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Unit 7 - Funtional Neuroanatomy - Cerebral Cortex

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UNIT 7 - Cerebral Cortex

View Unit 7 Learning Ob jectives

A. Structure

B. Functional Organization

The cerebral cortex developmentally and functionally presents four major divisions: the Archicortex, the Paleocortex , the Neocortex, and the Cingulate Cortex. The archicortex is involved with emotion a nd affective behavior regarding visceral activity and is located in th e medial aspect of the temporal lobe and includes the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. The cingulate cortex is involv ed primarily with em otional and affective behavior regarding our

three basic drives for food, shelter, and sex. It is located along the inferior, medial aspect of

the frontal and p arietal lobes.

along the inferior medial aspect of the temporal lobe and the inferior latera l aspect of

frontal lobe. These areas include the parahippocampus, uncus and enthorhinal area within the temporal lobe and orbital gyrus of the frontal lob e. These three div isions are an

important part of the limbic system .

(90%) of the cortex increases in imp ortance in the ascendin g vertebrate scale with greatest

development seen in man.

The paleocortex plays a role in olfaction and is situated

Phylogenetically, the neocortex, the remaining portion

It is upon this division that the emphasis of this un it is placed.

A. Structure

The cerebral cortex consists of six cellular layers labeled from su perficial to deep a s (1) molecular, (2) outter gran ular, (3) outter py ramidal, (4) inner gra nular, (5) inner

pyramidal, and (6) polymorphic, or fusiform.

cortex, but vary in depth according to the function of that area of the cortex.

All six layers are present throughout the

Layers (1)

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B. Functional Organization

Functional divisions of the neocortex are based upon Brodmann' s cytoarchitectural map of the cerebral

cortex.

the development of Brodmann 's map of the cerebral cortex, ablation and stimulation studies along with

Verification of these functional areas

has been done through co mputer topography based on electrical, physiological, and blood flow recordings, as

well as CAT sca ns, MRI s and PET scan studies.

autopsy studies were used to alloca te functions to each of these areas.

Brodmann identif ied 57 individual areas which he found to dif fer from a cellular aspect.

Following

Areas primarily involved with afferent projections from specific thalamic nuclei are referred to as Specific Sensory/Receiv ing Areas, and areas involved with efferent projections descending to lower motor neurons are called Specific Motor/Sending Areas. Those areas comp rising the largest portion of the cereb ral cortex, responsible for assessing a nd giving mea ning to sensory stimuli as well as storing inf ormation to comp are past with present experiences are referred to as Association areas and includes the components of the limbic system.

NOTE: Although many of the precise functional roles of these sub divisions remain in question, those which are generally accepted are described below. In actuality, Brodmann's areas are not as strictly defin ed as it may appear, and there is considerable ov erlapping present.

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1. Specific Sensory Areas

The parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes each have a role in the processing of sensory modalities (receiving areas).

a. Primary Somesthetic Cortex - Areas 1,2,3

Location The post-central gyrus
Location
The post-central gyrus

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Function A receiving area for extroceptive, proprioceptive (concious) and vibratory stimulie from the contralateral side
Function
A receiving area for extroceptive, proprioceptive (concious) and vibratory stimulie from the contralateral side of the body and
sends this information to areas 5-7 for integration. This area is broken down according to the body areas called a homunculus
and is dipproportionate in nature. The size of the certical representation is determined by functional importance of that area of
the body
Input
Information from the ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus (VPL and VPM).

Fig. 1

posterior nuclei of the thalamus (VPL and VPM). Fig. 1 The Nervous System , Psychology 9A

The Nervous System , Psychology 9A Lecture 2 Notes, http://hypatia.ss.uci.edu/psych9a/lectures/lec2notes. html

Fig. 2

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7 - Funtional Neuroanatomy - Cerebral Cortex Page 4 of 12 The Nervous System , Psychology

The Nervous System , Psychology 9A Lecture 2 Notes, http://hypatia.ss.uci.edu/psych9a/lectures/lec2notes. html

Fig. 3

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7 - Funtional Neuroanatomy - Cerebral Cortex Page 5 of 12 http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/3468/9/lobes2.gif

http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/3468/9/lobes2.gif

Physiology Of The Human Body, 1985, 3rd Edition, by: J. Robert McClintic, Ph.D.

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b. Primary Visual Cortex - Area 17

Location The calcarine cortex of the occipital lobe Function The primary receiving area for visual
Location
The calcarine cortex of the occipital lobe
Function
The primary receiving area for visual information and sends this information to area 18 for interpretation
Input
Receives lateral geniculo-calcarine fibers (optic radiations) and information regarding the contralateral visual field
c. Primary Auditory Cortex - Areas 41,42
Location
The superior temporal gyrus
Function
The primary receiving area for auditory information (verbal and non-verbal) which relays this information to poserior 22 and the
planum temporale
Input
Receives medial geniculo-temporal fibers (auditory radiations) which are "tonotrophically localized" receiving input from both
cochlea (80% from contralateral ear and 20% from ipsilateral ear.

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7 - Funtional Neuroanatomy - Cerebral Cortex Page 6 of 12 d . Primary Gustatory Cortex

d. Primary Gustatory Cortex - Area 43

Location Along the lateral fissure in the parietal lobe, lateral to the insular cortex just
Location
Along the lateral fissure in the parietal lobe, lateral to the insular cortex just below areas 1-2-3.
Function
The primary receiving area for the sensation of taste and sends this information to areas 5-7 for interpretation
Input
Receives information from the VM, nucleus of the thalamus
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2. Specific Motor Areas
Specific Motor Areas, concerned with initiation of a variety of motor expressions, are primarily located anterior
to the central sulcus in the f rontal lobe.
a. Primary Motor Cortex - Area 4
Location
The precentral gyrus
Function
Primarily responsible for the control over skeletal musculature for functional activities and mobility skills, via the reticulospinal
and corticospinal tracts. It is also responsible for control of cranial nerve activity via the corticobulbar and reticulobulbar
tracts.
Input
Receives information primarily from the ipsilateral ventral lateral and ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus as well as Areas
1-2-3 (Primary somesthetic cortex) 6,8, and 19, ipsilateral corpus striatum and contralateral cerebellum cortex.
b. Pre-Motor and Supplemental Motor Cortex (Area 6) Location Lies in front of the primary
b. Pre-Motor and Supplemental Motor Cortex (Area 6)
Location
Lies in front of the primary motor area. Laterally this area is called the Pre-motor Cortex, medially it is called the
Supplemental Motor Cortex (SMC).
Function
The Pre-motor Cortex controls skeletal musculature to provide background postural stability for functional activities and
mobility skills via the reticulospinal tracts. The SMC, is responsible for our motor planning skills.
Input
Receives information from the ipsilateral ventral lateral and ventral anterior nuclei of the thalamus, the inferior olivary
nucleus, and Areas 4, 1-2-3, 8, 19 and non-dominate temporal and parietal lobes (areas 37-39-40), ipsilateral corpus striatum
and contralateral cerebellar cortex.

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