Heroes, Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium, John T. Meader, Director , P.O.

Box 302, Fairfield, Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars.com www.northern-stars.com Page 1

The following Teacher’s Guide is designed to help you prepare your class for their upcoming presentation of Heroes, Gods & Monsters when the Northern Stars Planetarium visits your school. Much of the enclosed material is for you, the teacher, to help you prepare your students. Puzzles and worksheets are designed to be copied and distributed directly to your students. PLEASE NOTE: Not all of the material in this guide may be appropriate for your particular class. Some of the material may be too old or too young because this program is adaptable for several age levels. Please use only what is appropriate.

Winter and Spring Version: I. Orion Stories A. Orion and the Scorpion B. Orion, Artemis and Apollo II. Hercules Stories A. Nimean Lion (Leo) B. Slaying the ten headed Hydra C. Draco and the Golden Apples Summer & Autumn Version: I. The kidnapping of Persephone (Virgo the Maiden) II. Andromeda, Perseus, & Pegasus the Flying Horse III. Helios and Phaethom: Driving the Sun Chariot

1. Which mythical gods correspond to the names of the planets? (i.e. Venus is named after the goddess of love and beauty.) 2. Are the planets named after Greek or Roman gods? (Roman) 3. How do you think they decided which planets should be named after which gods? (example: The planet Mercury might have been named after the god Mercury, the messenger and god of travel, because of the planet’s swift motion through the skies.) 4. Why do you think so many constellations are named after so many Greek Heroes and Monsters? 5. Why do you think the Romans changed almost all the names of the Greek gods and goddesses? 6. Who were the Titans? Who were the Olympian Gods? What was the difference? (The Titans were the first generation gods and were not very powerful. The Olympic Gods were the second generation gods and were quite powerful.)

father of Zeus The river that encircled the Earth Father of Sun. . . . . . . Meader. . Box 302.com Page 2 PRINCIPLE GREEK AND ROMAN GODS · Note: All underlined characters are in stories told in the planetarium. Moon and the Dawn He holds the world on his shoulders He gave mankind fire and was punished for it . .O. He drove the Sun’s chariot. (the Titans were the earliest gods and not powerful) Uranus Gaea Cronus Ocean Hyperion Atlas Prometheus Saturn Heaven. Fairfield. Director . father of the Titans Earth. . GREEK NAME: ROMAN NAME: WHO THEY ARE: THE TITANS . . Blacksmith of the gods Goddess of Love and Beauty God of love OLYMPIC GODS . John T. . . . . Zeus Hera Hades Poseidon Apollo Artemis Demeter Athena Helios Ares Hephaestus Aphrodite Eros Jupiter Juno Pluto Neptune Apollo Diana Ceres Minerva . Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars. . .Heroes. Mars Vulcan Venus Cupid God of War and Violence God of Fire. (the second generation of gods – they held more real power) King of the gods. Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium. . Poetry and Light Goddess of the Hunt and Moon Goddess of Agriculture and Fertility Goddess of Wisdom and the Arts God of the Sun. . mother of the Titans Ruler of the Titans.com www. . God of Lightning Queen of the gods. . . . . . . Goddess of Marriage King of the Underwold and the Dead God of the Sea God of Healing. P.northern-stars.

Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium. The first of the great Greek heroes. The greatest inventor of ancient times. and his son.Heroes. Box 302. Three sisters: half women – half birds. P. Even the gods must obey them. Giants with only one eye in the center of their forehead. Director . A young man of great size. A great hero. Beautiful sea-nymphs or mermaids. Half man—half horse. The seven sisters. He was a great hunter. such as Hercules. MONSTERS & STRANGE CREATURES Medusa Cetus Pegasus Sphinx Sirens Cerberus Centaur Fates Nerieds Cyclops She had a scaly body. Helios.O. God of Travel God of Wine and Grapes HEROES & MORTALS Hercules Orion Phaethon Pleiades Perseus Cassiopeia Cepheus Andromeda Daedlus & Icarus The strongest man in the world. mother of Andromeda. wings. daughter of Cassiopeia and Cepheus. King of Ethiopia. Chiron was a wise Centaur who trained many heroes. Three dreaded sisters who controlled fate. bulging red eyes. The winged horse.com www.northern-stars. The son of the Sun god. A monster with a maiden’s face. Fairfield. The three headed dog of Hades that guards the underworld. Simply seeing her turned the viewer to stone. daughters of Atlas. The sea monster. chased by Orion. They sang songs from cliffs that enticed sailors to crash on the rocks. Queen of Ethiopia. John T. Also the whale. and snakes for hair. . a lion’s body and a serpent’s tale. Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars. Meader.com Page 3 Hermes Dionysus Mercury Bacchus Messenger of the gods. father of Andromeda. The princess.

Heroes.northern-stars.com www. Fairfield. The place of the dead. the boatman. Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium. P. Box 302.O. Olympus Aegean Sea Athens Sparta Turkey Mediterranean Sea Crete . The river that borders Hades. The special part of Hades for heroes and the virtuous. They had to pay a coin to cross. John T. Map of Actual Places in Greece Greece Mt. The dead were ferried across it by Charon. Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars. Director . The underworld or Tartarus.com Page 4 PLACES Mt. Meader. Olympus Hades The River Styx Elysian Fields The place where the gods lived.

He summoned the guards to kill the priests for allowing this to happen. however. Box 302. The astronomer declared. she would sacrifice her beautiful long hair to Aphrodite (Venus). your majesty. The kingdom rejoiced at the king’s return.O.” The king was satisfied with this great wonder and Berenice was delighted to be so honored by the gods themselves. the goddess of love and beauty. the court astronomer arrived and yelled.” So when the day turned into night. It was the admiration of the entire kingdom. The next day when the king went to the temple to see his wife’s hair. a promise before the gods could not be broken. she went to the temple to pray that her husband would return victorious.com Page 5 THE STORY OF BERENICE’S HAIR It happened that one there was a king named Ptolemy Soter (pronounced ‘Tolemy’) who had a beautiful queen named Berenice. pp 149-150. came to the temple last night and gathered the locks of hair. Berenice’s hair was the crowning glory of his queen. Leo the Lion and Virgo the Maiden was a faint mass of twinkling stars. Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium. safe and sound. P. Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars. Ptolemy became very angry. ‘Tis not the fault of thy priests. After weeks of waiting anxiously. the astronomer took the king outside and pointed into the heavens. she promised that if the gods would assure Ptolemy’s safe and victorious return. Berenice went to the temple where her beautiful locks of hair were cut off and laid on the altar by the priests. he was furious to find that it had been stolen. Coma Berenices (Berenice Hair) -Paraphased from: Julius Staal’s New Patterns in the Sky. . too beautiful for a single temple to possess?” And there in the sky between the Great Bear (The Big Dipper). It inspired poets and artists. In her anxiety. it was looked after with loving care by Berenice’s many ladies-inwaiting.com www.Heroes. Just at the moment the guards were about to behead the priests. “Zeus. Director .northern-stars. Berenice was relieved when Ptolemy returned home in victory. “Stop! Please. Fairfield. “Look! Dost thou not see the clustered curls of thy queen. He carried them high into the heavens where he and Aphrodite placed them for the whole world to marvel at. Ptolemy went away to war to fight against the nearby kingdom of Assyria. Nothing. Fearing for his life. Meader. but when Berenice told Ptolemy about her promise to sacrifice her beautiful long hair to Aphrodite. Just wait until dark and thou shall understand. John T. himself. The war lasted many years and Berenice became frightened that her husband might never return. could be done.

Daedalus told his son. With a few sweeps of his wings. excited about escaping and flying. The Minotaur was half man-half bull. along with his son Icarus. all Icarus could think of was touching the stars themselves. however. Daedalus accepted King Minos’ challenge and built the king a large and elaborate maze he called the Labyrinth. Fairfield. When he arrived safely on land. had not given up hope. Icarus slowly grew bold and did more and more daring stunts in the air. But men could not fly. Director . His eyes were full of tears and he cursed the skill that allowed him to make the wings.com www. No one in all the land could destroy or even control this horrible creature. King Minos pleaded with Daedalus to build him a cage to hold a terrible monster called the Minotaur. women. did not listen. . Icarus didn’t understand why. inside the Labyrinth. When enough feathers were gathered. -Paraphrased from: William Russell’s Classic Myths to Read Aloud. remember to always maintain a moderate height.northern-stars. He flew higher and higher. This hideous beast ravaged the island of Crete. hideous creature. the Minotaur was trapped within the maze.Heroes. and children at his will. Daedalus. Daedalus and Icarus could not find their way out of the maze and were in constant fear of the Minotaur. the feathers began to drop out of the wings. The Minotaur and the king’s guards looked up in disbelief at the father and son flying overhead. If you fly too high. Meader. He made a large pair of wings for himself and a smaller pair for Icarus. It seemed there was no escape and only a matter of time before their doom would be sealed by meeting the hungry. John T. the master inventor. The people of Crete were so happy that they praised Daedalus unendingly. “Icarus.” But Icarus. But King Minos became very jealous and he imprisoned Daedalus. Icarus was flying above the Labyrinth. Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars. holding them together with thread and wax. Box 302. the heat of the Sun will melt the wax and your wings will fall apart. fashioned wings from the feathers. P. he built a temple to Apollo and hung up his wings as an offering to the god.com Page 6 THE STORY OF DAEDALUS AND ICARUS Daedalus was known throughout Greece as the greatest craftsman and inventor in all the world. the Sun warmed and melted the wax. but he did as his father asked. His name spread even to King Minos on the island of Crete. Daedalus tried to tell him to stay in the middle levels of the sky. he noticed that one small creature came and went as quickly and easily as the wind – the birds. Daedalus flew on alone. For the Labyrinth had no roof and the birds could fly in and out. Could they? Daedalus instruced his son Icarus to collect as many feathers as possible. Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium. And so. One by one. When they were ready make their flying escape. but the sound of the wind kept Icarus from hearing. but gradually they became accustomed to the sensation of flight. devouring men. The passageways were so complicated that anyone who entered the Labyrinth could never find their way out again. While no man nor beast once inside the Labyrinth could ever find their way out. Soon. the fogs and vapors will weigh down your feathers and you will not be able to fly. Daedalus. If you fly too low. At first they were very nervous being so high. Icarus struggled but could no longer maintain his flight and he fell to a watery grave in the sea below. Slowly.O. Never again did he attempt to fly.

1986. Percy M. Penguin Books. 1963. (Highly recommended for reading to children) Staal. John T. 1942.. The Heavenly Zoo. Robert.) Rey. Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium.) Proctor. Box 302. & Demons. P. Hamilton. Richard H. Chet. Mythology. New York: The New American Library. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.. but not all stories are Greek. Michael.. The Greek Myths. New York: Exposition Press. Star Tales.northern-stars. (Technical reference) Graves. New York: Universe Books. VA: The McDonald and Woodward Publishing Co. Director . Fairfield. The Stars.) Lurie & Belsner. A New Way to See Them. 1976. (A good book to learn the constellations by) Ridpath.A. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Mythology. The New Patterns in the Sky. 1988. 1978.Heroes.. Julius D. H. (A good book to learn some fun facts and stories about the sky. Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes. 1972. New York: Prentice Hall Press. Blacksburg. Bernard. William F.) CLASSICS FOR THE OLDER READER: Bulfinch’s Mythology Homer. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Classic Myths to Read Aloud. Stapleton.com Page 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen. (NOTE: All classical myths should be read by the teacher prior to student reading or reading aloud in class as the content may not be appropriate for certain age levels [myths tend to be racy at times]. original 1952. New York: Dover Publications. (Good general book) Evslin. 365 Starry Nights. Star Myths and Stories. Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars.com www. etc.. 1975. New York: Scholastic Books.O. Edith.. heroes. Ian. 1989. New York: Bell Publishing Co. Raymo. Meader. Demigods. The Iliad and The Odyssey (There are many various printings of these books) . 1988.. New York: Crown Publishers. (A Dictionary of Greek gods. originally 1899. Star Names. 1979. Gods. Their Lore and Meaning. (Recommended for reading.. Russell.

Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium.com Page 8 MATCH GAME Match the Greek god to its Roman counterpart. Box 302. Meader. Fairfield. P. Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars. GREEK: Athena Ares Eros Dionysus Zeus Poseidon Apollo Hermes Hephaestus Hades Cronus Demeter Hera Artemis Aphrodite ROMAN: Jupiter Cupid Minerva Apollo Diana Saturn Vulcan Mercury Venus Pluto Juno Bacchus Ceres Mars Neptune (Answers are available on the chart of Principle Green and Roman gods) .com www. Director .Heroes.northern-stars.O. John T.

Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium.com www. vertically and diagonally: Andromeda Apollo Ares Atlas Cassiopeia Cepheus Cetus Constellation Diana Draco Greek Hades Helios Hera Hercules Heroes Homer Hydra Jupiter Leo Mars Mercury Monster Mythology Neptune Olympus Orion Pegasus Perseus Phaethon Pleiades Pluto Poseidon Roman Saturn Scorpius Star Stories Styx Sun Titans Zeus . Box 302. Fairfield. Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars.northern-stars.Heroes.com Page 9 WORD SEARCH S C O R P I U S B K N D C E T U S P P R V M O E N X A Y H I V A A H P M E H O F E E J L D H J N A H N P S T H O K A S J T R P A V U T S D E P Z S P A N Y E E K I C U J U P I T E R R P I R E S O T I H T U V E K M F O S L O I O N T T R H D R A R D R A C O R A D M M P O S E I O O B N Y T T P K A I M G A D E X R R O N N P S T Y X O Y S E S A N M I D I A N A J L N D H E L I O S N Z R O A T A Q R I L E R A O Q L M H Q P E R S E U S B E N C I D P M D O L Y M P U S Z V G P T X O E A S L E Z V B D T J S N L J N A N A I P D A U R A Q D R Z H E R O E S H L P R H E T T F N D R A L T O K Y N E P T U N E S U O L O E H E R C U L E S N S A V S U N R J V A G R E E K L E O J G N A R H S H N F I J S X H R J Q P E G A S U S E N G C O N S T E L L A T I O N Y H J L V S B Find the following words horizontally. P. Director . Meader.O. John T.

.... Was the amount of material discussed: Enough Overwhelming Not Enough 5.info@northern-stars... Box 302 Fairfield..........com Page 10 Planetarium Program Evaluation--Thank you! After the Northern Stars Planetarium has visited your class....com www. Show Name: _______________________________________________________________ 2....O.com 1. Was the Teacher’s Guide helpful in preparing your class for the planetarium visit? No Yes Which parts were most helpful? ___________________________________________________ Which parts were least helpful? ____________________________________________________ 9.. Was the material presented at an appropriate level for your class? ________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4... please take a moment to fill out this evaluation.... Maine 04937 Or Email To :.O. Did the presenter present the material in a clear and understandable fashion? ______________ 10. Gods & Monsters Teacher’s Guide Northern Stars Planetarium.northern-stars...Northern Stars Planetarium P....... How would you rate the overall program given to your class in the planetarium? __________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 11. Maine 04937-0302 207-453-7668 info@northern-stars. (Optional) Your name & school:_______________________________________________ .. P...... was the planetarium visit helpful? ______________________________________________ 8....... Fairfield...Heroes. which parts? 6. Box 302...Group grade/age level:_________________________________________________________ 3. Should any parts of the presentation be developed further? ______________.... Was there sufficient time for questions and answers? Yes No 7.. Your suggestions are very valuable to us! Mail the completed evaluation to :.. Director ..... Meader...... If so.. Were you studying astronomy or another related subject at the time of the planetarium’s visit? Yes No If so...... John T.