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Acta Zoologica Lituanica. Hydrobiologia. 1999. Volumen 9. Numerus 2 ISSN 1392-1657

HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER, SEDIMENTS AND MOLLUSC TISSUES


Dalia BARYT LOVEJOY
Institute of Ecology, Akademijos 2, 2600 Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract. The highest concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, and Cr) were found in water, sediment and molluscs of the Malk Bay and the Smeltel River. It was determined that after dredging the toxic sediment there was a noticeable decrease of heavy metals in sediment and molluscs from the Malk Bay. However, low concentrations of heavy metals were found in the Vilhelmo Channel near Klaipda waterworks. In the same channel near Dreverna the concentrations of heavy metals were much higher and that was associated with the presence of silt in the sediment. This study shows that bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mollusc tissues is dependent not only on their concentration in water but on many other factors as well. Key words: heavy metals, molluscs, bioaccumulation

INTRODUCTION
Once introduced into the aquatic environment pollutants undergo a variety of interactions, which may lead to their activation or more probably to detoxification. The fate of chemicals is mainly influenced by their stability. Stable compounds may persist for a long time in the environment and therefore, in terms of acute toxicity they are not so toxic. Less stable compounds change into more toxic forms or bind to biological molecules within organisms thus causing damage. Pollutants, introduced into the environment, are distributed in water, sediment, and biota. In order to determine the concentration of a contaminant, surveys in one of those media can be chosen. However, all the surveys have negative and positive sides. Pollutants in water exist in solution, suspension or when they are absorbed. Mixing or settling of sediment also affects the amount of them in water. Both water and sediment analysis does not show anything about the bioavailable part of a pollutant and therefore also about toxic effects (Phillips, 1977). Bivalve molluscs are one of the most suitable bioindicators because they are sedentary, widespread and have a long life span (Farrington et al., 1983). Despite many studies on the uptake of stable metals in bivalves, variables affecting the results of bioindication surveys remain partly unknown. Some data are available on the effects of season, salinity, water temperature, coexistence of several metals,

organism age, weight, size, and sex on the uptake of metals (Phillips, 1977). Metal availability in aquatic organisms is influenced by many external factors such as season, pH, hardness of water, concentration and composition of particulate matter (Phillips, 1977; Luoma & Bryan, 1979). The total metal concentration in sediment or water does not show the available part of a metal and is not useful for the biological impact evaluation. For example, Cd levels in Anodonta grandis correlated with dissolved Cd at the sedimentwater interface, but not with the total Cd concentration in the sediment (Tessier et al., 1993). Hickey et al. (1995) reported, that no significant correlation exists between total sediment Hg and As concentrations and freshwater mussels Hydrinella menziesi (Unionacea) tissue levels. In another study, Cd concentrations in the sediment were also not found to be useful to predict Cd bioavailability. Here, the strongest relationships were found between the Cd concentration in the mussels and water pH, which shows that hydrogen ions replace Cd ions in complexes and as a consequence in the amount of free available Cd increases (Campbell & Evans, 1991). Therefore, the assessment of bioaccumulated metals should be made together with determination of metal concentrations in water and sediment. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of heavy metals in water, sediment, and in molluscs, inhabiting the same sites of the Malk Bay, the Vilhelmo Channel, and the Smeltel River.

Heavy metal concentrations in water, sediments and mollusc tissues

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MATERIAL AND METHODS


The assessed sites Three main and one additional sites were chosen for the assessment of heavy metal concentrations (Fig. 1-2). One of the main sites was the Malk Bay, which was located in the northern part of the Curonian Lagoon. The presence of high pollution loads, salt water inflow into the Malk Bay, and permanent water interchange make the situation in this bay very complicated. Two rivers flow directly into the Malk Bay the Smeltel and the Vilhelmo Channel. Urban sewage is discharged into this bay. The Malk Bay is situated in Klaipda therefore the port dock area occupies almost the entire bay. In 1995 Environmental protection Ministry decided to allow dredging in the bay in order to make this bay more accessible for bigger ships and to build a container terminal. Studies on the possible environmental impact from this building were carried out. Dredging could lead to a greater possibility of salt water and chemicals intrusion from this bay into the Vilhelmo Channel, which serves as the biggest drinking water source for Klaipda. This

was the reason for closing the channel from the bay in June 1995 (Fig. 2). The data collected in April 1995, before the closure, and the present data allows to compare and elucidate the effects of the closure and dredging. In addition to material collected nearby the drinking waterworks, the sampling was made in the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna. The channel starts at the river Minija, which has a big drainage area of agricultural land. Originally the channel was build for shipping in the last century. The additional site of the assessment gives the opportunity to evaluate the input of pollution from the river Minija. Collected samples of molluscs, water and sediment Water, sediment and mollusc samples were collected in May 21, 1996. Molluscs were collected with a special dragnet or with hands. Smaller ones were screened through a special device. Totally, 175 molluscs of 6 species were collected. Molluscs were taken to the laboratory and were kept in water from the site where they were collected and kept in it until the dissection on the next day. Samples

Figure 1. Map of sites investigated in the Western part of Lithuania. 1 the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna. The scale is 1: 4000.000 Figure 2. Map of sites assessed. 2 Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks, 3 the Malk Bay, 4 the Smeltel River estuary, 5 the Smeltel River upstream the city. The scale is 1: 19.000

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of molluscs for the determination of heavy metals were taken from the Vilhelmo Channel, the Malk Bay, and the Smeltel River. Water samples were taken from the same 3 places and they contained 1.5 l of water. Sediment samples were taken from two sites in the Vilhelmo Channel and from the Malk Bay. They were collected from oxidised sediment layer 3-5 cm and closed tightly. Sediment was air-dried in the laboratory. Molluscs were dried at 40-50oC. Analysis for the determination of heavy metals in mollusc tissues and sediment was performed at the University of Manchester, UK by Dr. G. Porteus. Water sample analysis was carried out by Mrs. V. Gudynien using absorption flame photometer in the laboratory of the water quality analysis of Vilniaus Vandenys enterprise, Lithuania. Statistical analysis was carried out employing PRISM statistical package. Standard methods were used for analysing heavy metal concentration: means, SD, t tests.

River near the motorboat port (Table 1). In almost all the cases the lowest concentrations of metals were found in water from the Vilhelmo Channel as compared to water from the Malk Bay and the Smeltel River. Concentrations of metals in the Malk Bay and the Smeltel water were very similar. Only the amounts of Pb, Mn, Ni, and Fe were considerably higher in the waters of the Smeltel. Heavy metals in sediment Analysis on the presence of heavy metals was performed in sediment sampled in 3 places (Table 2). The highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Cr, and Zn were found in sediment from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna. As far as Zn is concerned, its concentration was three times higher in the sediment from this channel near Dreverna than in the sediment sampled from the same channel near the waterworks and it was about 40 times higher than in the sand from the Malk Bay. Sediment, taken from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna was silt, whereas sediment from the rest two places was sand. The lowest concentrations of heavy metals were found in the Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks except for Zn (Table 2). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and radionuclides in mollusc tissues Molluscs collected in 1996 for the cytogenetic studies

RESULTS
Heavy metals in water The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Co were determined in water samples from the Vilhelmo Channel near the drinking waterworks, from the Malk Bay near the Vilhelmo Channel estuary, and the Smeltel Table 1. Concentrations of heavy metals (mg/l) in water Location The Vilhelmo Channel The Malk Bay The Smeltel The Vilhelmo Channel The Malk Bay The Smeltel Cu 0.002 0.005 0.004 Ni 0.025 0.037 0.05 Pb 0.015 0.025 0.036 Cr 0.005 0.009 0.009

Zn 0.015 0.033 0.033 Cd 0.002 0.003 0.003

Mn 0.14 0.13 0.27 Fe 0.6 0.6 1.1

Co 0.01 0.018 0.014 Sr 0.08 0.22 0.22

Table 2. Concentration of heavy metals in sediment in g/g dry weight Location The Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks The Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna The Malk Bay Sediment character sand silt sand Cu 1.4 3.4 3.0 Ni ND 1.8 1.0 Cd ND ND ND Cr 1.0 2.2 1.4 Pb ND ND ND Zn 05.2 15.4 00.4

ND less than the detection limit. For Cu the detection limit is 0.02, for Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn 0.4, Cr 0.2 g/g

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were analysed in order to determine the concentration of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cu reached 5.5 g/g in specimens of A. cygnea inhabited the Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks. However, this number does not include one individual in which the amount of this concentration was very high 40.2 g/g. If it was done the average value of Cu concentration would be 7.3 g/g, though the SD value would be 8. That is why this individual was excluded from the whole set of calculations. The amounts of Cu, Ni, and Zn were highly variable in the tissues of A. cygnea inhabited the channel either near the waterworks or near Dreverna. The only significant difference was found between the amount of Cr: in the tissues of A. cygnea from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna the concentration of Cr reached 1.3 g/g and that was significantly higher than in the same mollusc species from the channel near the waterworks 0.73 g/g (p < 0.0001) (Table 3, Fig. 3). The concentration of Cu in the tissues of U. tumidus from the Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks was 7.6 g/g. Specimens of this species inhabiting the channel near Dreverna had 6.4 g/g, which was not significantly different from the previous result. Although the high individual variability of Ni concentrations was determined in the tissues of Unionidae specimens, U. tumidus have accumulated from both sites on average exactly the same amount of Ni 0.9 g/g.

Concentration of Cr was a bit higher in U. tumidus collected from the Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks 1.5 g/g, in comparison with the same species inhabiting the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna 0.9 g/g. The amount of Zn differed in U. tumidus from the channel near the waterworks (193 g/g) from the amount in the same mollusc species from the channel near Dreverna (168 g/g). However, due to the fact that only 3 individuals of U. tumidus, collected from the channel near the waterworks have been analysed, that is not a representative sample and concentrations of heavy metals in U. tumidus from both places can not be distinguished as significantly different. Concentrations of metals in the tissues of U. pictorum inhabiting the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna were very similar to those of U. tumidus. Individual variability of concentrations in U. pictorum soft tissues was significantly much higher than in U. tumidus. This resulted in high SD (Table 3). In one of A. cygnea individual sampled from the channel near Dreverna 0.7 g/g of Pb was detected. Besides, in one individual of U. pictorum from the same place 1.8 g/g of Cd was detected. Moreover in the tissues of the same individual a very high amount of Zn (564 g/g) was found. However, Cd and Pb were not measured in any other individuals of the Unionidae family. Concentration of Ni was the most variable from all the metals.

Table 3. Concentrations of heavy metals in molluscs the average value in g/g dry weight and SD Mollusc species A. cygnea 1 A. cygnea 2 U. pictorum 1 U. tumidus 1 U. tumidus 2 D. polymorpha 1 D. polymorpha 2 V. viviparus 1 V. viviparus 2 L. ovata 3 L. ovata 4
1 2

Amount of molluscs 8 14 16 18 3 28 33 27 15 11 2

Cu 5.4 1.5 5.5 0.8 7.5 4.3 6.4 1.8 7.6 21.8 25.2 42.6 22.7 19.6 48.4

Ni 0.5 0.1 1.5 1.7 2.3 2.9 0.9 1.1 0.9 2.6 1.6 0.7 0.9 3.6 2.5

Cr 1.3 0.3 0.7 0.2 1.1 0.3 0.9 0.3 1.5 1.2 1.0 4.9 2.8 2.8 2.7

Pb * ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 2.6 ND

Zn 146.4 34.9 118.5 19.9 0.200 105.8 0.168 39.3 193 77 121 139 180 52 275

Molluscs collected from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna Molluscs collected from the Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks in 21 05 96 3 Molluscs collected from the Malk Bay 4 Molluscs collected from the Smeltel estuary ND less than the detection limit. The detection limit for Cu is 0.02, for Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn 0.4, Cr 0.2 g/g Cd was found only in one individual of U. pictorum * detected in one individual, see the text

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The levels of 42.6 g/g of Cu were determined in V. viviparus snails, which were sampled from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna and it was almost twice as much as in V. viviparus from the channel near the waterworks 22.7 g/g. These molluscs from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna have accumulated twice as much of Cr as those inhabited the channel near the waterworks (Fig. 3). The higher amount of Zn in viviparous tissues 180 g/g was detected in molluscs from the waterworks area whereas the concentration of this metal in the channel near Dreverna was 139 g/g. In the tissues of D. polymorpha from the Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks, the amount of Zn was also higher (121 g/g) than this amount in the same species sampled from the channel near Dreverna (77 g/g). As far as all other metals are concerned, except Ni, their levels in the tissues of D. polymorpha from both sites were not remarkably different. Due to a very high level of variability of Ni amount in other species this difference is possibly not confident.

The concentration of Cu in dry tissues of L. ovata from the Smeltel was 48.4 g/g which was more than twofold higher than it was detected in the same species from the Malk Bay (19.6 g/g). A higher amount of Zn was estimated in L. ovata from the Smeltel as well 275 g/g. However, concentration of Ni was higher in molluscs from the Malk Bay than in those from the Smeltel. Besides, in molluscs from the Malk Bay 2.6 g/g of Pb was estimated which was not found in L. ovata from the Smeltel.

D ISCUSSION
Water quality The concentrations of heavy metals in water were the highest in the Smeltel River and the lowest in the Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks. The results of heavy metal concentration assessments in water from the Vilhelmo Channel were compared with those of drinking water standards, which are presented in Table 4.

Figure 3. The levels of accumulated Cr in molluscs from the Vilhelmo Channel Table 4. Maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of heavy metals in drinking water in mg/l (hazardous substances, maximum allowable concentrations, and temporary allowable level in the water for consuming, 1994), concentrations of metals in the Vilhelmo Channel in 1995 and 1996 in mg/l (Kadnas & Kliius, 1996) MAC VC in 1996 VC in 1995 MAC VC in 1996 VC in 1995 VC the Vilhelmo Channel Cu 1.0 0.002 0.03-0.005 Ni 0.02 0.025 0.03-0.1 Pb 0.03 0.015 0-0.011 Cr 0.1 0.005 0-0.01 Zn 1.0 0.015 0.016-0.052 Cd 0.003 0.0025 0-0.001 Mn 0.1 0.14 0.003-0.03 Fe 0.3 0.6 0.3-0.35

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In the water from the Vilhelmo Channel, Mn, Ni, and Fe exceeded maximum allowable concentrations (MAC). However, this does not mean that the same concentrations are present in drinking water because of sand filtration, which is used in the waterworks. Besides, as only one-time measurements were performed, we can not judge for the period of the whole year. The attempts to obtain reports from the drinking waterworks administration on drinking water quality were not successful. Data available on water quality from the wells around the waterworks shows no negative influence of dredging in the Malk Bay on ground water quality in 1995 (Kadnas & Kliius, 1996). The concentration range of heavy metals in groundwater from the wells around the waterworks (Kadnas & Kliius, 1996) was comparable with those from the Vilhelmo Channel except for Cd, the concentration of which was higher in the channel near the waterworks. Concentrations of Mn and Ni in groundwater were 0.005-0.16 mg/l and 0.01-0.13 mg/l, respectively and exceed the MAC (Kadnas & Kliius, 1996). The comparison of data obtained in 1995 and 1996, shows that amount of Pb, Mn, and Fe has increased over one year but the amount of Cu and Ni has decreased. The decrease of Cu and Ni is a consequence of the closure of the channel because the amount of those metals in the Malk Bay is high and therefore they could intrude into the channel before the closure. In order to determine why the levels of Pb, Mn, and Fe increased, the activity of all potential pollution sources along the channel should be investigated and groundwater quality has to be assessed once more because of the possible intrusion of polluting agents from the Malk Bay. The administration of the drinking waterworks should pay attention to the elevated concentrations of Mn, Ni, and Fe. In most Lithuanian waters, high concentrations of Fe and Mn are found so it can be due to natural background, but the most

concern should be given to Ni and Pb sources. Data obtained on water quality in the Malk Bay and the Smeltel River was compared with data on heavy metal concentrations in the Curonian Lagoon near Rusn in 1993-1994. This place is nearby the estuaries of the River Nemunas, which brings the largest amount of pollution into the whole Curonian Lagoon (The Report of the Environmental Protection Ministry for 1994, 1995). From the data mentioned above, it was determined that concentrations of Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Fe were higher in the Malk Bay and the Smeltel River in 1996 than in the Curonian Lagoon near Rusn in 1993-1994. Concentrations of heavy metals in the Curonian Lagoon changed insignificantly over the period from 1993 to 1995 (Environmental Protection in Lithuania, 1996). Therefore, it is obvious that either the Smeltel brings pollution into the Malk Bay, where it is accumulating, or it comes from the port area and sewage discharge. More precise assessments and data monitoring are needed to determine the exact portion of pollution coming from the referred sources. There are some caveats in all those considerations because the sampling of water for the analysis was carried out only once and only two years data are compared. It is known that water has a very short pollutants integration period (Phillips, 1977), therefore in order to make definite conclusion, data monitoring is necessary. It was also noted that a monitoring network around the waterworks exists but it is not working due to financial difficulties (Kadnas & Kliius, 1996). This network should be set up in the future and pollution sources along the whole Vilhelmo Channel have to be registered. Sediment analysis Sediment analysis showed that the highest concentration of heavy metals was found in the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna. The amount of heavy metals was

Table 5. The comparison of heavy metal amounts in sediment (g/g of dry weight) from various locations Place VC near Dreverna The Solway Firth, UK The Looe estuary, UK Cu 3.4 5-16 65 57 Ni 1.8 Cd ND <1 1.3 Cr 2.2 15-62 59 Pb ND 12-66 155 Zn 15.4 36-105 329 Source This study Halcrow et al., 1973 Bryan & Hummerstone, 1977

VC the Vilhelmo Channel

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lower than it was in the sediment from the Solway Firth, UK which is considered to be the control area, and of course it was significantly lower in comparison with the Lough estuary sediment which is in the mining area (Table 5) (Halcrow et al., 1973; Bryan & Hummerstone, 1977). It is very difficult to compare concentrations of heavy metals in sediment from the assessed locations because of the different character of the sediment. It should be noticed that sediment in Dreverna site had high and very fine silt and organic matter content in it, while in the other two places the sediment comprised sand. In general, metal concentrations in sediment increase with the decrease of the particle size and increase of organic matter content (Halcrow et al., 1973). Therefore, the more precise comparison would be made only between the sediment of the Malk Bay and the Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks. It is obvious that a greater amount of Cu and Ni in the Malk Bay is the result of pollution. The positive effects of dredging are quite obvious (Table 6). It is clear that the decrease in all metal concentrations has occurred due to dredging. Bioaccumulation of pollutants in mollusc tissues The amounts of metals in mussels from the Vilhelmo Channel were approximately the same except for the

only difference in Cr concentration in A. cygnea. On the basis of the difference between the amounts of Cr in A. cygnea, it can be stated that the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna is more polluted by this metal than the channel near the waterworks. The greater amounts of Cr in V. viviparus and in D. polymorpha from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna confirm this suggestion. The amounts of metals in molluscs were compared with those from the related species of A. grandis and Eliptio complanata (Table 7). The amounts of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn were higher in A. grandis and E. complanata than in A. cygnea from the Vilhelmo Channel. Beech lake and Winnipeg lake in Canada were considered to be clean on the basis of concentrations of heavy metals in water from those lakes (Hinch & Stephenson, 1987; Pip, 1990), therefore concentrations of those metals in A. cygnea were in the range of natural variation. Unfortunately, there was no data found on Ni, Mn, and Cr in molluscs, which were found as exceeding the MAC in water from the Vilhelmo Channel. A notably greater amount of Cu in V. viviparus from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna can be explained by its feeding mechanism. This species are detritus feeders and, as most Cu and Cd are known to be associated with particles, especially sediment in freshwa-

Table 6. Concentrations of heavy metals in g/g dry weight in sediment of the Malk Bay before dredging in 1994 and after it in 1996 Location The Malk Bay, 1994 The Malk Bay, 1996 Cu 3-23.4 3.0 Ni 9-260 1.0 Cd 0.1-1 ND Cr 5-32 1.4 Pb 8.3-11.4 ND Zn 20-84 0.4 Source Jokas & Galkus, 1995 This study

ND less than the detection limit Table 7. Levels of heavy metals in molluscs (g/g) Molluscs and site A. grandis, Lake Winnipeg, Canada E. complanata, Lake Beech, Canada A. cygnea1 A. cygnea2
1 2

Cu 5-80 7.29 5.40 5.50

Cd 1-10 10.98 ND ND

Pb 4-150

Zn

Source Pip, 1990 Hinch &Stephenson, 1987 This study This study

ND ND

155.5 146.0 118.5

the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna the Vilhelmo Channel near the waterworks ND less than the detection limit

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ters (Trefry et al., 1986), V. viviparus from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna accumulated greater amount of Cu than the same snails from the channel near the waterworks, where Cu concentration in the sediment was lower. The higher amount of accumulated Cu in the sediment from the Vilhelmo Channel near Dreverna indicated the pollution with this metal in the channel. Unio and Anodonta from the Vilhelmo Channel showed very similar amounts of accumulated metals. It is known that Unio and Anodontas patterns of bioaccumulation of Cd do not differ significantly (Hemelraad et al., 1986). The reason for a very high variability of bioaccumulated Ni amount is not clear. Some laboratory experiments should be performed. L. ovata collected in the Malk Bay accumulated high concentration of Ni and Pb in their tissues. They were even higher than in the same species from the Smeltel. It is worth noting that U. tumidus from The Curonian Lagoon near Juodkrant also possessed a high amount of Pb (Porteus & Baryt, unpublished). Although Pb concentration in The Curonian Lagoon is considered to be safe (Report of the Environmental Protection Ministry for 1994, 1995) this bay might become a place

of concentration for this pollutant because of the constant load of Pb into The Curonian Lagoon and accumulation properties of Pb. Data obtained in this study was compared with that collected on heavy metals bioaccumulation in molluscs from the Malk Bay in 1995, before dredging (Table 8). Concentrations of metals were lower in molluscs sampled in 1996 than in 1995 except for Pb and Cu. The increase in Pb and Cu is a result of either a new pollution load and quick bioaccumulation of those metals by molluscs or the inability of molluscs to eliminate metals. It is not possible to determine the reason basing only on two years data. Accumulation of heavy metals in L. stagnalis living in Balaton Lake, Hungary was investigated by Balogh et al. (1988). Their data was compared with data obtained in this study. The higher concentration of Zn and Cu was found in molluscs sampled from the Smeltel than those sampled from the Malk Bay and Balaton Lake. Molluscs from the Malk Bay had high amounts of Ni and Pb whereas molluscs from the Smeltel had high amounts of Cu and Zn in their tissues, which could lead to the formation of biological effects in their cells.

Table 8. Heavy metals in g/g dry weight in L. ovata from the Malk Bay Time 1995 1996 Cu 13.4 19.6 Ni 36.0 03.6 Pb 0.8 2.6 Zn 229.4 052 Cd 0.9 ND Source Lazauskien et al., 1995 This study

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is grateful to V. Gudynien (Vilniaus Vandenys) and G. Porteus (Manchester University, UK) for the analysis of heavy metals in water and sediment samples.

REFERENCES
Balogh K.V., Fernandez D.S. & Salanki J. 1988. Heavy metal concentrations of Lymnaea stagnalis L. in the environs of lake Balaton (Hungary). Wat. Res. 22: 12051210. Bryan G.W. & Hummerstone L.G. 1977. Indicators of heavy metal contamination in the Looe estuary (Cornwall) with particular regard to silver and lead. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 57: 75-92. Campbell J. & Evans D. R. 1991. Cadmium concentrations in the freshwater mussel (Eliptio complanata) and

their relationship to water chemistry. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20: 125-131. Environmental protection in Lithuania. 1996. Lithuanian Environmental Protection Ministry. Vilnius, 135 pp. Farrington J.W., Goldberg E.D., Risebrough R.W., Martin J.H. & Bowen V.T. 1983. US Mussel Watch 1976-1978; an overview of the trace metal, DDE, PCB, hydrocarbons, and artificial radionuclide data. Environ. Sci. Technol. 17: 490-496. Halcrow W., Mackay D.W. & Thornton I. 1973. The distribution of trace metals and fauna in the Firth of Clyde in relation to the disposal of sewage sludge. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 53: 721-739. Hemelraad J., Holwerda D.A., Teerds K.J., Herwig H.J. & Zandee D.I. 1986. Cadmium kinetics in freshwater clams. II. A comparative study of cadmium uptake and cellular distribution in the Unionidae Anodonta cygnea, Anodonta anatina and Unio pictorum. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15: 9-12. Hickey C.W., Roper D.S. & Buckland S.J. 1995. Metal con-

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centrations of resident and transplanted freshwater mussels Hyridella menziesi (Unionacea: Hyriidae) and sediments in the Waikato River, New Zealand. The Sci. of the Total Environment 175: 163-177. Hinch S.G. & Stephenson L.A. 1987. Size- and age-specific patterns of trace metal concentrations in freshwater clams from an acid-sensitive and circumneutral lake. Can. J. Zool. 65: 2436-2442. Jokas K. & Galkus A. 1996. The environmental evaluation of the project on container terminal in Malk Bay, Klaipeda. Klaipeda port, container terminal. Environmental part. Unpublished report, Vilnius. Kadnas K. & Kliius J. 1996. Hydrogeological investigations. The effect of dredging and cleaning of Malk Bay in Klaipeda port on the environment. Unpublished report, Vilnius. Lazauskien L., Vaitonis G., Bubinas A., Jagminien I. & Klimaauskien V. 1995. The trends of the effects of pollutants on indicator aquatic organisms. Unpublished report, Institute of Ecology, Vilnius. Luoma S.N. & Bryan G.W. 1979. Trace metal bioavailability: modelling chemical and biological interactions of sediment bound Zn. In Chemical modelling in aqueous systems, ACS Symposium Series (ed. E.A. Jenne), 93 pp., 577-609. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. Phillips D.J.H. 1977. The use of biological indicator organisms to monitor trace metal pollution in marine and estuarine environments a review. Environ. Pollut. 13: 281-317. Pip E. 1990. Copper, lead, and cadmium concentrations in a sample of lake Winnipeg Anodonta grandis. The Nautilus 103: 140-142. Report of Environmental Protection Ministry for 1994. 1995. Environmental Protection Ministry, Vilnius, 106 pp.

Tessier A., Coillard Y., Campbell P.G.C. & Auclair J.C. 1993. Modelling Cd partitioning in toxic lake sediments and Cd concentrations in the freshwater bivalve Anodonta grandis. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38: 1-17. Trefry J.H., Nelsen T.A., Trocine R.P., Metz S. & Vetter T.W. 1986. Trace metal fluxes through the Mississippi River Delta system. Rapport et Proces-Verbaux des Renions Conseil International pour lExploration de la Mer 186: 277-288 pp.

VANDENYJE, DUGNO NUOSDOSE IR MOLIUSK AUDINIUOSE

SUNKIJ

METAL KONCENTRACIJOS

D. Baryt Lovejoy SANTRAUKA


Didiausios tirt sunkij metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd ir Cr) koncentracijos 1996 m. buvo rastos Malk lankoje ir Smeltels iotyse gyvenusi moliusk audiniuose, taip pat i viet dugno nuosdose ir vandenyje. Nustatyta, kad paalinus i Malk lankos utertas dugno nuosdas labai sumajo ir sunkij metal bioakumuliacija moliusk audiniuose. Sunkij metal koncentracijos Vilhelmo kanale prie Drevernos buvo daug didesns negu io kanalo iotyse prie Klaipdos miesto treiosios vandenviets. iame kanale prie Drevernos buvo tirtos dumblingos dugno nuos-dos, tai ir nulm didesn sunkij metal akumuliacij. i tyrim rezultatai parod, kad sunkij metal bioakumuliacija moliusk audiniuose priklauso ne tik nuo i teral koncentracijos vandenyje, bet ir nuo kit endogenini faktori.