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Semantically oriented unique eGovernment access point based on SOA


Arsovski Saša, PhD candidate Guarantee Fund of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Hajduk Veljkova 11, 21000, Novi Sad, Serbia Email: Tel: +681 63 519 030 , fax: +381 21 489 3700 Faculty of Technical Science, department form informatics, Novi Sad, Serbia Field of interest:

Semantic Web, SOA, expert systems, databases

Abstract: This paper presents the composition model of semantically oriented technologies and SOA. The design of the service interface allows machine – machine communication, which enables an automated access to and use of the government administration public services. The creation of knowledge ontology on a unique web location eases the user’s search for a service. The solutions are implemented by the combination of Microsoft WCF technologies improved by W3C standards and recommendations.

Key Words: Semantic Web, knowledge ontology, service oriented architecture, Microsoft WCF, web services.




large number of documents accompanying the activities of governmental

administrative bodies, in the form of public calls in order to implement development strategies through the placement of budget funds for the allocation of incentive funds aimed at the development of economy, agriculture, tourism, educational activities and other types of economic activities, are daily published on the websites of governmental, regional and local administrative bodies. - Problem identification Starting from the fact that websites are made by different technologies and that

information on activities are to be found on different websites, defined by different terms and in different formats, duly and relevant information on current activities is of great importance for potential applicants in the calls, i.e. incentive fund beneficiaries. The above described issues define the need for a unique information web portal on which

the activities of all bodies of province administration and local self-governments will be

published. The advantage of such a portal can also be seen in the way of G2G communication, i.e. possible redundant types of calls and fields of activities of local and provincial administrative bodies are neutralised.

The paper suggests a solution to the above defined problems and formation of an arranged information system, which on the one hand, relies on semantic technologies and W3C recommendations, and on the other hand, on Microsoft VS 2008 technologies and SOA.

2. Previous work

The search for and access to different governmental administrative services (fill-in of tax returns, renewal of personal documents, etc.) present a large problem in automatizing the work of governmental administration. The implementation of efficient online services and application of innovative IC technologies is a solution to the problem.

The [11] project combines several innovative technologies such as:

SOA, Context Management, Web Principles, Web 2.0, Semantic Web. The extension of standard WSDL with semantic descriptions allows automatic detection, ranking and application of such described services. Formalised semantic descriptions of services allow limited half-automated service access and use for the time being.

In the [12] project, individual (atomic) processes are integrated at semantic level, forming a scenario of problem solution which is presented to the end-user.

In the [13] project, a semantic portal of governmental administration is developed allowing the users the following: detection of wanted governmental administrative services, information on available services, detailed and structured information on offered services and use of public services which are available online. Several tools have been developed for that purpose. Ontology mapping tool (mapping of conceptually different ontologies) and WSMO – PA Service Editor (a tool for semantic description of existing services).

3. Model of a web portal of an administrative body

RSS feed formats are used for publishing and constant update of different information on the Web. The RSS document itself contains a brief description of content, title, as well as metadata, such as: date of publication and author’s text. The advantage of such a way of data publishing is the aggregation of different information with several different websites. The user can access published information via a RSS reader programme, which can be used from the Web, desktop or by mobile interface. The standardised XML format in RSS feed allows the interoperability of access to published information. [14]

The paper suggests a system that solves the limitations of RSS format in displaying the number of pieces of information, which governmental administrative bodies launch. System components, such as ontology builder and web desktop ontology reader, have been developed and presented. The use of ontology builder enables different bodies of governmental, regional and local administration to publish information important to them. The synthesis of all received individual pieces of information leads to the formation of common ontology of domains of all governmental administrative bodies. The format of owl file, which is compatible to W3C recommendations, allows the interoperability of the proposed system.

Figure 3.1. presents a model of web portal of governmental administrative body.

a model of web porta l of governmental administrative body. Fig. 3.1. A proposed model of

Fig. 3.1. A proposed model of web portal of governmental administrative body.

The following technologies can be identified on the proposed model of web portal of governmental administrative body.

1. Web services

1.1.1. GetKonkurs web service - returns data on current calls

The user side of the service is modelled in several ways.

a) The user can install Windows application on a local computer. The application calls the GetKonkurs service and presents the current state of published calls.

b) The user installs Windows application – i.e. Windows service, which on the basis of set search parameters communicates with the GetKonkurs service and if the query parameters are met, the information is presented to the user in the form of a table.

1.1.2. UpdateKonkurs web service – enters data on initiated activities

Local system administrators of provincial and local self-governmental bodies install a user interface of UpdateKonkurs service on local computers. Using the installed application, data on new calls in RDB are registered, i.e. entered.

1.1.3. RDB2OWL web service – its execution initiates the UpdateKonkurs service. The service reads the written data in RDB and forms the ontology of domain vojvodina.owl using the OWL syntax and W3C recommendations

2. Tools for vojvodina.owl file processing

Several technologies have been envisaged for the processing and viewing of vojvodina.owl file

2.1. A set of tools, which by using the XLS scheme, present the formed ontology in the web browser.

2.2. Existing OWL browsers

Figure 3.2. Image of web portal home page 3.1. Modelling of data ****** Data on

Figure 3.2. Image of web portal home page

3.1. Modelling of data


Data on all calls are an archive of all previously published calls. This model can be expanded with additional information, so that it could serve as a basis for analysing the activities of governmental administrative bodies.

the activities of governmental administrative bodies. Figure 3.3. Model of APVOWL data 3.2. Creation of a

Figure 3.3. Model of APVOWL data

3.2. Creation of a service for the registration of actions of administrative and local self-governmental bodies

The service has been developed by Microsoft WCF technology. It is linked to the database via LinqToSql service reference. The data the user enters in the given form is taken over by a service which enters data in the RDB.

Figure 3.4. Client interface of UpdateKonkurs service 3.3. Creation of a service for the design

Figure 3.4. Client interface of UpdateKonkurs service

3.3. Creation of a service for the design of FormOwl ontology

Microsoft VS 2008 [PWCF], WCF platform and C# programming language have been used for the design of this service. Calling the service initiates the UpdateKonkurs service. Since the database is filled in by UpdateKonkurs service, the FormOWL service is activated then. This service uploads all relevant data from the RDB and by using OWL syntax and W3C recommendations, forms the vojvodina.owl file. [W3C] The formed ontology is changeable because there is a time limit to the actions of administrative bodies, so that the vojvodina.owl ontology in formed on a daily basis, independently of the actions of the FormOwl service. C# classes for the manipulation of XML documents have been used in the ontology creation. Thus, the interoperability of administrative bodies’ domain knowledge ontology has been achieved, since the created vojvodina.owl file can be searched and available via different system platforms.

Listing 3.5. A fragment of created vojvodina.owl [9] ontology

<rdf:RDF xmlns="" <owl:Ontology rdf:about=""/> <owl:AnnotationProperty rdf:about="&dc;source"/> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#Otvoren"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&owl;FunctionalProperty"/>

<dc:source rdf:datatype="&xsd;date">31.12.2009.</dc:source> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Konkurs_za_nabavku_traktora"/> </owl:ObjectProperty> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:about="#Privredna_grana"> <rdfs:comment></rdfs:comment> <rdfs:comment >Privreda Poljoprivreda Turizam i ugostiteljstvo Trgovina</rdfs:comment> </rdf:RDF>

The presented ontology has been tested in Protege 4.0 OWL editor.

ontology has been tested in Protege 4.0 OWL editor . Figure 3.6. A graphic design of

Figure 3.6. A graphic design of the formed ontology in RDF-Gravity tool, [15].

4. User presentation of the portal

As described in the previous chapter, the users of GetKonkurs service can use the results the service returns in several ways. A desktop application has been developed and presented in the paper.

The Figure 4.1. shows a desktop user form. This Windows application is taken from the portal in Install APP option. The application is automatically installed into the Program Files of a local computer. The automatization of machine-machine communication has been achieved by projecting the service interface as a local service which is executed on the client’s local machine.

The user receives only that information that corresponds to the predefined criteria by the automated communication between the local service and the web service of governmental administration.

rvice and the web service of governmental administration. Figure 4.1. User interface of the GetKonkurs service

Figure 4.1. User interface of the GetKonkurs service

Choosing the link to the document, i.e. text of the call, which is in the indicated table, the user directly opens the document with the original text of the call from the current URI. Only those calls are indicated in the table which duration date is later or equal to the current system date of the user computer.

Semantic presentation of data on the information portal

Figure 4.2. A semantic way of presentation of data which are on the portal. The vojvodina.owl ontology is exported from the Protege 4.0 tool by the OWLDoc plug-in in HTML format. [9] There is a link on the web portal allowing an instant overview of the formed ontology and access to the parameters of published calls. The HTML representation of vojvodina.owl ontology is obtained by selecting the relevant link.

Figure 4.2. Image of HTML page of formed vojvodina.owl [10] ontology 5. Conclusion The paper

Figure 4.2. Image of HTML page of formed vojvodina.owl [10] ontology



The paper presents a solution to the communication between semantically described web services of a governmental administrative body and service on the client’s local computer. Thus, machine-machine communication has been achieved and on the basis of defined criteria by the client, the services automatically communicate without any user activity. The service user receives the requested information at the moment when the defined criteria are met. This portal has been modelled by the composition of semantic technologies, SOA, Microsoft technology and open source technology. In the following period, it is necessary to model the functionality of OWL2HTML, produce additional reports and services which will allow the analysis of finished activities related to calls and the assessment of justification for placement of budget funds. Using the mobile device technology, it is possible to improve the web portal in such a way that the results of a defined query are obtained via SMS messages. Such a portal model can be applied in all entities in the property of governmental administration which are budgetary users, and their main activity is providing service to citizens and legal entities (Employment Bureau, Business Registers Agency, Republic Agency for SME Development, etc). Such a way of servicing citizens enables faster, more qualitative and

transparent work of administrative bodies and indicates redundant activities, wrong assessments and weak responses to actions or insufficient amounts of allocated funds for specific calls.



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