1
Announcements
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1
Brief Summary
For a single charge at origin,
we have the electric field
Flux of Electric Field through a surface S
For any closed surface,
Gausss Law
Gausss Law in differential form
Applications of Gausss Law
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Some important results from H.W. on
applications of Gausss law
E field outside a uniformly charged sphere (solid / shell) is exactly
the same as if all charges were at center.
E field inside a uniformly charged hollow sphere is zero.
E field from an infinite plane: , independent of distance.
E field from two infinite planes of opposite charges:
zero outside, inside.
3
Dirac Delta Function [Sect. 1.5 of Griffiths]
We now have the concept of how a point charge is to be described.
Consider the function
We know that this is a diverging function.
So, let us take the divergence of this function,
We thus have the paradoxical situation that a point charge at the
origin produces a Coulomb field, but the lines do not start at the
origin!
0 ) 1 (
1 1 1
2 2
2
2
=
c
c
=

.

c
c
= V
r r r
r
r r
r
r
1
2
=
???
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5
Dirac Delta Function
2
r
r
v =
,
}}}
} } }
}}} }
= V
=


.

=
V =
= =
0
4
sin
1
2
0
2
0
2
d v
r d d R r
R
a d v
d v a d v
Apply divergence theorem by considering a sphere of radius R centered
at the origin
Does this mean that divergence theorem is false?
If the divergence theorem is right, we should get
, 4 = V
}
d v
=
=
=
}
dx x
and
x if
x if
x
= =
=
1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
3
dz dy dx z y x d r
z y x r
allspace
r
r
) ( 4
3
2
r
r
r
=

.

V
, 4 = V
}
d v
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H.W.
Problems 1.43, 1.44, 1.47
11
12
Divergence of E
Using divergence theorem,
Gausss law
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13
Curl of E
Line integral is zero over closed path,
14
means
Stokes theorem
For many charges using principle of superposition
So, we have, in electrostatics,
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