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Desamero III- Mahogany
People on Roman Empires Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (July 12, 100 BC - March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. He played an important part in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses of all time, as well as a brilliant politician and one of the ancient world's strongest leaders. He was proclaimed dictator for life, and he heavily centralized the government of the Republic. He was assassinated on the Ides of March in 44 BC. The murder of Caesar was followed by a decade of civil war that ended with the birth of the Roman Empire. After the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra in a sea battle near Actium, in 31 BC, Octavian became the unchallenged master of Rome and the entire Mediterranean. On January 13 of 27 BC, the Senate awarded Octavian the name of Augustus establishing the imperial monarchy that would endure for five centuries. It was the end of the Roman Republic (509-27 BC).
Augustus Emperor Augustus of Rome was born with the name Gaius Octavius on September 23, 63 B.C. He took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian) in 44 B.C. after the murder of his great uncle, Julius Caesar. In his will Caesar had adopted Octavian and made him his heir. Octavian was a shrewd, brilliant and astute politician. He was able to achieve a great power in Rome. At the time of Caesar's assassination, Octavian held no official position. Only after he marched on Rome and forced the senate to name him consul, was he established as a power to be reckoned with. Rome achieved great glory under Augustus. He restored peace after 100 years of civil war; maintained an honest government and a sound currency system; extended the highway system connecting Rome with its far-flung empire; developed an efficient postal service; fostered free trade among the provinces; and built many bridges, aqueducts and buildings adorned with beautiful works of art created in the classical style. Literature flourished with writers including Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Livy all living under the emperor's patronage. After his death, the people the Roman Empire worshipped Augustus as a god.
and imperial funds paid for porticoes along the facades of the new apartment blocks. planned by the emperor in AD 72 on the model of the Theatre of Marcellus. known as the Flavians. the Castra Praetoria. . especially evident in occasion of the great fire of AD 64. Nero (54 . the martyrdom of Peter (67 AD).Tiberius to Claudius Augustus had done so much that his successors Tiberius. The greatest and most famous of these monuments is for sure the Amphitheatre Flavius. Nero also erected for himself his own imperial residence. The Great Fire. Together with his sons he also established his habitation in Nero's Golden House. Caligula. though a disaster gave the unprecedented chance to rebuild whole quarters on completely different lines. Vespasianus and his sons. later incorporated to reinforce the city's defences. acquired the status that brought him to imperial power.79 AD) Vespasianus was a general of simple origins who.69 AD) Nero is famous mostly for his cruelty. They repaired the odd public buildings and undertook further work on the Tiber. but one after the other. Rome's lifeline to the sea. well known for his lavish tendency and excesses. and a rebuilding of the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline. have destroyed lots of their constructions. Unfortunately many fires. To prevent the dangers of the fires. the Golden House. was quick to seize the opportunity. Vespasian celebrated his victory in Judaea with three great monuments in the republican manner: the Temple of Peace. restored the stability in the Empire and continued the urban programme of renewal inaugurated by Nero. the Amphitheatre (Colosseum). with large open squares. a phenomenon that occurred very frequently. but otherwise they concentrated their attention on the imperial palaces and other residences. all the Vespasian emperors notably changed its original aspect. lasted nine days and razing to the ground three regions of the city. Vespasianus (69 . Far from the modesty that had characterized the imperial rule of Augustus. and the persecution of the early Christians. after his successful campaigns in Judaea. They all contributed to extend the boundaries of the empire and also to embellish the city of Rome. buildings were to be of limited height and use as little wood as possible and to be protected by outer walls of Alban and Gamine stone (hard peppering stuff). Under Tiberius the Praetorians moved to a large fort. streets were to be made wider. and Claudius had a relatively easy time. Nero. Caligola and Claudius brought about the construction of two new aqueducts (the Claudia and the New Anio).
The forum was also known as the Forum Transitorium (the passage-way forum). as in Caesar's and Augustus' forums.Titus (79 . the forum had been actually built by his predecessor Domitian. At the north end. The main body is composed around two peristyle courtyards. in the centre coffer of the coffering on the underside of the archway. Then comes the first court. presumably because. has been restored in travertine. Nerva inaugurated a new Imperial Forum. The relieves carved on the archway illustrate two scenes from the triumph that he had celebrated with his father in AD 71. to Divus Titus. Vespasian Augustus'. The open area of the court was almost entirely occupied by a pool as big as a lake. . The entrance on the west side (in line with the old front door of the House of 'Livia'. originally constructed entirely of Pentelic marble. having transformed but not abolished the major street called the Argilentum. to erect his own residence. The scene on the north side is dominated by Titus riding in his chariot drawn by four horses. The scene on the south side shows the procession as it approached the Triumphal Gate at the beginning of the route. a rival to Mars. with a large octagonal island in the middle. one of the Capitoline triad. with an extraordinary sequence of curvilinear waiting rooms on either side. Much of the arch. Domitianus (81 96 AD) Domitianus commissioned Rabirius. where fountains played water down steps and channels. the procession travelling over this very spot on its circuitous route from the Campus Martius to the Capitoline Hill. to celebrate the victorious campaigns of the Emperor in Jerusalem and his early death. besides forming a vestibule to the buildings on either side. the Domitian's palace. Augustus' wife) leads first into an octagonal vestibule. The inscription on the east face is original and reads 'The Senate and People of Rome. designed for athletic contests in the nude Greek fashion. Nerva (96 98 AD) In AD 97. one of the few Roman architects we know by name. it remained a thoroughfare from end to end. built between 81 and 92 AD. son of Divus Vespasian. with the goddess Roma holding on to the bridle of the leading horse. Although inaugurated by him. erected in 81-2 AD at the point where the road leading up from the Colosseum valley met the Via Sacra.81 AD) The most important architectural legacy of the short reign of Titus is the Arch of Titus. there was a temple dedicated to Minerva. Domitianus also commissioned the erection of a big Stadium. That is why his deified figure appears. once enclosed on all four sides by a portico of the fluted columns of Numidian yellow marble. Everything was once veneered in marble. riding heavenwards on the back of the eagle. whose fragments are scattered here and there. the Forum of Nerva. goddess of both craftsmanship and war.
It included a big market. and the Column of Trajan. Under him. At the foot of the Market hemicycle runs the basalt-paved street that separated it from the peperino tufa perimeter wall of the Forum. . to serve the Transtiber. Trajan completed the projects left unfinished by Domitian. the Latin and Greek libraries. 8 metres wide. both to him and to the city. the Roman Empire reached its widest extent. were 112 metres long and 14. that was also the tomb of the Emperor. The two long porticoes. The architect was Apollodorus of Damascus. In the centre stood a colossal statue of Trajan. modelled on those in the forum of Augustus. built a huge forum and Basilica. endowed the residents of the Esquiline Hill with the largest Public Baths yet seen in the city. the Basilica Ulpia for the administration of the justice. He personally commanded the campaign in Dacia. One side of the square was filled by the great Basilica Ulpia. was a celebration of the military successes of the Roman army under Trajan. The new wealth is particularly evident in the large amount of surviving monuments. The square itself was paved in huge blocks of Italian marble. an accomplished military engineer who had designed a remarkable bridge across the Danube that launched the Dacia (Romania) campaigns. the central section of which can be seen in the excavation in front of the Column of Trajan.Trajan (98 117 AD) Trajan ruled in exemplary fashion. the Traiana. The Tiber side docks at the emporium were rebuilt to a new plan as was the harbour at the Tiber mouth. largely extending the boundaries of the Empire though successful military campaigns. beyond the Danube. in military dress and on horseback. the floor raised three steps of marble above the level in the open square. marked by the forest of grey granite columns. The Forum was the centre of Roman public life. which brought military glory and huge amounts of new wealth. and led in Rome's tenth aqueducts. The Forum square was of powerfully triumphal characters. This column. The complex of buildings erected on the Quirinal Hill belongs to the Trajan's Markets.
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