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# 1/13/2012

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Announcements
1. Lecture Notes available at:
https://sakai.iitd.ac.in/portal
login yourself; Fields and Waves, Resources
2. Time slot to meet the teacher:
Wednesdays 5.30 to 6.30 pmin
respective office rooms
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Brief Summary
For a single charge at origin,
we have the electric field
Flux of Electric Field through a surface S
For any closed surface,
Gausss Law
Gausss Law in differential form
Applications of Gausss Law
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Some important results from H.W. on
applications of Gausss law
E field outside a uniformly charged sphere (solid / shell) is exactly
the same as if all charges were at center.
E field inside a uniformly charged hollow sphere is zero.
E field from an infinite plane: , independent of distance.
E field from two infinite planes of opposite charges:
zero outside, inside.
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Dirac Delta Function [Sect. 1.5 of Griffiths]
We now have the concept of how a point charge is to be described.
Consider the function
We know that this is a diverging function.
So, let us take the divergence of this function,
We thus have the paradoxical situation that a point charge at the
origin produces a Coulomb field, but the lines do not start at the
origin!
0 ) 1 (
1 1 1
2 2
2
2
=
c
c
=
|
.
|

c
c
= V
r r r
r
r r

r
r

1
2
=

???
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5
Dirac Delta Function
2

r
r
v =

,
}}}
} } }
}}} }
= V
=
|
|
.
|

=
V =
= =
0
4

sin

1
2
0
2
0
2

d v
r d d R r
R
a d v
d v a d v

Apply divergence theorem by considering a sphere of radius R centered
at the origin
Does this mean that divergence theorem is false?
If the divergence theorem is right, we should get
, 4 = V
}
d v

1 ) (
0
0 0
) (
=

=
=
=
}

dx x
and
x if
x if
x

## To account for this paradox, we define a new kind of function.

In the first instance in only one space variable x (One dimension).
This function is known as the Dirac Delta function and is defined
below.
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The Dirac delta function is not really a function but what
mathematicians call a distribution, but we will treat it just like a
function most of the time.
(x) is limit of a sequence of functions , e.g. a Rectangle
R
n
(x) of height n and width 1/n in the limit or an
Isosceles triangles T
n
(x) of height n and base 2/n in the same
limit. There are many other examples like this.
n
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Some properties of delta function
Delta function is always intended for use under an integral sign
Example 1.5
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Three dimensional delta function
We can also write these results in spherical polar coordinates as
) ( ) ( ) (
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a f d a r r f
allspace

=
}

} } } }

= =
=
1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
3
dz dy dx z y x d r
z y x r
allspace

## Paradox solved using delta function

We can now explain the paradox related with the Coulomb
field
Everywhere except at the origin the divergence vanishes, at the
origin we have a delta function sitting there to give us the
correct form for Gausss law or equivalently Coulombs law.
So, we define
Also,
2

r
r

) ( 4

3
2
r
r
r
=
|
.
|

V
, 4 = V
}
d v

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H.W.
Problems 1.43, 1.44, 1.47
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Divergence of E
Using divergence theorem,
Gausss law
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Curl of E
Line integral is zero over closed path,
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means
Stokes theorem
For many charges using principle of superposition
So, we have, in electrostatics,