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A Technical Report On MILITARY RADARS

By G.V.Anurag Reddy 08B81A0408

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING. CVR College of Engineering Accredited by National Board of Accreditation, AICTE Vastunagar (v), Mangalpalli, Ibrahimpatnam. R.R.Dist. A.P 2011-2012

Contents
List of Figures Abstract 3 4

1. INTRODUCTION ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.1 Functions of Note Taking ............. Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.2 Procedure for taking notes ............ Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.3 Producing notes ............................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 2. WORKING ............................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 3. CONSTRUCTION ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.1 Applet and Database ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.2 Technical Requirements of the Note Taker . Error! Bookmark not defined. 4. TECHNOLOGY .................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.1 DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY ......... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.2 HANDWRITING RECOGNITIONError! Bookmark not defined. 5. TYPES OF NOTE TAKERS ................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.1. MOBILE NOTE TAKER ............ Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2. PC NOTE TAKER ...................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.3. I-PEN .......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.4. SMART PEN .............................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.5. SOLO PEN .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.6. SMART QUILL .......................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 6. APPLICATIONS ................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

7. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGESError! Bookmark not defined. 8. CONCLUSION ...................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 9.REFERENCES ....................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

ABSTRACT

y RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is basically a means of gathering information about distant objects by transmitting electromagnetic waves at them and analyzing the echoes. Radar has been employed on the ground, in air, on the sea and in space. y Radar finds a number of applications such as in airport traffic control, military purposes, coastal navigation, meteorology and mapping etc.

y The development of the radar technology took place during the World War II in which it was used for detecting the approaching aircraft and then later for many other purposes which finally led to the development of advanced military radars being used these days. y Military radars have a highly specialized design to be highly mobile and easily transportable, by air as well as ground. y In this paper we will discuss about the advanced fatures and benefits of military radar, system configuration of a typical military radar, operating the radar, system functions, various terminal equipments used along with their functions and some of the important parts of the radar such as transmitter, reciever, antenna, AFC(Automatic Frequency Control)

INTRODUCTION

y Military radar should be an early warning, altering along with weapon control functions. It is specially designed to be highly mobile and should be such that it can be deployed within minutes.

y Military radar minimizes mutual interference of tasks of both air defenders and friendly air space users. y This will result in an increased effectiveness of the combined combat operations. y The command and control capabilities of the radar in combination with an effective ground based air defence provide maximum operational effectiveness with a safe, efficient and flexible use of the air space. y The increased operational effectiveness is obtained by combining the advantages of centralized air defence management with decentralized air defence control.

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF RADAR SUBSYSTEM

y The detection of air targets is accomplished by the search radar,the video processor and the color PPI unit. The color PPI unit provides the presentation of all moving targets down to very low radial sppeds on a PPI screen. y The search radar is pulse doppler radar(also called MTI radar) i.e. it is capable of distinguishing between the echo from a fixed target and that of a moving target.

y The echoes from fixed targets are eliminated,so that the echoes from the moving targets are presented on the screen.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Mains supply

HT UNIT
High voltage supply

TRANSMITTER UNIT Modulator Sub modulator ANTENNA

Magnetron

AFC control circuit

VIDEO PROCESSOR

RECIEVER UNIT
LO+AFC UNIT BJD Lock pulse mixer AFC Discriminator Image rejection mixer SSLO COHO Linear detector Ppi unit

IF preamplifier

Linear main amplifier

MTI main amplifier

PSD

The main units of radar subsystem are:-

1) HT unit The high tension unit converts the phase mains voltage into a DC voltage of about in the order of KV for the transmitter unit. 2) Transmitter Unit The transmitter unit comprises: a)Modulator The modulator consists of the Following components:y Start Pulse Amplifier y Pulse Unit b)Magnetron The magnetron is a self-oscillating RF power generator.It is supplied by the modulator by high voltage pulses,whereupon it produces band pulses.

AFC circuit and servo amplifier

Readout Module

Thyratron

magnetron

Start Pulse Amplifier

Pulse Unit

ARC Sensor

RF Power sensor

3) LO+AFC Unit The LO+AFC unit determines the frequency of the transmitted radar pulses. It comprises 1. 2. 3. 4. Lock pulse mixer AFC discriminator Solid state local oscillator(SSLO) Coherent Oscillator (COHO)

4) Reciever unit The reciever unit converts the recieved RF echo signals to IF level and detects the IF signals.By detecting the IF signals in two different ways,two reciever channels are obtained called MTI channel and linear channel. The RF signals recieved by radar antenna are applied to the low noise amplifier.

5)Antenna : The search antenna is a parabolic reflector, rotating with a high speed. In the focus of the reflector is a radiator, which emits the RF pulses, and which recieves the RF echo pulses. In the waveguide is the polarization shifter, which causes the polarization of the RF energy to be either horizontally or circularly. 6) video Processor: The video Processor Processes the MTI video from the MTI reciever channel , to make the video suitable for the presentation on the colour PPI screen. 7) protection units: There are some protection units such as arc sensor to protect the magnetron against arcing and RF power sensor maintaining the RF power.

OPERATING THE RADAR :


The operators main task is to watch the PPI (plan Position Indicator) display, which presents only moving targets in the normal mode(MTI-MODE). Detected target can be assigned with the joystick controlled order marker to initiate target tracking. Target tracking is started and a track marker appears over the target echo. A label is displayed near the track marker. The system computer in the processor unit processes data on this tracked target . when an aircraft does not respond to the IFF interrogation it is considered to be unknown.

Data flow in typical military radar system

Target detection by radar

Track initiation and identification

Automatic target tracking and IFF status

Message transmitted to weapon systems

Target track data put in encoded message

TERMINAL EQUIPMENT FUNCTIONS

Message decoded and parallax correction

Threat evaluation and display of results as advice

Target selection

Target tracking, fire control and weapon aiming

Fairing at target

ADVANCED FEATURES AND BENEFITS

Typical military radar has the following advanced features and benefits: -

All-weather day and night capability. Multiple target handling and engagement capability. Short and fast reaction time between target detection and ready to fire moment. Easy to operate and hence low manning requirements and stress reduction under severe conditions. Highly mobile system, to be used in all kind of terrain Flexible weapon integration, and unlimited number of single air defence weapons can be provided with target data. High resolution, which gives excellent target discrimination and accurate tracking

DISADVANTAGES

 Time Radar can take upto 2 seconds to lock on.

 Radar has wide beam spread(50ft diameter over 200ft range).

 Cannot track if deceleration is greater than one mph/second.

 Large targets close to radar can saturate reciever.

 Hand held modulation can falsify readings.

CONCLUSION

MILITARY RADARS are one of the most important requirements during the wartime,which can be used for early detection of ballistic missile and also for accurate target detection and firing. Radar system discussed here has a bult in threat evaluation program which automatically puts the target in a threat sequence, and advise the weapon crew which target can be engaged first.

REFERENCES

a. SKOLNIK INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEMS MCGRAW HILL.

b. ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS BY KENNEDY,DAVIS FOURTH EDITION.

c. BHARATH ELECTRONICS LIMITED WEBSITE WWW.bel-india.com d. VARIOUS OTHER INTERNET SITES AND JOUNALS