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Experimental Approach

Sudhakaran .R

a

, VeL Murugan .V

b

, Siva Sakthivel. P. S

c

, Sakthivel .P

d

Sudhakaran .R

a

(Corresponding author)

Senior Lecturer

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Kumaraguru College of Technology

Coimbatore 641006, Tamil Nadu, India.

Ph : 91 422 2669401 (O), Fax: 91 422 2669406

Mobile: 91 9894030121

E mail : absudha@yahoo.com

Dr. VeL Murugan. V

b

Prof and HOD

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

Kumaraguru College of Technology

Coimbatore 641006, Tamil Nadu, India

Siva Sakthivel. P. S

c

Senior Lecturer

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Kumaraguru College of Technology

Coimbatore 641006, Tamil Nadu, India

Sakthivel .P

d

Faculty

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Kumaraguru College of Technology

Coimbatore 641006, Tamil Nadu, India.

Suggested Reviewers

Dr. N. Alaghumoorthy

Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Pondicherry Engineering College

Pondicherry, India

e mail: alagu_pec@yahoo.co.in

Dr. N. Gunaraj

Principal

RVS College of Engineering

Coimbatore, India

e mail: vgunadeepakkct@yahoo.com

Dr. A. Ragupathy

Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Annamalai University

Annamalai Nagar 608002

India

e mail: aragupathy_au@hotmail.com

Prediction of Angular Distortion in Gas Tungsten Arc Welded 202 Grade

Stainless Steel Plates Using Artificial Neural Networks An Experimental

Approach

Sudhakaran. R

a

, Vel Murugan. V

b

, Siva Sakthivel. P. S

c

, Sakthivel .P

d

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kumaraguru College of Technology,

Coimbatore 641006, Tamilnadu, India, absudha@yahoo.com

b

Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Kumaraguru College of Technology,

Coimbatore 641006, Tamilnadu, India, velgodham_v@yahoo.com

c

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kumaraguru College of Technology,

Coimbatore 641006, Tamilnadu, India

d

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kumaraguru College of Technology,

Coimbatore 641006, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract

This paper presents development of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to

predict angular distortion for various input process parameters in 202 grade stainless

steel gas tungsten arc welded plates. The chosen input process parameters were

welding gun angle, welding current, plate thickness, welding speed and gas flow rate.

The chosen output parameter is angular distortion. The experiments were conducted

based on five factor five level central composite rotatable designs with full replication

technique. Using the experimental data multi layer feed forward neural network

model was developed and it was trained by using back propagation algorithm. The

developed model is then compared with the experimental results and it is found that

the result obtained from neural network model is accurate in predicting the angular

distortion.

Keywords

Welding parameters, Angular distortion, Back propagation, Stainless steel, Regression

analysis

1.0 Introduction

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding is an arc welding process that produces coalescence of

metals by heating them with an arc between a non consumable electrode and base

metal. GTAW process is suitable for joining thin and medium thickness materials like

stainless steel sheets and for applications where metallurgical control of the weld

metal is critical. Stainless steel 202 grade has wide applications in making seamless

stainless steel tubes for boilers, heat exchangers tubes, super heater tubes, cook wares

etc., Angular distortion or out of plane distortion is one such defect that makes the

work piece distort in angular directions around the weld interface. Post weld treatment

is required to eliminate the distortion so that the work piece is defect free and

accepted. The extent of angular distortion is directly influenced by the welding input

parameters during the welding process; therefore, welding can be considered as a

multi input process [1]. One of the methods to remove the angular distortion during

the fabrication process is to provide an initial angular distortion in the negative

direction. If an exact magnitude of angular distortion is predicted, then a weld with no

angular distortion would be the result. It is difficult to obtain analytical solution to

predict angular distortion. Costly and time consuming experiments are required in

order to determine the optimum welding process parameters due to the complex and

linear nature of the welding process. Therefore, a more efficient method is needed to

determine the optimum welding process parameters. The technique of neural

networks offers potential as an alternative to standard computer techniques in control

technology and has attracted a widening interest in their development and application

[2]. The advantage of neural networks is that the network can be updated continuously

with new data to optimize its performance at any instant, the networks ability to

handle a large number of input variables rapidly and the networks ability to filter

noisy data and interpolate incomplete data [2]. Watanabe and Sastoh [3] used a

combination of empirical and analytical methods to study the effects of welding

conditions on the distortion in the welded structures. Mandal and Parmar [4] used a

statistical method of two level full factorial techniques to develop mathematical

model and reported that welding speed had a positive effect on angular distortion.

Gunaraj and VeL Murugan and [5] studied the effect of process parameters on angular

distortion in Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of structural steel plates. They

developed a mathematical model for angular distortion based on five level five

factorial central composite designs. Li et al [6] have proposed a neural network for on

line prediction of quality in GMAW. They showed that accurate quality prediction

was possible for both short circuiting and spray metal transfer modes. Kim et al [7]

compared multiple regression and back propagation neural network approaches in

modeling top bead height of multi pass GMAW. They reported that back propagation

neural network was considerably more accurate than multiple regression techniques.

Nagesh and Dutta [8] applied a back propagation neural network to predict weld bead

geometry and penetration in Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). They reported

that artificial neural networks are powerful tool for the analysis and modeling of weld

bead geometry and penetration. Control of distortion in Robotic CO

2

shielded flux

cored arc welding was investigated by Arya and Parmar [9]. A three level fractional

factorial technique was used to predict the angular distortion in 10 mm thick low

carbon steel. The effect of arc voltage, wire feed rate, welding speed and groove angle

on the angular distortion in single vee butt welds was investigated with and without

sealing run. It was concluded that the models developed were fairly accurate and can

be usefully employed for controlling the angular distortion in automated welding lines

using the flux cored arc welding process. The prediction of laser butt joint parameters

using back propagation and learning vector quantization networks was done by Jeng

et al. [10]. The work piece thickness and welding gap was used as input parameters.

The optimal focused position, acceptable welding parameters of laser power and

welding speed, and welding quality were used as output parameters. They concluded

that both networks are very useful in selecting welding parameters. Tarang et al. [11]

utilized back propagation neural network to study the relationships between the

process parameters and the features of the bead geometry for the GTA welding.

Kannan and Murugan [12] developed a neural network model for predicting the weld

bead geometry and dilution in flux cored arc welding. They found that the

performance of the model was very accurate in predicting the weld bead geometry

and dilution. It was confirmed that artificial neural networks are powerful tools for

analysis, modeling and control of such applications. The results suggested that

artificial neural networks can yield real time results of equal or better accuracy and

reliability than other data analysis algorithms. A lot of work has been done in the area

of analyzing the weld bead geometry using ANN. However, there is very little

published information available with regard to modeling and prediction of angular

distortion in 202 grade stainless steel GTAW plates. This paper presents development

of a neural network model to predict angular distortion in 202 grade stainless steel

GTAW plates. The chosen input parameters were welding gun angle, welding speed

and welding current, gas flow rate and plate length. The output parameter is angular

distortion. The experiments were conducted based on five factor five level central

composite rotatable design with full replications technique. Using the experimental

data multi layer feed forward neural network model was developed and it was trained

using back propagation algorithm. The developed model is then compared with the

experimental results and it is found that the result obtained from neural network

model is accurate in predicting the angular distortion.

2. Experimental Procedure

The experiments were conducted using Lincoln V 350 Pro electric digital welding

machine. The experimental set up consists of a traveling carriage with a table for

supporting the specimens. The welding torch was held stationary in a frame mounted

above the work table and it was provided with an attachment for both up and down

movement and angular movement for setting the required welding gun angle. A servo

motor driven manipulator was used to maintain uniform welding speed. Test plates of

following sizes

(100mmX35mmX3mm), (125mmX35mmX3mm), (150mmX35mmX3mm),

(175mmX35mmX3mm) and

(200mmX35mmX3mm) are cut from grade 202 stainless steel plates and one surface

was cleaned to remove oxide scale and dirt before welding. Argon is used as the

shielding gas and its flow rate is varied for each experiment as per the requirements.

3. Plan of Investigation

The research was carried out in the following steps

1. Identification of the process parameters.

2. Finding the limits of the process parameters

3. Developing the design matrix

4. Conducting the experiments

5. Recording the responses i.e., angular distortion

6. Developing a neural network model

7. Testing the network

8. Performing simulation.

3.1 Identification of the process parameters

The extent of angular distortion highly depends on the welding process control

parameters. The following independently controllable process parameters were

identified to carry out the experiments: welding current (I), welding speed (V), gas

flow rate (Q), gun angle (), and plate length (L).

3.2 Finding the limits of the process parameters

The working ranges of all selected factors are fixed by conducting trial runs. This was

carried out by varying one of the factors while keeping the rest of them as constant

values. The working range was decided upon by inspecting the bead for a smooth

appearance without any visible defects such as surface porosity, under cut etc., The

upper limit of a given factor was coded as +2 and the lower limit was coded as -2. The

coded values for intermediate values were calculated using the Eq. (1)

min

X

max

X

))

min

X

max

(X 2(2X

i

X

(1)

Where X

i

is the required coded value of a variable X and is any value of the variable

from X

min

to X

max

. The selected process parameters with their limits and notations are

given in Table 1.

3.3 Developing the design matrix

In factorial design, the experiments are conducted for all possible combinations of the

parameter levels and these combinations written in the form of a table where the rows

correspond to different trials and the columns to the levels of the parameters, form a

design matrix. The design matrix selected for experiment is a five factor five level

central composite rotatable design with 32 experimental runs [14]. The experiments

were conducted as per the design matrix at random, to avoid the possibility of

systematic errors infiltrating the system. The five process parameters , V, I, L and Q

are set as per the design matrix and the experiments are conducted.

3.4 Recording the response Angular Distortion

The angular distortion was measured using Microscribe G2 coordinate measuring

machine. The work piece under observation is clamped to the desk with the help of C-

clamp. With the help of trisquare, straight lines are drawn to scribe at three or four

places in the work piece. The Microscribe G2 is interfaced with the Rhino 4 software.

The limits for the work piece in the X and Y directions are fixed i.e. boundary for

indicating the domain of the work piece. The angle between the two lines is

measured as shown in the Fig.1.

The distorted angle can be obtained by the relation given by Eq. (2).

2 ) (180

(2)

Four readings were taken randomly on each welded plate and the average value is

recorded. The Table.2 shows the design matrix, the measured value of angular

distortion, the predicted results and percentage error.

3.5 Developing a neural network model

Artificial neural networks are one of the most powerful computer modeling

techniques based on statistical approach, currently being used in many fields of

engineering for modeling complex relationships which are difficult to describe with

physical models. The attraction of neural networks comes from their remarkable

information, processing characteristics pertinent mainly to non linearity, high

parallelism, fault and noise tolerance, and learning and generalized capability. There

has been continual increase in research interest in the application of artificial neural

networks in modeling and monitoring of welding processes. The objective of this

study is to model the angular distortion of 202 grade stainless steel plates in GTAW

process. The five steps used in general application of neural network are

1. Collection of input/output data set

2. Pre processing of input/ output data set

3. Neural network design and training

4. Testing of the network

5. Performing simulation

3.5.1 Collection of input/output data set

The input parameters used to train the network consists of 5 neurons namely welding

current (I), welding speed (V), gas flow rate (Q), gun angle (), and plate length (L).

The output parameter used to train the network consists of one neuron namely angular

distortion. The input and output data set used for training the network is shown in

Table 2.

3.5.2 Preprocessing of input/output dataset

The generalization capability of the neural network is essentially dependent on

(i) The selection of appropriate input/output parameters of the process.

(ii) The distribution of the dataset.

(iii) The format of the presentation of the data set to the network.

In total 27 experimental data were collected for building the neural network model.

Among these 21 data were selected as training data. The residuals (i.e.6 data) were

used to verify the predicted values. This is shown in Table .2. In order to relieve the

training difficulty and balance the importance of each parameter during training

process, the data should be normalized. It is recommended that the data be normalized

between slightly offset values such as 0.1 and 0.9 rather than between 0 and 1 to avoid

saturation of sigmoid function leading to slow or no learning. The normalized value

for each raw input/output dataset was calculated using the following equation

,

_

+

min

X

max

X

min

X X

))

1

2

(

1

(

'

X

(3)

Where X

1

= Normalized value of X

1

= 0.1,

2

= 0.9

X

max

= maximum value of X

X

min

= minimum value of X

3.5.3 Neural network design and training

The performance of the neural network depends on the number of hidden layers and

number of neurons in the hidden layers. Therefore many attempts should be carried

out in choosing the optimal structure for the neural network by changing the number

of hidden layers as well as the number of neurons in each of these hidden layers. The

appropriate neural network structure for predicting angular distortion was chosen by

trail error method. In this study, a feed forward back propagation artificial neural

network was created keeping five neurons in the input layer, one neuron in the hidden

layer and one neuron in the output layer using MATLAB 7.6. The number of neurons

in the hidden layer was varied between 1 and 25. The structure of the designed neural

network was 5 5 1. The structure is shown in Fig. 2

3.5.4 Testing the network

The network was tested to determine the performance of established model of angular

distortion. The network was trained for 14 iterations. Further training did not improve

the performance of the network. The average error between the desired and actual

output is less than 0.00014 at the end of the training process. This is shown in Fig.4.

The performance of the model was carried on the testing data set. The network model

is shown in Fig.3. The percentage of error of the model predicted was calculated as

the percentage difference between the experimental and predicted value relative to the

experimental value. The results show that the percentage error is less than 5.5%. This

is shown in Table 2. The regression analysis is performed to find out the correlation

coefficient. The correlation coefficient is used to measure the relationship between the

measured and predicted values. An R value of 1 means a close relationship and 0 a

random relationship. It is observed that a regression coefficient of R = 0.99691 is

obtained for training data, R = 0.99536 for testing data and R = 0.93851 for all the

data. This demonstrated that the model has a high accuracy for predicting the angular

distortion. The line of best fit was drawn using the plotted points and is calculated

using the regression analysis. This is shown from Fig.5 to Fig.7.

3.5.5 Performing simulation

The influence of process parameters on the angular distortion was studied using the

model. The angular distortion was predicted by varying one of the parameters and

keeping the remaining parameters constant. This is done by using the developed

neural network model and the predicted values are represented in graphical form from

Figures 8 to 12.

4. Results and discussion

The effect of welding parameters such as welding gun angle, welding speed, welding

current, gas flow rate and plate length on angular distortion are discussed below.

4.1 Effect of welding gun angle on angular distortion

The Fig. 8 represents the effect of gun angle on angular distortion. From the figure it

is clear that the angular distortion decreases for lower gun angles. At lower gun angles

the preheating of work piece is less. This results in less depth of penetration and width

of the bead. Higher gun angles results in more penetration and width of the bead. An

increase in width of the bead will contract more at the top surface of the weld pool.

Also at higher gun angles weld metal gets more exposure to the arc which increases

the thermal stresses in the heat affected zone. Hence there is an increase in angular

distortion.

4.2 Effect of welding speed on angular distortion

Artem Pilipenko [15] reported a relationship for angular distortion

2

Sh

IV

0.13

(4)

Where I is current in Amps, V is voltage, S is welding speed in m/s and h is plate

thickness in m. Watanabe and Satoh [3] reported another relationship for angular

distortion

1

1

1

]

1

,

_

+

1

]

1

Sh h

1

2

C

e

1 m

Sh h

1

1

c

(5)

From these two equations, it is clear that the increase in welding speed results in

decrease in angular distortion. Welding speed is one of the main factor controlling

heat input and the bead width. The bead width and dimensions of heat affected zone

decrease with the increase in welding speed. This is because heat input is inversely

proportional to welding speed. As width of the bead and heat affected zone decreases

with the increase in welding speed, the angular distortion also decreases with the

increase in welding speed. This is clearly shown in Fig.9.

4.3 Effect of plate length on angular distortion

From the Fig. 10 it is clear that the angular distortion decreases with the increase in

plate length. When the plate length increases the plate gets stiffened. This resists

distortion. Also when the plate length increases there is more length available for the

thermal stresses in the heat affected zone to get distributed. Hence the cumulative

effects of the above two factors results in decrease in distortion for the corresponding

increase in plate length.

4.4 Effect of welding current on angular distortion

From Artem Pilipenko [15] the heat input is directly proportional to angular

distortion. When the welding current increases the heat input increases. The increase

in heat input results in preheating of the work piece during the forward welding. This

also results in more penetration and width of the bead. The increase in welding

current also increases the thermal stresses in the heat affected zone. The cumulative

affect of the above two factors results in increase in angular distortion for the

corresponding increase in welding current. This is shown in Fig. 11

4.5 Effect of gas flow rate on angular distortion

The Fig. 12 shows the effect of gas flow rate on angular distortion. When the gas flow

is varied from the lower level to higher level there is a decreasing trend in angular

distortion. This is because at higher gas flow rates more heat is carried by the gas.

This results in less depth of penetration and decrease in dimensions of the heat

affected zone. Hence there is a decrease in angular distortion for corresponding

increase in gas flow rate.

Conclusions

The effect of process parameters on angular distortion in GTAW 202 grade stainless

steel plates using neural networks has been stainless steel plates using neural networks

have been studied, and the following conclusions have been reached.

1. The neural network model developed in this work from the experimental data

can be employed to control the process in order to achieve the desired weld

quality in butt welded plates.

2. It is observed from the results that a correlation coefficient of 0.99 is obtained

between the results obtained by the experimental and the model developed.

Hence there exists a close relationship between the experimental and the

developed model.

3. The percentage of error obtained for angular distortion between predicted and

experimental value falls within the limit of 95% confidence level. Hence the

developed neural network model is capable of making the prediction of

angular distortion with reasonable accuracy.

4. The maximum angular distortion is 12 when the process parameters such as

welding current, gun angle, gas flow rate and plate length are maintained at 80

amps, 60 and 10 litre/min, 125 mm respectively and welding speed is

maintained at 110 mm/min.

5. The minimum angular distortion is 0.45 when gun angle, welding speed are

maintained at 60 and 90 mm/min respectively and the other process

parameters such as plate length, welding current and gas flow rate are

maintained at 175 mm, 100 amps and 20 litre/min respectively.

6. Out of the five process parameters selected for investigation, welding current

has strong effect on angular distortion; plate length, welding speed and gas

flow rate has a negative effect on angular distortion.

Acknowledgement

The author wishes to thank All India Council for Technical Education, New Delhi,

India for sponsoring this research project.

References

[1] Vinokurov V A. Welding stresses and distortion. Wetherby. British Library;

2002, p. 35 -40.

[2] Manikya Kanti K, Srinivasa Rao P. Prediction of bead geometry in pulsed GMA

welding using back propagation neural network. Journal of Materials Processing

Technology. 2008; 200: p. 300 305.

[3] Watanabe M, Sastoh K. Effect of welding conditions on the shrinkage and

distortion in welded structures. Welding Journal.1961; p. 377-s - 384- s.

[4] Mandal A, Parmar RS. Effect of process variables and angular distortion of pulse

GMAW welded HSLA plates. Indian Welding Journal. 1997; 5: p. 26 34.

[5] Gunaraj V, VeL Murugan V. Effect of process parameters on angular distortion of

gas metal arc welded structural steel plates. Welding Journal.2005; p. 165 -s -

171-s

[6] Li X, Simpson SW, Rados M. Neural networks for online prediction of quality in

gas metal arc welding. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining. 2000;

5(2):p. 71 79.

[7] Kim IS, Lee SH, Yarlagadda PKDV. Comparison of multiple regression and back

propagation neural network approaches in modeling top bead height of multipass

gas metal arc welds. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining. 2003; 8(5):

p. 347 352.

[8] Nagesh DS, Datta GL. Prediction of weld bead geometry and penetration in

shielded arc welding using artificial neural networks. Journal of Materials

Processing Technology. 2002; 123(2): P. 303 312.

[9] Arya S, Parmar RS. Mathematical models for predicting angular distortions in

CO

2

shielded flux cored arc welding. Proceedings of the International

Conference on Joining of Metals (JOM 3), Helsingor, Denmark. 1986; p. 240

245.

[10] Jeng Ywan Jeng, Tzuoh Fei Man, Shyeu Ming Leu. Prediction of laser butt

joints welding parameters using back propagation and learning vector quantization

networks. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2000; 99(2): p. 207 218.

[11] Tarang YS, Tsai HL, Ych SS. Modeling, optimization and classification of weld

quality in tungsten inert gas welding. International Journal of Machine Tools and

Manufacture. 1999; 39: p. 1427 1438.

[12] Kannan T, Murugan N. Artificial neural network modeling of weld bead

geometry and dilution in flux cored arc welding. International Journal for Joining

of Materials.2006; 18(2): p. 45 52.

[13] DOE PC IV. Software Reference Manual. Quality America, Inc; 1992, p. 17

46.

[14] Cochran WG, Cox GM. Experimental Designs. Asia Publishing House; 1963,

p.334 374

[15] Pilipenko A. Computer simulation of residual stresses and distortion of thick

plates in multi electrode submerged arc welding their mitigation techniques.

PhD thesis; Norwegian University of Science and Technology: Norway. p.40

82.

List of Tables and Figure captions

Table 1 Welding Parameters and their levels

Table 2 Design matrix and response

Fig. 1 Angular Distortion Measured from Microscribe G2 Coordinate Measuring

Machine

Fig. 2 Feed forward neural network architecture for predicting angular distortion

Fig. 3 Network model obtained from MATLAB

Fig. 4 Performance goal of the neural network model obtained from MATLAB

Fig. 5 Line of best fit for predicted and actual angular distortion by BPN model for

training samples

Fig. 6 Line of best fit for predicted and actual angular distortion by BPN model for

testing samples

Fig. 7 Line of best fit for predicted and actual angular distortion by BPN model for all

the samples

Fig. 8 Effect of gun angle on angular distortion

Fig. 9 Effect of welding speed on angular distortion

Fig. 10 Effect of plate length on angular distortion

Fig. 11 Effect of welding current on angular distortion

Fig. 12 Effect of gas flow rate on angular distortion

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