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David Hambley MSc. C. Eng. MIEE
!Common EMC tests
− What are we testing for? − What do we need to do the test? − What are the important parameters? − How do we do it? − Which standards?
− Ability of equipment……to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment.
Electromagnetic Compatibility Emissions Conducted Radiated Immunity Conducted Radiated
− Protect the electromagnetic environment − Protect radio services
• Emergency services • Commercial broadcasts
− Prevent interference with other equipment intended to operate in the same environment
scientific and medical EN55013 – Broadcast receivers EN55014 – Household appliances EN55015 – Lighting apparatus EN55022 – Information Technology Equipment .Emissions !Standards contain: − Limit lines − Test method !Basic emission standards − − − − − EN55011 – Industrial.
Conducted emissions !AC power port − − − − Conducted electrical noise Switched mode power supplies 150kHz-30MHz (most equipment) 9kHz-30MHz (lighting) !Aim to protect LW/MW/SW broadcasts !Main equipment required − Spectrum analyser or receiver − Line Impedance Stabilisation Network (LISN) .
Conducted emissions .
Conducted emissions ! LISN − − − − − − − − Inserted into power line Allows measurement of RF voltage Provides defined impedance eg 50Ω//50µH Ω µ Provides some noise isolation from mains supply EUT current Earth leakage current Filtered supply Ambient radiated signals ! Some precautions .
Harmonic emissions ! AC power port − Conducted electrical noise − Linear power supplies − 50Hz-2kHz ! Aim to protect electrical supply quality − Prevent conductor burnout − Protect supply waveform ! Main Equipment required − 50Hz power amplifier − Power analyser .
Harmonics/flicker equipment .
Harmonic emissions !50Hz power amplifier − Powers equipment under test − Removes harmonics present on incoming supply − Measures the harmonics generated − EN61000-3-2 !Power analyser !Standard .
Flicker ! AC power port − Disturbances impressed on electrical supply − Simulates effect on 60W light bulb ! Aim to protect electrical supply quality − Prevent excessive voltage deviations − Protect supply waveform ! Main Equipment required − 50Hz power amplifier − Flicker impedance − Software algorithms .
Flicker !50Hz power amplifier !Flicker impedance !Standard − Powers equipment under test − Provides a stabilised voltage supply − Defined impedance across which the flicker voltage is measured − EN61000-3-3 .
Radiated emissions ! Enclosure port and associated cabling − − − − − Microprocessor frequencies Switched mode power supplies DC brushed motors 30MHz-1000MHz (most equipment) 9kHz-30MHz (additionally for lighting) ! Aim to protect − Commercial broadcasts − Emergency services − Mobile phone services .
Radiated emissions !Main equipment required − Spectrum analyser or receiver − Antenna − Open Area Test Site (OATS) − 4m mast − Turntable − Ellipse free from reflecting objects .
Radiated emissions antenna mast EUT Non-metallic table ground plane 3m or 10m cable running underground to control room ground plane Antenna x Position of measurement equipment if not underground 10m x 3m EUT CISPR Ellipse .
Typical open area test site .
Covered open area test site .
Measuring detectors !Hardware detectors contained in spectrum analysers and receivers !4 detectors used in EMC testing − − − − Peak Peak hold (max hold) Quasi-peak Average !Each detector has unique characteristics .
Peak detector !‘Standard’ detector !Detects signal peak or envelope ‘worst case’ levels !Allows measurements to be made quickly !Not referenced in commercial EMC standards (except one railway standard) !Used − For pre-compliance testing − In conjunction with a quasi-peak detector .
Peak hold detector !Variant of peak detector !Display updated if the amplitude measured is greater on current sweep than on previous sweeps !Useful for measuring emissions from cyclic equipment !Not referenced in commercial EMC standards .
car ignition !Provides a weighted output !Weighted output based upon pulse repetition frequency (PRF) !Output up to 43.5dB less than peak detector .g.Quasi-peak detector !Referenced by all commercial EMC standards !Based upon subjective human response to pulsed interference e.
Quasi-peak detector ! Long charge/discharge times ! Measurements are slow ! 9k-150k 150k-30M 30-1000M RBW (kHz) 0.2 9 120 Charge Tc (ms) 45 1 1 Discharge Td (ms) 500 160 550 Conducted emission =53 minutes per phase QP detector used in conjunction with peak detector Only emissions from EUT are measured using QP detector ! ! ! .
Average detector !Referenced in commercial EMC standards for conducted emission tests !Measures the ‘average’ level !Average level <QP level !Not available on a spectrum analyser !Averaging effect obtained by controlling the video bandwidth .
Other emissions tests ! Conducted emissions on telecoms ports − Similar to that on ac ports using ISN ! Conducted disturbance power − Applies to household appliances mainly − AC power port − Emissions measured using clamp on wheels ! Discontinuous interference − Measures transient conducted emissions (spikes) − AC power port − Requires oscilloscope to capture spikes .
Immunity Testing .
Immunity !Why worry? − Ensure adequate protection against interference • Annoyance o Interference on radio or TV • Safety critical o Lift electronics o Vehicle ABS systems .
Immunity ! Standards contain: ! Basic immunity standards − − − − − − − EN61000-4-2 Immunity to ESD EN61000-4-3 Radiated immunity EN61000-4-4 Immunity to EFT/B EN61000-4-5 Immunity to surge EN61000-4-6 Conducted RF immunity EN61000-4-8 Power frequency magnetic immunity EN61000-4-11 Voltage dips and interruptions − Test levels − Test method .
over limit = fail !How can immunity be assessed? − What parameters should be monitored? − How should they be quantified? − What degradation is acceptable? • To the manufacturer? • To the user? − Standards contain performance criteria .Introduction !Emission tests have limits − Under limit = pass.
Introduction ! Performance criteria B − The apparatus shall continue to operate as intended after the test. where the apparatus is used as intended. . During the test. No degradation of performance or loss of function is allowed below a performance level specified by the manufacturer. − If the minimum performance level. No change of actual state or stored data is allowed. is not specified by the manufacturer. however. or the permissible performance loss. The performance level may be replaced by a permissible loss of performance. then either of these may be derived from the product description and documentation and what the user may reasonably expect from the apparatus if used as intended. degradation of performance is. allowed.
Immunity to ESD !Enclosure port !Increasing importance !More sensitive electronics !More hostile environment − Particularly the home − Areas which can be touched under normal operation !Aim to protect semiconductor devices − Temporary disturbance or destruction of components! .
Immunity to ESD .
Immunity to ESD .
Immunity to ESD !Main equipment required − ESD simulator (gun) .
Immunity to ESD !Standard − EN61000-4-2 !Two types of discharge − Contact (typically ±4kV or 6kV) • To metallic surfaces • Coupling planes − Air (typically ±8kV) • Insulating surfaces .
Immunity to ESD !Two types of application − Direct • To the equipment under test • Contact discharge • Air discharge − Indirect • • • • To coupling planes Contact discharge only Horizontal coupling plane (HCP) Vertical coupling plane (VCP) .
Radiated immunity ! Enclosure port and associated cabling ! Electromagnetic fields from intentional transmitters − Mobile phones − Other radio communications ! 80MHz-1000MHz frequency range − >1GHz testing will be required in the future ! Analogue circuits are vulnerable − Measuring circuits eg thermometers − Audio equipment .
Radiated immunity !Main equipment required − − − − − − Anechoic chamber Signal generator Power amplifier Power meter Antenna Field probe .
Radiated immunity .
5m x 1.Radiated immunity ! Standard ! Requirements − 0-6dB field uniformity over 1. 10V/m or 20V/m depending upon environment − 1kHz 80% amplitude modulated field − Pre-calibrated field − CCTV − External monitoring − EN61000-4-3 ! Monitoring the equipment under test .5m area − 80MHz-1000MHz − Test level: 3V/m.
Immunity to EFT/B !Electrical fast transient/burst interference !Results from electrical switching − Thermostats − Equipment being switched on & off !5ns rise time and 50ns half life !Applied in bursts 15ms in duration !300ms repetition rate .
Immunity to EFT/B .
Immunity to EFT/B !Standard !Requirements − Direct coupling • AC power port • DC power port • Typically ±1kV or ±2kV depending upon environment − EN61000-4-4 − Indirect coupling • Signal cables • Control cables • Typically ±1kV or ±2kV depending upon environment .
Immunity to EFT/B !Main equipment required − EFT/B generator − Capacitive coupling clamp ! .
Immunity to surge !Similar to EFT/B !Voltage & current surge − Nearby lightning strikes − Switching of inductive loads !Surge waveforms − Voltage waveform specified − Current waveform specified .
Immunity to surge .
Immunity to surge .
Immunity to surge ! Standard ! Requirements − − − − Applied in single pulses Normally 1 minute apart At 0°. 90°. 180° & 270° on 50Hz waveform Line to line coupling • Surge applied between lines with respect to earth • Typically ±1kV − EN61000-4-5 − Line to earth coupling • Surge applied between line and earth • Typically ±2kV .
Immunity to surge ! Main equipment required − Surge generator − Coupling/decoupling network .
Conducted RF immunity ! Injection of RF currents into cables ! Electromagnetic fields from intentional transmitters − Lower frequency that radiated immunity − LW/MW/SW broadcasts ! 150kHz-80MHz frequency range − Overcomes antenna inefficiency ! Analogue circuits are vulnerable − Measuring circuits eg thermometers − Audio equipment .
Conducted RF immunity !Main equipment required − Shielded enclosure − Signal generator − Power amplifier − Power meter − Coupling/decoupling networks (CDNs) − Injection clamp .
Conducted RF immunity .
or 10Vrms depending upon environment − 1kHz 80% amplitude modulated field − Pre-calibrated injection level − Use of CDNs preferred − Use of ferrite clamp with feedback as an alternative .Conducted RF immunity ! Standard − EN61000-4-6 ! Requirements − 150kHz-80MHz (230MHz) − Test level: 3Vrms.
Immunity to VDI !Voltage dips & interruptions !AC power port !Supply perturbations − Voltage dips • Deviation from nominal 230V supply • Resulting from equipment being switched on − Voltage interruptions • Loss of supply • Resulting from supply interruption .
Immunity to VDI ! Standard ! Requirements − EN61000-4-11 − Inrush capability of facility to be measured − Voltage dip • Specified as a X% dip for Yms • Typically 30% for 10ms & 60% for 100ms − Voltage interruptions • Specified as a X% dip for Yms • Typically >95% for 5000ms • Normally commencing at zero crossing point (but not always) .
Immunity to VDI !Main equipment required − VDI generator − Oscilloscope .
Summary !Common EMC tests − What are we testing for? − What do we need to do the test? − What are the important parameters? − How do we do it? − Which standards? .
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