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Experiment – 1
Deflection of a Simply Supported Beam
Aim: To determine the deflection of a simply supported beam.
Apparatus: Beam Test SetUp with Load cells, steel scale, caliper, flat beam, load indicator and dial gauge.
Fig. 1: Schematic layout of a beam setup
Theory:
A beam shown in fig2 shows the section which is simply supported at the ends and is subjected to bending about its major axis with a concentrated load anywhere in the beam. The beam is provided with strain gauge, the deflection of the beam can be determined whenever the load is applied on the beam. Strain gauge values may be noted for several further works
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Deflections are given by following expressions; students may derive these expressions using Unit Load Method or Castigliano`s Theorem.
Y 
_{x} = W b [ (L ^{2} –b ^{2} ) x –x ^{3} ] /(6 E I L) 
for 
0<x<a 

Y 
_{x} = W b [ 
X ^{3} – 
L/b (xa) ^{3} 
 (L ^{2} b ^{2} ) x ] /(6 E 
I L) 
for 
a < x <L 
Where,
W is the load placed at a distance `a` from the left support in Newton
L 
= span of the beam in mm 
Y 
_{x} = deflection at any point distance x from left end 
I = moment of inertia of the beam in mm ^{4} (I _{x}_{x} )
E= Young’s modulus in
Procedure:
Find the moment of inertia of beam from the following expression:
(1/12) b _{1} d _{1} ^{3} , where b _{1} is width of beam and d _{1} is depth.
N/mm ^{2}
Place the beam supporting from two wedge supports. The load position can
be varied. Set the load cell to read zero in the absence of load. Set the
deflection gauge to read zero in the absence of load.
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Load the beam with 0.25 Kg. Note deflections before and after the load point through deflection gauge. Increase the load to 1.5 Kg and repeat the experiment.
Find the deflections from the formula and verify. Tabular column
Theoretical 
Experimental 

Load 
I 
xx 
L 
a 
b 
x 
value 
value 

(N) 
4 

mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 

mm 
mm 
CAUTION : NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM
Conclusion: Deflection for three different loads for simply supported beam is calculated and also verified by experimental values. The mean deflection is units.
Example:
Determine the deflection of a simply supported beam loaded with W =50,000 Newton, Young’s Modulus E =2 x10 ^{5} N/mm ^{2} ; Second moment of Inertia I _{x}_{x} =7332.9x 10 ^{4} mm ^{4} ; & the load is placed at a distance a = 4800mm; and the span of the beam L = 60000mm. Find the deflection at x =3000mm from the left end.
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Y _{x} = W b [ (L ^{2} –b ^{2} ) X –X ^{3} ] /(6 E I L)
= 50000 x 1200x [ (6000 ^{2}  1200 ^{2} ) 3000 3000 ^{3} ] /(6x2.0x10 ^{5} x 7332.9
x 
10 ^{4} x 6000) 
Y 
_{x} = 8.714 mm 
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Experiment – 2
Verification of Maxwell’s Reciprocal Theorem
Aim: To verify the Maxwell’s theorem for the structures system
Apparatus: Beam Test SetUp with Load cells, steel scale, caliper, flat beam, load indicator and dial gauge.
Theory:
The displacement at point i, in a linear elastic structure, due to
concentrated load at point j is equal to the displacement at point j due to a
concentrated load of same magnitude at point i.
The displacement at each point will be measured in the direction of the
concentrated load at that point. The only other restrictions on this statement,
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in addition to the structure being linear elastic and stable, is that the displacement at either point must be consistent with the type of load at that point. If the load at a point is a concentrated force, then the displacement at that point will be a translation, while if the load is moment, then the displacement will be rotation. The displacement at any point will be in the same direction as the load at that point and its positive direction will be in the same direction as the load. This theorem often referred to as Maxwell’s reciprocal displacement theorem. This can be proved through Unit Load Method i.e.; the deflection at A due to unit load at B is equal to deflection at B due to unit load at A.
δ
∫
=
M m dx
/
EI
where, M = Bending Moment at any point x due to external load m= Bending Moment at any point x due to unit load applied at the point where deflection is required
let, m _{x}_{A} = Bending Moment at any point x due to unit load at A
m _{x}_{B} = Bending Moment at any point x due to unit load at B
When unit load (external load) is applied at A, M=m _{x}_{A}
To find deflection at B due to unit load at A, apply unit load at B
Then m=m _{x}_{B}
Hence, δ _{B}_{A} = ∫ M m dx / EI δ = ∫ m _{x}_{A} m _{x}_{B} dx / EI (1)
Similarly, when unit load (external load) is applied at B, M=m _{x}_{B}
To find deflection at A, then m=m _{x}_{A}
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Hence
δ _{A}_{B} =
Comparing eqn. (1) and eqn. (2)
∫
M m dx
/
EI
∫
=
m _{x}_{A} m _{x}_{B} dx
/
EI (2)
δ AB = δ BA (3)
The external load (W) can be taken as a multiple with unit load, therefore
this load W will appear as multiple with m _{x}_{A} in eqn. (1) & as multiple with
m _{x}_{B} in eqn. (2). Thereby resulting in
W δ _{A}_{B} = W δ _{B}_{A}  (4)
A beam shown in figure below which is simply supported at the ends
and is subjected to bending about its major axis with a concentrated load
anywhere in the beam.
Deflections δ _{x} at any distance `x` from left support are given by following expressions; reference may be made to experiment no. 1.
δ _{x} = W b [ (L ^{2} –b ^{2} ) x –x ^{3} ] /(6 E I L) 
for 
0<x<a 

δ _{x} = W b [ X ^{3} – 
L/b (xa) ^{3}  (L ^{2} b ^{2} ) x ] /(6 E I L) 
for 
a < x <L 
Where,
W is the load placed at a distance `a` from the left support in Newton
b=distance of load from right side support
L = span of the beam in mm
Y _{x} = deflection at any point distance x from left end
I = moment of inertia of the beam in mm ^{4} (I _{x}_{x} )
E= Young`s modulus in
N/mm ^{2}
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Fig4: Simply supported Beam loaded at position 1 & 2
The Maxwell’s Reciprocal Displacement theorem is very useful in the analysis of statistically indeterminate structures for evaluating the flexibility coefficients.
The displacement relationship can be expressed at point i and j
δ W (5)
_{i}_{,}_{B} =f _{i}_{,}_{j}
δ W (6)
_{j}_{,}_{A} =f _{j}_{,}_{i}
Where, f _{i}_{,}_{j} is the displacement at point i due to a unit load at point j and f _{j}_{,}_{i} is the displacement at point j due to a unit load at point i. If we now substitute these expressions in Betti`s (MaxwellBetti) law and cancel out the term W on each side, we obtain
f i,j = f j,i
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The theorem can be restated as the displacement at point i, in an elastic structure, due to a unit load at point j is equal to the displacement at point j due to unit load at point i.
Procedure:
Find the moment of inertia of beam from the following expression:
(1/12) b _{1} d _{1}
where b _{1} is width of beam and d _{1} is depth. Place the beam supporting from
two wedge supports. The load position can be varied. Set the load cell to
read zero in the absence of load. Set the deflection gauge to read zero in the
absence of load.
Load the beam with 0.25 Kg. Note deflections at any point through
deflection gauge. Interchange the load location with the point of deflection
measurement and repeat the readings. Increase the load to 1.5 Kg and repeat
the experiment. Find the deflections from the formula and verify.
CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM .
3
Tabular column
Load 
I 
xx 
L 
a 
b 
x 
Theoretical 
Experimental 

(N) 
mm 
^{4} 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
value 
value 

mm 
mm 

δ BA or δ AB 
δ BA or δ AB 
Conclusions: Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem is verified from the results i.e, δ21=δ12. Deflection at 1, 2 are equal with interchange of loads (same magnitude and direction).
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Experiment – 3 Determination of Young’s Modulus using strain gauges
Aim: To determine the Young’s modulus of a simply supported beam or a cantilever beam.
Apparatus: Beam Test SetUp with load cells, Cantilever beam with
Fig. 5: Schematic layout of beam setup for Young’s modulus determination
Theory:
A beam shown in fig4 shows the section which is simply supported at
the ends and is subjected to bending about its major axis with a concentrated
load anywhere in the beam. The beam is provided with strain gauge, the
deflection of the beam can be determined wherever the load is applied on to
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the beam. An available cantilever beam can also be utilized for this experiment. The strain gauge is at a fixed position in the beam and load position can be varied. A strain gauge is mounted on a free surface, which in general, is in a state of plane stress where the state of stress is with regards to a specific xy rectangular rosette. Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig6, which provides normal strain components in three directions spaced at angles of 45 ^{0} . If a xy coordinate system is assumed to
coincide with the gauge A and C then εx= ε _{A} and εy= εc. Gauge B provides
information necessary to determine γ _{x}_{y} . Once εx, εy and γ _{x}_{y} are known, then
Hooke’s law can be used to determine σx, σ _{y}_{,} and τ _{x}_{y}_{.} However in this case the requirement is to determine Young`s Modulus (E), which can be determined from equation (1) below.
σ
x
=
E
(1
− v
2 )
εx = ε _{A} ;
(
ε
x
+
v
ε
y
)
; σ
y
εy = εc;
=
E
(1
− v
2 )
(
ε
y
+
v
ε
x
)
; τ
xy
=
E
2(1+
v )
γ
xy
γ _{x}_{y} _{=} 2 ε _{B}  ε _{A} εc ;
Sl.No 
Load 

(N) 
ε 
A 
ε 
B 
ε 
C 
εx 
εy 
γ xy 
ν=εy/εx 
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M/I = σ/y 1
also
Shear Modulus
G
=
τ
x
y
γ
xy
2
Young’s Modulus E = 2G (1+ν) 3 Procedure: Mount the cantilever beam at the left support of beam test set up. Connect the strain gauges wires with the strain measuring equipment. Use the following color codes
ε
ε
εc
_{B}
_{A}
Red wires 
ch1 
Yellow wires 
ch3 
Black wires 
ch2 
Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. Now Load the beam with 0.25 Kg at some point and record the strains in three directions. Record the load value at the load cell.
Repeat the experiment with load value of 1Kg. Compute the values of Poisson’s ratio from:
ν=ε _{y} /ε _{x}
CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM
Tabular Column:
Sl.No 
Load (N) 
ε 
A 
ε 
B 
ε 
C 
ε 
x 
ε 
y 
γ xy 
ν=εy/εx 
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Find Young `s modulus through formulas above. Conclusion: Young’s modulus for cantilever beam with point load is evaluated as Units. Example:
Sl No. 
Load 

(N) 
ε 
A 
ε 
B 
ε 
C 
ε 
x 
ε 
y 
γ xy 
ν=ε _{y} /ε _{x} 

1 10N 
92µ 
46µ 
18µ 
92µ 
18µ 
18µ 
0.1957 

2 20N 
64µ 
304µ 
18µ 
64µ 
18µ 
14µ 
0.2188 

3 30N 
37µ 
19µ 
10µ 
37µ 
10µ 
11µ 
0.2973 
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Experiment – 4
Poisson`s ratio (ν) Determination
Aim: To determine the Poisson’s ratio of cantilever beam.
Apparatus: Beam Test SetUp with load cells, Cantilever beam with
calibrated 
rosette 
strain 
gauge, 
strain 
measuring 
equipment 
and 
load 
indicator. 
Theory: A cantilever beam is subjected to bending about its major axis with a concentrated load anywhere in the beam. The beam is provided with rosette strain gauge.
A calibrated strain gauge rosette is fixed at a location within the span of the beam, and load position can be varied. Calibration has been done to read strains in microns (µ). Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig7, which provides normal strain components in three directions spaced at angles of 45 ^{0} . If an xy coordinate system is assumed to coincide with the gauge A and C then ε _{x} = ε _{A} and ε _{y} = ε _{c} . Gauge B provides information necessary to determine shear strain (γ _{x}_{y}_{)}_{.} Once εx, εy and γ _{x}_{y} are known, then Hooke’s law can be used to determine σx, σ _{y}_{,} and τ _{x}_{y}_{.} Subsequently principal stresses can be determined. Poisson’s ratio ( ν ) can be determined from:
ν=εy/εx
Fig. 7
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σ
x
=
E
(1
− v
2 )
(
ε
x
+
v ε
y
)
;
σ
y
=
E
(1
− v
2 )
(
ε
y
+
v
ε
x
)
; τ
εx = ε _{A}_{;}
εy = εc
;
Principal stress axes:
γ _{x}_{y} _{=} 2 ε _{B}  ε _{A} ε _{c}
Principal stress axes is located with the angle θ
tan 2θ = (2 ε _{B}  ε _{A} ε _{c} )
/
(ε _{A} ε _{c} )
xy
=
E
2(1+
v )
γ
xy
according to :
Principal Stresses are given by following expressions:
σ _{1} = A + √ B ^{2} + C ^{2}
,
σ _{2} = A  √ B ^{2} + C ^{2}
τ _{m}_{a}_{x} _{=} ( σ _{1}  σ _{2} )/ 2 =√ B ^{2} + C ^{2}
Where,
A= (σ _{x} + σ _{y} )/2
, B = (σ _{x}  σy)/2
and
C = τ _{x}_{y}
E= Young’s modulus in N/mm ^{2}
Strains are in microns Procedure: Mount the cantilever beam at the left support of beam test set up. Connect the strain gauges wires with the strain measuring equipment. Use the following color codes
ε
ε
ε
_{A}
_{B}
_{c}
Red wires 
channel 1 
Yellow wires 
channel 3 
Black wires 
channel 2 
Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. Now Load the beam with 0.25 Kg at some point and record the strains in three directions. Record the load value at the load cell. Repeat the experiment with load value of 1.5 Kg. Compute the values of Poisson’s ratio from: _{ν}_{ν}_{ν}_{ν}_{=}_{ε}_{ε}_{ε}_{ε} _{y} /εεεε _{x}
CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM.
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Students may determine stresses using formulas above. MATLAB program is provided at the end of this manual to compute stresses from given strain data.
Tabular Column:
Sl.No 
Load (N) 
ε 
A 
ε 
B 
ε 
C 
ε 
x 
ε 
y 
γ xy 
ν=ε _{y} /ε _{x} 
Conclusion: Poisson’s ratios for three different loads are evaluated and mean Poisson’s ratio for a cantilever beam is=
Example: A typical data is shown for the purpose of computing shear strain and Poisson’s ratio is given below.
Sl.No 
load 
ε 
A 
ε 
B 
ε 
C 
ε 
x 
ε 
y 
γ xy 
ν=ε _{y} /ε _{x} 
1 
10N 
92µ 
46µ 
18µ 
92µ 
18µ 
18µ 
0.1957 

2 
20N 
64µ 
304µ 
18µ 
64µ 
18µ 
14µ 
0.2188 

3 
30N 
37µ 
19µ 
10µ 
37µ 
10µ 
11µ 
0.2973 
Example: A typical data is shown for the purpose of computing stresses, principal stresses, and planes of principal stresses.
Sl 
σ 
x 
τ xy 
Principle stress σ _{1} Mpa 
Principle Stress σ _{2} Mpa 

No 
ε A 
ε 
B 
ε 
C 
Mpa 
σ _{y} Mpa 
Mpa 

1 
200µ 
900µ 
1000µ 
105.58 
230.09 
46.69 
342.04 
6.371 

Normal, shear stress,& principal stress 
Angle of principal stress 

Sl 
σ 
x 
σ 
y 
τ 
xy 
σ 
1 
σ 
2 
θ 
θ 

No 
Mpa 
Mpa 
Mpa 
Mpa 
Mpa 
1 
2 
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1 5.6787 
0.8159 
0.3879 
6.8156 
0.242 
64.65 
86.00 
2 12.064 
1.1000 
0.9842 
13.299 
0.651 
51.45 
85.62 
3 17.944 
1.2762 
1.5695 
19.347 
1.273 
41.80 
85.04 
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Experiment  5
Buckling Load of Slender Eccentric Columns and Construction of South Well plot
Aim: Practical columns have some imperfections in the form of initial curvature and the buckling of loads of such struts is of real practical value. The experiment aims at measuring the buckling loads of columns and construction of South Well Plot. The imperfection amounts to initial curvature, which shows up in this plot.
Apparatus: WAGNER beam setup, hinged supports, load cells, Long column with initial curvature, mounted dial for deflection measurements.
Theory:
Consider a pin ended strut AB of length L, whose centroidal longitudinal axis is initially curved as shown in fig (9). Under the application of the end load P, the strut will have some additional lateral displacement y at any section.
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δ0
Y
Fig9
In this case, bending moment at any point is proportional to the change in
curvature of the column from its initial bent position y δ _{0} . The equation for curvature of column is as follows.
M =P(y+y _{0} ) =  EI d ^{2} y/dx ^{2}
… (1)
P/EI =k ^{2}
2
d
^{y} +
2
dx
k
2
y
= −
k
2
y
0
… (2)
Assuming initial curvature (y _{o} ) to be sinusoidal, satisfying the equation
y
0
= δ
0
sin(
πx
/
L
)
… (3)
Where
δ _{0} equals to the initial displacement at the centre of the strut
The general solution of this differential equation is
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y
=
A
cos
kx
+
B
sin
kx
+
k
2
δ
0
π
2
2
/ L
−
k
2
sin(
π x L
/
)
… (4)
If the ends are hinged, for the end conditions, then:
y=0 at x =0 and x =L
This results in values of constants: A=B=0. The resulting equation is as below:
y =
k
2
δ
0
π
2
2
L
− k
2
sin
x
π
L
Substituting Euler’s buckling load (P _{e} )
P e =
and k ^{2} = P/EI
y =
δ
0
Pe
P
− 1
sin
x
π
L
… (6)
… (5)
for x=L/2, at center of column, the deflection at center y _{c}
y c
=
δ 0
Pe
P
−
1
…(7)
The value P _{e} represents the buckling load for perfectly straight strut. In the relation for deflection (y), the additional lateral displacement of the strut, that the effect of end load P is to increase (y) by a factor 1/ (p _{e} /p)1; shown by equation (6). When P approaches P _{e} , the additional displacement at mid length of the strut is expressed by eqn. (7).
The load deflection relationship of eqn. (5) is the basis of South Well plot technique for extrapolating for the elastic critical load from experimental measurement.
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P
δ Pe
=
δ0
1 −
P
Pe
Rearranging the above equation we get
δ =
δ =
(P _{e} / P) δ  δ _{0}
or
(δ/ P)
P _{e}
 δ _{0}
… (8)
… (9)
The linear relationship between δ/P and δ shown in figure below can be experimentally determined. Thus if a straight line is drawn which best fits the points determined from the experimental measurements of P and δ , the reciprocal of the slope of this line gives an estimate of the magnitude of δ _{0} of the initial curvature that can be determined from the intercept on the horizontal axis.
Fig.10: South Well Plot
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Procedure: Set up the two hinge supports on the WAGNER beam at the top and bottom supports. Fix the column in the supports. Set the load reading to zero in load cell. Determine the center of column. Set –up the deflection dial gage for reading the column deflections at the center of column. Set the deflection dial gage reading to zero. Apply the vertical load in steps of 10 Kgs. each, in four steps (20Kg, 30Kg,
40Kg
)
and record the deflections at each step of load.
Tabular Column:
Load (P) 
Deflection (δ) mm 
δ/P 
N 
mm/N 
Draw South Well Plot (δ/P vs δ ). Determine the slope and estimate P _{e} . Find out the initial deflection of column.
Conclusion: The buckling loads are computed for the column and the SOUTHWELL plot is constructed. Slope is=  and P _{e} = units.
CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 100 Kg OF LOAD ON THE MILD
STEEL COLUMN AND 75Kg ON THE ALUMINIUM COLUMN.
Example: 1 A slender strut, 1800mm long, and of rectangular section 30mm x 12mm transmits a longitudinal load P acting at the centre of each end. The strut was slightly bent about its minor principal axis before loading. If the P is increased form 500N to 1500N, the deflection at the middle of the length increases by 4mm. Determine the amount of deflection before loading.
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Find also the total deflection and the maximum stress when P is 2000 N. Take E = 2.15 x 10 ^{5} N/mm ^{2} .
I = 1/12 x 30 x 12 ^{3} _{=} 4320 mm ^{4}
Let 
P _{e} = Π ^{2} EI /L ^{2} = Π ^{2} 2.15 x 10 ^{5} x 4320 / (1800 X1800) =2830 N 
Let 
δ _{1} be the central deflection when P =500 N and let δ _{2} be the central 
deflection when P =1500 N
Substituting in
δ
c
=
Pe
Pe
−
P
xδ
0
δ _{1} = 2830/ (2830500) x δ _{0} 
… (1) 
δ _{2} = 2830/ (28301500) x δ _{0} from eqns.1 & 2 
… (2) 
_{δ}_{δ}_{δ}_{δ} _{0} = 4.381 mm
P =2000 N δc = 2830/ (28302000) x 4.381 = 14.94 mm A = 30 x 12 = 360mm ^{2} Z = 1/6 x 30 x 12 ^{2}
Mc = P x δc = 2000 x 14.94 = 298880 Nmm
σ 0= P/A = 2000/360mm ^{2}
σb = Mc/Z = 29880/ 720 =41.5 N/mm ^{2}
σ max =σ0+ σb = 5.55 + 41.5 =47.05 N/mm ^{2}
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Experiment  6
Shear failure of Bolted and Riveted Joints
Aim: To determine the ultimate shear stress in a bolt.
Apparatus: WAGNER beam setup, bolt for failure analysis, vernier caliper and load indicator.
Fig. 11: WAGNER beam setup for shear failure of bolted joint
Theory: Riveted and bolted connections are common in structural assemblies. Following are modes of failure in riveted joints:
Tension failure in a plate Shearing failure across one or more planes of rivet Bearing failure between plate and the rivet Plate shear or shear out failure in the plate
In a riveted joint, the rivets may themselves fail in shear. The tendency is to cut through the rivet across the section lying in the plane between the plates it connects.
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If the load is transmitted through bearing between the plate and the shank of the rivet producing shear in the rivet, the rivet is said to be in shear. When the load is transmitted by shear in only one section of the rivet, the rivet is said to be in single shear. When the loading of the rivet is such as to have the load transmitted in two shear planes, the rivet is said to be in double shear. When load is transmitted in more than two planes, the rivet is said to be in multiple shear. Rivets and bolts subjected to both shear and axial tension shall be so proportioned that the calculated shear and axial tension do not exceed the
allowable stresses τ _{υ}_{f} and σ _{t}_{f} and the flowing expression does not exceed a specified value.
(τ _{υ}_{f} _{,}_{c}_{a}_{l} / τ _{υ}_{f} + σ _{t}_{f}_{,}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{/} σ _{t}_{f} ) (1)
Shearing failure of the rivet: In a riveted joint, the rivets may themselves fail in shear. The tendency is to cut through the rivet across the section lying in the plane between the plates it connects. In analysing this possible manner of failure, one must always note whether a rivet acts in single shear or double shear. In the latter case, the two cross sectional areas of the same rivet resist the applied force. The shearing stress is assumed to be uniformly distributed over the crosssection of the rivet. Let Pus = pull required, per pitch length, for shear failure f _{s} = ultimate shear strength of the rivet material d = gross diameter of the bolt
Resisting area of the rivet section = (π/4) d ^{2} in single shear
and
= 2 x (π/4) d ^{2}
in double shear
P _{u}_{s} = (π/4) d ^{2} f _{s} for single shear
P _{u}_{s} = 2x (π/4) d ^{2} f _{s} for double shear
Procedure:
Setup the WAGNER beam test setup. Note the diameter of the bolt. Place a bolt in the slot. Set the load cell to read zero.
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Apply the load gradually. Note the load reading at the point of shear failure of mild steel bolt. Change the loading for double shear and calculate the ultimate shear stress from the formula below:
f _{s} = P _{u}_{s} _{/} [2x (π/4) d ^{2} ] (2)
Conclusion: The ultimate shear stress for single shear= units The ultimate shear stress for double shear= units.
CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 TONS OF LOAD ON THE BEAM
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Experiment  7
Bending Modulus of a Sandwich Beam
Aim: To determine the beam.
Modulus in Bending of a cantilever sandwich
Apparatus: Beam Test Setup, load cells, Sandwich Beam of symmetrical section with strain gage installed, Strain measuring device.
Fig. 12 Sandwich beam
Theory: Beams that are made of more than one material are called `composite beams`. Sandwich beam is one such example. It consists of following:
Two thin layers of strong material, called faces, placed at top and bottom.
Thick core, consisting of light weight, low strength material. The core simply serves as a filler or spacer. Sandwich construction is used where light weight combined with high strength and high stiffness is needed.
If both the materials are rigidly joined together, they will behave like a unit piece and the bending will take place about the combined axis. Such composite beams can be analysed by the same bending theory that is applicable for beam of single material.
On the other hand, if both the materials have been simply placed one above the other, they will bend about their respective axes. However, in both the cases, the total amount of moment of resistance will be equal to the sum of moments of resistance of individual sections.
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The position of neutral axis may not be the centroid of the section. The criterion of strain compatibility has to be used, i.e. strain in two materials, at a given vertical distance from the neutral axis, has to be same.
A cantilever sandwich beam provided with strain gauge can be used to do experimental assessment of strains. The strain gauge is at a fixed position in the beam and load position can be varied. A strain gauge is mounted on a free surface, which in general, is in a state of plane stress where the state of stress is with regards to a specific xy rectangular rosette. Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig13, which provides normal strain components in three directions spaced at angles of 45 ^{0} . If a xy coordinate system is assumed to coincide with the gauge A and C then εx= ε _{A} and εy= εc. Gauge B provides information necessary to determine γ _{x}_{y} . Once εx, εy and γ _{x}_{y} are known, then Hooke’s law can be used to determine σx, σ _{y}_{,} and τ _{x}_{y}_{.} However in this case the requirement is to determine Modulus in bending (E). An alternative approach is to measure deflection under load condition.
Fig. 13
E 
E 
E 

σ 
= 
( 
ε 
+ 
v 
ε 
) 
; 
σ 
= 
( 
ε 
+ 
v 
ε 
) 
; 
τ 
= 
γ xy 

x 
(1 
− v 
2 
) 
x 
y 
y 
(1 
− v 
2 ) 
y 
x 
xy 
2(1+ 
v 
) 

ε _{x} = ε _{A} ; 
ε _{y} = εc; 
γ _{x}_{y} _{=} 2 ε _{B}  ε _{A} ε _{c} ; 

Sl.No 
Load 
ν=ε _{y} /ε _{x} 

(N) 
ε 
A 
ε 
B 
ε 
C 
ε 
x 
ε 
y 
γ 
xy 

Also, 
σ _{x} = M/Z 
, 
Z = I/ Y 
(1) 

σ _{2} = 
(M 
 
σ _{1} 
Z _{1} ) / 
Z _{2} 
(2) 
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σ _{2}
= m σ _{1} _{,}
m
= E _{2} /
E _{1}
(3)
Suffix `1` & `2` refer two different sections of beam Procedure: Mount the cantilever beam at the left support of beam test set up. Connect the strain gauges wires with the strain measuring equipment. Use the following color codes
ε
ε
ε
_{A}
_{B}
_{C}
Red wires 
channel1 
Yellow wires 
channel3 
Black wires 
channel2 
Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. Now Load the beam with 2.5 Kg at some point and record the strains in three directions. Record the load value at the load cell.
Repeat the experiment with load value of 5 Kg. Compute the values of Poisson’s ratio from:
ν=ε _{y} /ε _{x}
Tabular Column:
Sl.No 
Load (N) 
ε 
A 
ε 
B 
ε 
C 
εx 
εy 
γ xy 
ν=εy/εx 
Find Modulus in bending through formulas above.
Conclusion: Bending modulus of sandwich beam is= units.
CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 15 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM.
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Experiment  8
Verification of Superposition Theorem
Aim: To verify the theorem of superposition.
Apparatus: Beam Test SetUp with multiple loading capability (atleast two load points required), atleast two load cells, cantilever strain gauged beam, strain measuring equipment.
Theory:
Many times, a structural member is subjected to a number of forces acting not only at the ends, but also at the intermediate points along its length. Such a member can be analyzed by the application of the principal of superposition; the resulting strain will be equal to the algebraic sum of the strains caused by individual forces acting along the length of member.
The strain gauge is at a fixed position in the beam and load position can be varied. A strain gauge is mounted on a free surface, which in general, is in a state of plane stress where the state of stress is with regards to a specific xy rectangular rosette. Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig2, which provides normal strain components in three
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directions spaced at angles of 45 ^{0} . If a xy coordinate system is assumed to coincide with the gauge A and C then εx= ε _{A} and εy= εc. Gauge B provides information necessary to determine γ _{x}_{y} .
Fig15
εx = ε _{A} ; 
εy = εc; 
γ _{x}_{y} _{=} 2 ε _{B}  ε _{A} εc 

Sl.No 
Load 

(N) 
ε 
A 
ε 
B 
ε 
C 
εx 
εy 
γ xy 
Procedure:
Mount the cantilever beam at the left support of beam test setup. Connect the strain gauges wires with the strain measuring equipment. Use the following color codes:
ε
ε
ε
_{A}
_{B}
_{C}
Red wires 
channel1 
Yellow wires 
channel3 
Black wires 
channel2 
Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. Now Load the beam with 0.5 Kg at some point from vertical and record the strains in three directions. Record the load value at the load cell. Record the point of loading. Remove this load.
Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. Now Load the beam with load load value of 1 Kg. from vertical at same point and record the strains in three directions. Record the load value.
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Remove this load.
Set the load cell to read `zero` value in the absence of load. Set the three strains to read `zero` in the absence of load. Now Load the beam with 1.5 Kg at same point from vertical as done earlier. Record the strains in three directions. Record the load values in the two load cells. Record the vertical load position.
Compute the values of γ _{x}_{y} from the formula:
γ _{x}_{y} = 2 ε _{B}  ε _{A} ε _{c}
CAUTION: NEVER EXCEED 3 Kg LOAD ON THE BEAM.
Tabular Column:
Table 1: Strains due to individual vertical loading
Add the values of strains in table 1 and compare with value in Table 2.
Conclusion: The strains obtained are compared between individual and
combined loading and hence the principle of superposition is verified.
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Experiment – 9
Vibration of Cantilever Beam
Objective: To determine the lateral or transverse vibration of a cantilever beam when the beam is fixed at one end and free at the other end.
Introduction:
A beam which is cantilevered of span L with uniform mass w/g per unit run is shown in figure1and fixed at one end. Assume a deflection function and obtain the first approximation for the fundamental frequency with the origin at the free end.
Fig. 16: Cantilever beam
L 
is the span of the beam in mm 
E 
is the Young’s Modulus of the beam in N/mm ^{2} 
I =bd ^{3} /12 is the Moment of Inertia of the beam mm w = Weight per unit length
g = Acceleration due to gravity
4
The fundamental frequency of the cantilever beam ω ^{2} = 12.39 E I / wl ^{4} The natural frequency for the transverse vibration of a uniform beam fixed at one end and free at the other end. The four roots of the equation are:
β1 L= 1.8751 β2 L= 4.6941 β3 L= 7.8548 β4 L= 10.9955
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ω
n
=
n
2
π
2
…. (1)
Example: Determine the three lowest natural frequency for the system shown in fig1 Given m=10kg,E=200x10 ^{9} N/m2; ρ =7800 kg/m3 ; A =2.6 x 103 m2 ;
=215.3 φ ^{2}
ω _{1} = 486.1 rad/ s; ω2 = 3642 rad/s; ω3 = 1.114 x 10 ^{4} rad/s.
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Experiment10
Wagner Beam (Tension Field)
Objective:
The objective of this experiment is to determine the constant k of the Wagner beam.
Gear box
Hand wheel
Load
Wagner beam
Load
indicator
Support
Strain
indicator
Strain guage
arrangement
Fig. 17: WAGNER beam setup for tension field
Introduction:
In the analysis of wing beams of airplanes, the designer is faced with several problems which, in general are not present in civil engineering structural design. The civil Engineer endeavors to make the web sheet of all beams thick enough so that the web will not buckle before the design load is reached on the structure. Buckling is a case of failure and the shearing stress causing buckling determines the allowable maximum shear that can be applied. The critical buckling shear stress is given by
τ cr
=
π
2
E
t
)
12(1
−
µ
2
b
2
…1
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If the sheet is very thin, buckling stress given by equation (1) is extremely low and, in the interest of making efficient use of all available material. The aircraft engineer raises the question as to how much additional shear can be carried by such a buckled plate before:
Some portion of the sheet has a total stress equal to the yield point of the material, thus giving rise to permanent deformations; or The ultimate strength is reached.
If now, we assume that the web plate in the beam is very thin, the above discussion of the principal stress patterns takes on new significance. The normal stresses, we see that one of them is a compressive stress against which thin plates have a very low resistance. The tendency will then be for the plate to buckles in a direction perpendicular to the compressive stress at a value of the applied shear which becomes less and less as the web becomes thinner and thinner, the limiting case being for a sheet of zero thickness. In this case, the sheet buckles upon the application of a shear load and can only resist shear by means of the tensile stresses at 45degresss. With such a pattern, it is obvious that the tensile stresses will tend to pull the two beam flanges together, thus necessitating vertical members to counteract this tendency (as shown dotted in fig. 18).
Wagner assumes that the web buckles immediately upon the application of shear load and that the only stresses resisting the shear forces are the tensile stresses which act approximately 45 degrees. Considering infinitely rigid parallel span flanges and vertical stiffners the following equations for this limiting case is shown as below:
σ
t
=
2
ht
P
1
sin(2
α )
Axial force in the tension flange:
Ft =
Px
P
−
h 2
cot(
)
α
Axial force in the compression flange
…2
…3
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Fc = −
Px
P
−
h 2
cot(
)
α
Axial force in the vertical stiffeners
Fc = −P
d
h
tan(α)
…4
…5
The limiting case of a web having no compressive strength has been treated by Wagner and beams approximating this are known as Wagner beam.
The basic assumptions of this theory is that total shear force in the web can be divided into a shear force carried by shear in the sheet and the shear forced carried by diagonal tension;
5 KN
0.1
Fig.18: Wagner’s Beam Tension Field beam
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^{2}^{5}^{0}^{0}^{0}
275000
325000
q _{s} = 10 ^{4} N/m
Fig.19
A strain gauge is mounted on a free surface, which in general, is in a state of
plane stress where the state of stress with regards to a specific xy rectangular
rosette since each gauge element provides only one piece of information, the
indicated normal strain at the point in direction of the gauge. Consider the three element rectangular rosette shown in fig20, which provides normal strain components in three directions spaced at angles of 45 ^{0} .
If an xy coordinate system is assumed to coincide with the gauge A and C
then ε _{x} = ε _{A} and ε _{y} = ε _{c} . Gauge B provides information necessary to determine γ _{x}_{y} .
Once εx, εy and γ _{x}_{y} are known, then Hooke’s law can be used to determine σx, σ _{y}_{,} and τ _{x}_{y}_{.}
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Fig. 20
E 
E 
E 

σ 
= 
( 
ε 
+ υε 
) 
; 
σ 
= 
( 
ε 
+ 
υε 
) 
; 
τ 
= 
γ xy 

x 
(1 
− µ 
2 
) 
x 
y 
y 
(1 
− 
2 µ 
) 
y 
x 
xy 
2(1+ µ 
) 

εx = ε _{A} ; εy = εc; γ _{x}_{y} _{=} 2 ε _{B}  ε _{A} εc; 

Sl 
σ 
x 
σ 
y 
τ xy 
σ 
1 
σ 
2 

No 
ε A 
ε B 
ε 
C 
MPa 
MPa 
MPa 
MPa 
MPa 

1 
200µ 
900µ 
1000µ 
105.58 
230.09 
46.69 
Example: 1
Apply a load of given intensity on the Wagner beam
Step: 1 Consider an axially loaded aluminium panel simply supported edges and rivet lines .Each stringer has an area of 12mm x 8mm and E=0.588e11 N/m2 and determine the compressive load i) when the sheet first buckles ii) Stringer stress is 58.84x10 ^{6} N/mm2.
Critical Buckling Stress:
σ c 1
=
KE
t
b
2
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σ _{c} = 3.62 * 0.588 x 10 ^{1}^{1} x (0.002/0.2) ^{2} = 21.2856 x 10 ^{6} N/m ^{2}
A= 0.002 x 0.6 = 1.2 x 10 ^{}^{3} m ^{2}
P = A x _{σ}_{σ}_{σ}_{σ} _{c}_{1} = 1.2 x 10 ^{}^{3} m ^{2} x21.2856 x 10 ^{6} N/m ^{2} = 25,542.72 N
Post Buckling Strenth:
we1 = 0.85t
m
we1= 0.85* 0.002√(0.5884e11/58.58e06 = 0.05374
A = (3.0*0.053774)* 0.002 = 6.4488 e04 αm2;
P = 58.84e06 * 6.4488e04 = 37945.05289 N
The ratio of Post buckling strength to critical buckling stress is 1.48.
Step: 2 Determination of k E= 58.8e10 ^{9} N/αm2; K= 5.34 (Simply supported beam) K= 10.38 (Fixed end)
The ratio of longer dimension/ shorter dimension is called aspect ratio =2.0
τ
=
τ cr
N/m ^{2}
=
V
ht
= 50000/ 0.1* 0.002=250 e06 N/m2
KE
t
b
2
=5.34 * 0.588 x 10 ^{1}^{1} x (0.002/0.1) ^{2} = 125.5968 x 10 ^{6}
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k =
(1
−
^{τ} cr
τ
)
= (1125.5986e06/250e06) = 0.5024
Step 3: Schematic distribution of load
σ _{s} =
P
ht
= 50000/(0.1*0.002) =250e ^{0}^{6} N/m2
Assume buckling angle =45 ^{0}
(Normal Stress in Ydirection) _{σ}_{y} =
N/m2
(Normal Stress in xdirection) _{σ}_{x} =
σ
σ
s
s
_{t}_{a}_{n}_{(}_{α} _{)} = 250 e ^{0}^{6} tan (45) =250e ^{0}^{6}
cot(α) = 250 e ^{0}^{6} cot (45) =250e ^{0}^{6} N/m2
σ
t
=
2
ht
P
1
sin(2
α )
= 2*50000*/(0.1*0.002)*(1/sin90) =500e ^{0}^{6}
N/m ^{2} ;( Tension in the beam at 45 degrees angle)
q s = σs * t = 250e ^{0}^{6} * 0.002 = 0.5e06 N/m2; (Shear flow in the beam)
Px
P
−
h
Px
−
h
2
P
2
Ft =
cot(
)
α
Fc_start = Ft_start =
= 25000 N
= 050000/2*cot (45)
Ft =
cot(
)
α
Fc_end = Ft_end =
(45) = 325000,275000 N respectively. The stress distribution is shown in figure.
= (50000*0.6/0.1)50000/2*cot
Force in the vertical stiffener:
Fc = −P
d
h
tan(α )
= 50000*(0.2/0.1)*tan45 =  0.100e06 N/m ^{2}
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Appendix 1
Unsymmetrical bending of angle section
%function [xbar,ybar,Ixx,Iyy,Ixy,Iuu,Ivv,Iuv,alpha_uv]=us_ang
le01(thick1,breadth1,thick2,breadth2,x1_bar,x2_bar,
y1_bar,y2_bar)
function [xbar,ybar,Ixx,Iyy,Ixy,Iuu,Ivv,Iuv,alpha_uv]=us_ang
le01(thick1,breadth1,thick2,breadth2,x1_bar,x2_bar,
y1_bar,y2_bar)
area1=thick1*breadth1;
area2=thick2*breadth2;
total_area=area1+area2;
Nrx=area1*x1_bar+area2*x2_bar;
Nry=area1*y1_bar+area2*y2_bar;
xbar=Nrx/total_area; ybar=Nry/total_area;
t1=1/12;
tx1=(xbarx1_bar);
ty1=(ybary1_bar);
tx1_2=(xbarx1_bar)*(xbarx1_bar);
ty1_2=(ybary1_bar)*(ybary1_bar);
tx2=(xbarx2_bar);
ty2=(ybary2_bar);
tx2_2=(xbarx2_bar)*(xbarx2_bar);
ty2_2=(ybary2_bar)*(ybary2_bar);
Ixx_1=t1*breadth1*thick1^3;
Iyy_1=t1*thick1*breadth1^3;
Ixy_1=area1*tx1*ty1;
Ixx_2=t1*breadth2*thick2^3;
Iyy_2=t1*thick2*breadth2^3;
Ixy_2=area2*tx2*ty2;
Ixx1=Ixx_1+area1*ty1_2;
Iyy1=Iyy_1+area1*tx1_2;
Ixx2=Ixx_2+area2*ty2_2;
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Iyy2=Iyy_2+area2*tx2_2;
Ixx=Ixx1+Ixx2;
Iyy=Iyy1+Iyy2;
Ixy=Ixy_1+Ixy_2;
raddeg=180/pi;
tmpnr=Ixy;
tmpdr=(IyyIxx)*0.5;
tmp=tmpnr/tmpdr;
alpha_uv=0.5*atan(tmp)*raddeg;
term1=0.5*(Ixx+Iyy);
term2=0.5*sqrt((IxxIyy)*(IxxIyy)+4.0*Ixy*Ixy);
Iuu=term1+term2;
Ivv=term1term2;
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Appendix2
Rectangular strain rosette
Compuation of stresses sig_x and sig_y and gamma_xy
ea=input('ea the strain in adirecton: \n') eb=input('eb the strain in bdirecton: \n') ec=input('ec the strain in cdirecton: \n') %E=input('E the Youngs strain E=58.8e09 N/m2: \n') %mu=input('mu the poissons ratio:(0.33) \n')
E=58.8e09;
mu=0.33;
ex=ea*10^06
ey=ec*10^06
exy=(2*ebecea)*10^06
k1=E/(1mu*mu);
sig_x=k1*(ex+mu*ey)
sig_y=k1*(ey+mu*ex)
tau_xy=0.5*(E/(1+mu))*exy
con1=(sig_x+sig_y);
con2=con1*con1;
con3=4*tau_xy*tau_xy;
sig_p1=0.5*(con1+sqrt(con2+con3))
sig_p2=0.5*(con1sqrt(con2+con3))
theta_p1=atan((sig_p1sig_x)/tau_xy)
theta_p2=atan((sig_p2sig_x)/tau_xy)
thetp1=180/pi*theta_p1
thetp2=180/pi*theta_p2
valuexy=sig_x+sig_y
value12=sig_p1+sig_p2
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Appendix 3
Flexibility matrix for cantilever beam
%The program to compute the deflection and rotation of a cantilever beam
% 
Def_x= P*x*x(3*Lx)/6EI Rotx=P*x(2*Lx)/2EI,where 
x 
is from the fixed end; 
x=1.5 
%m; 
L=3 
%m; 
E=2e08 
%kN/m2; 
I=1.70797e4 %m4;
P=10
sd_x=0.05*x
sd_L=0.05*L
sd_E=0.05*E
sd_I=0.05*I
sd_P=0.15*P
u1=unifrnd(0,1,100000,1);
x1=norminv(u1).*sd_x+x;
const=P/(6*E*I);
x2=(3.*Lx1);
def_x=const*x2.*x1;
def_x1=def_x.*x1;
hist(def_x1)
mean_x1=mean(def_x1)
%kN
std_x1=std(def_x1)
median_x1=median(def_x1)
sk_x1=skewness(def_x1)
cov_x1=std_x1/mean_x1
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VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. Explain Castigliano`s theorem and its verification through any experimental setup.
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