Structures Lab Finl Copy | Beam (Structure) | Bending

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57

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Experiment – 1
Deflection of a Simply Supported Beam Aim: To determine the deflection of a simply supported beam. Apparatus: Beam Test Set-Up with Load cells, steel scale, caliper, flat beam, load indicator and dial gauge.
Pointer Gear box Scale Dial gauge Load Simply supported beam Hand wheel

Load indicator

Fig. 1: Schematic layout of a beam setup

Theory: A beam shown in fig-2 shows the section which is simply supported at the ends and is subjected to bending about its major axis with a concentrated load anywhere in the beam. The beam is provided with strain gauge, the deflection of the beam can be determined whenever the load is applied on the beam. Strain gauge values may be noted for several further works

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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) ===============================================================

. Deflections are given by following expressions; students may derive these expressions using Unit Load Method or Castigliano`s Theorem. Yx = W b [ (L2 –b2) x –x3] /(6 E I L) Yx = W b [ X3 – L/b (x-a)3 - (L2-b2) x ] /(6 E I L) Where, W is the load placed at a distance `a` from the left support in Newton L = span of the beam in mm Yx = deflection at any point distance x from left end I = moment of inertia of the beam in mm4 (Ixx) E= Young’s modulus in N/mm2 Procedure: Find the moment of inertia of beam from the following expression: (1/12) b1 d1 3, where b1 is width of beam and d1 is depth. Place the beam supporting from two wedge supports. The load position can be varied. Set the load cell to read zero in the absence of load. Set the deflection gauge to read zero in the absence of load.
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for

0<x<a

for a < x <L

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) ===============================================================

Load the beam with 0.25 Kg. Note deflections before and after the load point through deflection gauge. Increase the load to 1.5 Kg and repeat the experiment.

Find the deflections from the formula and verify. Tabular column
Load (N) Ixx mm4 L mm a mm b mm x mm Theoretical value mm Experimental value mm

CAUTION : NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM

Conclusion: Deflection for three different loads for simply supported beam is calculated and also verified by experimental values. The mean deflection is ------units.

Example: Determine the deflection of a simply supported beam loaded with W =50,000 Newton, Young’s Modulus E =2 x105 N/mm2; Second moment of Inertia Ixx =7332.9x 104 mm4; & the load is placed at a distance a = 4800mm; and the span of the beam L = 60000mm. Find the deflection at x =3000mm from the left end.
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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) ===============================================================

Yx = W b [ (L2 –b2) X –X3] /(6 E I L) = 50000 x 1200x [ (60002 - 12002) 3000 -30003] /(6x2.0x105x 7332.9 x 104 x 6000)

Yx = 8.714 mm

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=============================================================== DEPT. in a linear elastic structure. caliper. flat beam. steel scale. The only other restrictions on this statement. due to concentrated load at point j is equal to the displacement at point j due to a concentrated load of same magnitude at point i. DSCE 5 . 3: Schematic layout of a beam setup Theory: The displacement at point i. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. Pointer Gear box Scale Dial gauge Load Simply supported beam Hand wheel Load indicator Fig. load indicator and dial gauge.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Experiment – 2 Verification of Maxwell’s Reciprocal Theorem Aim: To verify the Maxwell’s theorem for the structures system Apparatus: Beam Test Set-Up with Load cells. The displacement at each point will be measured in the direction of the concentrated load at that point.

e. If the load at a point is a concentrated force. mxA = Bending Moment at any point x due to unit load at A mxB = Bending Moment at any point x due to unit load at B When unit load (external load) is applied at A. DSCE 6 . the deflection at A due to unit load at B is equal to deflection at B due to unit load at A. then m=mxA =============================================================== DEPT. then the displacement at that point will be a translation. apply unit load at B Then m=mxB Hence. This theorem often referred to as Maxwell’s reciprocal displacement theorem. The displacement at any point will be in the same direction as the load at that point and its positive direction will be in the same direction as the load. while if the load is moment. δ = ∫ M m dx / EI where. M=mxB To find deflection at A. then the displacement will be rotation. δBA = ∫ M m dx / EI δ = ∫ mxA mxB dx / EI ------(1) Similarly. is that the displacement at either point must be consistent with the type of load at that point. This can be proved through Unit Load Method i. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.. when unit load (external load) is applied at B. M = Bending Moment at any point x due to external load m= Bending Moment at any point x due to unit load applied at the point where deflection is required let.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== in addition to the structure being linear elastic and stable. M=mxA To find deflection at B due to unit load at A.

DSCE 7 . W is the load placed at a distance `a` from the left support in Newton b=distance of load from right side support L = span of the beam in mm Yx = deflection at any point distance x from left end I = moment of inertia of the beam in mm4 (Ixx) E= Young`s modulus in N/mm2 for for 0<x<a a < x <L =============================================================== DEPT. Thereby resulting in W δAB = W δBA-----------------------------------------------------. Deflections δx at any distance `x` from left support are given by following expressions.(L2-b2) x ] /(6 E I L) Where. (2) δAB = δBA-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.(3) The external load (W) can be taken as a multiple with unit load. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. (1) and eqn.(4) A beam shown in figure below which is simply supported at the ends and is subjected to bending about its major axis with a concentrated load anywhere in the beam. reference may be made to experiment no. 1. δx = W b [ (L2 –b2) x –x3] /(6 E I L) δx = W b [ X3 – L/b (x-a)3 . therefore this load W will appear as multiple with mxA in eqn. (2).AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Hence δAB = ∫ M m dx / EI = ∫ mxA mxB dx / EI ------------------(2) Comparing eqn. (1) & as multiple with mxB in eqn.

j W--------------------------------------------------. DSCE 8 . The displacement relationship can be expressed at point i and j δ i. we obtain f i.j is the displacement at point i due to a unit load at point j and f j.i =============================================================== DEPT.(6) Where. f i.B =f i. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== P δ11 δ21 δ12 δ22 Fig-4: Simply supported Beam loaded at position 1 & 2 The Maxwell’s Reciprocal Displacement theorem is very useful in the analysis of statistically indeterminate structures for evaluating the flexibility coefficients.i is the displacement at point j due to a unit load at point i.(5) δ j.j = f j.i W--------------------------------------------------. If we now substitute these expressions in Betti`s (Maxwell-Betti) law and cancel out the term W on each side.A =f j.

Set the deflection gauge to read zero in the absence of load.5 Kg and repeat the experiment. Procedure: Find the moment of inertia of beam from the following expression: (1/12) b1 d1 3 where b1 is width of beam and d1 is depth. 2 are equal with interchange of loads (same magnitude and direction). Deflection at 1. in an elastic structure. Place the beam supporting from two wedge supports. due to a unit load at point j is equal to the displacement at point j due to unit load at point i.25 Kg. Tabular column Load (N) Ixx mm4 L mm a mm b mm x mm Theoretical Experimental value value mm mm δBA or δAB δBA or δAB Conclusions: Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem is verified from the results i. CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM . OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. DSCE 9 . δ21=δ12. The load position can be varied.e. Note deflections at any point through deflection gauge. Find the deflections from the formula and verify. Interchange the load location with the point of deflection measurement and repeat the readings. Load the beam with 0.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== The theorem can be restated as the displacement at point i. Set the load cell to read zero in the absence of load. Increase the load to 1. =============================================================== DEPT.

the deflection of the beam can be determined wherever the load is applied on to =============================================================== DEPT. DSCE 10 . Apparatus: Beam Test Set-Up with load cells. Cantilever beam with calibrated rosette strain gauge. strain measuring equipment and load indicator. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. 5: Schematic layout of beam setup for Young’s modulus determination Theory: A beam shown in fig-4 shows the section which is simply supported at the ends and is subjected to bending about its major axis with a concentrated load anywhere in the beam.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Experiment – 3 Determination of Young’s Modulus using strain gauges Aim: To determine the Young’s modulus of a simply supported beam or a cantilever beam. The beam is provided with strain gauge. Pointer Gear box Scale Load strain gauge Cantilever beam c1 c2 c3 Hand wheel Strain indicator Load indicator c2 c3 c1 Strain guage arrangement Fig.

If a xy coordinate system is assumed to coincide with the gauge A and C then εx= εA and εy= εc. is in a state of plane stress where the state of stress is with regards to a specific xy rectangular rosette. Once εx. Gauge B provides information necessary to determine γxy. An available cantilever beam can also be utilized for this experiment. However in this case the requirement is to determine Young`s Modulus (E). and τxy. A strain gauge is mounted on a free surface. σy. The strain gauge is at a fixed position in the beam and load position can be varied.εA -εc . εC εx εy γxy ν=εy/εx =============================================================== DEPT. εy and γxy are known. σ y = (ε y + vε x ) . which provides normal strain components in three directions spaced at angles of 450. Sl. σx = E E E (ε x + vε y ) . Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig-6. τ xy = γ xy 2 2 2(1 + v ) (1 − v ) (1 − v ) εx = εA.No εy = εc.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== the beam. then Hooke’s law can be used to determine σx. which can be determined from equation (1) below. which in general. DSCE 11 . Load (N) εA εB γ xy = 2 εB . OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.

Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. Repeat the experiment with load value of 1Kg. Use the following color codes εA εB εc Red wires ch1 Yellow wires ch3 Black wires ch2 Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Record the load value at the load cell.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== M/I = σ/y --------------------------------------------------------------------------1 also Shear Modulus G = γ τ x y ------------------------------------------------2 xy Young’s Modulus E = 2G (1+ν) ------------------------------------------------3 Procedure: Mount the cantilever beam at the left support of beam test setup. Compute the values of Poisson’s ratio from: ν=ε y/εx CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM Tabular Column: Sl.No Load (N) εA εB εC εx εy γxy ν=εy/εx =============================================================== DEPT. DSCE 12 . Now Load the beam with 0. Connect the strain gauges wires with the strain measuring equipment.25 Kg at some point and record the strains in three directions.

2973 =============================================================== DEPT.1957 0.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Find Young `s modulus through formulas above. Conclusion: Young’s modulus for cantilever beam with point load is evaluated as ------Units. Load (N) εA εB εC εx εy γxy ν=εy/εx 1 2 3 10N 20N 30N 92µ 64µ 37µ 46µ 304µ 19µ -18µ -18µ -10µ 92µ 64µ 37µ -18µ -18µ -10µ 18µ 14µ 11µ 0. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. DSCE 13 .2188 0. Example: Sl No.

Theory: A cantilever beam is subjected to bending about its major axis with a concentrated load anywhere in the beam. Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig-7. σy. DSCE 14 . OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. Gauge B provides information necessary to determine shear strain (γxy). 7 =============================================================== DEPT. The beam is provided with rosette strain gauge. and τxy. strain measuring equipment and load indicator. and load position can be varied.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Experiment – 4 Poisson`s ratio (ν) Determination Aim: To determine the Poisson’s ratio of cantilever beam. εy and γxy are known. If an xy co-ordinate system is assumed to coincide with the gauge A and C then εx= εA and εy= εc. Apparatus: Beam Test Set-Up with load cells. Subsequently principal stresses can be determined. then Hooke’s law can be used to determine σx. Cantilever beam with calibrated rosette strain gauge. A calibrated strain gauge rosette is fixed at a location with-in the span of the beam. Once εx. which provides normal strain components in three directions spaced at angles of 450. Calibration has been done to read strains in microns (µ). Poisson’s ratio ( ν ) can be determined from: ν=εy/εx Fig.

A= (σx+ σy)/2 . γxy = 2 εB . Repeat the experiment with load value of 1. =============================================================== DEPT. Use the following color codes εA εB εc Red wires channel 1 Yellow wires channel 3 Black wires channel 2 Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load.5 Kg. Now Load the beam with 0.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== σx = E E (ε x + vε y ) . σ y = (ε y + vε x ) . B = (σx . Connect the strain gauges wires with the strain measuring equipment.σy)/2 and C = τxy E= Young’s modulus in N/mm2 Strains are in microns Procedure: Mount the cantilever beam at the left support of beam test setup. Compute the values of Poisson’s ratio from: ν=εy/εx ε ε CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM.√ B + C 2 2 τmax = ( σ1. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. DSCE 15 .25 Kg at some point and record the strains in three directions. εy = εc .ε A -εc Principal stress axes: Principal stress axes is located with the angle θ according to : tan 2θ = (2 εB .σ2 )/ 2 =√ B + C Where.ε A -εc) / (εA -εc) Principal Stresses are given by following expressions: σ1 = A + √ B + C 2 2 . Record the load value at the load cell. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. 2 (1 − v ) (1 − v 2 ) τ xy = E γ xy 2(1 + v ) εx = εA. 2 2 σ2 = A .

371 Normal. MATLAB program is provided at the end of this manual to compute stresses from given strain data.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Students may determine stresses using formulas above.& principal stress Sl No σx Mpa σy Mpa τxy Mpa σ1 Mpa σ2 Mpa Angle of principal stress θ1 θ2 =============================================================== DEPT.09 46. Sl No σx Mpa τ xy Mpa εA εB εC σy Mpa Principle stress σ1 Mpa Principle Stress σ2 Mpa 1 200µ 900µ 1000µ 105.2188 0. and planes of principal stresses. shear stress.58 230.1957 0.2973 Sl.No 1 2 3 load 10N 20N 30N Example: A typical data is shown for the purpose of computing stresses. DSCE 16 . Tabular Column: Sl.No Load (N) εA εB εC εx εy γxy ν=εy/εx Conclusion: Poisson’s ratios for three different loads are evaluated and mean Poisson’s ratio for a cantilever beam is=------- Example: A typical data is shown for the purpose of computing shear strain and Poisson’s ratio is given below. εA 92µ 64µ 37µ εB 46µ 304µ 19µ εC -18µ -18µ -10µ εx 92µ 64µ 37µ εy -18µ -18µ -10µ γxy 18µ 14µ 11µ ν=εy/εx 0.69 342. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. principal stresses.04 -6.

299 -0.6787 0.2762 1.45 41.242 13.5695 6.064 1.62 -85.8156 -0.00 -85.8159 0. DSCE 17 .80 -86.944 1.347 -1.65 51. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.651 19.04 =============================================================== DEPT.3879 12.9842 17.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== 1 2 3 5.273 64.1000 0.

8: WAGNER beam set-up for buckling load Theory: Consider a pin ended strut AB of length L. the strut will have some additional lateral displacement y at any section. which shows up in this plot. load cells. Under the application of the end load P. The experiment aims at measuring the buckling loads of columns and construction of South Well Plot. mounted dial for deflection measurements. =============================================================== DEPT.5 Buckling Load of Slender Eccentric Columns and Construction of South Well plot Aim: Practical columns have some imperfections in the form of initial curvature and the buckling of loads of such struts is of real practical value. The imperfection amounts to initial curvature. whose centroidal longitudinal axis is initially curved as shown in fig (9). hinged supports.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Experiment . DSCE 18 . Long column with initial curvature. Gear box Hand wheel Load Eccentric loading Support Column Dial indicator Load indicator Fig. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. Apparatus: WAGNER beam set-up.

… (1) M =P(y+y0) = .δ0.EI d2y/dx2 P/EI =k2 d2y + k 2 y = −k 2 y 0 2 dx … (2) Assuming initial curvature (yo) to be sinusoidal. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. bending moment at any point is proportional to the change in curvature of the column from its initial bent position y. satisfying the equation y 0 = δ 0 sin(πx / L) … (3) Where δ0 equals to the initial displacement at the centre of the strut The general solution of this differential equation is =============================================================== DEPT.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== P Y δ0 y Fig-9 P In this case. DSCE 19 . The equation for curvature of column is as follows.

the additional displacement at mid length of the strut is expressed by eqn. When P approaches Pe. the deflection at center yc yc = δ Pe P 0 − 1 …(7) The value Pe represents the buckling load for perfectly straight strut. that the effect of end load P is to increase (y) by a factor 1/ (pe /p)-1. DSCE 20 . for the end conditions.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== y = A cos kx + B sin kx + k 2δ 0 sin(πx / L) π 2 / L2 − k 2 … (4) If the ends are hinged. The resulting equation is as below: y= k 2δ 0  πx  sin   L π 2 … (5) L2 −k 2 Substituting Euler’s buckling load (Pe) Pe = and k 2 = P/EI y=  πx  sin   Pe L −1   P δ0 … (6) for x=L/2. at center of column. (5) is the basis of South Well plot technique for extrapolating for the elastic critical load from experimental measurement. the additional lateral displacement of the strut. The load deflection relationship of eqn. shown by equation (6). In the relation for deflection (y). =============================================================== DEPT. then: y=0 at x =0 and x =L This results in values of constants: A=B=0. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. (7).

Thus if a straight line is drawn which best fits the points determined from the experimental measurements of P and δ .10: South Well Plot =============================================================== DEPT.δ0 The linear relationship between δ/P and δ shown in figure below can be experimentally determined. the reciprocal of the slope of this line gives an estimate of the magnitude of δ0 of the initial curvature that can be determined from the intercept on the horizontal axis.δ0 or … (9) δ = (δ/ P) Pe .AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== δ = δ0 P Pe P 1− Pe … (8) Rearranging the above equation we get δ = (Pe / P) δ . OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. δ Fig. DSCE 21 .

1800mm long. Slope is= --------. The strut was slightly bent about its minor principal axis before loading. Find out the initial deflection of column. 40Kg. and of rectangular section 30mm x 12mm transmits a longitudinal load P acting at the centre of each end.. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. the deflection at the middle of the length increases by 4mm. If the P is increased form 500N to 1500N. Determine the slope and estimate Pe. Tabular Column: Load (P) N Deflection (δ) mm δ/P mm/N Draw South Well Plot (δ/P vs δ ). Conclusion: The buckling loads are computed for the column and the SOUTHWELL plot is constructed. CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 100 Kg OF LOAD ON THE MILD STEEL COLUMN AND 75Kg ON THE ALUMINIUM COLUMN. =============================================================== DEPT.) and record the deflections at each step of load. Apply the vertical load in steps of 10 Kgs. DSCE 22 .. Determine the amount of deflection before loading. 30Kg. each. Fix the column in the supports. Set the load reading to zero in load cell.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Procedure: Set up the two hinge supports on the WAGNER beam at the top and bottom supports. Determine the center of column. Example: 1 A slender strut. in four steps (20Kg. Set –up the deflection dial gage for reading the column deflections at the center of column.and Pe= ----------units. Set the deflection dial gage reading to zero.

5 N/mm σ max =σ0+ σb = 5. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.15 x 105 x 4320 / (1800 X1800) =2830 N Let δ1 be the central deflection when P =500 N and let δ2 be the central deflection when P =1500 N Substituting in δ c = Pe xδ 0 Pe − P 4 δ1 = 2830/ (2830-500) x δ0 δ2 = 2830/ (2830-1500) x δ0 from eqns.55 + 41.1 & 2 δ0 = 4.94 = 298880 N-mm σ 0= P/A = 2000/360mm 2 σb = Mc/Z = 29880/ 720 =41.05 N/mm 2 2 =============================================================== DEPT.15 x 105 N/mm . 2 Take E = 2.381 mm … (1) … (2) P =2000 N δc = 2830/ (2830-2000) x 4.94 mm 2 A = 30 x 12 = 360mm Z = 1/6 x 30 x 122 Mc = P x δc = 2000 x 14.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Find also the total deflection and the maximum stress when P is 2000 N.5 =47.381 = 14. I = 1/12 x 30 x 123 = 4320 mm Let Pe = Π2 EI /L2 = Π2 2. DSCE 23 .

Apparatus: WAGNER beam set-up. the rivets may themselves fail in shear. Gear box Hand wheel Load Support Bolt P(vertical ) N Load P(vertical ) N Load indicator Single shear Double shear Fig.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Experiment . The tendency is to cut through the rivet across the section lying in the plane between the plates it connects. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. DSCE 24 . =============================================================== DEPT. vernier caliper and load indicator. 11: WAGNER beam set-up for shear failure of bolted joint Theory: Riveted and bolted connections are common in structural assemblies. bolt for failure analysis.6 Shear failure of Bolted and Riveted Joints Aim: To determine the ultimate shear stress in a bolt. Following are modes of failure in riveted joints: Tension failure in a plate Shearing failure across one or more planes of rivet Bearing failure between plate and the rivet Plate shear or shear out failure in the plate In a riveted joint.

Place a bolt in the slot. per pitch length. the rivet is said to be in shear. σ tf and the flowing expression does not (τ υf .(1) Shearing failure of the rivet: In a riveted joint. the rivet is said to be in double shear. for shear failure fs = ultimate shear strength of the rivet material d = gross diameter of the bolt 2 Resisting area of the rivet section = (π/4) d in single shear 2 and = 2 x (π/4) d in double shear 2 Pus = (π/4) d fs for single shear 2 Pus = 2x (π/4) d fs for double shear Procedure: Set-up the WAGNER beam test set-up.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== If the load is transmitted through bearing between the plate and the shank of the rivet producing shear in the rivet. When the load is transmitted by shear in only one section of the rivet. Let Pus = pull required. the rivet is said to be in single shear. Note the diameter of the bolt. Rivets and bolts subjected to both shear and axial tension shall be so proportioned that the calculated shear and axial tension do not exceed the allowable stresses τ υf and exceed a specified value. When the loading of the rivet is such as to have the load transmitted in two shear planes. When load is transmitted in more than two planes. Set the load cell to read zero. DSCE 25 .cal / σ tf )------------------------------------. In analysing this possible manner of failure. The shearing stress is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the cross-section of the rivet. The tendency is to cut through the rivet across the section lying in the plane between the plates it connects. one must always note whether a rivet acts in single shear or double shear.cal / τ υf + σ tf. =============================================================== DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. In the latter case. the rivet is said to be in multiple shear. the two crosssectional areas of the same rivet resist the applied force. the rivets may themselves fail in shear.

CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 TONS OF LOAD ON THE BEAM =============================================================== DEPT. Note the load reading at the point of shear failure of mild steel bolt. DSCE 26 . Change the loading for double shear and calculate the ultimate shear stress from the formula below: 2 fs = Pus / [2x (π/4) d ] ---------------------------------(2) Conclusion: The ultimate shear stress for single shear= ----------units The ultimate shear stress for double shear= ---------units. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Apply the load gradually.

However. Thick core. 12 Sandwich beam Theory: Beams that are made of more than one material are called `composite beams`. Modulus in Bending of a cantilever sandwich Apparatus: Beam Test Set-up.7 Bending Modulus of a Sandwich Beam Aim: To determine the beam. load cells. Strain measuring device. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. consisting of light weight. Fig. On the other hand. low strength material. they will bend about their respective axes. DSCE 27 . =============================================================== DEPT. Sandwich Beam of symmetrical section with strain gage installed. Sandwich beam is one such example. Sandwich construction is used where light weight combined with high strength and high stiffness is needed. if both the materials have been simply placed one above the other. It consists of following: Two thin layers of strong material. the total amount of moment of resistance will be equal to the sum of moments of resistance of individual sections. If both the materials are rigidly joined together. called faces. The core simply serves as a filler or spacer. Such composite beams can be analysed by the same bending theory that is applicable for beam of single material. placed at top and bottom.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Experiment . in both the cases. they will behave like a unit piece and the bending will take place about the combined axis.

εC εx εy γxy ν=ε y/εx Also. Sl. However in this case the requirement is to determine Modulus in bending (E). σ y = (ε y + vε x ) . Fig. which provides normal strain components in three directions spaced at angles of 450.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== The position of neutral axis may not be the centroid of the section. and τxy. is in a state of plane stress where the state of stress is with regards to a specific xy rectangular rosette. If a xy coordinate system is assumed to coincide with the gauge A and C then εx= εA and εy= εc. Gauge B provides information necessary to determine γ xy.No ε y = εc. . (1 − v 2 ) (1 − v 2 ) τ xy = E γ xy 2(1 + v ) εx = ε A. The strain gauge is at a fixed position in the beam and load position can be varied. Z = I/ Y (1) (2) σ2 = (M . An alternative approach is to measure deflection under load condition. The criterion of strain compatibility has to be used. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. A strain gauge is mounted on a free surface.σ1 Z1 ) / Z2 =============================================================== DEPT. A cantilever sandwich beam provided with strain gauge can be used to do experimental assessment of strains. DSCE 28 . σy. has to be same. Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig-13. Load (N) σx = M/Z εA εB γxy = 2 εB .εA -εc. then Hooke’s law can be used to determine σx. strain in two materials.e. εy and γxy are known. i. 13 E E σx = (ε x + vε y ) . at a given vertical distance from the neutral axis. which in general. Once εx.

Connect the strain gauges wires with the strain measuring equipment. Record the load value at the load cell. Repeat the experiment with load value of 5 Kg.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== σ2 = m σ1 . =============================================================== DEPT. Conclusion: Bending modulus of sandwich beam is= ---------units. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. Compute the values of Poisson’s ratio from: ν=ε y/εx Tabular Column: Sl. DSCE 29 . Use the following color codes εA εB εC Red wires channel1 Yellow wires channel3 Black wires channel2 Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load.5 Kg at some point and record the strains in three directions. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.No Load (N) εA εB εC εx εy γxy ν=εy/εx Find Modulus in bending through formulas above. m = E2 / E1 (3) Suffix `1` & `2` refer two different sections of beam Procedure: Mount the cantilever beam at the left support of beam test setup. CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 15 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM. Now Load the beam with 2.

a structural member is subjected to a number of forces acting not only at the ends. strain measuring equipment. which provides normal strain components in three =============================================================== DEPT.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Experiment . atleast two load cells. Apparatus: Beam Test Set-Up with multiple loading capability (atleast two load points required). but also at the intermediate points along its length.8 Verification of Superposition Theorem Aim: To verify the theorem of superposition. The strain gauge is at a fixed position in the beam and load position can be varied. cantilever strain gauged beam. Pointer Gear box Scale Load strain gauge Cantilever beam c1 c2 c3 Hand wheel Strain indicator Load indicator c2 c3 c1 Strain guage arrangement Fig. the resulting strain will be equal to the algebraic sum of the strains caused by individual forces acting along the length of member. DSCE 30 . A strain gauge is mounted on a free surface. is in a state of plane stress where the state of stress is with regards to a specific xy rectangular rosette. 14: Schematic layout of beam setup Theory: Many times. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. which in general. Such a member can be analyzed by the application of the principal of superposition. Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig-2.

εA εB εC γxy = 2 εB . DSCE 31 .5 Kg at some point from vertical and record the strains in three directions. Fig-15 εx = εA. If a xy coordinate system is assumed to coincide with the gauge A and C then εx= εA and εy= εc. Remove this load. Record the load value. Sl.No Load (N) εy = εc. Use the following color codes: εA εB εC Red wires channel1 Yellow wires channel3 Black wires channel2 Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Record the point of loading. from vertical at same point and record the strains in three directions. Record the load value at the load cell. Now Load the beam with 0. Connect the strain gauges wires with the strain measuring equipment. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.εA -εc εx εy γxy Procedure: Mount the cantilever beam at the left support of beam test set-up. Gauge B provides information necessary to determine γxy.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== directions spaced at angles of 450. =============================================================== DEPT. Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Now Load the beam with load load value of 1 Kg.

Record the load values in the two load cells. Record the strains in three directions.No Vertical Load (N) Vertical Load position mm εA εB εC εx εy γxy Add the values of strains in table 1 and compare with value in Table 2.5 Kg at same point from vertical as done earlier. Tabular Column: Table 1: Strains due to individual vertical loading Sl.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Remove this load. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.εA -εc CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM. Compute the values of γxy from the formula: γxy = 2 εB .No Vertical Load Load position mm (N) εA εB εC εx εy γxy Table 2: Strains due to combined loading Sl. Now Load the beam with 1. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. DSCE 32 . Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Conclusion: The strains obtained are compared between individual and combined loading and hence the principle of superposition is verified. Record the vertical load position. =============================================================== DEPT.

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Experiment – 9 Vibration of Cantilever Beam Objective: To determine the lateral or transverse vibration of a cantilever beam when the beam is fixed at one end and free at the other end.9955 =============================================================== DEPT. Introduction: A beam which is cantilevered of span L with uniform mass w/g per unit run is shown in figure-1and fixed at one end. The four roots of the equation are: β1 L= 1.8548 β4 L= 10. 16: Cantilever beam B L is the span of the beam in mm E is the Young’s Modulus of the beam in N/mm2 4 I =bd3/12 is the Moment of Inertia of the beam mm w = Weight per unit length g = Acceleration due to gravity The fundamental frequency of the cantilever beam ω2= 12.8751 β2 L= 4.6941 β3 L= 7. P H A x L Fig. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. DSCE 33 .39 E I / wl4 The natural frequency for the transverse vibration of a uniform beam fixed at one end and free at the other end. Assume a deflection function and obtain the first approximation for the fundamental frequency with the origin at the free end.

ω3 = 1.E=200x109 N/m2.1 rad/ s. φ2=4. ρ =7800 kg/m3 .7 x10 −6 7800 x 2.6 x10 − 3 x14 =215. ω2 = 3642 rad/s.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== ωn = n π 2 2 EI ρ AL 4 ….113.6 x 10-3 m2 .7 x10 -6 m4. L=1m . φ3=7. A =2.114 x 104 rad/s. ωn = 1 π 2 2 200 x10 9 x 4.423. =============================================================== DEPT.3 φ2 φ1=1. DSCE 34 . (1) Example: Determine the three lowest natural frequency for the system shown in fig-1 Given m=10kg. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.192 ω1 = 486. I= 4.

the designer is faced with several problems which. The civil Engineer endeavors to make the web sheet of all beams thick enough so that the web will not buckle before the design load is reached on the structure. Gear box Hand wheel Load Support c1 c2 c3 Wagner beam Strain indicator Load indicator c2 c3 c1 Strain guage arrangement Fig.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Experiment-10 Wagner Beam (Tension Field) Objective: The objective of this experiment is to determine the constant k of the Wagner beam. 17: WAGNER beam set-up for tension field Introduction: In the analysis of wing beams of airplanes. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. DSCE 35 . in general are not present in civil engineering structural design. Buckling is a case of failure and the shearing stress causing buckling determines the allowable maximum shear that can be applied. The critical buckling shear stress is given by π 2E  t  τ cr =   12(1 − µ 2 )  b  2 …1 =============================================================== DEPT.

DSCE 36 . Wagner assumes that the web buckles immediately upon the application of shear load and that the only stresses resisting the shear forces are the tensile stresses which act approximately 45 degrees. or The ultimate strength is reached. The aircraft engineer raises the question as to how much additional shear can be carried by such a buckled plate before: Some portion of the sheet has a total stress equal to the yield point of the material. it is obvious that the tensile stresses will tend to pull the two beam flanges together. buckling stress given by equation (1) is extremely low and. thus giving rise to permanent deformations. we see that one of them is a compressive stress against which thin plates have a very low resistance. the sheet buckles upon the application of a shear load and can only resist shear by means of the tensile stresses at 45degresss. 18). With such a pattern. Considering infinitely rigid parallel span flanges and vertical stiffners the following equations for this limiting case is shown as below: σt = 2P  1    ht  sin( 2α )    …2 Axial force in the tension flange: Ft = Px P − cot(α ) h 2 …3 Axial force in the compression flange =============================================================== DEPT.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== If the sheet is very thin. thus necessitating vertical members to counteract this tendency (as shown dotted in fig. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. we assume that the web plate in the beam is very thin. the limiting case being for a sheet of zero thickness. The tendency will then be for the plate to buckles in a direction perpendicular to the compressive stress at a value of the applied shear which becomes less and less as the web becomes thinner and thinner. in the interest of making efficient use of all available material. The normal stresses. In this case. If now. the above discussion of the principal stress patterns takes on new significance.

2 0.2 5 KN Fig.012 0. The basic assumptions of this theory is that total shear force in the web can be divided into a shear force carried by shear in the sheet and the shear forced carried by diagonal tension. DSCE 37 .1 0. k = (1 − τ cr n ) τ 0.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Fc = − Px P − cot(α ) h 2 …4 Axial force in the vertical stiffeners Fc = − P d tan(α ) h …5 The limiting case of a web having no compressive strength has been treated by Wagner and beams approximating this are known as Wagner beam.18: Wagner’s Beam Tension Field beam =============================================================== DEPT. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.2 0.

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== 25000 275000 500 2000 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 250e 06 N/m 0.19 A strain gauge is mounted on a free surface. is in a state of plane stress where the state of stress with regards to a specific xy rectangular rosette since each gauge element provides only one piece of information. which in general. DSCE 38 . which provides normal strain components in three directions spaced at angles of 450. εy and γxy are known. and τxy.5e 06 N/m 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 500 325000 25000 qs = 104 N/m Fig. =============================================================== DEPT. then Hooke’s law can be used to determine σx. Once εx. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. the indicated normal strain at the point in direction of the gauge. Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig-20. σy. Gauge B provides information necessary to determine γxy. If an xy coordinate system is assumed to coincide with the gauge A and C then εx= εA and εy= εc.

09 τxy MPa 46. σ y = (ε y + υε x ) .84x106 N/mm2. Sl No 1 εA 200µ εB 900µ εC 1000µ σx MPa 105.588e11 N/m2 and determine the compressive load i) when the sheet first buckles ii) Stringer stress is 58. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.69 σ1 MPa σ2 MPa Example: 1 Apply a load of given intensity on the Wagner beam Step: 1 Consider an axially loaded aluminium panel simply supported edges and rivet lines .Each stringer has an area of 12mm x 8mm and E=0. γ xy = 2 εB .58 σy MPa 230. DSCE 39 .AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Fig. 20 σx = E E E (ε x + υε y ) .εA -εc. εy = εc. Critical Buckling Stress: σ c1  t  = KE    b  2 =============================================================== DEPT. τ xy = γ xy 2 2 2(1 + µ ) (1 − µ ) (1 − µ ) εx = εA.

002 x 0. K= 5.0*0. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== σc= 3.002/0.34 (Simply supported beam) K= 10.1)2 = 125.2)2 = 21.5968 x 106  b  N/m2 =============================================================== DEPT. DSCE 40 .58e06 = 0.542.48.002 = 6. Step: 2 Determination of k E= 58.2 x 10-3 m2 x21.8e109 N/αm2.4488e-04 = 37945.6 = 1.053774)* 0.85* 0.4488 e-04 αm2.62 * 0.0 τ = τ V ht = 50000/ 0. P = 58.05289 N The ratio of Post buckling strength to critical buckling stress is 1.2856 x 106 N/m2 = 25.588 x 10 11 x (0.34 * 0.2 x 10-3 m2 P = A x σc1 = 1.5884e11/58.2856 x 106 N/m2 A= 0.002√(0.05374 A = (3.38 (Fixed end) The ratio of longer dimension/ shorter dimension is called aspect ratio =2.84e06 * 6.002=250 e06 N/m2 2 cr  t  = KE   =5.588 x 10 11 x (0.72 N Post Buckling Strenth: we1 = 0.1* 0.002/0.85t m E σu we1= 0.

275000 N respectively. DSCE 41 .2/0. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. Force in the vertical stiffener: Fc = − P d tan(α ) h 2 = -50000*(0. The stress distribution is shown in figure.1)-50000/2*cot h 2 (45) = 325000.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== τ cr k = (1 − ) τ σ s = (1-125.002 = 0.( Tension in the beam at 45 degrees angle) q s = σs * t = 250e06* 0.002) =250e06 N/m2 Assume buckling angle =450 (Normal Stress in Y-direction) σy = σ s tan(α ) = 250 e06 tan (45) =250e06 N/m2 (Normal Stress in x-direction) σx = σ s cot(α ) = 250 e06 cot (45) =250e06 N/m2 σt = 2P  1    ht  sin( 2α )    = 2*50000*/(0.0.5024 Step 3: Schematic distribution of load = P ht = 50000/(0.100e06 N/m =============================================================== DEPT.1*0.6/0.1*0.002)*(1/sin90) =500e06 N/m2 .5e06 N/m2.1)*tan45 = . (Shear flow in the beam) Fc_start = Ft_start = Ft = = 25000 N Fc_end = Ft_end = Ft = Px P − cot(α ) = 0-50000/2*cot (45) h 2 Px P − cot(α ) = (50000*0.5986e06/250e06) = 0.

area2=thick2*breadth2.Ixx.Iuv.x2_bar. tx1_2=(xbar-x1_bar)*(xbar-x1_bar). =============================================================== DEPT.Ixx.Ixy. t1=1/12. ty1=(ybar-y1_bar).Ivv.x1_bar.x2_bar. ybar=Nry/total_area. tx2=(xbar-x2_bar). ty1_2=(ybar-y1_bar)*(ybar-y1_bar).ybar. Nry=area1*y1_bar+area2*y2_bar.Iuv. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.Iuu. ty2_2=(ybar-y2_bar)*(ybar-y2_bar). Nrx=area1*x1_bar+area2*x2_bar.breadth1. Ixy_1=area1*tx1*ty1. xbar=Nrx/total_area. DSCE 42 . Ixx1=Ixx_1+area1*ty1_2.y2_bar) area1=thick1*breadth1.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Appendix -1 Unsymmetrical bending of angle section %function [xbar. Ixx_1=t1*breadth1*thick1^3. total_area=area1+area2.thick2. Iyy_1=t1*thick1*breadth1^3.Iyy. Iyy_2=t1*thick2*breadth2^3.Ixy. Ixx_2=t1*breadth2*thick2^3. tx2_2=(xbar-x2_bar)*(xbar-x2_bar).ybar.breadth2. ty2=(ybar-y2_bar). y1_bar.Iuu.alpha_uv]=us_ang le01(thick1. Ixy_2=area2*tx2*ty2.thick2.Ivv.Iyy. tx1=(xbar-x1_bar). Iyy1=Iyy_1+area1*tx1_2.breadth1.y2_bar) function [xbar.breadth2.alpha_uv]=us_ang le01(thick1. Ixx2=Ixx_2+area2*ty2_2. y1_bar.x1_bar.

=============================================================== DEPT. Ixy=Ixy_1+Ixy_2.5*atan(tmp)*raddeg. Ixx=Ixx1+Ixx2. alpha_uv=0. DSCE 43 .5.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Iyy2=Iyy_2+area2*tx2_2.5*sqrt((Ixx-Iyy)*(Ixx-Iyy)+4. tmpnr=Ixy. tmpdr=(Iyy-Ixx)*0. tmp=tmpnr/tmpdr.5*(Ixx+Iyy).0*Ixy*Ixy). Iyy=Iyy1+Iyy2. raddeg=180/pi. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. Ivv=term1-term2. term1=0. term2=0. Iuu=term1+term2.

OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.5*(con1-sqrt(con2+con3)) theta_p1=atan((sig_p1-sig_x)/tau_xy) theta_p2=atan((sig_p2-sig_x)/tau_xy) thetp1=180/pi*theta_p1 thetp2=180/pi*theta_p2 valuexy=sig_x+sig_y value12=sig_p1+sig_p2 =============================================================== DEPT. sig_p1=0.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Appendix-2 Rectangular strain rosette Compuation of stresses sig_x and sig_y and gamma_xy ea=input('ea the strain in a-directon: \n') eb=input('eb the strain in b-directon: \n') ec=input('ec the strain in c-directon: \n') %E=input('E the Youngs strain E=58. con2=con1*con1.5*(con1+sqrt(con2+con3)) sig_p2=0. ex=ea*10^-06 ey=ec*10^-06 exy=(2*eb-ec-ea)*10^-06 k1=E/(1-mu*mu). sig_x=k1*(ex+mu*ey) sig_y=k1*(ey+mu*ex) tau_xy=0. mu=0. con3=4*tau_xy*tau_xy.8e09 N/m2: \n') %mu=input('mu the poissons ratio:(0.33.5*(E/(1+mu))*exy con1=(sig_x+sig_y).33) \n') E=58.8e09. DSCE 44 .

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== Appendix -3 Flexibility matrix for cantilever beam %The program to compute the deflection and rotation of a cantilever beam % Def_x= P*x*x(3*L-x)/6EI Rotx=P*x(2*L-x)/2EI.05*I sd_P=0.*sd_x+x. L=3 %m.100000.5 %m. const=P/(6*E*I).where x is from the fixed end.05*E sd_I=0.05*L sd_E=0. def_x=const*x2.*x1. P=10 %kN sd_x=0.1).15*P u1=unifrnd(0. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. E=2e08 %kN/m2. x=1. I=1.*x1. DSCE 45 . def_x1=def_x. x1=norminv(u1).*L-x1). hist(def_x1) mean_x1=mean(def_x1) std_x1=std(def_x1) median_x1=median(def_x1) sk_x1=skewness(def_x1) cov_x1=std_x1/mean_x1 =============================================================== DEPT. x2=(3.05*x sd_L=0.70797e-4 %m4.1.

What is bending modulus? 9. 3. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. What is the value of maximum loading allowed in the existing Wagner beam set-up? 8. 29. What is Betti`s theorem? 4. Define simple stress and simple strain. What is a stress Tensor? Stress at a point in a material will have how many components? Segregate normal and shear components of stress tensor. 18. What is shear center and how it can be determined through experimental set-up? 24. What is Flexibility matrix? 25. 5. What is strain compatibility? 11. Explain unsymmetrical bending of beams. What is a Rosette strain gauge? 17. What is the purpose of Stiffeners. =============================================================== DEPT. 2. Explain Maxwell`s reciprocal theorem and its verification though experiment. What is the purpose of Longirons? 19. What stresses are taken up by the web and the flange of the spars? 20. What is Power Spectral Density? 26. Explain unit load method for determining the deflection of beams. What are Principal stress axes? 27. 21.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Explain how bending and torsion is taken up by the wing structure. How Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio can be determined from beam test set-up? 13. Explain Castigliano`s theorem and its verification through any experimental set-up. Define plain stress. What is the value of maximum loading allowed in the existing experimental beam test set-up? 7. DSCE 46 . plain strain. What is a sandwich beam? 10. 16. 23. What is a torsion box? 22. 12. Define DOF. What are mode shapes and types of modes in vibrations? 15. Explain South well plot. Explain Superposition theorem. Explain how bending and torsion is taken up by the fuselage structure. What are various modes of failures of riveted joints? 6. 28. 14.

Draw SFD and BMD for i) SSB with UDL ii) CB with UDL. 32. Differentiate b/w i) stringer ii) spar and iii) longiron based on the type of loading they undergo in general. ****** =============================================================== DEPT. front.e. Explain the Energy methods used for structural analysis. 33. Draw the orthographic views of i) civil airframe ii) military airframe (minimum 3 views i. DSCE 47 . 34. What is a Wagner Beam test set-up? What are Wagner assumptions? 31. top and side view).AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LAB (06AEL57) =============================================================== 30. OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING.

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