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Gerlach, Vernon S. & Donald P. Ely. Teaching & Media: A Systematic Approach. Second edition.

(Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980)

Gerlach and Ely Model

A Starting Point In the next two to three minutes, answer the following questions with short sentences. (No more than ten words each.) You may refer to the chart above. What is the role of the teacher in the Gerlach and Ely instructional design model? How does the teacher guide students' learning? How does the teacher select which strategies and materials to use? How is the learner assessed?

How does assessment affect the lesson design?

Gerlach, Vernon S. & Donald P. Ely. Teaching & Media: A Systematic Approach. Second edition. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980)

Specification of Content and Objectives

Specification of Content and Objectives Define objectives (reason for teaching content) then content (medium to achieve objective). Objectives should include conditions under which behavior should occur and criterion level for acceptable performance. Must be stated propositionally (i.e. Can be verified to be true or untrue.) A good objective exhibits four distinguishing characteristics: It describes something which the learner does or produces. Who is the subject (implied or listed) in the objective? -- Answer must be: the learner. It states a behavior or a product of the learner's behavior. Is it an observable or a measurable product? -- Answer must be: yes. It states the conditions under which the behavior is to occur. Could you describe the circumstances? (Time, materials, etc.) -- Answer must be: yes. It states the standard which defines whether or not the objective has been attained. (Nothing listed presumes 100%) Often the language of objectives doesn't literally meet all of the standards which allows for teacher discretion. "Creative deviance."

Gerlach, Vernon S. & Donald P. Ely. Teaching & Media: A Systematic Approach. Second edition. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980)

Measurement of Entering Behaviors

Measurement of Entering Behaviors Essentially, you need to determine students' present skills and if they need the instruction. Pre-existing records or teacher designed pre-test would be two mechanisms for determining this. Note: This would be impossible if we did not have a clear objective. Determination of Strategy

Determination of Strategy In determining an instructional approach, or approaches, the teacher decides how to use information, selects resources and defines the role of student. Expository

Gerlach, Vernon S. & Donald P. Ely. Teaching & Media: A Systematic Approach. Second edition. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980)

Lecture Teacher uses discussion to accommodate predetermined goal Students demonstrate that they acquire this information Inquiry Students raise question Organize information Formulate hypothesis Techniques might include lecture, discussion, audiovisual presentation, verbal written reports. Note: The key is to determine which strategies will best allow the students to meet their objectives. Organization of Groups

Organization of Groups Which objectives can be met by: students on their own? interaction among students? formal presentation with interaction among teacher and students? Note: Gerlach and Ely also emphasize the need to accommodate individual learning rates via "individual student prescriptions" based upon 1) well-ordered behavioral objectives and 2) appropriate materials to get there.

Gerlach, Vernon S. & Donald P. Ely. Teaching & Media: A Systematic Approach. Second edition. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980)

Allocation of Time

Allocation of Time Analyze objectives and space availability first. Look back to three questions of grouping as they also affect the issue of time planning. Plan for this if you have control. Allocation of Space

Allocation of Space Revisit your objectives and strategies. Do you need space for... students working alone? interaction among students?

Gerlach, Vernon S. & Donald P. Ely. Teaching & Media: A Systematic Approach. Second edition. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980)

formal presentation: interaction among teacher and students? Consider the needs of large groups versus small groups. How can a space be flexible? (e.g. Moving partitions, tables, carrels.) Selection of Resources

Selection of Resources Select resources based on the learner objectives. (No media for media's sake.) Select in terms of reponse expected from learner -- not just the stimuli itself. Gerlach and Ely differentiate between Learning Resources and Instructional Materials. Materials do not become resources until there is a meaningful context for their use. These resources might include: still pictures, audio (voice of teacher), motion pictures, television, 'real things and people', models and simulations, programmed and computer-assisted instruction.

Gerlach, Vernon S. & Donald P. Ely. Teaching & Media: A Systematic Approach. Second edition. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980)

Evaluation of Performance

Evaluation of Performance What did the students learn? (i.e. What observable/measurable changes occured in the students?) And can you attribute this to the instruction? (i.e. Is there a functional relationship between the means of instruction and the instructional objectives?) Analysis of Feedback

Analysis of Feedback Using the information gained from performance evaluation, what can be said about the quality of student behavior and the effectiveness of instructional techniques?

Gerlach, Vernon S. & Donald P. Ely. Teaching & Media: A Systematic Approach. Second edition. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1980)

Note: Gerlach and Ely say that feedback is at the heart of the design process. Conclusion

Conclusion In the next two to three minutes, answer the following questions with short sentences. (No more than ten words each.) You may refer to the chart above. What is the role of the teacher in the Gerlach and Ely instructional design model? How does the teacher guide students' learning? How does the teacher select which strategies and materials to use? How is the learner assessed? How does assessment affect the lesson design?

Did this presentation follow the Gerlach & Ely model? Why? Why not?