This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

have a predictable range. As in Trajectory of a projectile, we will use:

The following applies for ranges which are small compared to the size of the Earth. For longer ranges see sub-orbital spaceflight. g: the gravitational acceleration—usually taken to be 9.80 m/s2 (32 f/s2) near the Earth's surface θ: the angle at which the projectile is launched v: the velocity at which the projectile is launched y0: the initial height of the projectile d: the total horizontal distance travelled by the projectile

When neglecting air resistance, the range of a projectile will be

If (y0) is taken to be zero, meaning the object is being launched on flat ground, the range of the projectile will then simplify to

**Ideal projectile motion
**

Ideal projectile motion assumes that there is no air resistance. This assumption simplifies the math greatly, and is a close approximation of actual projectile motion in cases where the distances travelled are small. Ideal projectile motion is also a good introduction to the topic before adding the complications of air resistance.

**Derivations A) Flat Ground
**

First we examine the case where (y0) is zero. The horizontal position (x(t)) of the projectile is

In the vertical direction

1

We are interested in the time when the projectile returns to the same height it originated at. sin(2x) = 2sin(x)cos(x) allows us to simplify the solution to Note that when (θ) is 45°. The second solution is the useful one for determining the range of the projectile. Plugging this value for (t) into the horizontal equation yields Applying the trigonometric identity sin(x + y) = sin(x)cos(y) + sin(y)cos(x) If x and y are same. the solution becomes 2 . thus By factoring: or The first solution corresponds to when the projectile is first launched.

and since the velocity and the cosine of the launch angle can also be assumed to be positive. again yielding a range of 0. though it may then bounce or roll. A projectile that is fired with an elevation of 90 degrees (i. Our equations of motion are now and Once again we solve for (t) in the case where the (y) position of the projectile is at zero (since this is how we defined our starting height to begin with) Again by applying the quadratic formula we find two solutions for the time. A projectile that is launched with an elevation of 0 degrees will strike the ground immediately (range = 0). straight up) will travel straight up.B) Uneven Ground Now we will allow (y0) to be nonzero. the solution is Solving for the range once again Maximum Range For cases where the projectile lands at the same height from which it is launched. the solution with the greater time will occur when the positive of the plus or minus sign is used. Thus. and strike the ground at the point from which it is launched. the maximum range is obtained by using a launch angle of 45 degrees. 3 . After several steps of algebraic manipulation The square root must be a positive number.e. then straight down.

Setting the derivative to zero provides the equation: Substituting u = (cosθ)2 and 1 − u = (sinθ)2 produces: Which reduces to the surprisingly simple expression: Replacing our substitutions yields the angle that produces the maximum range for uneven ground. the elevation angle is greater than 45 degrees. and for negative initial heights (bounded below by y0 Example: For the values g > − 0. an elevation angle θ = 41.The elevation angle which will provide the maximum range when launching the projectile from a non-zero initial height can be computed by finding the derivative of the range with respect to the elevation angle and setting the derivative to zero to find the extremum: where and R = horizontal range. the elevation angle that produces maximum range is 45 degrees. = 9. as expected. For positive initial heights.1m.1° produces a maximum range of Rmax = 292. 4 .81m / s2. ignoring air resistance: Note that for zero initial height. the elevation angle is below 45 degrees.5v2 / g). and v = 50m / s. y0 = 40m .

while it may not increase the average (arithmetic mean) range of many shots from the same gun. If a projectile is given rotation along its axes of travel. 5 . This can be modified by the projectile shape: a tall and wide. causing irregularities in its trajectory due to the magnus effect. and irregularities on the surface of a projectile may change its trajectory if they create more drag on one side of the projectile than on the other. See rifling for a greater explanation. irregularities in the projectile's shape and weight distribution tend to be canceled out. the nature of the gun's barrel is also important.Actual projectile motion In addition to air resistance. Projectile characteristics Generally speaking. which slows a projectile and reduces its range. will increase the accuracy and precision of the gun. Longer barrels allow more of the propellant's energy to be given to the projectile. but short projectile will face greater air resistance than a low and narrow. Mass also becomes important. yielding greater range. but long. The surface of the projectile also must be considered: a smooth projectile will face less air resistance than a rough-surfaced one. Firearm barrels For projectiles that are launched by firearms and artillery. many other factors also have to be accounted for when actual projectile motion is considered. Rifling. and will thus be less affected by air resistance. projectile of the same volume. as a more massive projectile will have more kinetic energy. a projectile with greater volume faces greater air resistance. as an unevenly weighted projectile may spin undesirably. reducing the range of the projectile. The distribution of mass within the projectile can also be important.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Concepts of Feeder Design and Performance in Relation to Loading Bulk Solids Onto Conveyor Belts
- AJDKJF
- Prcatice # 10
- Applied Mathematics Paper I 2014
- __OpenNdx
- Quantum friction controlled by plasmons between graphene sheets
- Cap 13
- Head loss calculation for hydropower
- Design of Thrust Block
- Exam En
- 3. Civil - Ijce - Friction Factor in Open Channel
- Friction Stir Processing of aluminum alloys
- Factors Affecting Ship Resistance
- Rössler on Cryodynamics
- How to Make Boomerangs
- -Aircraft-Avionics2 -Pitch Angel & Side Siliping
- Aircraft Avionics2
- Bma4723 Vehicle Dynamics Chap 4
- gz curve
- HANBOOK Jaw Crushers.pdf
- Pitch Factor n Distribution Factor
- GR Parameter Definitions
- Brand Valve SDCF
- 3rd Eye Opening Exercise
- EN(286)
- 411 F
- Gann Angles & Squares
- NACA ARR 3I06 Some Analyses of Systematic Experiments on the Resistance and Porpoising Characteristics of Flying-boat Hulls
- CE121
- 8. Dec 2011
- Projectile Motions 1

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd