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CHAPTER: 1 MEASUREMENTS 1.1 PHYSICS: What is physics?

? Physic is that branch of science in which we study the properties of matter and energy and their mutual relationship. It also deals with the explanation of phenomena in terms of fundamental laws and principles. Matter: Any object, which occupies a space and have mass is called matter. Energy: (1) Energy is the ability of a body to do work. (2) Energy is an agent, which brings some changes in the material objects. According to second definition we can say that light is a form of energy i.e. when we place an object in sunlight than it will become hot. As sunlight produces the hotness in the object so that sunlight is the source of energy for the object. So light is the form of energy Mutual relationship between matter and energy: Mutual relationship between matter and energy is that matter can be converted into energy and energy can into matter i.e. Petrol is a matter as it occupy space and have a mass/weight. When we add petrol in engine, it provides energy to the engine and a vehicle start. The scope of physics is very wide. Its study ranges from the tiniest sub-atomic particles to the huge galaxies; The nature of physics is qualitative rather than quantitative (or descriptive). Physics emphasize accurate measurement and tries to express the existing experimental finding as well as some new predictions in the form of mathematical equations. Physics, therefore stresses upon accurate instrument and precision in measurement. It is often called exact science of measurement. 1.2 THE BRANCHES OF PHYSICS The subjects studied within the scope of physics are called branches of physics. The most basic branches of physics are MECHANIC & FIELD THEORY. Mechanics deals with the motion of the objects under the influence of certain force. The field theory explain the origin and properties of the fields such as gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear field etc. however the conventional main branches of physics are the following (i) Mechanics: It deals with the motion of material objects under the influence of certain force. (ii) Heat and thermodynamics: It deals with heats as a form of energy as will as with the transmission of heat energy by means of conduction, convection and radiation. (iii) Light / optics: This branch of physics deals with the properties of light i.e. reflection, refraction, dispersion and also the wave properties of light. Optical instrument are also discussed in this branch of physics. (iv) Electricity and Magnetism: This branch of physics deals with the study of charges at rest as well as in motion.

(v) Atomic physics: In this branch of physics we study the behavior and properties of atoms of different substance. (vi) Nuclear Physics: Just clear from its name it is study of the nucleus of atom. It also deals with nuclear reactions. (vii) Solid-state Physics: In this branch of physics we study the physical properties of the solid state of matter. (viii) Elementary particle physics: It has been observed that neutrons, protons and electrons are composed up of tiny particles called elementary particles. The study of these elementary parties is known as elementary particle physics. (ix) Plasma physics: The mixture of bare nuclei (completely ionized atom) and electrons is called plasma and study is known as plasma physics. Some scientist considers plasma, as the fourth state of matter. (x) Astrophysics:

It deals with the physical properties of the heavenly bodies i.e. its chemical deposition, temperature and light power etc. it also studies the interaction of matter and energy going on within these bodies and the space between them. (xi) Biophysics:

In this branch of physics we study the applications of the principles of physics to the living organism, for example how living organism breath? (xii) Geophysics:

This branch of physics deals with the study of physical properties of earth. i.e. its structure, magnetism and its atmosphere. It deals with the study of weather also. (xiii) Health Physics:

This branch of physics deals with the effects of radiation on living bodies as well as with the methods of safeguarding against the harmful effects of radiation. 1.1 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICS Physics has a great impact on our life and society. It has changed our life style. Today: We have succeeded in the applying for making many useful machines, with the help of which we can increase our potentials.

Many deadly diseases have curved by the effective use of physics in the form of radiations such as x-rays and laser light is being used to cure cancer. Physics has made it possible to introduce Telecommunication system by inventing wireless, telegraph etc. We can observe stars, galaxies and look for the edges of the universe with telescope easily. Man has stepped on the moon and other planets as well as through physics. Thus we can say that physics has brought remarkable change in human civilization. Physics has played a leading role in the progress and development in the field of chemical Technology, medical science, geological prospecting, textile and metallurgical industries, agricultural techniques etc. MEASUREMENTS Measurements and units: As physics is an exact quantitative science and tries to formulate experimental and theoretical data in mathematical form. Accurate measurement has great importance in the physics as well as in engineering and technology. Measurement of any thing means comparing it with some standard quantity to see how many times as big it is. The standard quantity with which things are compared is called Unit. Different quantities have different units. For example, the unit of mass is kilogram while that of time is second. Now we are going to study some physical quantities along with their units. 1.3 LENGTH, MASS, TIME AND THEYRE UNITS

Length: The distance between two points is called length. It is a fundamental physical quantity (basic quantity). It is usually represented by l and is a scalar quantity. In SI system its unit is meter, represented by m and can be defined as it is the distance between two points on a platinum-iridium metal rod at 0 C, which is placed in the international bureau of weights and measures at server, near Paris, France. Copies f this standard meter rod is available all over the word. It is the ordinary definition of meter; its scientific definition is that. The distance covered by light in vacuum in 299 ,792 ,458 seconds Mass:
1

The quantity of matter in a body is called mass. It is also a fundamental physical quantity (basic quantity) and is represented by m. In SI system its unit is kilogram, (kg) which can be defined, as it is the mass of a platinum-iridium Cylinder kept at the international bureau of weights and measures at server, near Paris, France. Copies of the standard kilogram are available allover the world. Time: It is a fundamental physical quantity and can be defined as the interval between two occurrence is called time. It is usually represented by t. In SI system its unit is s. Where 1 second = 86 ,400 x one average solar days. It means that 86 ,400 th part of one mean solar day is called one second. It is the ordinary definition of second; its scientific definition is the time during which Cesium (Cs-133 atoms complete 9,192,631,770 vibrations of Cs-133 atoms (The time during which Cs-133 atoms emit 9,192,631,770 waves is called one second) But in physics the word time is used in two different meaning iii1.4 It is used to describe an interval of time i.e. duration of time. For example, how long does it take to go from home to school? It is used to describe a particular instant of time. For example when will you be free? SYSTEM OF UNITS
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As discussed above for the measurement of a physical quantity, we need a standard quantity called unit. But the choice of this standard unit is arbitrary for example; sometime length is measured in meter but another moment it is measured in yards and inches. But different physical quantities have their own standard unit. So different sets of the units of physical quantities are possible, which are known as system of units. The most common system of unit is the following. (I) C.G.S SYSTEM

In the system of units the unit of length is centimeter (cm) and that of mass and time is gram (g) and second (s) respectively. (ii) M.K.S SYSTEM

In this system of units the unit of length mass and time is meter (m) kilogram (kg) and second (s) respectively. (iii) F.P.S. SYSTEM In this system of units the unit of length mass and time is foot (f) pound (lb) and second (s) respectively. S.I. SYSTEM Physics deals with numerous physical quantities in term of which the laws of physics are expressed. Which are length, mass, time, temperature electronic current, intensity of light and amount of a substance. The units of these quantities are called derived units e.g. speed, velocity acceleration volume density etc. The basic quantities along with their conventional symbols and unit are given in the table below Quantities Length Mass Time Electric Current Temperature Intensity Amount of substance Quantity Symbol Unit name Meter Kilogram Second Ampere Kelvin Candela Mole Unit Symbol m kg s A K Cd Mol

l
m t I T L n

PREFIXES FOR SI UNITS: As for the measurement of a quantity we compare it with some standard quantity. But some times we have to deal with quantities that are either very large or very small as compared to the standard unit. For example; the diameter of a wire is very small while the distance between any two cities is very large as compared to the standard unit of length i.e. meter. In such case we express the measurement by some special symbols called prefixes. Some of the prefixes along with their symbols are given in the table

Prefix Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hecto Deca Deci Centi Milli Micro Nino Pcio Femto

Symbol T G M K H da D c M M n P
f

Value
10 12 10 9 10 6 10 3 10 2

10
1 1 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 6 0 10 12 10 12 10 15

CONVERSION OF UNITS Sometime, we have to convert a bigger unit into smaller unit or from one system of unit to another. This process of conversion requires the relation between the two units or systems. Conversion facts between a few units are given below. 1 mile = 1.609 Km 1 m = 3.281 ft 1 inch= 2.54 cm

1 inch = 25.4 mm ERRORS AND ACCURACY. 1.5 ERRORS. As discussed above that for the measurement of different physical quantities, we use various instruments always have a certain error. An error is defined as the difference between the measured value and the actual value of a quantity. The error depends on the measuring instrument as well as the person making the measurement. Practically, it is found that measurement of same thing with different instruments may give different observations and hence different errors. Similarly, when two observers measure same quantity by the same instrument, their result may differ. Hence there are certain kinds of errors, which could never be removed. The errors can, however, be minimized. (1) CLASSIFICATION OF ERRORS. There are three types of errors in the measurement of physical quantities (i) Personal error. An error can arise due to the tendency of a person to make reading in favor of the particular reading. This error is due to the personal bias of the experimenter. The personal error may be due to an incorrect method of reading a scale. Placing the object in line with the scale of observation can minimize this type of error. However, both types of errors are due to faulty procedure of a person. (ii) Systemic error. This error is due to the fault in the measuring instrument. The fault could be incorrect calibration of the scale as the ruler or a watch. The error may also arise due to zero error between scales as in measuring instruments. Using can check this type of error another set of instruments. (iii) Random error. This type of error can arise due to accidental change in the experimental condition etc. Maintaining strict control conditions in the laboratory may reduce the random error. (2) ACCURACY. Physical measurement is never absolutely accurate. There is always an error in the measurement that depend on the measuring instrument and the experimenter, accuracy of the measurement means how close is the measured value to the true or actual value. The accuracy of the result is expressed by stating the error, that is, by giving the maximum deviation of the result from the true value. Lesser the error more accurate is a measurement. So reducing the error, the accuracy can be increased by taking a large number of reading of the same measurement and then take their mean value. The mean value is closer to the true value than any individual measured value.

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES. Every measurement carries a possibility of some error. There is always an error or an uncertainty in the measurement that depend on the person as well as the measuring instrument. So, the accuracy and precision of every measurement is limited. Because of the limited accuracy, the number that express the magnitude of a measured quantity is written with the number of digits that express and signify with reasonable trust and reliability the accuracy of the measurement/ these figures and only these are called significant figure. Significant figure is one, which is known to be reasonably reliable. In any measurement, the number of accurately known figure and the first doubtful figure are known as significant figures. Beside this, whenever we make calculations on numbers based on different experimental observations, the number of significant figure in the final answer cannot be greater than the least number of significant figures in any observation. So, in numerical calculations the final resulting number is round off to contain only as many significant figures as are contained in the least exact factor. The following example illustrates further the concept of significant figures. Suppose we want to measure the length of pencil with an ordinary foot-scale. This scale is granulated in cm as well as in mm. The least count of the instrument is 1mm. suppose we note that the length of the pencil is greater than 9.75cm and less than 9.8cm. We estimate that the length of the length is 9.75cm. This length is accurate in mm up to 9.7 but the last fraction of mm has been guessed. There is a chance of error in the last figure. If the same pencil is measured with different scale or if different persons make the same measurement. It is possible that the answer may be 9.74cm or 9.76cm.in this measurement. Every one would accept the first two figures 9 and 7, but the third figure is an estimate only. There is a doubt in the figure. The number of accurately known figures, and the first doubtful figure are known as significant figures. In the present example, if the length of the pencil is measured to be 9.74cm. Then there are three significant figures in the number, namely 9,7 and 4. In calculation, the following rules are applied in handling and determining the significant figures. 1. All the non-zero digits, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 are significant. For example, in 112.6mm, there are four significant figures. 2. The zeros between two non-zero digits are significant. 3. The zeros to the right of the decimal symbol and to left of a non-zero digit are not significant. For example, in 0.00647kg, there are only three significant figures, 6, 4, 7. Note that the only zero to the left of the decimal symbol is used to locate the position of the decimal and is never significant. 4. All zeros to the right of the decimal that appear after a non-zero digit are significant. For example, there are four significant figures in each of the measure quantities 0.07080cm and 20.00mm.

5. In scientific notation, a number is often written in power of 10 in the form of MX

10

" M consist of all the significant figure of the original number. In M, the

decimal point occurs after the first non-zero digit. 6. When computations are made with number obtained experimentally, the number of digits retained in the result is determined by the quantity in the data, which has the least number of significant figures. CONSTANT OF PROPORTIONALITY. Whenever two quantities are so related that the graph between them is a straight line, we say that the quantities are directly proportional. The converse is also true, that is, when the quantities are directly proportional, the graph between them will be a straight line. The direct proportional between two quantities is symbolically written as follows: M V The symbol Look at

is called the sign of proportionality.