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Practical File of Network Management

Introduction to Network Management Network management refers to the broad subject of managing computer networks. There exists a wide variety of software and hardware products that help network system administrators manage a network. Network management refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that pertain to the operation, administration, maintenance, and provisioning of networked systems.


Operation deals with keeping the network (and the services that the network provides) up and running smoothly. It includes monitoring the network to spot problems as soon as possible, ideally before users are affected.

Administration deals with keeping track of resources in the network and how they are assigned.

Maintenance is concerned with performing repairs and upgradesfor example, when equipment must be replaced, when a router needs a patch for an operating system image, when a new switch is added to a network. Maintenance also involves corrective and preventive measures to make the managed network run "better", such as adjusting device configuration parameters.

Provisioning is concerned with configuring resources in the network to support a given service.

Functions that are performed as part of network management accordingly include controlling, planning, allocating, deploying, coordinating, and monitoring the resources of a network, network planning, frequency allocation, predetermined traffic routing to support load

balancing, cryptographic

key distribution authorization, configuration

management, fault

management, security management, performance management, bandwidth management, Route analytics and accounting management. Network management covers a wide area, including:    Security: Ensuring that the network is protected from unauthorized users. Performance: Eliminating bottlenecks in the network. Reliability: Making sure the network is available to users and responding to hardware and software malfunctions.

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Practical File of Network Management

NETWORK ARCHITECTURE TYPES  Peer to Peer Network Architecture

A peertopeer network is a network of two or more computers that use the same program or type of program to communicate and share data. Each computer, or peer, is considered equal in terms of responsibilities and each acts as a server to the others in the network. Users must share data and resources connected to the network.

ServerBased Network Architecture

ServerBased Network Architecture is an arrangement used on local area networksthat makes use of distributed intelligence to treat both the server and the individual workstations as intelligent, programmable devices. This is done by splitting the processing of an application between two distinct components: a frontend client and a backend server. The client component is a standalone personal computer. The server component can be a personal computer, a minicomputer, or a mainframe computer. The client and server machines work together to accomplish the processing of the application being used.

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Practical File of Network Management

Introduction to RPM RPM stands for Red Hat Package Manager. RPM command is used for installing, uninstalling, upgrading, querying, listing, and checking RPM packages on your Linux system. With root privilege, you can use the rpm command with appropriate options to manage the RPM software packages. It is a program designed to build and manage packages of software including the source. It is portable and can be run on different platforms. RPMs (*.rpm) typically include the compiled programs and/or libraries needed for the package, documentation, install, verify, and uninstall scripts, and cryptographic signatures for each file in the package. This makes it easy to verify the integrity of the package. It also includes a list of packages that it depends on, and a list of services that are provided by the package. RPM maintains a database of all installed packages in /var/lib/rpm/*. Included in the database is a list of all files installed by RPM and which package they belong to. This makes it a very powerful tool for finding out more about each package. You have to logged in as user root to install, upgrade, or remove packages. You can run queries as any user.

1. Installing a RPM package Using rpm -ivh RPM filename has packagename, version, release and architecture name. For example, In the MySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm file: MySQL-client Package Name 3.23.57 Version 1 Release i386 Architecture

   

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When you install a RPM, it checks whether your system is suitable for the software the RPM package contains, figures out where to install the files located inside the rpm package, installs them on your system, and adds that piece of software into its database of installed RPM packages. The following rpm command installs Mysql client package.

# rpm -ivh MySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm

Preparing...

########################################### [100%]

1:MySQL-client

########################################### [100%]

Rpm command and options -i : install a package -v : verbose -h : print hash marks as the package archive is unpacked.

  

You can also use dpkg on Debian, pkgadd on Solaris, depot on HP-UX to install packages.

2. Query all the RPM Packages using rpm qa You can use rpm command to query all the packages installed in your system.

# rpm -qa

cdrecord-2.01-10.7.el5

bluez-libs-3.7-1.1

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-q query operation -a queries all installed packages

To identify whether a particular rpm package is installed on your system, combine rpm and grep command as shown below. Following command checks whether cdrecord package is installed on your system.

# rpm -qa | grep 'cdrecord'

3. Query a Particular RPM Package using rpm -q The above example lists all currently installed package. After installation of a package to check the installation, you can query a particular package and verify as shown below.

# rpm -q MySQL-client

MySQL-client-3.23.57-1

# rpm -q MySQL

package MySQL is not installed

To query a package, you should specify the exact package name. If the package name is incorrect, then rpm command will report that the package is not installed.

4. Query RPM Packages in a various format using rpm queryformat Rpm command provides an option queryformat, which allows you to give the header tag names, to list the packages. Enclose the header tag with in {}.

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# rpm -qa --queryformat '%{name-%{version}-%{release} %{size}\n'

cdrecord-2.01-10.7 12324

bluez-libs-3.7-1.1 5634

setarch-2.0-1.1 235563

5. Which RPM package does a file belong to? Use rpm -qf Let us say, you have list of files and you would want to know which package owns all these files. rpm command has options to achieve this. The following example shows that /usr/bin/mysqlaccess file is part of the MySQL-client3.23.57-1 rpm.

# rpm -qf /usr/bin/mysqlaccess

MySQL-client-3.23.57-1

-f : file name

6. Locate documentation of a package that owns file using rpm -qdf Use the following to know the list of documentations, for a package that owns a file. The following command, gives the location of all the manual pages related to mysql package.

# rpm -qdf /usr/bin/mysqlaccess


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/usr/share/man/man1/mysql.1.gz

/usr/share/man/man1/mysqlaccess.1.gz

/usr/share/man/man1/mysqladmin.1.gz

/usr/share/man/man1/mysqldump.1.gz

-d : refers documentation.

7. Information about Installed RPM Package using rpm -qip rpm command provides a lot of information about the installed packages.

# rpm -qip MySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm

Name

: MySQL-client

Relocations: (not relocatable)

Version

: 3.23.57

Vendor: MySQL AB

Release

:1

Build Date: Mon 09 Jun 2003 11:08:28 PM CEST

Install Date: (not installed)

Build Host: build.mysql.com

URL

: http://www.mysql.com/

Summary

: MySQL - Client

Description : This package contains the standard MySQL clients.

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-i : view information about an rpm -p : specify a package name

8. List all the Files in a Package using rpm -qlp To list the content of a RPM package, use the following command, which will list out the files without extracting into the local directory folder.

$ rpm -qlp ovpc-2.1.10.rpm

/usr/bin/mysqlaccess

/usr/bin/mysqldata

/usr/bin/mysqladmin

  

q : query the rpm file l : list the files in the package p : specify the package name

9. List the Dependency Packages using rpm -qRP To view the list of packages on which this package depends,

# rpm -qRp MySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm

/bin/sh

/usr/bin/perl

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10. Find out the state of files in a package using rpm -qsp The following command is to find state (installed, replaced or normal) for all the files in a RPM package.

# rpm -qsp MySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm

normal

/usr/bin/msql2mysql

normal

/usr/bin/mysql

normal

/usr/bin/mysqlaccess

normal

/usr/bin/mysqlcheck

11. Verify a Particular RPM Package using rpm -vp Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in the package with information about the files taken from the package metadata stored in the rpm database. In the following command, -v is for verification and -p option is used to specify a package name to verify.

# rpm -vp MySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm

S.5....T c

/usr/bin/msql2mysql

S.5....T c

/usr/bin/mysql

S.5....T c

/usr/bin/mysqlaccess

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12. Verify a Package Owning file using rpm -vf The following command verify the package which owns the given filename.

# rpm -vf /usr/bin/mysqlaccess

S.5....T c /usr/bin/mysql

13. Upgrading a RPM Package using rpm -Uvh Upgrading a package is similar to installing one, but RPM automatically un-installs existing versions of the package before installing the new one. If an old version of the package is not found, the upgrade option will still install it.

# rpm -Uvh MySQL-client-3.23.57-1.i386.rpm

Preparing...

########################################### [100%]

1:MySQL-client

###########################################

14. Uninstalling a RPM Package using rpm -e To remove an installed rpm package using -e as shown below. After uninstallation, you can query using rpm -qa and verify the uninstallation.

# rpm -ev MySQL-client

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15. Verifying all the RPM Packages using rpm -va The following command verifies all the installed packages.

# rpm -va

S.5....T c /etc/issue

S.5....T c /etc/issue.net

S.5....T c /var/service/imap/ssl/seed

Examples of rpm command: Install and Upgrade commands To install a package (i=install v=verbose h=show hash marks) To uninstall (erase) a package To upgrade a package rpm -ivh package rpm -e package rpm -Uvh package -Uvh --test

To test a package to see how it would install (without installing, also rpm checks dependencies)

package

Verify commands To verify a package (extra verbose output) To verify ALL installed packages on the system rpm -Vvv package rpm -Va

To verify the cryptographic signature of a package rpm -K package

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Query commands These commands query a package that has already been installed. To query a package that has NOT been installed yet, add the -p option to the command. For example, rpm -ql package would become rpm -qpl package.

To find out the package names using wildcards rpm -qa | grep pattern What files are included in the the package To show general info on a package What package owns this file? What are the config files in a package? rpm -ql package rpm -qi package rpm -qf path/to/file rpm -qc package

What are the documentation files in a package? rpm -qd package What are the scripts in a package? What services does this package provide? What services does this package require? rpm -q --scripts package rpm -q --provides package rpm -q --requires package

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How to install package in redhat? General syntax to install package in redhat is: # rpm i package name Let's have RPM install a package. The only thing necessary is to give the command (rpm -i) followed by the name of the package file: # rpm -i eject-1.2-2.i386.rpm

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Working of FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and utilizes separate control and data connections between the client and server.

FTP is the preferred method of exchanging files because it's faster than other protocols like HTTP or POP3. The transfer is asynchronous, meaning not at the same time and therefore faster than other protocols. FTP data is sent and received through computer port 21.

Objectives of FTP

1. To promote sharing of files (computer programs and/or data). 2. To encourage indirect or implicit (via programs) use of remote computers. 3. To shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts and to transfer data reliably and efficiently.

Working of FTP

FTP works on the client/server principle. A client program enables the user to interact with a server in order to access information and services on the server computer. FTP requires a client program (FTP client) and a server program (FTP server).

FTP client - This is an interface that allows the user to locate the file(s) to be transferred and initiate the transfer process. These are programs that allow you to not only log in and upload

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files, but also manage your transfers with much more control. Programs such as CyberDuck (for the Mac platform) and CuteFTP or Filezilla (for the Windows platform) are very effective (and often free). It allows you to verify your files were sent successfully without any problems.

FTP Server - Files that can be transferred are stored on computers called FTP servers. The server is generally password protected.

ANONYMOUS FTP

It allows a user to retrieve documents, files, programs, and other archived data from remote machine without having to establish a userid and password. To access the remote machine, the loginname and password will be anonymous and electronic mail address. The network user will bypass local security checks and will have access to publicly accessible files on the remote system. However, you are only able to copy the files from the remote machine to your own local machine; you are not able to write on the remote machine or to delete any files there.

FTP Commands

FTP commands are initiated by the client, which opens a TCP connection called the control connection to the server. This control connection is used for the entire duration of a session between the client and server. A session typically begins when the client logs in, and ends when the quit command is sent to the server. The control connection is used exclusively for sending FTP commands and reading server replies - it is never used to transfer files. Transient TCP connections called data connections are set up whenever data (normally a file's contents) is to be transferred. For example, the client issues a command to retrieve a file from the server via the control channel. A data connection is then established, and the file's contents transferred to the client across it. Once the transfer is complete, the data connection is closed. Meanwhile, the control connection is maintained.

Data connections may be set up in two different ways, active and passive. Active and passive refer to the operation of the FTP server, not the client.
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Passive Mode

In passive mode, the client sends a PASV command to the server. This tells the server to listen for a connection attempt from the client, hence the server is passively waiting. The server replies to PASV with the host and port address that the server is listening on. The client deciphers this reply and when a data connection is required, attempts to initiate the connection to the server at this address.

Active mode

In active mode, the server actively connects to the client. To set up active mode, the client sends a PORT command to the server, specify the address and port number the client is listening on. When a data connection is required, the server initiates a connection to the client at this address. Generally the server is responsible for closing data connections.

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FTP Commands

? bye cd close get help lcd ls

to request help or information about the FTP commands to exit the FTP environment (same as quit) to change directory on the remote machine to terminate a connection with another computer to copy one file from the remote machine to the local machine to request a list of all available FTP commands to change directory on your local machine (same as UNIX cd) to list the names of the files in the current remote directory

mkdir to make a new directory within the current remote directory mget to copy multiple files from the remote machine to the local machine;

you are prompted for a y/n answer before transferring each file copies all the files in the current remote directory to your current local directory, using the same filenames. Notice the use of the wild card character, *. to copy multiple files from the local machine to the remote machine;

mget*

mput open put quit

you are prompted for a y/n answer before transferring each file to open a connection with another computer to copy one file from the local machine to the remote machine to exit the FTP environment (same as bye)

rmdir to remove (delete) a directory in the current remote directory

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FTP services To start the server, as root type: vsftpd start To stop the server, as root type: vsftpd stop The restart option is a shorthand way of stopping and then starting vsftpd. This is the most efficient way to make configuration changes take effect after editing the configuration file for vsftpd. To restart the server, as root type: vsftpd restart The condrestart (conditional restart) option only starts vsftpd if it is currently running. This option is useful for scripts, because it does not start the daemon if it is not running. To conditionally restart the server, as root type: vsftpd condrestart By default, the vsftpd service does not start automatically at boot time.

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TELNET Telnet or Telecommunication Network is a network protocol which is mostly used to connect to remote machines over a local area network or the internet. It is a utility that allows a user to connect to another computer on the TCP/IP network such as internet. Through the Telnet utility a network administrator or a user can access another computer. Telnet client and server functionality comes built-in in most operating systems. Windows XP Professional and the Windows Server 2003 have the built-in Telnet client and server which allow you to connect to the remote computer and server. In addition, there are several third-party applications like putty client that enable remote connectivity. Most applications and embedded devices make use of the telnet technology to connect to remote server machines and provide end user functionality. The most common use of telnet stands to enable remote authentication and access. Telnet client and server are ideal in the situations where there are minimal resources like memory, processor and bandwidth in the client or host computer. Telnet is still very popular in the enterprise networks to access the servers resources. Telnet Architecture

Most network operating systems provide a Telnet client and a Telnet server. Telnet clients and servers are small executable programs that allow a local computer (a client) to access services and programs on a remote computer (a host). Telnet clients and servers, including Windows Server 2003 Telnet Client and Telnet Server, are based on the Telnet protocol, which is a subset of the TCP/IP suite. The Telnet protocol specifies two general mechanisms: how Telnet clients and servers establish a connection across a network and how they transmit and receive information across a network. You usually run a Telnet client program on a local computer: for example, a workstation that you are logged on to. You usually run a Telnet server program on a remote computer: for example, a host you want to administer. Telnet client programs initiate connections with Telnet servers. Telnet servers run in the background on a host, listening for Telnet clients to request a connection.

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Common communication protocols All Telnet clients and servers use TCP/IP as the underlying communication protocol. This makes Telnet clients and servers particularly useful for remotely administering computers across the Internet or within wide area networks (WANs) that are connected to the Internet. If your network does not support TCP/IP, you will not be able to use a Telnet client or server. Common communication ports TCP port 23 is reserved for Telnet client and server communication. By default, most Telnet clients initiate communication on port 23, and most Telnet servers listen on port 23 for connection requests. You can change the default port assignments with some Telnet client and server software, such as Windows Server 2003 Telnet Client and Server, but port 23 is the universally accepted port for Telnet communication. How Telnet Works Telnet uses software, installed on your computer, to create a connection with the remote host. The Telnet client (software), at your command, will send a request to the Telnet server (remote host). The server will reply asking for a user name and password. If accepted, the Telnet client will establish a connection to the host, thus making your computer a virtual terminal and allowing you complete access to the host's computer. Telnet requires the use of a user name and password, which means you need to have previously set up an account on the remote computer. In some cases, however, computers with Telnet will allow guests to log on with restricted access.

Using the Telnet Service To connect a host by using the Telnet service, type the following command telnet ip_address/server_name (where ip_address is the host's IP address and server_name is the host's name).

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Using the Telnet Client The command to do remote logins via telnet from the command line is simple. You enter the word telnet and then the IP address or server name to which you want to connect. Here is an example of someone logging into a remote server named smallfry from server bigboy. The user looks at the routing table and then logs out. [root@bigboy tmp]# telnet 192.168.1.105 Trying 192.168.1.105... Connected to 192.168.1.105. Escape character is '^]'. Linux 2.4.18-14 (smallfry.my-site.com) (10:35 on Sunday, 05 January 2003) Login: peter Password: Last login: Fri Nov 22 23:29:44 on ttyS0 You have new mail. [peter@smallfry peter]$ [peter@smallfry peter]$ netstat -nr Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface 40 0 0 0 0 lo wlan0 0 wlan0

255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0 192.168.1.0 127.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0

255.255.255.255 UH 255.255.255.0 U 255.0.0.0 U UG

40 0

wlan0

40 0 40 0

192.168.1.1 0.0.0.0

[peter@smallfry peter]$ exit logout


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Connection closed by foreign host. [root@bigboy tmp]#

TELNET Services Service xinted start Service xinted restart Service xinted stop Service xinted status Service xinted reload Service xinted condstart

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DOMAIN NAME SERVER The Domain Name System (DNS) servers distribute the job of mapping domain names to IP addresses among servers allocated to each domain. In the Domain Name System , there is a hierarchy of names. The root of system is unnamed. Internet domain names come in four main types -- top-level domains, second-level domains, third-level domains, and country domains. 1.Top level domain: The top-level Internet domains were associated with organizations, mainly ".arpa", ".csnet", ".bitnet", ".uucp", and .com.Top-level Internet domains like ".com" are shared by all the organizations in the domain. 2.Second level domain: Second-level domain names like "yahoo.com" and "livinginternet.com" are registered by individuals and organizations. Second-level domains are the addresses commonly used to host Internet applications like web hosting and email addressing. 3.Third level domain: Third-level Internet domain names are created by those that own second-level domains. Thirdlevel domains can be used to set up individual domains for specific purposes, such as a domain for web access and one for mail, or a separate site for a special purpose:
y y y

www.livinginternet.com mail.livinginternet.com rareorchids.livinginternet.com

4.Country domains: Each country in the world has its own top-level Internet domain with a unique alphabetic designation. For example ,.au for Australia, .ch for Switzerland, .br for Brazil, .ca for Canada etc.
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Organizations in each country are responsible for managing the top-level Internet domain, and then for allocating second-level domains within that domain to people and organizations with interests in that country How does DNS works? You type a domain name such as google.com into your browser using client computer operating system such as Windows or Apple OS (client). The client needs to find the IP address where google.com search engine is located on the earth (typically all websites are hosted in the Internet data center). Your browser will send this query to the operating system. Each operating system is configured to query certain dns servers. Typically your ISP or network administrator configures such dns servers called Resolving Name Server. The resolving name server does not aware of the location of the google.com, but it does know where the root servers are located. Next, the resolving name server find the location of the top-level domain name server to send query for google.com. Each domain on the Internet has authoritative name server. Finally, the authoritative name server will give you exact IP address of google.com. This information will come back to to the resolving name server, which caches the information and send backs an answer (answer to your query what is IP address of google.com) to the browser to the correct place. The end result you will see Google search engine home page.

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Installation steps of Red Hat Package Manager(Linux) If your system has a window XP and you want to boot another operating system on the system then dual booting come into existence. Steps: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. Enter CD/DVD in the drive. Press Del, F2, F8 to enter bias setup according to system requirement. Blue screen will be appearing. Select Advanced setup. Select the FIRST boot name: HL-DT-ST DVDRAM GH2 Press F10 for saving. After that press enter for starting main installation. Dialog box appear for CD checking..It will be skipped. Wizard will be starting for installation.Press Next for further processing. Select Language in which you want for. Then Next Again select languageU.S English. Then Next Dialog box appear which ask for serial number. It will also be skipped. After that create custom layout. Click on the free space and create swap and ext by /(root). In the Next window, check the checkbox other. In the network device, select automatically then Next Select the country: Asia/Kolkata System ask for root password, Confirm password then Next

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r. s. t. u.

Select both the checkbox: Software Tools, Web Server. then Customize now Click on Next Button. Select all the base System, Servers then Next Installation will be take 5-10 mintues to install RPM.

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PORT AND PORT NUMBERS It is a single term used to in or out the data from system. A port is a software address on a computer on the network--for instance, the News server is a piece of software that is normally addressed through port 119, the POP server through port 110, the SMTP server through port 25, and so on. Total Ports are 0-65535. Some ports are registered. Port Numbers FTP 20(Dataset) 21(Data Control) SSH POP DNS FINGER HTTP TELNET SFTP NTP IMAP BGP HTTPs SNMP TCPMUX ECHO TFTP GOPHER LOGIN HOST PROTOCOL HOST NAME SERVER 22(Secure Shell) 110 53 79 80 23 115(Secure FTP) 123(Network Time Protocol) 143 179(Border Gateway Protocol) 443 161 1 7 69 70 49 42

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NETBIOS NS DGM SSN 137(Name Service) 138(Data Gram Service) 139(Session Service)

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