intelligent clothing

Intelligent clothing is technology you can wear thanks to the innovative integration of expertise from a variety of fields, including electronics, mechanical engineering and ergonomics. Integration that’s made possible by another field of expertise – that of designing safety tailored to the human body.

4 | D-air® Racing

5 | D-air® Racing

WhAt iS D-AiR ?

D-AiR® iS A pRotection technology plAtfoRm
that uses an intelligent system to detect dangerous situations and inflate special airbags around the body.

D-AiR® iS much moRe thAn juSt A pRoDuct,
being a highly-advanced protection technology that can be deployed in products designed for a wide range of different uses where protection is required.

6 | D-air® Racing

7 | D-air® Racing

WhAt mAkeS clothing “intelligent”?

Its abIlIty to protect users In sItuatIons where they are unable to control what’s happenIng around them even without their own intervention.

8 | D-air® Racing

9 | D-air® Racing

d-air® racing

iS intelligent,
featuring a special triggering algorithm that is able to recognise crash conditions and activates the system when necessary.

Why ® D-AiR RAcing iS DiffeRent


iS effectiVe,
protecting the shoulders and covering the collar bones and upper chest area, while limiting oscillations of the head during rolling.

d-air racing


iS fASt,

iS inDepenDent,
which means that it doesn’t need any connections to or devices installed on the bike.

triggering in less than 15 milliseconds in the most violent crashes and deploying the bag in 30 milliseconds (prEN 1621-4).


iS ReliABle,
being the result of 10 years’ research and development, over 5,000 hours of data collection and more than 100 real-life crashes, including MotoGP champions, which have proven its reliability.


iS tÜV ceRtifieD,
D-air® puts its claims to the test, with performance and reliability that have been certified following the rigorous procedures of TÜV SÜD.

10 | D-air® Racing

11 | D-air® Racing

D-AiR® RAcing / Research and Development

mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2000 • mÜnchen Intermot 2




13 | D-air® Racing


D-AiR RAcing pRotection: WhAt

2 3

d-aIr® racIng works In synergy wIth the exIstIng body armour In professIonal racIng leathers, shIeldIng the followIng areas of the rIder’s body:
1 ShoulderS. 2 neck. 3 collar boneS.

• the system brings the extra shoulder protection of an airbag certified both to the current en1621-1 standard and to the future en 1621-4. (tested by tÜV sÜd product service gmbh) • d-air®racing reduces the risk of direct helmet impact on the collar bones. • d-air®racing limits the inclination of the head in relation to the neck and reduces helmet movement during rolling. • d-air®racing protection is achieved without compromising the ergonomics and comfort of racing leathers. (ergonomics and comfort tested by tÜV sÜd automotive gmbh). • d-air® racing complies with the relevant parts of the following standards: en60529 / en60950-1:2006+a11:2009 / ece-r10.3:2008 / Iso10605:2008-07 / en71-3 / dIn_en14362 / dIn_en_Iso105-e04 / Iso3071 / dIn53312 / dIn542311. (tested by tÜV sÜd product service gmbh)

NOTE: D-air®Racing brings its extra protection to leathers exclusively in those events in which it is designed to activate and to the areas of the body shielded by the airbag.

14 | D-air® Racing

15 | D-air® Racing

D-AiR® pRotection: the DiffeRence
Tests carried out in accordance with the current European standards for shoulder armour (EN 1621-1/97) show that D-air® racing reduces the force transferred by over compared with traditional composite body armour.

* Force transferred

(35 kN)*

35 kN 30 kN 25 kN 20 kN 15 kN 10 kN 5 kN 0 kN
Limit specified by EN1621-1/97 Standard currently in force Traditional composite protection (23-24 kN)*


(3 kN)*

D-air composite protection

16 | D-air® Racing

17 | D-air® Racing

D-AiR® pRotection: When

the tRiggeRing AlgoRithm:

The brain of D-air ® Racing

d-air® racing is designed to provide its additional protection in track use, recognising and activating in the event of: a rider thrown from bike as a result of rear wheel slide followed by sudden recovery of traction (highsider). b loss of front or rear wheel traction followed by rider rolling (lowsider).

In the event of a violent crash, d-air® can trigger in less than 15 milliseconds. when the crash dynamics are less sudden, the sophisticated triggering algorithm assesses conditions and can decide upon a longer triggering time. the d-air® racing airbag has a deployment time of 30 milliseconds* and reaches its full protection level within 80 milliseconds. Thanks to its intelligent triggering algorithm, D-air® Racing can assess the violence of a crash and only trigger when actually necessary in the scenarios considered above. It won’t, for example, trigger in falls at speeds of less than 50 km/h or when the crash dynamics don’t require the extra protection of an airbag.

“The effectiveness and safety of an airbag system is largely determined by the quality of the triggering algorithm, which must be able to distinguish between incipient crash conditions and normal use conditions, including sports use. Conditions that can lead to a crash arise when the front wheel starts to slide during braking on a bend, or when the rear wheel loses traction coming out of a bend. The motorcycle-rider system, which was formerly in equilibrium, becomes unbalanced. This phenomenon is the key to the triggering algorithm.”

the trIggerIng algorIthm Is the braIn of d-aIr® racIng, analysIng and combInIng the data from the sensors to decIde when to trIgger the system.

Prof. Vittore Cossalter


High side

the decision to consider the rider and motorcycle as a single system rather than two independent systems made it possible to develop a uniquely innovative triggering algorithm that can distinguish between normal riding and a crash – something very difficult to achieve on the track, where bikes can reach lean angles of over 50°. (Study carried out by the Padua University “Dynamotion Unit” led by Prof. Vittore Cossalter.)


Low side

* In accordance with pr en 1621-4

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D-AiR RAcing pRotection: hoW
D-air® Racing consists of an electronic system (hardware, triggering algorithm and management software), a pneumatic system (gas generator and airbag) and a support structure that is purpose-designed for its intended use (in this case racing leathers), where the different components are safely and reliably installed.

electRonic SyStem: • triggering algorithm and diagnostics managed by dedicated firmware. • three accelerometers. • three gyroscopes. • a gps. • 2 gbyte internal memory. • user interface (led). • lithium polymer battery. pneumAtic SyStem: • dainese-patented 3d structure airbag. • high-pressure airbag with volume of 4 litres. • "cold" technology gas generator.

D-air® Racing Electronic system Aluminium inserts with air inlets

Gas Generator Led user interface D-air® Racing Pneumatic system

3D Bubble vented lining

GPS antenna

Shoulder protectors

Full Metal Pro gloves Elbow protectors Soft protectors Wave Back protector Aluminium inserts D-skin leather

Bi-axial elasticated inserts Knee protectors Axial Pro In boots

20 | D-air® Racing

21 | D-air® Racing

D-AiR® RAcing eRgonomicS

D-AiR® RAcing hAS Won conSoliDAteD AcceptAnce BecAuSe it DoeSn't RequiRe Any chAngeS in RiDeR oR teAm pRActiceS.

D-AiR® RAcing iS WiReleSS.

D-AiR® RAcing hAS A SpeciAl 3D pAtenteD BAg.

D-AiR® RAcing pASSeD the non-intefeRence teSt.

d-air® racing works without any connection to the motorcycle. this was an informed design choice that dainese made because a cable has the following drawbacks in track use: > It's very difficult to find an appropriate connecting point on racing bikes. > cable systems don't trip if the rider isn't separated from the motorbike. > Irritating cable flutter at high speed. > the cable can interfere with the rider's freedom of movement. > risk of the system being triggered needlessly or even by accident.

> the d-air® racing airbag has a three-dimensional structure providing controlled expansion, which combines with high-pressure inflation to enable it to assume shapes and sizes that have been carefully designed to wrap around and protect the rider's body. > the d-air® racing airbag comes in 4 different sizes to offer maximum protection and comfort to all riders. > d-air® racing is an independent system that doesn't require any kind of installation on the bike. > the complete airbag system weighs 650g in operating order. > d-air® racing has been designed with the benefit of input by world champions such as Valentino rossi and marco simoncelli to ensure maximum rider comfort.

> d-air® racing has repeatedly shown on the track and in special tests that it does not interfere with a rider's ability to control their bike even when an event occurs that is sufficiently violent to trigger the system but is not followed by a crash.

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23 | D-air® Racing

D-AiR® RAcing iS ceRtifieD
The system went through more than 800 single tests.

protectIon standards

pneumatIc system tests (airbag + gas generator) > ageing: the system undergoes hundreds of hours’ temperature cycling and thermal shocking. > salt spray test: the system is sprayed with saline solution to consider human perspiration. > Dust test: the system is exposed to strong currents of dust-laden air. > vibration test: the system is subjected to strong vibrations. > Drop test: the system is as robust as any conventional racing leathers chemIcal compatIbIlIty tests ensure that the materials used are not hazardous to health in accordance with current standards. battery tests test that the batteries meet current international safety standards. non Interference/controllabIlIty tests > static dummy tests: the system is triggered while the rider’s head is in the maximum tilted position to ensure that d-air® racing’s high speed inflation does not cause undesirable recoil reactions, pain or a dazed feeling. > Dynamic tests: the system is triggered remotely and unexpectedly while the rider has to perform a complicated riding task. the rider must control the situation at all times. > acoustic safety test: even without ear protection, the noise during inflation is innocuous.

D-aiR® RaciNg is a highly iNNOvaTivE pROTEcTiON sysTEm. cuRRENT mOTORcyclE safETy sTaNDaRDs aRE ONly paRTially ablE TO mEET ThE cERTificaTiON NEEDs Of aN aDvaNcED sysTEm.
Which is why TÜV SÜD Automotive had to develop a new, more appropriate procedure before subjecting the D-air® Racing system to a long series of tests that went far beyond existing standards for personal protective devices.

d-air® racing has passed the motorcycle personal protective equipment tests not only of the current european standards but also of the pre-standards that will come into effect in the future: PPe directive 89/686/eec en 1621.1 local protectors en 1621.2 back protectors pren1621.4 airbag protectors

d-air® PaSSed racing ev and iS t erY teSt he Fir
St Motor cY SYSteM cle airbag certiFie d bY tÜv SÜ d.

trIggerIng algorIthm test (functional safety assessment) the algorithm was tested to check its ability to identify the fingerprint of all relevant crash scenarios and verify its robustness against unwanted inflation for all possible voluntary movements. electronIc safety and system test the d-air® hardware underwent the following tests to establish its reliability in critical conditions: > Electromagnetic radiation and compatibility: d-air does not interfere with other electronic devices in accordance with automotive standards. > Electromagnetic and electrostatic immunity: the operation of the d-air® system is not affected by electromagnetic interference from other electronic devices. > Electrical insulation: the system does not transmit electric shocks to the rider’s body. > climatic tests: waterproofness to Ip54, humidity resistance and repeated thermal cycles. > vibration test. > Drop test.

Which is Why all ThE D-aiR® RaciNg DaTa WE pROviDE DOEsN’T cOmE fROm EsTimaTEs OR cONjEcTuRE buT has bEEN mEasuRED aND pROvEN WiTh ThE RigOuR fOR Which TÜv sÜD is RENOWNED.

24 | D-air® Racing

25 | D-air® Racing

D-AiR RAcing fiRStS
• 15 milliseconds:
the triggering time D-air® Racing can achieve in the most violent crashes.

The features and performance of D-air® Racing make it unique and unlike any other airbag protection system for motorcyclists.

• 4 litres:

the D-air® special high-pressure airbag reduces the force transferred to the shoulder by 85% (measured in accordance with standard EN1621-1).

• 85%:

• 13 patents:

the exclusive technical features of the system are all patented. the D-air® Racing system's triggering algorithm is able to assess the crash dynamics and decide whether or not to deploy the extra protection offered by the system. D-air® Racing is the first system to operate without any physical connection to the motorcycle. Which is why all the riders accept it.

D-air® Racing doesn't need any kind of sensor to be installed on the bike. D-air® Racing features a data acquisition system that can provide riders with valuable information on their track performance. D-air® Racing is the first motorcycle airbag to achieve prestigious TÜV SÜD certification.

• Independence:

the volume of the D-air® Racing airbag, which shields: shoulders, collar bones and upper chest area.

• 7 sensors:

• Intelligence:

• Telemetry:

• 650 grammes:

the rider's movements are constantly analysed by a sophisticated array of sensors integrated in the system hardware.

the total weight of the system with the performance described.

• Ergonomics:

• Certification:

26 | D-air® Racing

27 | D-air® Racing

the pRoject teAm
of in-Depth teStS
on gas generators, airbags, software and hardware.

of extenSiVe ReSeARch

and development on the ergonomics and comfort of the system.

D-air® is the result of research, design, and test programmes begun by D-Tec® in 2000

The D-air® Racing project has from its very inception involved partners who are leaders in their fields:

• D-Tec® Dainese Technology Center:

of SimulAtionS AnD teSting
by renowned certification organisations (TNO, MIRA, CIDAUT, TÜV SÜD, DEKRA).

Formulation of basic system specifications and development requirements, plus research and development of airbag and leather cover technology.

• University of Padua (Dynamotion Unit)

D-AiR® fiRStS
• oVeR 5,000 houRS' DAtA AcquiSition
using a dedicated inertial platform installed in the racing leathers of World Champions and riders at various levels (continually increasing) as part of our rigorous fine-tuning of the triggering algorithm, the electric brain of the system.

DIMEG Engineering Faculty Prof. Vittore Cossalter: Simulations and development of algorithm and sensors.

• 2D Data Recording Systems

Diebold & Debus: Data acquisition, hardware and software development, and data acquisition software.

• TÜV SÜD Automotive GmbH:
Testing and Consulting.

• TÜV SÜD Product Service GmbH:
Testing and Certification.

• ISI:

Gas generator.

• Heatcoat Fabrics:
Air-bag fabrics.

• moRe thAn 100 fAllS - partly with triggering

and partly without activation (when not necessary) in which the system proved its ability to trigger when and only when necessary.

• 50 BetA teSteR have tested D-air® Racing
in regular track use since July 2010.

28 | D-air® Racing

29 | D-air® Racing

D-AiR®RAcing DAtA AcquiSition SyStem



D-air® Racing features data acquisition software developed by the German company 2D, renowned for supplying some of the top teams in F1 and MotoGP, including the professional systems used by the most prestigious MotoGP Racing Teams.

Sports riders can thus benefit from an effective tool for monitoring their riding performance, which records their telemetry data and allows it to be downloaded so they can display it on their own computers. The extensive functions provided include: > acquisition of lap time data and gps speed. > gps telemetry of bike and diagrams in relation to time. e.g.: assessment of braking spaces and lines through bends. > acquisition of acceleration data. > acquisition of lines and plotting on mini map. > compatible with google earth.

> > >

D-air®Racing pRecAutionS The product is homologated and optimized for use on closed racetracks. Before using the product always make sure that the user interface indicates that the system is in full operating order. Carefully Read the User Information and User Manual Supplied with the product.

30 | D-air® Racing

31 | D-air Racing

D-AiR® RAcing cuStomiSAtion AnD SeRVice optionS

D-air®Racing is an intelligent protection system that can be customised to meet each user’s needs and preferences.

(When you buy a D-air® Racing system you also have the option of taking out a maintenance contract. )

32 | D-air® Racing

33 | D-air® Racing

theRe’S A DiffeRence BetWeen A BAg of AiR AnD pRotection.
read all about it:

A geneRic AiRBAg oR D-AiR RAcing?
Accidents on the road are very different from spills on the racetrack. D-air® Racing has been designed specifically for track use, which makes it both more effective and more efficient. World champions Valentino Rossi and Marco Simoncelli can testify to that.

The only reliable way to judge a system’s speed (or lack of it) is to know its Total Intervention Time. Total Intervention Time (TINT) = Triggering Time (TT) + Inflation Time (IT) Giving just one of these two component times (TT or IT) simply doesn’t tell you enough to judge how effective a system is, and could hide the technological inadequacy of the system being considered. In exceptionally severe crashes, D-air Racing can identify the crash event and deploy the airbag in a TINT of just 45 ms*. The bag reaches the full protection performances with a TINT of 95 milliseconds.

Even its deflation is calibrated. The airbag actually deflates automatically after it has performed its protective role, enabling the rider to race off again if possible.

the problems you can get with other systems when you forget to switch them on or off. And of course its high ergonomic standards have been tested and certified by the TÜV.

The gas generator

cABleS oR intelligent pRotection SyStem?
D-air® Racing’s activation technology is far more advanced and intelligent than a simple cable, using a sophisticated triggering algorithm that can actually distinguish between different types of crashes and decide if, how and when to deploy the airbag. When the situation requires, D-air® Racing deploys at top speed. But when the crash dynamics don’t warrant it, the system won’t activate at all, saving unnecessary inspection and refitting costs.

D-air Racing uses a highly-reliable automotive gas generator. Cold technology automotive gas generators are extremely safe and undergo rigorous testing to ensure their performance and reliability over time. What’s more, they can achieve inflation speeds that are 4 to 10 times faster than CO2 generators.

clAimeD peRfoRmAnce oR ceRtifieD peRfoRmAnce?
Every D-air Racing performance parameter has been verified and certified by the TÜV SÜD, a body with leading technological expertise in protection systems and airbag technology. Having passed the tests of European Standards EN 1621-1 and EN 1621-2, plus draft standard prEN 1621-4, the system underwent a further series of demanding tests to verify: ergonomics, airbag, algorithm, electronics, functional safety, batteries, chemistry, protectors. Another highly important test is the non-interference test, which gives you the assurance that even if your airbag is activated without a crash occurring, it won’t prevent you from controlling your bike. All airbags are not equal. Their protection levels can vary greatly. Pay careful attention to a manufacturer’s claims and the reference standards of their declared performance.

fRAnkenStein oR eRgonomicS?
D-air Racing is built on the D-air protection platform, around which all the other components in the protection system were designed. In other words, it’s not some Frankenstein “organ transplant” of an alien system, but a totally new design that combines innovative and traditional protection systems in a synergistic whole that optimises ergonomics, comfort and weight. D-air® Racing is a completely independent system (see point 2) that doesn’t require any kind of installation on the bike. D-air® Racing doesn’t force the rider to make any changes in their racing habits. The way you switch it on, put it in stand-by and switch it off makes it user-friendly and frees you from any of

BAgS of AiR oR cAliBRAteD inflAtion?
The D-air® Racing airbag boasts patented Dainese construction technology that makes it unique. Combining high-pressure inflation and a special internal structure, it assumes a body-hugging shape that provides outstanding rider protection. The inflation pressure and airbag volume are two factors that have a decisive influence on the system’s ability to protect the body areas covered. The anatomically preformed D-air® airbag has a volume of 4 litres and is inflated to a high pressure.

The airbag

For an airbag to provide effective protection, it obviously needs to deploy in the protected area before a severe impact can occur.

* In accordance with pr en 1621-4

WhAt numBeRS cAn you count on?

D-air Racing Authorised Dealers
united kingdoM P & h MotorcYcleS ltd 61-63 gatwick road crawley, west sussex rh10 9rd – gb 0044 1293413300 inFinitY MotorcYcleS ltd Farnboroug 149 lynchford road farnborough, hants gu14 6hg – gb 0044 1252400000 Ja & JM duFF t/a bike StoP 104 high street dw steVenage, herts sg1 3 – gb 0044 1438317038 ridgecaStle ltd t/a Silver Machine Pro ShoP 10 - 11 worcester st. wolVerhampton wV2 4ld – gb 0044 1902424921 trackMargin t/a daineSe Pro ShoP briStol 31, old market street brIstol bs2 ohd – gb 0044 1179252366 d-Store MancheSter unit 1 portland street manchester m1 3be – gb 00441612368948 netherlandS terMaat Motoren hertogstraat 74 6511 – se nIJmegen netherlands 31243229575 arie Molenaar MotorS einsteinweg, 4 3404 – lk IJsselsteIn netherlands 0031306881228 ten kate Motoren b.v. rollecate, 55 7711gg – nIeuwleusen netherlands 0031529488810 MotoModa v.o.F hoogstraat 242Z 5615 – eIndhoVen netherlands 0031 402910747 belgiuM biMoto kortrijksesteenweg 241a 9830 – st.-martens – latem belgIum 003292810204 Sweden Zaeta Motor aminogatan, 23 43153 – moelndal sVeZIa 0046317001710 lelleS Mc-center numansgatan, 6 75106 – uppsala sVeZIa 004618711466 eaStern euroPe avto-triglav doo dunajska 122 1113 – lJublJana sloVenIa 0038615884550 d-Store MoScow kutusovskiy prospect 1/7 121248 – moscow russIa 007-499-2435441 hatabi kFt Vaci ut, 40 1132 – budapest ungherIa 003612394964 koMbineZon ul. Zwyciestwa, 276 75653 – kosZalIn poland 00480943403848 wind-Snow-Moto ul. opolska 18 31323 – krakow poland 0048 12 4169210 a SPirit Vrbova 19 14700 - praha 4 cZech republIc 00420 241 490 666 unite MotorS international soseaua pipera, nr 44 sector 2 014254 – bucharest romanIa 0040212332130 d-garage koZina mestni tgr 8 6240 – koZIna slo 0038 615309650 norwaY YaMaha vinterbro sjoskogenvn, 7 1407 – VInterbro – oslo norVegIa 004764977900 Finland rM heino hiirisuontie 2, 02970 – espoo fInland 00358106170679

It was quite a crash! But apart from the injury to my leg, I was surprised to find I didn’t even have any bruising on my shoulder the day afterwards.

The airbag worked perfectly. It’s a great achievement, especially considering that the leathers lose nothing in comfort. You can hardly feel it’s there.

Valentino Rossi, Mugello 2010


Copyright© 2011 DAINESE S.p.A. All rights reserved. DAINESE S.p.A. reserves the right to change product specifications at any time without incurring obligations. d-air®, d-air® racing and d-tec® are registered trademarks of daineSe S.p.a. via dell’Artigianato n. 35 – 36060 – Molvena (VI) daineSe S.p.a. Head quarter: Via dell’Economia, 91 – 36100 – Vicenza (VI)

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