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CLASSIFICATION OF SYSYTEMS 2 types A. Closed system y Defined as a system with the following characteristics:  Differentiation, isolation, independence, and self sufficiency/self-containment/self regulation Has sealed boundaries which are defined and rigid that separate it from the rest of the environment. Access to the system is highly restricted, because the only inputs acceptable to the systems are inputs from another part itself. System outputs are actually forms of internal communication; that is, the output of one part of the system serves as input to another part of the system in a feedback loop that makes it self-contained. It has to be self-sufficient, because any input from the external environment is a threat to the integrity of a closed system to be able to provide for all its energy and processing requirements without going outside its boundaries. A closed system has a closed feedback loop as its major process. Outside energy is still required to power the system. Are often described as fixed or static because closed systems do have processes. Therefore they exhibit fluidity. Example:  Animal habitats often function as closed systems. When the boundaries of the environment are breached, and animals from other systems intrude on the formerly closed systems, animals originating in the closed system often cannot compete, and they become extinct. A closed system such as an animal habitat must isolate itself from, rather than accommodate to, outside influences. Application to nursing field:  One example could be an intravenous hypertension control system. The components of the system include patient s intravenous line and fluid with the antihypertensive medication, the electronic sphygmomanometer, the volumetric pump, and the programmed computer processor (CPU) that controls the system. In such a system, the computer is programmed to take initiate blood pressure (BP) reading at determined time intervals. At the proper time, the CPU sends a command to the sphygmomanometer to take a reading through the arterial line. The value is returned to the CPU, where it is compared to a present critical value. The processor determines whether or not the reading is above critical value. If not, it does nothing until its clock indicates that it is time for another measurement. If the BP is above the critical value, it sends an instruction to the volumetric pump to deliver the correct dose of antihypertensive medication.

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B. Open systems y y Open systems are systems that exhibit integration, fluid or fuzzy boundaries, and interaction with their environments (Markas, 2002). ] They need not be self-regulating, although they might exhibit that facility.

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It is sometimes very difficult to identify the borders or boundaries of an open system. It is permeable to external influences rather than sealed against them. Open systems fundamentally require the energy of input from the external environment. Unlike closed systems, open systems exhibit change with respect to both internal and external processes. Since they interact with their environment, open systems may not appear to have any clearly identifiable boundaries. Open systems expands until it bumps up against another system s boundary, and the second system takes no action to protect itself against the encroachment of the first system. Examples:  All living creatures must acquire nourishment from their external environment or die.

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Computer Systems Used to describe the set of peripherals, computer box, and software that together perform computing functions for one or more users. The actual devices that comprise a computer system depend on the needs of the user. Most users need a keyboard and mouse or trackball for input. Many also use joystick for games or drawing programs. Peripheral device has increased include a modem, scanner, microphone, and video camera. A computer system is vague and could refer to anything from a hand-held personal computer to an organization s entire network of computers. Example: Application to Nursing  Nurses work with what is known as an information system, in hospitals, a HIS Information Systems y Is the collection and integration of various pieces of hardware and software and the human resources that meet the data collection, storage, processing, and report generation needs of an organization The IS department must program and maintain the software interfaces that let the systems work together. The key pieces of an information system are hardware, software, and the database or databases in which the organization s data are stored. Information System Types: y There is a wide range of IS in health care facilities that provide different functions. They have different titles/names, which overlap depending on the context in which they are used.

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The major ones to be described include MIS, bibliographic retrieval systems, stand-alone systems, transaction systems, physiologic monitoring systems, decision support systems, and expert systems.

1. Management Information Systems  Is defined as an organized system for managing the flow of information in an organization in a timely manner.  Its primary use is assisting in the decision making processes. *Strategic planning  Refers to the policy decisions made by the top-level team of administrators  It is the work that seeks to position the organization with respect to its customers and competitors. *Management control  Refers to the program and personnel decisions made by middle-level managers, supervisors, and head nurses.  They need information to measure performance standards and to control, plan and allocate resources.  Example:  Unit managers need information on the state of unit budget, on occupancy and workload, and on overtime hours spent. They need information on incident reports, infection rates, and other clinical indicators of care quality. They need the type of information that helps them manage the unit in such a way that patient care is effectively and efficiently carried out.  Application to Nursing:  Health care MIS provides information that can be used to generate the balance sheet and cash flow reports, help the finance department gather information for other financial reports, and track inpatient occupancy rates by unit or department, clinic visits, procedures, and so forth. It usually has programs that will allow management to analyze trends in the data and project future business given current trends and other assumptions. However, most MIS databases supplement internal data with data from external, local, regional, and national databases. Many organizations join private organizations that share buying power and information useful to management.  Increasingly, health care organizations are joining each other into private consortia. The purpose is the collection of information from all members so that averages and ranges of performance data can be used for benchmarking purposes. The university Hospital Consortium in Oakbrook, Illinois is one such organization (University Hospital Consortium, 2004). 2. Bibliographic Retrieval Systems

 It is a retrieval system that generally refers to bibliographic data, document information, or literature.  Primarily used to store and retrieve data and not to conduct any computations  The system is designed to provide bibliographic data on journal articles, books, monographs and textual reports. It generally contains the full citations, keywords, abstracts, and other pertinent facts on the documents in the database.  Example:  An example of bibliographic graphic retrieval system is CINAHL MEDLINE, developed and published by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The user simply clicks on the word MEDLINE in the NLM url.