s/he likes Japanese dishes or not.

3. Please decide by tomorrow whether you will join this tour or not.

4. Let's ask the waiter what today's special is.


5. I did research on how ancient people lived their life.


6. Do you know when this building was built?


7. I don't know who wrote this poem.


8. A: Excuse me. I want to mail a letter. Where is the post ofce?


B: Let me see, go straight here It's bit complicated to explain. I'll go with you.

A: It's OK. I can go by myself. Could you show me where it is?


9. Let's check the map on how to go to the museum from our hotel.

10. I'll ask to nd out how many lunchboxes we need.

200

Grammar Notes
A. nominalizes interrogative sentences which do not include interrogatives. (Examples 1~3)

I don't know whether Tanaka-san will go on a trip Will Tanaka-san go on a trip? B. interrogativesnominalizes interrogative sentences which contain interrogatives such as (what) (when) (who) (where) (why). (Examples 4~10)

I asked over the phone where advance tickets are sold. Where are advance tickets sold? C. S andinterrogativescan be components of a sentence. (Examples 1~10) To the Teacher andinterrogativesare sometimes followed by particles or.

16

Please let me know by 2 o'clock whether you will join the castle tour tomorrow.

I was at a loss because I didn't know which platform the train I need to get on comes.

Please write here how many nights you will stay. In cases when interrogative sentencesS andinterrogative questions are nominalized, they change intoS andinterrogative respectively.

Please explain why the schedule was suddenly changed. Why was the schedule suddenly changed? S N andinterrogatives N are another expressions. However, these expressions are not introduced in this book.

Whether there is money or not is a problem.


I look forward to seeing what kind of reply comes.


It is advisable to use verbs such as V for V2. Related items C-05 Plain form ( ) S-25 V S-69 (nominalization) Activities 16-2 An interviewing with a famous person 16-4 Diary of a policeman 17-2 Popular Jobs

201

S-65
(1)

N N

N1: N2's specic name N2: N1's kind (person, place, things, matters etc) (2)

N2: N1(person, place, things, matters etc)'s specic name

BASIC
Examples

1. I tried to eat a confection called yookan. It was very sweet.


2. A: There is a temple called Kiyomizu-dera very close from by.


B: Well, let's got there after having lunch.

3. A: What is this?

B: This is an instrument called biwa. It's a Japanese traditional instrument.


4. A: I've seen this in a movie.


B: Oh, really? This is a vehicle called jinrikisha which was used during the Meiji period.

5. The place I was born is a town called Shingu.


6. Long time ago, in a temple, there was a monk called Ikkyuu-san.

Grammar Notes
A. The pattern in structure chart (1) is used for indicating N2's name. (Examples 1~6) B. The pattern in structure chart (1) is used for indicating with N2 what N1 is and is easily understandable when informing the listener. (Examples 1~6) C. In the written form, N1 is sometimes put in to make it stand out. (Examples 1,5,6)

202

EXPANSION
Examples

7. I am (called)Tanaka. Pleased to meet you.


8. This temple is called Kiyomizu-dera.


9. Yamamoto-san's rst name is Akira.


10. A: What do you call a Japanese style hotel in Japanese?

16

B: We call it "ryokan".

11. 6 7 The Japanese rainy season is called "tsuyu", and is from mid-June to around mid-July.

Grammar Notes
D. The pattern in structure chart (2) is used when introducing N1's name. (Examples 7~11) E. In the written form, N2 is sometimes put in to make it stand out. (Example 11)

To the Teacher The usage A is used when the speaker or the listener is not very familiar with N1. In the spoken form, sometimes changes into.

There is a temple called Kiyomizu-dera very close by.

Related items P-30 (quotation)

Activities 16-3 16-5 16-6 16-7 Japanese History Lodging for a sparrow Please come to visit my town Kabuki

203

S-66

Interrogatives + positive

N/A/AN/V: positive

BASIC
Examples

1. If you have any question, please ask me anytime.


2. A: Is there anything you can't eat?


B: No, I can eat anything.


3. Anyone who can swim can join this free diving course. 4. (At a restaurant) A: Excuse me. is written over there. What does that mean?

B: It means you can drink as much coffee as you want.


5. The one day sight-seeing tours all are the same price.

6. A: Regarding the day trip for the weekend, do you want to go Hakone or Nikko? B: Either is okay with me. 7. ( A message received from the front desk in a hotel)

090- - "Please call me anytime. My number is 090-XXXX-XXXX"


8. In this restaurant you can have a beautiful night view from any seat.

204

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern indicates that there is no limitation for things, people, time, location, numbers and so on. (Examples 1~8).

B. Interrogatives that could be used are N N countersand so on. (Examples 1~8) C. When particles are necessary following the interrogatives, the word order should be " interrogatives + particle + ". ( Example 8 )

To the Teacher Among the particles that follow interrogatives, expressing location is sometimes omitted.

16

You can use that card at anywhere.

Related items

Activities 16-6 Please come to visit my town

205

P-29

N2/A/AN/V: plain form NB:N N AN AN

BASIC
Examples

1. The museum is closed as it is Monday today.


2. There are few hotels as this town is not a tourist place.


3. (When listening to an explanation made by a tour guide )


It's noisy around here so I can't hear you well. Could you speak up please?

4. The autumn leaves were really beautiful in Nikko so I took a lot of pictures.

5. I don't know the way so I asked at a police box.


6. A: Is this place called "Fujimigaoka"?


B:

Yes. A long time ago, Mt.Fuji could be seen very well from here so this place was named "Fujimigaoka". Now, we can hardly see it because of the buildings. Example 5

206

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that S1 is the reason for what is expressed in S2.(Examples 1~6) To the Teacher is not used following . The differences betweenand other expressions stating the reason. S2 is an actual action or situation In cases when S2 is a volitional expression, conveys S1 S2 a respectful tone as it tones down expression of the speaker's thought or intention. S1 S2 S2 is the speaker's thought or intention. S1 takes place before than S2. S1(A/AN/V) S2 S2 is an expected result to S1. S2 should not be the speaker's volitional expression. N often takes nouns which have a negative outcome. N S2 S2 is an expected result to N. S2 should not be the speaker's volitional expression. The speaker's volitional expressions refer to request etc intention V etc V wish etc V invitation V etc prohibition etc. V As the park was crowded, we waited for an hour to ride a roller coaster. Please hurry up as we'll leave soon. The picnic was cancelled due to rain. The highway was jammed due to an accident. polite form + is also used. However, since the situations where it is used is limited and it is considered a very polite expression, it is advisable to practise using only theplain form + form. A: Excuse me. I'd like to have a map of the city. B: It is on the desk over there. Please feel free to take one. *

16

Related items C-05 S-31 P-25 P-27 Plain form ( ) VV (reason) (reason/cause)

Activities 16-5 16-6 Lodging for a sparrow Please come to visit my town

207

P-30

(quotation)

BASIC
Examples

1. Our tour guide said "This is a famous festival."


2. Our tour guide told us that this was a famous festival.


3. Tanaka-san said "It's a bit hot in the bus."


4. Tanaka-san said that it was a bit hot in the bus.


5. A: Didn't you see Nakata-san?


B: S/he ran away saying "Oh my goodness!" a while ago.


6. I didn't know the answer so I replied "I don't know".


7. 3 I heard that the bus leaves at 3 o'clock.


8. Please tell him/her that I will call him/her later.


9. A: What is written here?


B: It says that we can't take a picture.


10. A: What do I say if I'm full and can't eat anymore?

B: You can say "Thank you. I have had enough".

208

Grammar Notes
A. indicates that S is what someone said. (Examples 1~10) B. conveys as is what someone said. (Examples 1,3,5,6,10) C. Conveys a rewording or interpretation of what someone has said. S should be in plain form. (Examples 2,4,7,8,9) D. In the case of B, S is put in in the written form. (Examples 1,3,5,6,10) To the Teacher

V should be verbs such as


In the spoken form, sometimes changes into .


16

A: Nakayama-san is late, isn't s/he?


B: 1 Yes, s/he said she would come at one. In the case of rewording or interpreting what someone said, there may be changes in the use of personal pronouns or verbs.

4 Yamamoto-san said "I will come to your place at 4".


4 Yamamoto-san told me that s/he would come to my place at 4. It is not necessary to coordinate the ending of the tenses of S and V. In case the information to be given is an interrogative sentence, it becomesS V interrogatives Vso do not include quotations of interrogative sentences for practice in this chapter. In the case of conveying a request, the pattern to be used isV Vso do not include quotations of the request form (V ) for practice in this chapter.

Related items C-05 S-38 S-64 Plain form ( ) interrogatives

Activities 16-4 16-5 19-6 Diary of a policeman Lodging for a sparrow A thank-you letter

209

V-09

BASIC
Examples

1. 12 7 I came to Japan on the 7th of December last year. It was a very cold day.

2. I went to Sapporo in Hokkaido last month. I saw the snow festival there.

3. A: You had a phone call from someone named Tanaka Ichiro.


B: Who? I don't know anyone by that name.


4. A: Do you know the folk tale called "Kasajizoo"?


B: No, what kind of story is it?


5. A: The movie we saw last week was interesting, wasn't it?


B: Yeah, I'd like to see it again.


6. (Listening to an explanation about the Edo period at the History Museum.)


A: I was wondering did they have electricity in that period?


B: No, they didn't have electricity yet. They used lamps and candles at that time.

210

Grammar Notes
A. is used to refer to topics mentioned in a conversation or a passage. (Example 1~6) B. The usages of,andare different depending on whether the speaker and the listener know the topic in the conversation or not. When to use The speaker knows the topic, but s/he thinks that the listener does not know it. (Example 1,2) The speaker does not know the topic mentioned by the listener. (Examples 3,4) Both of the speaker and the listener know the topic. (Example 5) The speaker knows the topic. (Example 6)

group

16

group group

To the Teacher The following are variations:

: this: like this, in this way : like this: this much, in this way : in this way: like this, in this way, this way group can be used only by the person who mentions a topic for the rst time. also has a direct usage. During a conversation, it can be used to refer to something visible. (See p.24-29) The usage in A is seen in model conversations or reading passages for beginners. However, since distinguishing the use ofis difcult, it is advisable to offer enough guidance such that the students will not misunderstand what is written in the conversation or passage.

Related items V-02 V-03 V-04

Activities 16-5 Lodgings for a sparrow

211

S-67

V :volitional form

BASIC
Examples

1. (At an interview just after winning the speech contest)


A: 10 Congratulations on your winning. How are you going to use the 100,000 yen of prize money?

B: Let me see. I think I will save it.


2. (On the way home) A: I'm thinking of popping by McDonald's for a while as I'm hungry. Why don't you come with me?

B: I'll go! I'll go!


3. I thought I would go abroad to study, as I heard a story about a senpai who graduated from a university in Japan.

4. 16 I think I'll get a motorcycle license when I turn sixteen.


5. I've been thinking I will give my parents a big house if I'm rich when I grow up.

6. A: What kind of job do you want to do in the future? B:


I've been thinking of becoming a doctor since I was a child.

Example 6

212

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for expressing that the speaker has the will to do something at the point of the utterance. (Examples 1~3) B. Vis used for stating that the speaker has a continued will to do something. (Examples 4~6)

To the Teacher V is a volitional verb. (See P.278) V( ) expresses a strong will to not do something. When expressing will in the third person,V + expressions of conjecture/hearsayis used.

I heard Yamamoto-san thinks he will be an astronaut.


17

Yamamoto-san is practicing everyday until late. S/he might be thinking s/he will win the next match.

Yamamoto-san seems to think s/he will go meet his/her pen pal during the summer break.

Related items C-07 S-38 Volitional form ( )

Activities 17-2 17-3 17-4 17-5 17-6 Popular Jobs Why are you doing it? It might be expensive What do you think you will be? What do you do in the weekend? 17-7 Dreams for the future

213

S-68

S: plain form. NB:N N AN AN

BASIC
Examples

1. A: Whose wallet is this?


B: It might be Tanaka-san's. S/he was looking for something a while ago.


2. It's better to bring a jumper as it might be cold at the top of the mountain in the morning.

3. Although you might feel a bit nervous going abroad by yourself, it will be a good experience, you know.

4. A: Since I was a child, I've been wanting to be a doctor, but, I might not be able to be. B: Why not?

A: I don't have the condence to pass the exam for medical school. Besides, I feel the sight of blood.

5. A: I've been thinking I want to be a singer after graduation.


B: Have you talked to your parents about it?


A: No, not yet. My parents might be against it. But, I won't change my mind.

6. Nobody came. We might have come at the wrong time.

214

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for expressing the speaker's conjecture about the possibility of a situation or incident to occur. (Examples 1~6) B. may be used together with . (Examples 1,6) To the Teacher is not usually used in interrogative sentences. The past tense ofis not introduced here.

Related items C-05 S-42 Plain form ( )

Activities 17-4 It might be expensive

17

215

S-69

(nominalization)

V: plain form

BASIC
Examples

1. I can see the sh swimming from inside the boat.


2. I can hear Tanaka-san is singing in the bath.


3. Do you know that we can forecast our own future using the computer?

4. I've been waiting for a letter to come since this morning.


5. It is fun to plan a trip.


6. A: Are you good at cooking?


B: No, not really. But, I like eating.


7. What I want to be in the future is a lawyer.


8. The reason why I save my allowance every month is that I want to buy a new skateboard.

Example 1

216

Grammar Notes
A. nominalizes V. (Examples 1~8) B. Just like a noun,V becomes a component of a sentence. (Examples 1~8) C. V X may be used for emphasising on X. (Examples 7,8) To the Teacher The nominalization of S takes the formsV andV . Although they could be used interchangeably in several instances, there are times when this is not possible. Those that cannot be used interchangeably are as follows: S+ S+

Following verbs

Verbs that express sense: (can see) (can hear) (to smell) (to feel) (to hear) (to see) etc Verbs that express approach towards the normative of a the noun

17

clause: ( help ) ( to disturb) ( to wait) etc

(to stop) (to quit) etc Sentence structure that express emphasis

(to speak) (to convey) (to decide) (to think) (to think) (to promise) (to pray) etc

I told sensei that I had passed the exam.

My hobby is stargazing.

Related items C-05 S-25 Plain form ( ) V

Activities 17-5 17-7 What do you think you will be? Dreams for the future

217

S-70

V1: dictionary form

BASIC
Examples

1. I jog every morning for health.


2. Yamamoto-sensei went to the Himalayas to survey the Yeti.


3. My younger brother is saving money to buy a bicycle.


4. I go to driving school every Saturday so I can get my motorcycle license.


5. We held a farewell for a teacher who is going back home next month.

6. Tanaka-san wants to work in the future to help people in trouble.

7. A: For whom are you studying?


B: For myself.

Example 3

218

Grammar Notes
A.indicates that N/V1 is the purpose of the action expressed by V2.(Examples 1~4) B. In cases when N is a person or a group, it indicates that N is the recipient of the benet. (Examples 5~7) C. In cases when the action of V2 is obvious,can be used instead of V .(Example 7) To the Teacher V1 is a volitional verb. (See p.278) For the N which expresses the purpose of an action, the following nouns may be used.

As a motive, something of value: (future) (health) (peace) etc


N in N verbs: (survey) (research) (study) etc also shows that N/ V1 is the reason/cause of the action expressed by V2.

17

I have to change schools next month because of my father's transfer.


The trains were delayed due to an accident.

Related items C-03 P-15 V dictionary form (V ) (purpose)

Activities 17-3 17-5 17-7 Why are you doing it? What do you think you will be? Dreams for the future

219

C-07
Group 1

Volitional form ( )
Group 2

Group 3

To the Teacher The volitional form is one of the forms of verb conjugation. Volitional forms are also used in the plain form ofV .

Let's do our best! Non-volitional verbs are not used in volitional forms. (See p.279) Volitional forms do not have negative or past forms. Volitional forms are used as follows:

For sure we will win next year.


I think I will learn more kanji before going to Japan.

Related items C-03 S-67 V dictionary form (V ) V

Activities 17-1 17-2 17-3 17-4 17-5 17-6 17-7 Volitional Form Card Game Popular Jobs Why are you doing it? It might be expensive What do you think you will be? What do you do in the weekend? Dreams for the future

220

S-71

( look )

BASIC
Examples

1. We gave roses to our teacher on graduation day. S/he looked very happy.

2. (Looking at a cake) Wow! This cake looks delicious, doesn't it?


3. (Looking at the Bon Festival dance) A: Everyone seems to be enjoying the dancing, aren't they? B: Yeah. Let's join.

4. A: Your wallet is about to drop from the pocket. B: Oh. Thank you.

5. A: Oh! The bicycle is about to fall. B: Ah! It fell over!


6. (After tennis training, looking up at the sky)


Example 4

Let's collect and store the balls quickly. (Because) It looks like it's going to rain.

7. This year's cultural festival is going to be done together with the neighbouring school so a lot of people may come.

8. A: The teacher said that the number of the subjects for the entrance exam of university will be reduced from next year on.

B: So, it looks like the number of applicants is on the rise, isn't it?

222

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used when expressing the condition/nature of something by conjecture based on its appearance. (Examples 1~3) B. This sentence pattern is used when describing the condition just before the incident expressed by V takes place. (Examples 4,5) C. This sentence pattern is used to express prediction based on the speaker's assessment of a present situation and what V it will turn out to be, and its likelihood to occur (Examples 6~8) D. When nouns or verbs are modied, becomes and . (Examples 2,3) To the Teacher In the case of B, the speaker's intentional action cannot be expressed. The negative form ofis as follows. The negative form is used for describing conditions with no possibility of A/ AN/ V to happen. A AN V

A AN V

1 (The train gets delayed.)


18

A: B:

It seems like we won't be on time for the rst period.


We'll be late.

2 It seems like the teacher won't let me off the hook. What should I do? The formdoes not exist. However, the formcan be used. That person doesn't look like a student. Take note that the adjectivebecomes . In the case of A, the sentence pattern cannot be used for something visibly noticeable so

be careful not to use adjectives and verbs such as for practice. Take note that for adjectives, adjective nouns, and verbs, this sentence pattern has a different conjugation from(hearsay) (S78 (hearsay)).

( ) They say it will rain. (hearsay)


( ) It looks like it will rain. (look)

Related items S-78 ( hearsay )

Activities 18-4 Gesture Game 18-6 Club Activities 18-7 Busy Term Two

223

S-72

BASIC
Examples

1. I'll read the text book once more before the exam.

2. Please ask the teacher's schedule before the meeting next week.

3. As soon as the class is over, let's clean the blackboard for the next class.

4. A: What happened to the photocopies of the materials to be distributed in class?


B: I asked Yamamoto-san to take care of it. They'll probably be on the desk in the classroom.

5. You don't have to put away the chairs in the hall. Let's leave them as they are until the end of the cultural festival.

6. A: Where shall I carry this desk? B: Oh, please leave it as it was. I'll carry it later.

7. Please don't throw away the empty cans and boxes here, as we might use them later.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used to express that for a certain purpose, something has to be prepared beforehand. (Examples 1~4) B. This sentence pattern is used for telling someone to leave something temporarily as it is when expressing temporarily leaving a condition of V as is. (Examples 5~7)

224

To the Teacher V is a volitional verb. (See p278) In the spoken form, sometimes changes into.

Please put this poster up, okay?

The difference between and Usage V V

Sentence pattern N V N V

To express the action "to prepare" To express the condition "to be ready"

A: Have you made a reservation of the venue for the party? B: No, I haven't.

A: So, please be sure to make it by tomorrow, okay? There are cases when V is an intransitive verb. However, to make it easier for the students to understand, it is better to practice using only transitive verbs.

18

As we're going to be busy soon, it's better to take a break now.

Related items C-01 S-41 V form (V ) V

Activities 18-2 18-7 Making preparations Busy Term Two

225

S-73

V N

V: dictionary form or V form

BASIC
Examples

1. 3 It was decided that students in this school will study English from the third grade.

2. Nakayama-san is going to be change schools because of her/his father's transfer. Let's all have a farewell party for him/ her.

3. As a result of the ballot vote, Yamamoto-san was elected as this year's student body president.

4. 2000 10 2 10 10 Since 2000 Sports Day was changed from the 10th of October to the second Monday of October.

5. Starting this year it was decided that the results of the exam would not be announced.

6. A: What is your class doing for the cultural festival, Tanaka-san ?


B: I wanted to do a haunted mansion, but it's been decided by majority vote that we would do a presentation about environmental issues.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for stating thatV orNhas been decided. (Examples 1~6)

226

To the Teacher is used for stating rules and similar regulations.


1 We have to wear our uniforms whenever we come to school.


2 We are not allowed to take photos in the museum. AsN also has a usage expressing change or transformation (P.140 S39 A A N ), take note of this during drills.

When I grow up, I want to be a baseball player. (change/transformation)


By winning the preliminary, I became the representative player. (determined matter)

Related items C-03 C-04 S-39 S-74 V dictionary form (V ) form (V ) A AN N V N

Activities 18-3 18-7 18-8 Volunteering Busy Term Two School Events in Japan

18

227

S-74

V N

V: dictionary form or V form

BASIC
Examples

1. I've decided not to go on to university, but to help in my father's business.


2. Our group has decided to do research about folk tales during summer vacation.

3. I've decided not to stop by anywhere as I have an exam tomorrow. 4. (In homeroom) A: With the variety of views that cropped up, it's going to take us some time to decide.

B: Then, let's talk about it again next week.


5. A: 2 What have you decided to take as a second foreign language?


B: I've decided to take Japanese.


6. (Looking at a menu in a restaurant)

A: What will you have? B: I'll have ramen. A: Okay, I'll have curry.

228

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used when the speaker expresses a decision to do or . (Examples 1~6) To the Teacher is used when expressing one has decided to do something routinely or as a habit.

I make it a point to jog every morning.

As also has a usage expressing change or transformation(p.188), take note of this during drills.

I make vegetables into juice, and then drink it. (change/ transformation)

A:

What will you have?

B:

I'll have juice. (what someone has decided.)

18

Related items C-03 C-04 S-59 S-73 V dictionary form (V ) form (V ) A AN N V N

Activities 18-3 18-5 Volunteering What we plan to do on Culture Day 18-6 18-7 Club Activities Busy Term Two

229

P-31

(condition)

N2/A/AN/V: plain form + non-past

BASIC
Examples

1. If you put money in and press the button, a ticket will come out.

2. A: Where is the staff room? B: Go straight down the corridor, and then turn left at the end. You'll nd it on your right hand side.

3. 40 1 If you take the train, it'll take 40 minutes, but if you take the bus, it'll take an hour.

4. When I win a match, I'm happy, but when I lose, I can't stand it.

5. If we don't get good grades, we can't get a scholarship.


6. If holiday is too long, we'll forget what we learned.


7. When our principal comes to school every morning, s/he waters the owers in the owerbed.

8. When ice melts, it turns into water.


9. When it turns into spring, the cherry blossoms near the tennis court come into ower.

10. 1 10 55 If you add all the numbers from 1 to 10, the sum will be 55.

Example 8

230

Grammar Notes
A. S1 S2indicates that whenever S1 is achieved, S2 comes into effect. S2 should be in a non-past tense form. (Examples 1~10) B. This sentence pattern is used for explaining things such as the way to do something or directions to get somewhere. (Examples 1,2) C. This sentence pattern is used for explaining a common or conventional fact. (Examples 3~7) D. This sentence pattern is used when describing natural phenomena. (Examples 8,9) E. This sentence pattern is used for stating something logical. (Examples 10) To the Teacher For S2, volitional verbs such as the following cannot be used: Request: V V etc Volition: V V etc Wish: V etc Invitation: V V etc Prohibition: V etc This sentence pattern cannot be used for stating events or actions which take place only once. The difference between (condition) and S1 What the speaker assumed S2(non-past form)

Examples When I become a university student, I want to play rugby.


18

Actions or situation that actually take or took place Non-volitional expression

When it turns into spring, the cherry blossoms come into ower.

Volitional expression

When you arrive at the station, please call me.

In cases when S2 is in the past tense, the relation between S1 and S2 is as follows. In this case, can be replaced by . Relationship between S1 and S2

Examples

S1 triggers S2 S2 is discovered by S1 S2 happens while the speaker is doing S1

As soon as Tanaka-san was called by sensei, s/he stood up.


When I got to the classroom, class had already begun.


While I was reading g a book at the library, sensei came.

Related items C-05 Plain form ( ) S-57

Activities 18-1 When its Spring 18-6 Club Activities 18-8 School Events in Japan

231

S-75

V ( passive )

N1: the recipient of the action V N2: the agent of the action V V : passive form

BASIC
Examples

1. I was asked by an old lady for directions.


2. My elder sister was scolded by our father as she came home late.

Example 4

3. When I went to the police box because I dropped my wallet, I was asked a lot of questions by the police ofcer.

4. I had been bitten by a dog when I was a child. 5. A: What's up with you? You look happy.

B: I was complimented by my Japanese teacher because I did my speech well.

232

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for stating the action V from the point of view of the recipient (N1) of the action. (Examples 1~5) B. In cases when N1 is the speaker or it is understood who N is, N1 is sometimes omitted. (Examples 3~5)

EXPANSION
Examples

6. 2000 The G8 Summit was held in Okinawa in the year 2000.


7. This song is often sung at karaoke.

Grammar Notes
C. This sentence pattern is used for stating facts in society matters. In this case, the agent (N2) is not identied. (Examples 6,7 ) To the Teacher V is a transitive verb. (See p.280) The usage for expressing actions that cause trouble and inconvenience and things that take place regardless of the speaker's intention are not covered here.

19

1 We got wet as the rain suddenly fell.


2 0 I was embarrassed because a friend of mine happened to see my test with 0 mark.

Related items C-08 Passive form ( )

Activities 19-3 Why there is no cat among the twelve animals of the Zodiac 19-6 19-7 20-6 A thank-you letter A report about a homestay What will the future be like?

233

S-76

N1: the agent of V N2: the recipient of the action V

BASIC
Examples

1. Yesterday, I had Nakata-san teach me how to write a nengajoo (Japanese New Year's card).

2. I asked Yamamoto-san to show me pictures of Japan.


3. Let's ask Yamada-san to drive us home as it's raining.


4. I've decided to have Nakata-san help us as we are going to be busy tomorrow.


5. The computer wouldn't work so I had Nakayama-san x it.

Example 5

6. A: Did you nd out what kind of food is?


B: I asked Tanaka-san to explain, but I couldn't didn't really understand.


7. TOKIO The TOKIO poster which I asked Yamanaka-san to send me from Japan is my treasure.

234

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern indicates that N2 takes the action of V in response to N1's request. (Examples 1~7) B. N2 cannot become the speaker. C. If N1 is the speaker or the group which includes the speaker, N1 is sometimes omitted. (Examples 2~7) To the Teacher V is a volitional verb. (See p.278) is used for asking whether someone would do the action V.

A: Will you ask anyone to help?


B: Let me see. Let's ask Nakata-san. is sometimes replaced byin cases when V is a verb expressing the transfer of

things or knowledge such as. However, it is better not to introduce here as it might confuse the students.

I had Tanaka-san lend me a book.

19

For stating actions which are benecial to the speaker, learners make the common mistake of not using and end up using which is used to express an objective fact. Take note that there are times whenV shows disrespect to the person who performed the action.

Nakata-san helped me with my homework. (objective fact)


Nakata-san helped me out with my homework. (containing a feeling of gratitude) In order to useV correctly, an understanding of (inner group/outer group)is essential. (See p.276) Please see p.277 for the information ofV that states the action which has a directional movement opposite toV .

Related items C-01 S-51 S-77 V form (V ) V

Activities 19-6 19-7 A thank-you letter A report about a homestay.

235

S-77

N1: the agent of V N2: the recipient of the action V

BASIC
Examples

1. Yamamoto-san often cooks for us.


2. When I was absent because of a cold, Nakata-san was nice enough to show me his/her notebook the next day.

3. Nakayama-san kindly lent me an umbrella when I was got in a x because I didn't have an umbrella.

4. Nakata-san found my wallet and was kind enough to give it to me.


5. When I was in a x because the computer wouldn't work, Nakayama-san xed it for me.

Example 5

6. A: Yamamoto-san, have you read the e-mail which I sent the other day?

B: What e-mail? When did you send it? I haven't received it.

7. Thank you for holding my luggage for me.


8. Last week, Nakayama-san was nice enough to invite me to dinner.

236

9. A: Did you make it in time for your train?


B: Yes. Yamada-san was nice enough to drive me to the station.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern indicates that N1 performs an action which is benecial to N2. (Examples 1~9) B. N1 cannot become the speaker. C. In most cases, since N2 is the speaker or a group which includes the speaker, N2 is often omitted. (Examples 2,3,5,7,9) D. N2 sometimes becomes N2 orN2 . N1 N2 N3 V Examples 4,6,7 (N3 is a part of N2's body or his/ her belongings) N1 N2 V Example 8 (N2 is the object of V) To the Teacher In the case of N2 , V should be verbs such as

N2 can be someone in the inner group of the speaker (See p.276). However, it is better to have the students practice only the case of the speaker or the group including the speaker in order to avoid confusion.

Yamada-san was nice enough to teach my younger sister Japanese. V can be non-volitional verbs. However, it is easier to understand if drills are done only with volitional verbs. It's been raining the whole time and it's taking forever for the skies to clear. When we express actions benecial to the speaker, learners make the common mistake of not using and end up usingwhich is used to express an objective fact. Take note that there are times whenV shows disrespect to the person who performed the action.

19

Yamada-san made a variety of dishes. (objective fact)


Yamada-san made a variety of dishes for us. (containing gratitude) SinceV is used for expressing requests which have the nuance of a command, it would be advisable not to practiceV andV together. In order to useV correctly, an understanding of (inner group/outer group)is essential. (See p.276) Related items C-01 V form (V ) S-76 V Activities 19-5 A thank-you card 19-6 A thank-you letter 19-7 A report about a homestay

237

S-78

(hearsay)

S: plain form

BASIC
Examples

1. I heard that Tanaka-san's mother is a doctor.


2. According to Yamada-san's letter, this year's summer is hotter than usual.


3. A: Have you been to see the Sanja festival?


B: No. But, according to Yamamoto-san, that festival is very lively.


4. According to the weather forecast, it'll be nice out tomorrow.


5. According to the newspaper, an earthquake hit Japan.

Example 5

6. A: I heard that Nakata-san can do sign language. Do you know that? B: Really? Well, let's get her/him to teach us some time.

238

7. A: I heard that Nakata-san can't go skiing this weekend. B: Why not?

A: I heard that she/he hurt his/her hand.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used for relaying information that the speaker read or heard. (Examples 1~7) B. This sentence pattern is used in cases when the source of the information is clear. The source can be indicated with .(Examples 2~5) C. cannot be used in the past, negative or interrogative forms.

To the Teacher cannot be used after Take note that the conjugation to A, AN and V ofhere is different from the (look) (p.222).

This dish looks delicious. (look)


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I heard that dishes made by Yamada-san's father are delicious. (hearsay)

Related items C-05 S-71 Plain form ( ) ( look )

Activities 19-1 19-2 19-3 Next Thursday's examination Reading the newspaper Why there is not cat in the twelve animals of the zodiac

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S-52

V (potential)

N : the object of action V V ( ) : Potential form

BASIC
Examples

1. A: I'd like to ask someone to accompany a song. Can anyone play a musical instrument?

B: Yamamoto-san can play the guitar.


2. A: Tanaka-san, why don't we go together to the swimming pool some time?

B: That would be a good idea, but I can't swim.


3. Though I haven't learned katakana yet, I can write my name in katakana.


4. A: Can you come help me tomorrow, too?

B: Well, I'm not so sure about tomorrow..


5. A: Can we also use the computers in the library?

B: Yes. Of course you can.


6. Last year's uniform has gotten too small for me, I can't t into it.

7. I can't read it as there too many unfamiliar kanji.

Example 6

168

Grammar Notes
A. This structure is used to state having the ability or technique to do something expressed by V. (Examples 1~3) B. This structure is used to state the possibility of an action expressed by V under certain conditions (Examples 4~7) To the Teacher is a volitional verb. (Please see P.278 Appendix-12 Volitional Verbs and Non-Volitional Verbs.) The pattern(S26V N ) is used to express the meaning that something is possible to do as the conditions are met. It has a much limited usage than V.

14

Tanaka-san can swim.


1000 18 Tanaka-san can swim 1000 meters in 18 minutes. In cases when N is the channel or means of access for (a verb of) movement or the place where an action is taken, the structure should be.

A bird can y in the sky.

can be used for stating the nature or the function of something. However, this usage is not covered in this book.

A:

Is this water drinkable?


B:

Don't worry, it is.

Related items S-26 C-06 Potential form ( )

Activities 14-2 14-3 14-5 14-8 15-3 Can you swim? School Quiz Playing Port Ball A terrible day How about here?

169

P-32

N2/A/AN/V: plain form. NB:N N AN AN

BASIC
Examples

1. It hasn't rained at all although it's supposed to be the rainy season.


2. Tanaka-san often comes late although her/his home is near.


3. There's someone surng although it's dangerous because the waves are high.

4. Nakayama-san didn't miss school although she has a fever because of her cold.

5. I failed the exam though I studied very hard.


6. A: Where is Tanaka-san?

B: S/he's gone home.


A: I thought we could leave together.

7. A:

Yesterday we waited the whole time for you. How come you didn't show up? B: I'm sorry. I suddenly got a stomach ache.

8. I put it in the refrigerator because I thought I could have it later. Who took it?

Example 8

242

Grammar Notes
A. S1 S2indicates that S2 differs from the condition or the result which was naturally expected to follow S1. (Examples 1~8) B. In the case when N1 is the speaker, this sentence pattern shows a feeling of dissatisfaction or regret. (Examples 5~8) C. In cases when what is indicated by S2 is obvious, S2 is sometimes omitted. (Example 6) D. The interrogative form isS1 S2 . (Examples 7,8) To the Teacher S1 and S2 should be facts (things that already happened or is the current condition) or is a judgement by the speaker. The following volitional expressions cannot be used for S2: Request: etc Volition: etc Wish: etc Invitation: etc Prohibition: etc The differences of,and (conjunctive) S1 S S1 = the speaker's assumption S1 = actual happening/ event or action Regret Dissatisfaction Disappointment S1 S S1 S2

19

The speaker's feeling

Expressions used at the end of a sentence such as request, wish, desire or invitation

Related items C-05 S-58 P-16 Plain form ( ) (conjunctive)

Activities 19-4 19-7 Though I wrote a letter A report on a homestay

243

S-79

V: dictionary or potential form

BASIC
Examples

1. E E Since I started using e-mail, I've come to use it instead of the telephone.

2. Since my mother got sick, my brother has been helping us with the cleaning and the laundry.

3. With the start of satellite broadcasting, we can view news from around the world anytime.

4. 21 It is said that coming into the 21st century, anyone will be able to take a trip to outer space.

5. Even if one is unable to play a musical instrument, we can now compose or play music using the computer.

6. By studying foreign languages, I want to be able to talk with people from different countries.

7. As many people have started to use mobile phones, public phones have come not to be used so much.

8. A: I heard that a new model of PC was going to be on sale. B: So, the current model is going to be less popular, isn't it?

Example 7

244

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used to state that something expressed by V is going to become or has become a common practice or custom. (Examples 1,2) B. This sentence pattern is used to state that circumstances or capability expressed by V will change or has changed. (Examples 3~6) C. In cases when the previous circumstances or habit/ custom or practice is no longer continued,is used. (Examples 7,8) To the Teacher

This sentence pattern cannot be used with verbs indicating change such as

. When you say, be careful that you do not say .

Related items C-03 C-04 C-06 S-39 S-60 S-81 V dictionary form (V ) form (V ) Potential form ( ) A AN N V V V

Activities 20-1 20-6 20-7 20-8 20-9 Since I started to use e-mail, What will the future be like? The news in the future The Future? A Survey Our Future

20

245

S-80

N2/A/AN/V: plain form N.B:N2 N2 AN AN

N2/A/AN/V: plain form N.B:N2 N2 AN AN

BASIC
Examples

1. The light is not on. It looks like s/he is not in.


2. A: The dog is barking. S/he looks like s/he wants to go for a walk. B: No. That's because s/he is hungry.

3. Tomoko-san seems to like Nakata-san. She looks less happy when he's not around.

4. I can hear footsteps. Someone seems to be here.


5. Nakayama-san doesn't seem to know that we have a party today because s/he was getting ready to go home a while ago.

6. I feel like I have a fever. May I leave early?


7. It looks like I've gained a little weight recently. The pants I bought last year feel tight.

Grammar Notes
A. This sentence pattern is used to state the speaker's conjecture based on objective facts such as the circumstances on the spot and/or known facts. (Examples 1~5) B. This sentence pattern is used to state the speaker's conjecture based on the speaker's impression, feeling or symptom. (Examples 6,7) C. This sentence pattern is not used in the negative form. D. In cases when it is understood what N is, N1 sometimes omitted. (Examples 1,2,6,7) is

246

EXPANSION
Examples

8. Looking at the survey conducted last month, the commodity prices seem to have gone down compared to last year. 9. (A newscaster on TV)

This news just came in. It seems there was a plane accident near island. We will give further updates as soon as we have the details.

10. (At a marathon relayed on TV)


Oh, a runner has arrived! He seems to be the rst one.

Grammar Notes
E. has the same function as, and is used mainly for the written form or the formal spoken form. (Examples 8~10) To the Teacher This sentence pattern is not used for conjecture of the speaker's intentional action. is mainly used for the spoken form andis mainly used for the written form. However, distinguishing its use for formal conversation, letters and/or e-mail is ambiguous. The differences between and (look) (See p.222) The speaker's conjecture based on objective facts such as the circumstances on the spot. You can make conjectures about incidents in the past (look)

20

The speaker's impression or conjecture by looking at the object itself. A prediction by the speaker based on the present situation

(Looking at many people having a dish) It seems good, doesn't it?


(Looking at the dish) It looks delicious, doesn't it?


2 ( ) (Looking at a room with the lights off) S/he seems to have gone to bed.

(Looking at a baby yawning) S/he looks like she's about to sleep. The comparativethat is used for explaining something as compared to other objects is not introduced here.

1 It feels hot like it was summer.


2 S/he speaks Japanese uently as if s/he were a native Japanese. It is better to have the students understand the usage by initially using only.

247

Related items C-05 S-71 S-79 Plain form ( look ) V

Activities 20-2 20-3 A haunted apartment Japan through the eyes of an exchange student 20-6 20-7 20-9 What will the future be like? The news in the future Our Future

248

S-81

V V

BASIC
Examples

1. Recently, the number of people who don't buy books and just borrow at the library has been growing.

2. A: The Japanese language has been slowly changing, hasn't it?

B: I agree. The accent also has been changing.


3. Since the new station was built, the town has been getting lively.

4. 1980 20 1 5

In Japan, the population under fteen years old has been decreasing for about twenty years since 1980. It will continue to decrease in the years to come.

5. CO2 If carbon dioxide continues to increase, the temperature of the earth will rise more and more.

Grammar Notes
A. V is used for stating the continuous change of action V from the past to the present or until the point in time the speaker is thinking of. (Examples 1~4) B. V is used for stating how the condition of the action V that expresses the conditions/ circumstances at the present or the point the speaker is thinking of, will be changing. (Examples 4,5)

: The time standard set by the speaker : direction or ow of time

250

EXPANSION
Examples

6. Let's get something to eat before the concert.


7. Our father bought us souvenirs when he went on a business trip to Kyushu.

Grammar Notes
C. This sentence pattern indicates movement after V. (Examples 6,7)

Action

Destination

Toward the speaker

Away from the speaker To the Teacher


In the usage of A and B, the verbs should indicate a change such as A AN In the usage of C, the verbs should be volitional verbs. (See p.278) The difference between V and V Example (In an explanation using a graph )

20

The number of mobile phone users increased.

The number of mobile users has been increasing.

are the usage expressing the status of movement. However these are easier to understand if used as vocabulary. It is easier to understand if the time standard used in drills is the present time. Related items C-01 form (V ) Activities 20-5 20-7 Interpreting a graph The news in the future

251

S-82

BASIC
Examples

1. This pen writes smoothly, doesn't it? Where did you buy it?

2. A: What is your room number? B: 1234 It's 1234. A: 1234 Oh, 1234.That's easy to remember, isn't it?

3. Since a lot of search sites were created, it has become easier to look for information on the Internet.

4. In this book, the birth of the universe was written in a way that's easy to understand.

5. This institute is developing products which are easy to use for elderly people and handicapped people.

6. Food spoils easily in the summer so let's beware of food poisoning.


7. I think the reason why accidents often take place in this intersection is that there are no trafc lights.

Grammar Notes
A. This structure shows the condition that an action is easily carried out. (Examples 1~5) B. This structure shows that such a possibility or frequency is high. (Examples 6,7) C. is conjugated in the same way as adjectives.

252

To the Teacher In the usage of A, V is a volitional verb. (See p.278) In the usage of B, V is a non-volitional verb. (See p.279) The expression which has the opposite meaning is V .

Related items S-83 V

Activities 20-4 A pen which is easy to write with 20-6 20-7 20-9 What will the future be like? The news in the future Our Future

20

253

S-83

BASIC
Examples

1. This street is narrow so it's difcult to pass.


2. 1 The dictionary which I used when I was in rst year has small letters so it was hard to read.

3. A: Why don't you ask Yamada-san to answer the questionnaire?


B: Yamada-san looks busy lately, so it's hard to ask him/ her.


4. Thanks to satellite broadcasting, we can watch TV even in places where it's hard to get a signal.

5. During the rainy season, I have a hard time as the laundry doesn't dry easily.

6. The newly developed glasses are said to be light and hard to be brake.

7. Materials which are hard to burn were used for this building.

Example 1

254

Grammar Notes
A. This structure shows the condition that it is difcult to carry out an action. (Examples 1~4) B. This structure shows that the condition cannot be easily changed (Examples 5~7) C. is conjugated in the same way as adjectives. To the Teacher In the usage of A, V is a volitional verb. (See p.278) In the usage of B, V is a non-volitional verb. (See p.279) The expression which has the opposite meaning isV .

Related items S-82 V

Activities 20-4 A pen which is easy to write with 20-6 What will the future be like?

20

255