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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Laboratory

Vth Semester
BTech Civil Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering
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Experiment No. 1

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:

Apparatus consists of a M.S. beam with graduations at every 10cm along the length it is supported of
two knife edge support 70cm apart with a 30 cm overhang on one side. A dial gauge and a
magnetic base are provided with the apparatus.

Apparatus:

A clerk Maxwells theorem apparatus, dial gauge, magnetic base stands, weights etc.

Theory:

Clerk Maxwells theorem, in its simplest form, states that the deflections of any point A of any
elastic structure due to a load P any other point B is the same as the deflection pf B due to the same
load P applied at point A.







Procedure

1. Apply a load either within the simply supported span or within the cantilever portion of the
beam. The deflected form can be obtained.
2. Measure the height of the beam at certain distance (i.e. at a given point) by means of a dial gauge
before and after the loading and determine the deflection of that point.
3. Now move the same load (step 1) to that point and measure the deflection of the section where
the load had been applied in step 1 along the beam at certain distance and for each positions of
the load the deflection of the point is noted where the load was applied in step1.
4. Repeat the above experiment for various sections of the beam.


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Observation Table:

Distance of
section x-x
from left
support K
(cm)

1
Load at
Section
X-X
(kg)


2
Deflection at any section
Y-Y
Distance of
y-y from K
(cm)

3
Beam
unloaded dial
gauge reading
(MM)
4
Beam loaded
dial gauge
reading
(MM)
5
Deflection at
y-y
(MM)
= 4-5
6











Section y-y loaded by
the same load as in
col.
2(kg)

7
Corresponding deflection at x-x (mm)
Beam unloaded dial
gauge reading

8
Beam loaded dial
gauge reading

9
Deflection at x-x
8-9 =

10







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Figures:

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Calculations:

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Results and Comments:

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Experiment No. 2

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:
To study the behavior of different types of columns and to calculate the Eulers buckling load for
each case.

Apparatus:
Column buckling apparatus, weights, vernier caliper, screw gauge, weight container etc.

Theory:
If compressive load is applied on a column, the member may fail either by crushing or by buckling,
depending upon its material, cross section and length. If member is considerably long in comparison
to its lateral dimensions, it will fail by buckling. If a member shows signs of buckling, the member
leads to failure with small increase in load. The load at which the member just buckles is called
buckling or critical load. For a slender column, buckling load is less than the crushing load. The
buckling load, as given by Euler, can be found by using following expression:

2
2
e
l
EI
P

=

Where E = Modules of elasticity
= 2.0 x 10
5
N/mm
2
for steel
I = Least moment of inertia of column section
l e = Effective length of column
P = Critical for buckling load

Depending on support conditions, four cases may arise. The effective length for each of which are
given as under:

Both ends are fixed
le = L/2
One end is fixed and other is pinned
le = L/2
Both ends are pinned
le = L
One end is fixed and other is free
le = 2L
Where, L is distance between points of fixity at top and bottom i.e. unsupported length.

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Figures:

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Apparatus consists of four spring steel columns, which are put along a vertical wooden board. These
four columns have different end conditions as below:

Both ends fixed.

One end fixed and the other pinned.

Both ends pinned.

One end fixed and other end free.


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Procedures:
1. Pin a graph paper on the wooden board behind the column.
2. Apply the load at the top of columns increasing the gradually. At certain stage of loading the
columns shows abnormal deflections and the gives the buckling load.
3. Note the buckling load for each of the four columns.
4. Trace the deflected shapes of the columns over the paper. Mark the points of change of curvature
of the curves and measure the effective length for each case separately.
5. Also calculate the theoretical effective lengths and thus buckling loads by the expression given
above and compare them with the observed values.
Observation Table:
Width of strip (mm) b =

Thickness of strip (mm) t =

Length of strip (mm) L =

Least moment of inertia I =
12
3
bt
=

S. No. End conditions Eulers Buckling load (kg) Effective Length (mm)
Theoretical Observed Theoretical Observed
1 Both ends fixed


2 One end fixed and
other pinned

3 Both ends pinned


4 One end fixed and the
other free.


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Results and Discussions:
1. Calculate the Eulers buckling load for each case.
2. Also calculate the theoretical effective lengths and thus buckling loads by the expression given
above and compare them with the observed values.


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Figures:

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Calculations:

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Results and Comments:

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Experiment No. 3

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:

To determine the elastic displacement of the curved members experimentally and verification of the
same by analytical methods.

Apparatus:
Curved member apparatus dial gauge, vernier caliper, micrometer, meter scale, weights etc.
Theory:
Castiglianos first theorem is used to find the elastic displacements of the curved members. Theorem
state partial derivative of the total strain energy of a structure with respect to any force gives the
displacement of the point of its application in the direction of the force.

The total strain energy of any structure is determined in terms of the entire load with their actual
values and a fictitious load P applied at the point at which the deflection is required and it is acting in
the same direction in which the deflection is required. In case no external load is acting at the joint in
the direction desired, a fictitious load is applied in that direction and forces in all the members are
worked out. After partial differentiation with respect to P, zero is substituted for the fictitious load P
(or if P is not fictitious its actual value is substituted). Thus the result is the required deflection.

In all the cases, the horizontal deflection
BH
and the vertical deflection
BV
due to vertical load W
are to be determined. These deflections are obtained by using castiglianos first theorem where strain
energy due to bending only is taken into account. The results obtained for the four curved members
shall be as follows:

a) Quadrant of a circle
Fixed at A free at B (radius R) and subjected to a concentrated load W at the free end.

Vertical displacement of load point B =
BV
=
EI
WR
4
3



Horizontal displacement of load point B =
BH
=
EI
WR
2
3



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b) Quadrant of a circle with a straight leg
From A to B, quadrant of a circle of radius R, and from B to C is straight a length of y.

Vertical displacement of load point A =
AV
=
EI
y WR
EI
WR
2 3
4
+



Horizontal displacement of load point A =
AH
= ( )
2
2
Y R
EI
WR
+


c) Semicircle with a straight arm
From A to C, a semi circle of radius R, and A to B from straight length of y
Vertical displacement of loaded point B =
BV
= ( ) [ ]
2 2 3
8 2 3 2
6
R yR y R y
EI
W
+ + +
Horizontal displacement of loaded point B =
BH
= ( ) R y
EI
WR
2
2
+
d) Circle of radius R














Vertical displacement of loaded point B =
BV
= ( ) 8
4
2
3

EI
WR

B
W
X X
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Procedure:
1. Place a load on the hanger to activate the member and treat this as the initial position for
measuring deflection.
2. Fix the dial gauges for measuring horizontal and vertical deflections.
3. Place the additional loads at the steps mentioned in the table below for each case and tabulate the
values of dial gauge reading against the applied loads.

Observation Table:
Name of the experiment: Deflection of Curved Member Apparatus
Name of student: Semester Batch Session
Width of section (mm) b =
Depth of section (mm) d =
Last moment of inertia I = bd
3
/12
E (kg/cm
2
) = 2.1 x 10
6


a) Quadrant of a circle
SI. No. Additional
load (kg)
Dial gauge reading (mm) Deflection (mm)
Horizontal
direction
Vertical
direction
Horizontal
direction
Vertical
direction






Results and Discussions:
1. Plot the graph load Vs deflection for each case to show that the structure remains within the
elastic limit.
2. Measure the value of R and straight length in each case. Find width and depth of steel section
and calculate the value of I as bd
3
/12.

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b) Quadrant of a circle with a Straight leg
SI. No. Additional
load (kg)
Dial gauge reading (mm) Deflection (mm)
Horizontal
direction
Vertical
direction
Horizontal
direction
Vertical
direction








c) Semi-circle with a straight arm:
SI. No. Additional
load (kg)
Dial gauge reading (mm) Deflection (mm)
Horizontal
direction
Vertical
direction
Horizontal
direction
Vertical
direction







d) Circle of radius R
SI. No. Additional
load (kg)
Dial gauge reading (mm) Deflection (mm)
Horizontal
direction
Vertical
direction
Horizontal
direction
Vertical
direction






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Comments:

























Precautions:
Apply the loads gently.
Measure the displacements very accurately.

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Figures:

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Calculations:

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Results and comments:

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Experiment No. 4

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:
To verify the moment area theorem regarding the slopes and deflections of the beam.

Apparatus:
Apparatus of elastic properties of beam, weights, dial gauge, meter scale etc.

Theory:
Accordingly to moment area theorem:
1. The change of slope of the tangents of the elastic curve between any two points of the deflected
beam is equal to the area of M/EI diagram between these two points.
2. The deflection of any two points relative to tangent at any other point is equal to the moment of
the area of the M/EI diagram between the two points about the point at which the deflection is
required.



From fig.

Slope at B =
b
Y
2

Since the tangent at C is horizontal due to symmetry,
Slope at B =
(

\
|
+ = a
L
Wa
Wa
EI EI
shadedarea
2 2
1
3

Displacement at B with respect to tangent at C
= (y
1
+ y
2
) =
EI
B about area shaded of Moment

1/EI [Waxa/2(b+2/3a) + Wa (L/2 a) (b+a/2+L/4)]

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Procedure:
1. Measure a, b and L of the beam.
2. Place the hanger at equal distance from the supports A and load them with equal loads.
3. Measure the deflection by dial gauges at the end B (y
2
) and at the centre C (y
1
).
4. Repeat the above steps for different loads.
Length of main span, L (cm) =
Length of overhang on each side, a (cm) =
Modules of elasticity, E (kg/cm
2
) calculated = 2.1 x 10
6


SI. No. Load at each
hanger (kg)
Central
deflection
y
1
(cm)
Deflection at
free end
y
2
(cm)
Slope at B
b
y
2

Deflection at C
(y
1
) cm =
Deflection at B
(y
2
) cm =







Result and Discussions:
1. Calculate the slope at B as
b
y
2
(measured value).
2. Compute slope and defection at B theoretically from B.M.D. and compare with experimental
values.
3. Deflection at C = y
1
(measured value).
4. Deflection at C = Average calculated value.

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Comments:
The moment area theorems may often be used more conveniently in the computation of slopes and
deflection of beams and frames, practically when concentrated rather than distributed loads cause the
deformation. These theorems are based on a consideration of the geometry of the elastic curve of the
beam and the relation between the rate of change of slope and the bending moment at a point on the
elastic curve.

Precaution:
Apply the concentration loads without jerks.
Measures the deflection only when the beam attains equilibrium.
Measure deflection very carefully and accurately.
Check accuracy and least count of dial gauges used for measuring deflection.



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Figures:

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Calculations:

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Results and comments:

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Experiment No. 5

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:
To find the value of flexural stiffness (EI) for a given beam and compare it with theoretical value.

Apparatus:
Apparatus of Elastic properties of beam, weights, dial guage, meter scale etc.

Theory:
For the beam with two equal overhangs and subjected to two concentrated loads W each at the free
ends, the maximum deflection y at the centre is given by

Central upward deflection,
EI
L a w
y
8
. .
2
= (1)

Where,
a = length of overhang on each side
W = load applied at the free ends
L = main span
E = modulus of elasticity of the material of the beam
I = moment of inertia of cross section of the beam

y
L a w
EI
8
. .
2
= (2)
Also it is known that EI for beam =
12
2
bd E
(3)
Where, b = width of beam
d = depth of beam

Procedure:
1. Find b and d of the beam and calculate the theoretical value of EI by Eq.(3).
2. Measure the main span and overhang span of the beam with a scale.
3. By applying equal loads at the free end of overhang beam, find the central deflection y.
4. Repeat the above steps for different loads.

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Observation table:

Length of main span, L (cm) =
Length of overhang on each side, a (cm) =
Width of beam, b (cm) =
Depth of beam, d (cm) =
Modulus of elasticity, E (kg/cm
2
) = 2.1 X 10
6



S. No. Equal loads at the two ends
(kg)
Dial guage reading at
the mid span of beam
(cm)
EI from Eq.3
(kg./cm
2
)
EI from Eq.2
(kg./cm
2
)













Average value of EI from observation = ------------- kg/cm
2

Average value of EI from calculation = ------------- kg/cm
2














Results and Discussions:
1. Calculate the experimental value of EI by Eq. (2).
2. Compare the experimental value of EI with theoretical values.


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Comments:





































Precaution:
Measure the central deflection y very accurately.
Ensure that the beam is devoid of initial curvature.
Loading should be within the elastic limit of the materials.




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Figures:



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Calculations:


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Results and Comments:




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Experiment No. 6

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:
To study experimentally a three hinged arch for the horizontal and vertical displacement of the roller
end for a given system of loading and to compare the same with those obtained analytically.

Apparatus:

Three hinged arch apparatus, weights etc.

Theory:
A three hinged arch is a determinate structure with the axial thrust assisting in maintaining the
stability. The horizontal thrust H in the arch for a number of loads can be obtained as follows:

Taking moment about A
R
B
x L = W
1
a
1
+ W
2
a
2
+ W
3
a
3

R
B
=
L
W3a3 W2a2 W1a1 + +


Taking moment about B

RA =
( ) ( ) ( )
L
a L w a L w a L w 3 3 2 2 1 1 + +


Taking moment of all the forces on left hand side of C about C, we get
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
L
RA a
L
W a
L
W r H = |

\
|
+ |

\
|
+
H= 1/r[1/2 {W1(L-a1)+ W2(L-a2)+ W3(L-a3)} W1(L/2-a1) W2(L/2-a2)] (1)

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The value of horizontal reactions H can be evaluated by eq. (1).

The influence line of any reaction at a point is a graph showing the variation of load functions like
reactions, moments, shear forces, stress or deflections at a point for various position of unit moving
load. Therefore to draw the influence line for H, a load of 1kg is placed at varying distance X from
either of the supports.

Let a load of 1 kg be placed at a distance x from A.

RB = X taking moment about C of all the forces on R.H.S. of C, we have
L
r
x
H
r H
L
L
x
2
0 .
2
.
=
=







The eq. (1) is an equation of a straight line and gives the influence line diagram for the horizontal
reaction H.

Procedure:
1. Use lubricating oil at the roller end of the arch so as to have a free movement of the roller end.
Balance the self weight of the arch by placing load on hanger for horizontal thrust until the best
equilibrium conditions is obtained. Under this condition, the roller end of the arch has a tendency
to move inside on tapping the table. Note down the load in kg.
2. Place a few loads on the arch in any chosen positions. Balance these by placing additional
weights on the hanger for horizontal thrust. The additional weights on the thrust hanger give the
experimental value of the horizontal thrust.
3. To obtain the influence line for H, place a load of 2 kg in turn on each hanger, one by one and
find the balancing weight required on the thrust hanger.
4. Plot the ordinate representing of the balancing weights on the load positions as base. This
gives the influence line diagram for horizontal thrust.


L/2 L/2
L
4r

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Observation:
Span of the arch, L = 100cm
Central rise r = 25cm
Initial load on the thrust hanger for balancing, kg = 3kg 600gm

Table 1

SI.
No.
Load on hanger member
from roller end
Total load
on thrust
hanger (kg)
Distance from
left hand
support (cm)
Additional
load on thrust
hanger H (kg)
Calculated
value of
H (kg) Set No. Load (kg)
Set I

W1
W2
W3




a1
a2
a3






Table 2

Initial load on the thrust hanger to balance self weight of arch = ...............kg
.......kg load at hanger number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Balancing weight on thrust
hanger (kg)


Net weights (kg)


Influence line ordinate (net
weight/2) observed

Calculated value of influence
line ordinate




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Results and Discussion:
1. Find the horizontal thrust for a given set of load experimentally and theoretically.
2. Plot the observed and calculated values of influence line ordinates on the same graph and
comment on the accuracy obtained in the two cases.

Precautions:
Put the weights in thrust hanger very gently without a jerk.
Measure the distance of loaded points from left hand support accurately.
Perform the experiment away from vibration and other disturbances.


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Figures:
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Calculations:

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Results and Comments:

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Experiment No. 7

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:
1. To determine the yield stress of mild steel.
2. To determine the ultimate stress of mild steel.
3. To determine the breaking stress of mild steel.
4. To determine the reduction in area of mild steel.
5. To determine the percentage elongation of mild steel.
6. To determine the modulus of elasticity of mild steel.
Apparatus
1. Universal testing machine (UTM).
2. Extensometer.
3. Scale.
4. Vernier calipers etc.
Theory
When a mild steel bar is subjected to increasing tensile stress it passes from elastic range to plastic
range before it reaches the ultimate and fails.
Procedure:
1. The diameter of the given rod is measured accurately.
2. The gauge length is marked to determine the elongation.
3. Assuming the ultimate stress of the material, the load range is chosen in UTM for the given mild
steel rod. The required ultimate load can be calculated by multiplying the area of the rod and
assumed stress.
4. The test specimen is fixed between the steel grips of the UTM taking care to see that the load
will be applied axially and the extensometer is fixed.
5. The load is applied gradually until the specimen is broken.
6. The specimen is removed from UTM and the length and diameter are measured.
7. The loads corresponding to yield and failure are noted. The yield stress, the ultimate stress,
stress-strain graph and youngs modulus can be calculated.
8. The above experiment can also be done using computer interface and all the results of the
experiment along with the necessary graphs will be available in the form of print out.
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Observation table:
%

o
f

r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n



%

o
f

e
l
o
n
g
a
t
i
o
n



B
r
e
a
k
i
n
g

s
t
r
e
s
s

N
/
m
m
2


L
o
a
d

a
t

f
a
i
l
u
r
e


U
l
t
i
m
a
t
e

s
t
r
e
s
s

N
/
m
m
2


U
l
t
i
m
a
t
e

l
o
a
d



Y
i
e
l
d

s
t
r
e
s
s

N
/
m
m
2


Y
i
e
l
d

l
o
a
d



A
r
e
a

m
m
2


F
i
n
a
l



I
n
i
t
i
a
l



D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r


(
m
m
)

F
i
n
a
l



I
n
i
t
i
a
l


G
a
u
g
e

l
e
n
g
t
h


(
m
m
)

F
i
n
a
l



I
n
i
t
i
a
l



S
r
.

n
o
.



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Figures:


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Calculations:
1. Simple stress = P/A
2. Strain e = L/L
3. Youngs modulus = Stress /strain
4. Yield stress = Yield point load
Area
5. Ultimate stress = Ultimate load
Area
6. % elongation = Length of specimen at failure original length

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Graph:


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Results and comments:
1. The yield stress of material = N/mm
2

2. The ultimate stress of material = N/mm
2

3. % of elongation of material =
4. % of reduction in cross sectional area =
5. Youngs modulus of mild steel = N/mm
2


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Experiment No. 8

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:
To study experimentally a two hinged arch for the horizontal displacement of the roller end for a
given system of loading and compare the same with those obtained analytically.

Apparatus:
Two hinged arch apparatus, weights, dial gauge, meter scale etc.

Theory:
The two hinged arch is a statically indeterminate structure of the first degree. The horizontal thrust is
the redundant reaction and is obtained by the use of strain energy methods.
The model has a span of 100cm and rise 25cm. both ends are hinged but one of the ends is also free
to move longitudinally. A lever arrangement is fitted at this end for the application of known
horizontal inward force for measuring the horizontal thrust. Along the horizontal span of the arch
various points are marked at equidistant for the application of load. This being a statically
indeterminate structure of the first degree. A dial gauge with magnetic base is supplied with the
apparatus.
Two-hinged is determinate by treating it as a simply supported curved beam and horizontal thrust as
a redundant reaction. The arch spreads out under external load as shown. This result in a horizontal
displacement of support B by
1
. Here, deflection due to flexure only has been considered. Since the
support conditions dictate that the final displacement at support B should be zero, horizontal reaction
H should be such that displacement
2
caused by H must satisfy the condition.
0
0
1
2 1
= +
= +
H f

Where, f is the displacement caused by a unit force applied in the direction of H.
f
H
1

= (1)
Therefore it is required to calculate the horizontal displacement in arch caused by external load as
well as unit horizontal force.
The horizontal displacement in a curved member can be found by either Castiglanos second
theorem or the unit load method.



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=
=
=
=
EI
ds m
EI
Mmds
H therefore
EI
ds
m f similarly
EI
ds
Mm
EI
ds
H
M
M H
B
A
B
A
B
A
2
2
..
..

(2)

Where, M = Bending moment on any point on the arch due to given loading.
m =Moment on any point on the arch due to a unit horizontal force applied at B in the direction of H.
The expression given by equation (2) will become simpler provided the curve of the arch axis is
parabolic and moment of inertia of curve at any section varies as I = I
0
sec where is the angle
between the horizontal and tangent to the arch axis at that particular point.
Io = moment of inertia at the crown
I = moment of inertia at any other section
m = y
ds = sec dx

It may be noted that the integration is to be carried out from 0 to L then Eq. (2) will become

=
L
O
L
O
dx y
Mydx
H
2
(3)
And
1
= horizontal displacement =

L
O
EI
mydx
0

For a concentrated load W at the crown it is found that
Horizontal displacement
1
=
o
EI
r WL
2
48
5
(4)
Where, L is the span of arch and r is the rise.

The horizontal movement of the roller end can be found by this method for any position of the load
on the arch.
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The ordinates for the influence line diagram for H at any distance z = aL from L.H.S. can be
obtained as follows:
L x z for x L
L
Wz
M
z x for z L
L
Wx
M
< < =
< < =
. ) (
0 ) (


Now H can be evaluated using Eq. (3)


=
(

|
|

\
|
=
+ +
=
(

+
(

=
L
O
L
O
z
L
Z
Z
O
L
O
Lr dx
L
x
L
x
r dx y
L
Z Lz L z L W
dx
L
x
L
x
r
L
x L Wz
dx
L
x
L
x
r z L
L
Wx
Mydx
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
15
8
4
3
) )( (
4
) (
4 ) (


H = - 5/8 Wz/rL
3
(L-z) (L
2
+Lz-Z
2
)

Now substituting z = aL

We have H = - 5/8 WL/r (a-2a
3
+a
4
)

Influence line ordinate are given by

ILO = 5/8 L/r (a-2a
3
+a
4
)



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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to measure the movement of the roller end of the model and keep the lever out
of contact.
2. Place a load of 0.5 kg on the central hanger of the arch to remove any slackness and taking this
as the initial position, set the reading on the dial gauge to zero.
3. Now add 1kg weights to the hanger and tabulated the horizontal movement of the roller end with
increase in the load in steps of 1kg. Take the reading up to 5kg load. Dial gauge reading should
be noted at the time of unloading also.
4. Plot a graph between the load and displacement (theoretical and experimental) compare.
Theoretical values should be computed by Eq. (4)
5. Now the in contact with 200gm hanger on ratio 4/1 position with 1kg load on the first hanger.
Set the initial reading of the dial gauge to zero.
6. Place additional 5kg load on the first hanger without shock and observe the dial gauge reading.
7. Restore the dial gauge reading to zero by adding loads to the lever hanger, say the load is w kg.
8. The experimental value of the influence line ordinate at the first hanger position shall be 4w/5.
9. Repeat the steps 5 to 8 for all other hanger loading positions and tabulate. Plot the influence
line ordinates.
10. Compare the experimental values with those obtained theoretically by using Eq. (5).
Observation table:
Table 1
Horizontal displacement
S.No. Central load (kg)

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
1 Observed horizontal
displacement (mm)

2 Calculated horizontal
displacement Eq.(4) (mm)


Table-2
Influence Line Ordinate
S.N. Load of 5kg applied to
hanger number
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 Weight w kg required
on the lever 4/1 ratio to
balance 20kg load

2 Influence line ordinate
= 4w/5
Calculated ILO using
Eq.(5)


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Precautions:
Apply the loads without jerk.
Perform the experiment away from vibration and other disturbances.

Figures:
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Calculations:
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Results and Comments:



P a g e | 54

Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Experiment No. 9

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:
To study the behavior of a cantilever beam under symmetrical and unsymmetrical bending.

Theory:
Apparatus consist of an angle of size 1 x 1x 1/8 or equivalent metric units of length 80cm is tied
as a cantilever beam. The beam is fixed at one end such that the rotation of 45
0
intervals can be given
and clamped such that the principal axis of its cross-section may be inclined at any angle with the
horizontal and vertical plane. Also arrangement is provided to apply vertical load at the free end of
the cantilever and to measure horizontal and vertical deflection of the free end. A dial gauge with
magnetic base is supplied with the apparatus.

A member may be subjected to a bending moment, which acts on a plane inclined to the principal
axis (say). This type of bending does not occur in a plane of symmetry of the cross section, it is
called unsymmetrical bending. Since the problem related to flexure in general differs from
symmetrical bending, it may be termed as skew bending.

One of the basic assumptions in deriving the flexural formula f = MY/I is that the plane of the load is
perpendicular to the neutral axis. Every cross-section has got two mutually perpendicular principal
axes of inertia, about one of which the moment of inertia is the maximum and about the other a
minimum. It can be shown that a symmetric axis of cross-section is one of the principal axis and one
at right angles to the same will be the other principal axis.

For beams having unsymmetrical cross-section such as angle (L) or channel (C) sections, if the plane
of loading is coincident with or parallel to one of the principal axis, the bending is not simple. In that
case it is said to be unsymmetrical or non-uniplaner bending.

In the present experiment for a cantilever beam of an angle section, the plane of loading is always
kept vertical and the angle iron cantilever beam itself is rotated through angles in steps of 45
0
.

Considering the position of angle iron wherein the plane of loading makes an angle with V-V axis
of the section, which is one of the principal axes of the section. The components of the vertical load
P along V-V and U-U axis are Pcos and Psin respectively.

The deflection U and V along U-U and V-V axis respectively are given by
U = Psin . L
3
/ 3EI
VV
(1)

V = Psin . L
3
/ 3EI
UU
(2)
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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
And the magnitude of resultant deflection
oo
, is given by

= (U)
2
+ ()
2
(3)

And its direction is given by
U
V

=
1
tan (4)
Where, is the inclination of the resultant deflection with the U-U axis? This resultant
displacement is perpendicular to the neutral axis n-n but not in the plane of load P.

OO =
OP = V
OQ = X
OP = U
OQ = Y

cot
3
. cos
3
. cos
'
tan
3
3
UU
VV
VV
UU
I
I
EI
L P
EI
L P
OP
P O
U
V
=
= =

=
(5)

For the angle section used in the present experiment IUU and IVV can be known from the tables of
Bureau of Indian standards handbook, for properties of standard sections. Therefore a given angle ,
the magnitude of angle can be find out.

The horizontal and vertical components of the deflection can be calculated on the basis of the
geometry available as shown. It can be seen:
X = cos( + ) (6)
Y = sin ( + )
Similarly,
X = U cos - V sin (7)
Y = U sin + V cos


Therefore, the procedure of calculating the deflections would be
Calculate U and V using equations (1) and (2).
Compute using equations (3).
Compute using equations (4) and to check the values by using the equation (5).
Calculate the required values of X and Y using equations (5) and (6) separately
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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Procedure:
1. Clamp the beam at zero position and put a weight of 500gms (5N) on the hanger and take the
zero loading on the beam to activate the member.
2. Set the dial gauge zero reading to measure vertical and horizontal displacement at the free end of
the beam.
3. Load the beam in steps of 1kg (10N) up to 4kg and note the vertical and horizontal deflections
each time.
4. Repeat the steps (1) to (3) turning the beam through 45
0
intervals. Problem of unsymmetrical
bending will arise only in those cases where the legs of the angle section are in horizontal and
vertical positions. In those cases both vertical and horizontal deflections need to measure.

Observation table:
Material of beam =
Youngs modulus of the material (E) =
Span of cantilever beam (L) =
Section properties
Size =
Ixx = cm
4

Iyy = cm
4

Iuu = cm
4

Ivv = cm
4

Area = cm
4


S.No. Angle
(degree)
Load
(kg) (N)
Observed deflection
(mm)
Measured deflection
(mm)
X Y X Y
1 0
2 45
0

3 90
0

4 135
0

5 180
0

6 225
0

7 270
0

8 315
0


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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Precaution:
Take care to see that you do not exert force on the free end of the cantilever beam.
Put the load on the hanger gradually without any jerk.
Perform the test at a location, which is free from vibration.

Figures:
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Calculations:
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Results and Comments:







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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Experiment No. 10

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:
To verify Muller Breslaus principle and to find the influence line ordinates for component of the
reaction at section for an intermediate structure by introducing measurable deformations with the
help of the Beggs Deformeter.

Apparatus:
Muller Breslau Beggs Deformeter different plugs and plastic sheet/Acrylic/Perspex etc.

Theory:
Various methods are available to verify Muller Breslaus principle such as Brass Wire Method
Beggs Deformeter, Eney Deformeter and Gottschalk Continental Method.The Beggs Deformeter
Method is usually the most satisfactory experiment method. The principal states the ordinate of the
influence line for any stress element (such as axial stress, shear, moment or reaction ) at any section
of the structure are proportional to those deflection curve which is obtained by removing the restraint
corresponding to that element from the structure and introducing in its place a deformation in to the
structure which remains.
This principal is applicable to any of type of structure whether statically determinate or
indeterminate, in case of indeterminate structure this principal is limited to structure, the material of
which is elastic and follows Hooks law.

The principal is Beggs deformeter apparatus involves the use of the relation.
F
2
= k
pn

2
n


F
2
= desired force component at point 2, produced by p
n


P
2
= force assumed to be acting on structures at point n

K = a constant; scale reduction factor if F
2
is a moment component or unity if F
2
is a
Thrust or shear component

2
= Deformation introduced at point 2 in the direction of F
2


n = Deformation at point n, caused by F
2
and measured in the direction of Pn.

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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
The equipment consists of sets of deformeter gauges. Filler micrometer microscope, celluloid
models of different type of structures and a set of different types of plugs. Deformeter gauge can be
attached to the model to give known amount of deformation with the help of deformation plugs.
Plugs are as spaces between gauge bars, which are pulled toward each other by means of springs.
Filler micrometer microscope is provided to measure the displacement of as target point at a certain
scale. Since only the ratio n/
2
is involved in the calculations it is only necessity that the magnitude
of each displacement be expressed in the same unity and the most convenient unit is microscope
unit.


The model of cantilever beam provided to calibrate the different plugs. While other models are to
find influence line coordinates for that structure. It is desirable that each time the gauge plugs are
changed the deflections need not be measured at the gauge because the gauge is prcised instrument
and so long as the same plugs are used and care is taken in keeping the parts clean, it is safe ti
assume that the effect for inserting or changing a given set of plugs is always the same. If this effect
can be accurately determined at start of each set of plugs, it is only necessary to measure the known
deflection at point of assumed loading. This is called the calibration of beggs deformeter for various
set of plugs like thrust, moment, shear or reaction.

Procedure:
Preparation of Models:
1. Choose the problem for the study e.g. portal frame of equal/unequal legs, beams, trusses or any
other structures.
2. Choose the scale reduction factor the linear dimensions that will give a model of a size to be
made easily and used conveniently. For most structures this factor will be of such a value as to
allow the model to cut from a standard sheet.
3. Select the material for model e. g. plastic sheet/Acrylic/Perspex or any other desired sheet the
width and thickness should remain same throughout the length used.
4. Cut the model in the selected shape/size. Mark the centerline throughout the model length
otherwise every time one should have to find out the center.

Mounting of Gauge:
The Beggs deformeter gauge is shown in figure 1. This gauge furnished a mean of introducing a
small-predetermined amount of axial, lateral or angular displacement. As can be seen from the
figure, the essentials are two gauge bars separated by two gauge plugs and kept them in contact with
these plugs by compression springs.
It is important in mounting the gauge on the model to have its centers of the normal plugs, at right
angles to the center line of the member. The gauge should also be placed very close to their correct
theoretical position when being used as support. None of these requirements is unreasonable if one
exercises a fair amount of care and neat workmanship.

Mounting of Model:
If it is desired to determine force component at point in the model, which are cot point of support, it
will be necessary for the gauge to be able to move freely with the model as it is deflected. A
convenient means of supporting the gauge as a floating gauge is shown in figure 1. The model itself
is supported on balls, which roll on the other pieces of glass underneath. A sufficient thickness of
glass is placed under each ball to hold the model in a horizontal plane. Small rings are placed around
the steel balls to prevent them from rolling off of the glass as model may be temporarily lifted from
time to time.
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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Functioning of Plugs:
By inserting the thrust plugs in place of the normal plugs it is possible to change the distance
between the bars while maintaining them parallel and their center lines coincident. The shear plugs
will cause the bars to be displaced laterally, but keep them parallel and the same distance apart as the
normal plugs did. The moment plugs will cause the bars to make an angle with each other but
prevent a widening of the gap at the centerline or a shear displacement, by introducing small
deflection in both directions from the normal position.

Use of Micrometer Microscope:
A filler micrometer microscope has been found most convenient for measuring the deflection at the
point of assumed loading. The field of view of one of the microscope is shown in figure 2. The only
unusual feature is that the fixed scale is at 45
0
with the two movable cross hairs. This arrangement
makes it possible to read both horizontal and vertical deflections with the same orientation of the
microscope, or to orient conveniently on line and read deflections in a direction at right angle to it.

Filler microscope is specially designed for this study. The inner scale is graduated and one part of
inner scale is again divided into 100 equal parts by microscope fitted outside. Adjust the cross hair
for final readings with the help of Micrometer with out disturbing the position of microscope. The
microscope must be carefully oriented; else it will not read the desired deflections.

The target is observed by bringing the cross hair tangent to the edge of object dot rather than trying
to bisect it is always better to fix the initial position of the target with respect to cross hair i.e. above
horizontal cross hair when measuring vertical deflections and towards the right of the vertical cross
hairs when measuring the horizontal deflections. There is hardly any chance of committing an error
for observing final deflections.

Calibration of Different Plugs of Beggs Deformeter:
(a) Place the target preferably a very small black ink dot, near one end of the cantilever beam.
Firmly screw the fixed bar of one of the gauges to a drawing board. Mount the specimen in the
gauge with the target at 12 cm from the center line through the center of the normal plugs.
(b) Set the microscope over the black ink dot target when the normal plugs are in the gauge. Firstly
adjust the eyepiece of microscope for parallax and bring the cross hairs into focus. Then focus
the object lens of microscope on the target by raising or lowering the tube containing the optical
parts. Finally orient the cross hair by revolving it about the central vertical axis of the tube until a
cross hair is parallel to the line of reference on the specimen. Now various gauge plugs are
calibrated.
(c) For the calibration of thrust plugs first the normal plugs are removed and the smaller set of thrust
plugs are inserted into the gauges and the position of the target are observed. The difference
between the two readings will be the motion of the gauge bar expressed in microscope units
caused by changing from smaller thrust plugs to the larger thrust plugs. This is called the
calibration constant for the thrust. The change of plugs should be made quite smoothly without
jerks with the help of wedges provided with the gauges. The order of using the thrust plugs must
be same. While using the plugs on models so that there is no confusion as the sign of stress
component.
(d) For the calibration of the shear plugs, these plugs are inserted in the V notch of the gauge bars
with flat sides of the plugs parallel to the flat sides of the V notches and both the plugs should
have same orientation. The position of the target is observed. Now the plugs are removed and
reinserted by rotating them through 90
0
and position of target is observed with the same
crosshair. The difference between these two reading will be the motion at the gauge in the
P a g e | 63

Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
microscope divisions caused by reverting the shear plugs and is known as calibration constant for
shear.
(e) To calibrate for moment plugs, the smaller of the plugs are inserted in one pair of V notches and
the larger one in the remaining pair. Then the position of the target is observed. Now the plugs
are interchanged and the position of target is again observed with same cross hairs. The
difference between these two reading divided by the distance from the target to the center of
rotation of the gauge (12) will give the rotation in microscope divisions/unit distance and is used
as a calibration constant for moment.

It is desirable that each operator of the Beggs deformities apparatus should make his own
calibration of the plugs against each microscope that is to be used, to ensure the accuracy in
calibration constant and also allow for personal errors.

Influence Line Ordinates:
(a) A white celluloid two dimensional model of portal frame (figure.3) is taken which is
mounted with Beggs deformeter gauges at the two support attends and laid on to the top of
drawing table.
(b) For finding out the influence line ordinate at three different point marked 1,2,3 using thrust,
shear and moment plugs one by at each point and the observation are recorded in the table-1
and then the theoretical ordinate line is compared with the experimental values in table-2
(c) Theoretical values of influence line ordinate a point 1 should be those for which, moment
shear and thrust are method. Similarly influence line ordinate for point 2 and 3 be obtained.

Observation table:
Table -1
Calibrations of plugs:
S.N. Points Thrust Shear Moment Calibration
constant







S.No Points Thrust Shear Moment

Observed Calculated Observed Calculated Observed Calculated

1


2


3




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Figures:

P a g e | 65

Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Calculation:

P a g e | 66

Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Result and Comments:


P a g e | 67

Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Experiment No. 11

Name ________________________ Roll No._________________ Group / Batch No.____________

Date ___________Marks / Grade________________ Facultys Signature______________________


Aim:
To calculate experimentally and theoretically the loads in the three suspension rods supporting an
elastic beam with a concentrated load hung midway between two of suspension rods under two
conditions.

1. When the suspension rods are attached at their upper ends to rigid supports.
2. When upper end of the central suspension rod is attached to the centre of a similar elastic beam.

APPARATUS:

Three parallel bar suspension system with elastic beam, at their upper and lower ends. Suspension
rods, vertical wooden board

Theory
Let R , R , R , be the internal forces in the three suspension rods AD, BE and CF respectively.
Lengths AD=BE=CF=L

Lengths AD=BE= DE=CF=L

Moment of inertia of the cross section of the beam ABC and DEF=I

Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material of the beam ABC and DEF=E

Modulus of elasticity of the material of rods AD, BE and CF=E
1
, E
2
, E
3
respectively.

Cross sectional area of rods AD, BE and CF=A
1
, A
2
, A3

respectively.

Condition 1
When support B exists, the beam ABC becomes in-operative. The central deflection at point E, of
beam DEF due to load W at G and the upward force R
2
at E, relative to the deflected positions of
points D and F is given by
Y=
96
11
FI
WL3
-
EI
L R
6
3 2
(1)
The case is equivalent to simply supported beam supported at D and F subjected to loads W and R
2
at G and E respectively. Now it is required to find the deflection at the point E. the deflection shall
be obtained by area moment theorem for two different loading.
' DD =
8
3
2
3
2
1
2 3
2
8
3
2 2
1

L L
EI
WL L

|

\
|
+ +
2
3
3
1
2
L L
EI
WL
=
EI
WL
3
16
5

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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
' EE =
EI
WL DD
3
32
5
2
'
=
" ' E E =
3 4
1
2
1 L
L
EI
WL

=
EI
WL
24
3


Downward deflection due to W

y
1
= " ' ' " E E EE EE =
=
|

\
|

24
1
32
5
3
EI
WL

=
EI
WL
3
96
11


Also,

EI
L R
L L
EI
L R
DD
2
2
2 2
1
"
3
2 2
= =

EI
L R
DD EE
2
"
2
1
'
3
2
1
= =

EI
L R L
L
EI
L R
E E
12 3 2 2
1
" '
3
2 2
1 1
= =

Upward deflection due to R
2


y
2
=
1 1 1 1
" ' ' " E E EE EE =

EI
L R
EI
L R
6 12
1
4
1
3
2
3
2
=
|

\
|
=

Net deflection y at point E = y
1
y
2 =

EI
L R
EI
WL
6 96
11
3
2
3

Let elongation of suspension rod AD=Y
1


Elongation of suspension rod BE=Y
2


Elongation of suspension rod CF=Y
3
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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Then total deflection of point E relative to its original position is

Y
2
=
EI
L R
EI
WL Y Y
6 96
11
2
3
2
3
2 1
+
+
(2)

Now, we know that Y
1
= ,
1 1
1
E A
L R
Y
2
= ,
2 2
2
E A
L R
and Y
3
=
3 3
3
E A
L R


Substituting the values of Y
1
, Y
2
, and Y
3
in Eq. (2)

EI
L R
EI
WL
E A
L R
E A
L R
E A
L R
6
3
96
11
2
1
2
3
3 3
3
1 1
1
2 2
2
+
|
|

\
|
+ = (3)
Also, R
1
+R
2
+R
3
= W (4)

Taking moment of all the forces about F, we get

R
1
= 2L -W
|

\
|
L
2
3
+R
2
L = 0

R
1
=
2 4
3
2
R
W (5)

Now solving Eq.(3), (4) and (5) we get the values of R
1
, R
2
and R
3.
From Eq. (3) be substituting the
values of R
1
, R
2
and R
3.
From Eq. (4) and (5).

EI
L R
EI
WL
E A
L
R
W R W
E A
L
R
W
E A
L R
6 96
11 2 4
3
2 4
3
2
1
2
3
3 3
2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
+
(
(
(
(

\
|
+
+
|

\
|

=
3 3 1 1
3 3
3 3 1 1 2 2
2
8
1
8
3
96
11
6 4 4 E A
WL
E A
WL
EI
WL
EI
L
E A
L
E A
L
E A
L
R + + =
(

+ + +

=
(

+ +
3 3 1 1
3
3
12
11
8 E A
L
E A
L
EI
L W

(

+ + +
(

+ +
=
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
W
R
3
3 2 1
3
3 1
2
3
2
4
12
11
3
2
(6)
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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Where,
3 3
3
2 2
2
1 1
1
, ,
E A
L
K
E A
L
K
E A
L
K = = =

(

+ + + +
(

+ + +
=
(

+ + +
(

+ +
=
EI
L
K K K K
EI
L
K K
EI
L
K K K
W
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
W
W R
12
11
4
12
11
3
2
3 12 3
4
3
2
4
12
11
3
4 4
3
3 3 2 1
3
2 1
3
3 2 1
3
3 2 1
3
3 1
1
=
(

+ + +
(

+ +
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
W
3
3 2 1
3
3 2
3
2
4
12
13
2 12
4
(7)

And R
3
= W-R
1
-R
2

= W-
(

+ + +
(

+ +

+ + +
(

+ +
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
W
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
W
3
3 2 1
3
3 1
3
3 2 1
3
3 2
3
2
4
12
11
3
2
3
2
4
12
13
2 12
4

(

+ + +
(

+ + +
=
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
EI
L
K K
EI
L
K K K
W
3
3 2 1
3
3 1
3
3 2
3
3 2 1
3
2
4
6
11
2 6
12
13
2 12
3
8
4 16 4
4


(

+ + +
(

+
=
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
W
3
3 2 1
3
2 1
3
2
4
4
1
4 2
4
(8)
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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Condition II

When the upper end of the central suspension rod is attached to the centre of a similar elastic beam.
This is achieved by removing the support at B, then beam AC will also deflect due to load R2
applied at its center. Here the total deflection of point E relative to its original position as given by
Eq. (3) is equal to the elongation of member BE+ the central deflection of beam ABC and Eq (3)
will modified to

EI
L R
EI
WL
E A
L R
E A
L R
EI
L R
E A
L R
6 96
11
2
1
6
3
2
3
3 3
3
1 1
1 3 2
2 2
2
+
|
|

\
|
+ = + (3A)

Now solution of Eqs.(3A), (4) and (5) will yield the value of R
1
, R
2
and R
3
.

(

+ + +
(

+ +
=
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
W
R
3
3 2 1
3
3 1
2
3
4
4
12
11
3
2
(9)


(

+ + +
(

+ +
=
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
W
R
3
3 2 1
3
3 2
1
3
4
4
12
37
2 12
4
(10)

And
(

+ + +
(

+ +
=
EI
L
K K K
EI
L
K K
W
R
3
3 2 1
2 1
3
3
4
4
12
5
4 2
4
(11)
Here,
AE
L
K = for any spring is extension of the spring per unit load. This could be determined by
plotting a graph between the load and extension of spring separately.

Procedure:
1. Find out the value of K, extension per unit load for the each spring separately.
2. Tighten the screws at the top of the beam ABC for making the supports rigid to achieve
condition I. Load the beam DEF at the quarter point by 200gms to initialize the system. Now
apply the load in step of 1kg up to 4kg and measure the extension of the spring for knowing the
force in the member.
3. Now release the middle screw so that the top beam ABC also becomes operative to achieve
condition II. Load the lower beam in the step of 1kg up to 4kg and measure extension in the
spring for calculating the forces.

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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Observation table:
Table 1
Spring constants
AE
L
K =
S.No. Spring AD Spring BE Spring CF

Load (kg) Extension Load (kg) Extension Load (kg) Extension





Table - 2
Observed value of reactions

Load (kg) Reading at

R
1
(Reaction) R
2
(Reaction) R
3
(Reaction)

Condition I

Condition II



Table 3
Comparison of results

Applied Load R
1
R
2
R
3
Remaks

Condition I

Observed


Calculated
Condition II

Observed


Calculated


Precautions:
a) Increase the load on the spring gradually while finding the value of K of individual spring
b) Load the lower beam without any jerk.
c) Measure the extension of the spring very accurately.


P a g e | 73

Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University

Figures:

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Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Calculations:

P a g e | 75

Department of Civil Engineering Sharda University
Results and Comments: