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for sustainable and environmentally sound economic growth; involvement of civil society in above strengthened A new trajectory toward a sustainable Mauritius defined, agreed upon by key parties, and embarked upon by the country at large. Ministry of Renewably Energy and Public Utilities United Nations Development Programme
Expected CP Outcome(s):
Expected Output(s): Executing Entity: Implementing Agencies:
Brief Description Mauritius is a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) located in the Western Indian Ocean. The country faces similar constraints and threats as other SIDS that include inter alia, a strong reliance on an increasingly depleted natural resource base, loss of biodiversity and the degradation of essential components of the ecosystem, as well as a heavy dependency on fossil fuels and other imported commodities that support society. Government’s response to this worrying situation takes the form of the Maurice Ile Durable (MID) initiative that aims to put the island state on a sustainable trajectory into the future. The commitment of Government is reflected in the creation of the MID Fund that is a vehicle for targeted investment in projects promoting sustainability and to which it has allocated 1.3 billion rupees. UNDP has been requested to provide assistance to the MID Fund as well as to the overall development of the MID concept. UNDP, in response to the issues and needs identified during MID Week and various workshops and consultations before and after this event, proposes the MID Support Project. The purpose of this Project is to help to clarify the MID concept, consolidate and harness ongoing and future activities into a coherent thrust, and provide a framework in which all parties can be positioned for the best results, now and into the future. The MID Support Project is a three-tier intervention that includes: (i) a national policy process that will provide the much needed framework for MID, (ii) support for the MID Fund, and (iii) provision of essential technical expertise.
Programme Period: 2009 - 2011 Key Result Area (Strategic Plan) Climate change and Energy Atlas Award ID: 0056772
Total resources required: Total allocated resources: • Regular _________ • Other: o Donor o Donor o Donor o Government USD Unfunded budget: _________
250k USD 250K USD
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Agreed by (UNDP) – Mr C Caldarone, UNDP Resident Representative Agreed by (Executing Entity- MREPU): Mrs N Nababsing, Permanent Secretary
Agreed by (Government - MOFEE): Mr A Mansoor, Financial Secretary
AFD CP EPZ ICT MDG SCP SIDS TSU UNDP UNEP WCED WIO Agence Francaise de Developpement Country Programme Export Processing Zone Information Communication Technology Millennium Development Goal Sustainable Consumption and Production Small Island Developing State Technical Support Unit United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environmental Programme World Commission on Environment and Development Western Indian Ocean
The island country of Mauritius is situated in the south-west Indian Ocean off the coast of the African continent. Officially named the Republic of Mauritius, this island of just over 2000 square kilometres incorporates the neighbouring islands of St Brandon, Rodrigues and Agalega. Mauritius is recognised as having one of the most successful democracies in Africa, with social and economic progress that few African countries can match. It has one of the highest Gross Domestic Product and Human Development Index indicators on the African continent. The population of just over 1.3 million inhabitants largely originates from the Indian subcontinent, Africa, China and Europe. The economy of this culturally diverse nation is in transition. After many years of surviving almost solely on the sugar industry, the Government decided at independence to diversify by encouraging the EPZ concept for export programmes and, by 1990, manufacturing had surpassed the sugar industry and now accounts for more than 70 percent of exports, sugar taking up the remainder. At the turn of the century, the Government pledged that industries such as tourism and ICT will become the main engines of growth. Moreover, the Government would like to further diversify the economy and transform the economy so that it would effectively rest on a number of pillars. Although Mauritius is a small island, it has an Exclusive Economic Zone of nearly 2 million square kilometres, that is, an area a thousand times larger than the island itself. This maritime territory holds huge economic potential for the nation and can play a vital role in its development. With its aquamarine waters, coral reefs and forest-clad volcanic mountains, Mauritius has an idyllic appearance that lures visitors from afar. Proud of what has been achieved over the last three decades in terms of the economy, the safety and social security of the island and a strong democracy, the local inhabitants like to describe their country as ‘a little paradise’. However, this is a paradise under pressure. Mauritius finds itself in the same situation, and faces similar threats to its survival, as other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) that include, inter alia, a strong reliance on a depleting natural resource base, loss of biodiversity and degradation of essential components of the ecosystem, and a heavy dependency on fossil fuels and other imported commodities that support society. Climate change and rising fuel costs exacerbate the situation. Without careful planning and sustainability interventions, the country will not have the necessary resilience to recover from future shocks Fortunately, Government is cognizant of the need for urgent intervention. In his 2008/2009 budget speech, The Honorable Dr. Ramakrishna Sithanen, Vice-Prime Minister, Minister of Finance and 2
Economic Empowerment described a plan of action to build an attractive, modern, inclusive, green and open Mauritius (AMIGO).
THE MID INITIATIVE
Mauritius is party to the United Nations Small Island Developing States (SIDS) programme - The Barbados Programme of Action on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. These nations share common socio-economic and environmental issues and concerns that are unique to small islands. The concerns of SIDS were recognised by the international community when it agreed to Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 during the Earth Summit in 1992, which notes that SIDS face special challenges in planning for sustainable development, and agreed to a Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. The conference took place in Barbados in 1994 and adopted the Barbados Programme of Action, the principal international framework for addressing the special challenges and constraints faced by SIDS in their implementation of sustainable development. In the Plan of Implementation adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) (Johannesburg, August / September 2002), a recommendation was made that, "a full and comprehensive review of the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States takes place in 2004". The United Nations General Assembly, at its 57th session, passed resolution A/RES/57/262 to convene an International Meeting (IM) and welcomed the offer of the Government of Mauritius to host the event. The IM took place in Mauritius in January 2005 and undertook a full and comprehensive review of the implementation of the Programme of Action. The review sought a renewed political commitment by all countries to the Programme of Action and focused on practical and pragmatic actions for its further implementation, inter alia, through the mobilisation of resources and assistance for SIDS. (See: SIDS International Meeting) In line with its consistent commitment to sustainable development, the Government of Mauritius has pledged to undertake various sustainable reforms in all its spheres, from environment, health, education and economy, to socio-cultural upliftment. Prime Minister Ramgoolam’s vision for achieving this was given effect through allocations in the 2008/2009 budget. The Honorable Dr. Ramakrishna Sithanen, Vice-Prime Minister and Minister of Finance and Economic Empowerment, stated in his budget speech, “We will build a green future for Mauritius through the Maurice Ile Durable vision of the Prime Minister, and shift to local renewable sources of energy away from imported fossil fuel.” The aim of the Maurice Ile Durable (MID) programme is to move Mauritius along a sustainable trajectory and into a ‘green’ future. This embraces concepts of becoming self sustaining. Towards this end, the government has set up the Rs 1.3 billion (approximately US$ 39 million) Maurice Ile Durable Fund to be utilised over the period 2008-2011, representing about 0.2% of the GDP of Mauritius. The Fund will mobilize resources from taxes, Government subsidies, development partners, carbon credits, and the private sector, including the introduction of carbon footprint offsets in the aviation sector. The Maurice Ile Durable programme has replaced the National Energy Fund and thus, although it addresses sustainability across all spheres, it is under the aegis of the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities and currently has energy and waste as focused priorities. Initiatives identified to date include the efficient use of energy, the promotion of sources of renewable energy and improved management of waste and pollution. Implementation of the MID programme is assisted by UNDP and AFD. An aide-memoire was signed in October 2008 by the Prime Minister, Dr N Ramgoolam in Paris for the setting up of a UNESCO Chair at the University of Mauritius. The activities to be supported by the MID Fund have been described thus far as:
Explore all potential for local sources of renewable energy and make use of them to replace imports Reduce consumption of fossil fuels Create an institutional framework for energy generation Preserve the environment by supporting a solid waste recycling programme, hybrid vehicles and other transportation initiatives.
Mention must be made of Prof Joel de Rosnay, of the Cite des Sciences in Paris and special advisor to the Prime Minister, who can be credited as one of the originators of the programme. At an early stage, when oil prices were rising astronomically (a situation that can repeat itself or worse), he called for renewable energy alternatives. In addition, he was instrumental in coining the term Maurice Ile Durable and in driving it at the highest level and providing the cornerstone of the concept through his ‘10 commandments’. The Agence Francaise de Developpement (AFD) has finalized its project to support the implementation of activities in the context of the MID concept. Within its project, which is worth 1 million Euro in terms of technical assistance, there are a number of components namely: 1) Capacity building to evaluate projects, make decisions and follow up on project implementation and evaluation of results; 2) Implementation of projects falling within the themes of MID; 3) Enhancement of regional co-operation; 4) Finalization of the MID strategy 2009-2011; and 5) Development of programmes of action in specific fields. The success of the AFD project is contingent upon both the political commitment to MID and setting up of the Project Management Unit under the UNDP Support Project to MID. Many other individuals and entities have joined forces in further exploring the concept of MID, including the University of Mauritius, the Rajiv Gandhi Science Centre, the private sector, Government departments and even certain schools. UNDP has already supported the further development of the MID in a variety of ways across the spectrum of players. Today there is a significant groundswell in the country calling for the broadening of the concept of Maurice Ile Durable and, most significantly, to define precisely what ‘sustainability’ means in the context of Mauritius. While a sharp focus needs to be maintained on energy and waste, the other well-known dimensions of sustainability reflected in environmental, social and economic concerns cannot be neglected and must be addressed now and into the future.
The 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) provided the widely used definition of sustainable development as, “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.” Principle 8 of the Rio Declaration (1992) declares that, "to achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption". This was further addressed in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, adopted by world leaders at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, which states that, “the major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialised countries”. Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) is now a globally recognised policy. The WCED definition of sustainability introduced the concept of inter-generational equity into a world that had, until the mid- to late 20th century, largely viewed the planet’s resources as infinite (source), and the capacity of the globe to absorb waste and toxic discharges (sink), as unassailable.
The Millennium Development Goals1 today serve as the framework for sustainable development by setting goals and targets that aim to tackle poverty and promote human development. Together, UNDP and UNEP have been working to support countries in sound environmental management and, in particular, on achieving MDG 7 on environmental sustainability (the goal that seeks to ensure environmental sustainability through a series of targets to be met by 2015). Millennium Development Goal 7 contains three global targets: Target 9 to integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources; Target 10 to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation; and Target 11 to have achieved, by 2020, a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers. These are supported by eight global indicators that can be used to measure global progress2. Unlike most of the other MDGs, there are no quantitative targets set for MDG 7, nor is there a universal understanding of the goal. No blueprint exists for integrating the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes, nor is there any clearly emerging successful pathway of practice3. It is therefore up to individual countries, like Mauritius, to interpret and implement MDG 7 appropriately according to its resource base as well as its needs. Mauritius has undertaken to consolidate its numerous sustainable development initiatives into a coherent model of integrated sustainable development. The global MDG 7 targets and indicators are a starting point for monitoring country-level progress towards ensuring environmental sustainability. Mauritius needs to make its goals relevant to its specific national context by identifying targets to be built into policies and implementation programmes, as well as indicators to measure progress towards those targets. In doing so, Mauritius can lead the way in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO); in addition, it can become a world leader by making Maurice Ile Durable its primary national agenda and embedding its quest for sustainability in a dedicated national policy that will mobilise all parties and result in a strengthened civil society. To significantly enhance the reach of the programme, every government department and programme should have a sustainability policy which demonstrates the extent to which the programme is directed towards the three key MDG targets, and such policies should be enforceable.
SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CONTEXT STATE (SIDS)
SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING
As a Small Island Developing State, Mauritius shares common characteristics with other such nations. The recognition that there are limits to biophysical throughput of resources from the ecosystem, through the economic subsystem, and back to the ecosystem as wastes is particularly pertinent for SIDS, where imported resources carry a high premium due to transportation costs, and where there is no-one else’s ‘backyard’ in which to dispose of wastes. Conceptually, it is easier to apply the ecosystem concept to an island, through the adaptation of the “one planet” idea to “one island”. SIDSs are more vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise, natural resource depletion and environmental disasters, and are hardest hit by global events that affect transportation costs on imports. This means that the pressure for self-reliance is greater, and political will to achieve sustainable development is boosted by economic necessity. The effective and sustainable
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges. The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000.
Environment and Energy Group Bureau for Development Policy. 2006. Making Progress on Environmental Sustainability: Lessons and recommendations from a review of over 150 MDG country experiences.
management of wastes, coastal and marine resources, freshwater and biodiversity resources as well as tourism, energy resources, land resources and communication are all high priorities for SIDSs.
Climate Change and Maurice Ile Durable
Climate change is an undisputed and far-reaching global phenomenon. Although its precise effects are difficult to calculate, climate change has started to manifest itself in dramatic as well as subtle changes on the Planet. The impacts of climate change on Mauritius will take various forms. There will be complex effects on the well-being of human beings and the natural environment, and detrimental effects on all sectors the economy can be expected. Some examples include, among others, reduced overall precipitation and changing patterns of precipitation (impacting on the availability of fresh water), increases in flash flooding (which will have a negative effect on recharge of aquifers and increase in sedimentation), sea level rise (damage to coastal infrastructures, salt water intrusion in aquifers, loss of marine biodiversity, etc.), an increase in the frequency and intensity of cyclones, the potential for an increase in the incidence of tropical diseases, more frequent heat waves, and potential degradation of ecosystem services and natural capital. On a small island the accumulative effects of climate change can be devastating. Therefore the MID initiative should serve to increase the preparedness of Mauritius to adapt to climate change as far as possible; this will involve mainstreaming adaptation to climate change at the policy level, leading to concrete actions at the operational level. Inclusion of climate change at the policy level will also help to provide a framework for the implementation of a UNDP project aimed specifically at dealing specifically with Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation via a number of national actors. As sustainability and climate change adaptation and mitigation are intimately linked, the latter project can contribute financially to the policy process.
Mauritius is located 600 km east of Madagascar (itself an island caught in turbulent times), a long distance from the African mainland, and even further from the Indian subcontinent. This geographical isolation coupled with its small size makes the country particularly vulnerable in terms of natural disasters, food security and rising fuel costs. The current economic meltdown has already made its effects felt across the globe and Mauritius is no exception. Future shocks, that are more likely to happen than not, may very well have far-reaching effects on the quality of life of the people of Mauritius. The MID initiative is a timely intervention. The quest for a sustainable Mauritius is not only a very important matter but also a very urgent one. The concept must be operationalised to the best advantage of the country now. Failure to do so may see the country embark on a trajectory that is less than optimal which may cost it dearly at some point in the future. Implementation will require pervasive buy-in of all parties and involves addressing present concerns with an eye on the longterm future. The MID initiative should be embraced with all its ramifications by Government and civil society alike. After all, all parties are affected. The best way to achieve this unity may be through a participatory policy development process. Parties are far more likely to participate in an initiative that they fully understand and, with the ownership that comes through participation, they are more likely to make necessary sacrifices, change habits and be patient when results are not immediate.
Mauritius is unique in Sub-Saharan Africa and unlike most other West Indian Ocean SIDSs in that it has a low poverty ratio and a robust economy rooted in manufacturing, trade and business activity. It enjoys high rainfall even in the driest areas. The greatest threats to economic and environmental sustainability lie in its dependence on oil and petroleum based energy, the extensive transformation of natural habitats, and the degradation of 43% of its land resource due 6
to extensive monoculture practice, primarily sugar. These threats are large-scale, multi-sectoral and pervasive in their reach and tenacity, and they cannot be addressed in a piecemeal fashion. 75 to 80 percent of the island’s energy requirements are serviced by imported fossil fuel products. Mauritius’ island status means that it has no potential for interconnection with neighbouring electricity grids, and this has encouraged the government to look to local and renewable energy sources. Privately owned co-generation coal and bagasse (the pulp residue from cane sugar extraction) power plants are being set up under the Bagasse Energy Development Programme. Hydro-electric generation is used to supplement the grid and research is being conducted on power generation using wind and sea energy and an extension of the programme that supports solar power generation for households4. Statistics on land use from 2005 show that only 25 percent of Mauritius’ land asset remains untransformed in the form of forests, scrubs and grazing lands. Initial deforestation and the later conversion to wide scale and intensive agriculture has resulted in 43 percent of the island’s surface area being used for cultivation, of which almost 99 percent is sugar cane, the balance being tea and tobacco. Abandoned cane fields make up a further additional 3 percent of land cover. Built-up areas and infrastructure account for 27 percent of land use and much of this is focused on the coast, with discharges impacting on water quality of coastal wetlands and marine waters. Shoreline structures have impeded longshore sedimentation processes resulting in erosion of beaches, which is impacting on the tourism industry5. Total land under protection (including private reserves) in 2007 was just under 15,000 hectares (8% of surface area). Despite its robust economy, the nation’s HDI is on a par with a country that has a much lower per capita GDP. The HDI, as an aggregate index, masks disparities within countries. It is therefore possible that a country may perform well in the aggregate HDI even if its people experience large disparities in opportunities, as in the case of Mauritius6. The MDG Monitor for tracking progress towards achievement of MDG goals shows that, in order to address internal disparities, Mauritius needs to prioritize programmes in the following areas: Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4: Reduction of child mortality Goal 5: Improve maternal health Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development. The above are indicators of the need to strengthen overall strategies for eradicating poverty and inequality through specific actions in the health and education sectors and stepping up empowerment and other programmes addressing historical imbalances such as the Truth and Justice Commission. There was no shortage of data and analysis on which to base this proposal. A successful eGovernment programme provides the window into a well-resourced and capacitated country study programme. A number of programmes are already established and being implemented in various Government departments, all of which are working towards the MDG targets. These activities and/or programmes are, however, happening in a fragmented manner. It is a challenge in itself to understand how they all fit together. Furthermore, as pointed out by many parties consulted, there exists no broad-based and rigorous framework for the MID initiative. In the quest to develop the Maurice Ile Durable concept, this lack
Business in Africa online report, first published in Energy in Africa Magazine, February 2006 - April 2006. Corroborated by the Mauritius Energy Policy, which cites Cyprus as a role model. 5 Government of Mauritius, Ministry of Environment and NDU. 2005. Mauritius Staking Out the Future. 6 HDI is an aggregate measure of human development – life expectancy, education, individual wealth. Mauritius is a wealthy country, with few poor people, but its HDI is low compared to countries with similar GDP. The reasons become evident when you look at the country’s performance against the MDG targets – it is weak in the areas listed. Mauritius is often described as having a high HDI score, but that is just relative to other Sub-Saharan countries, and purely because of its material wealth / high GDP.
of an overarching framework makes it difficult to prioritise, harmonise and assign tasks to different players, including Government departments, and makes it difficult for executing parties such as the MID Fund to evaluate and prioritise proposals. At present there is a high level of awareness in the country of the MID initiative. It is championed by the Prime Minister himself, in conjunction with key ministries7. People from all walks of life have heard of Maurice Ile Durable, yet for many it is not clear what it entails beyond solar water heaters. Nonetheless, this groundswell of awareness is very valuable, and must be capitalized on before it wanes. This will require a carefully orchestrated information campaign to raise awareness about sustainability and its implications. Such a campaign will also provide mechanisms for the citizenry to become active participants in the Maurice Ile Durable initiative. Even so, enthusiasm and support will wane over time, unless encased in a policy framework coupled with an action plan with prioritized activities over different time frames. The success of a sustainable development model for Mauritius therefore necessitates consolidation of existing ideas, activities and programmes into a coherent framework for integrated action. What is lacking first and foremost is an official national policy that describes the MID concept, incorporates the views of all parties, including Government and civil society, and promotes clear directions to be embarked upon by the array of role players that will be needed to turn the dream of Maurice Ile Durable into reality. A suitable, sustainable delivery vehicle, driver(s) and resources need to be identified, enabled and supported, in this case the MID Fund plus partners, and the policy framework will require a robust monitoring and evaluation system that is able to generate reliable data for monitoring trends and inform ongoing evidence-based planning for adaptive management. All of this will require the necessary capacity to make it work. Finally, it is to heed the Prime Minister’s address on March 19, at the launch of the MID website, where great emphasis was placed on the economy. Without a strong economy it will be difficult, if not impossible, for a relatively modern and fairly industrialized nation like Mauritius to shift to a sustainable trajectory. Alternative energy sources, better waste management and a more efficient transport system, to name but a few essential steps, will all cost money to develop. In the end it is a matter of balancing environmental and social concerns and economic growth. Balance will not find itself, and the country has no time to waste bickering about directions and priorities. That is why a policy process is necessary so that this dynamic balance can be defined, pursued and carefully maintained. Rationale for UNDP Intervention The linkage between the MID initiative, and the current proposal to move it along, UNDP Country programme, is absolute. The Country Programme Document for Mauritius 2009 to 2011 outlines the National Priorities / Goals as follows:
To promote broad-based economic and inclusive growth while ensuring equitable access to public goods, services and opportunities for the poor and vulnerable groups To improve environmental protection by accessing and utilizing environmental funds, carbon markets, payment for ecosystem services and other financing mechanisms To mainstream climate change adaptation policies into national development plans based on improved understanding of the linkages between climate change and other development issues and gender-differentiated impacts
It is no co-incidence that MID Week was opened by Ministers from the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities, the Ministry of Environment and the National Development Unit, and the Ministry of Industry, Science and Research. However, virtually every other government department has an important role to play.
It is evident that these goals are central to achieving a more sustainable situation at country level. Targets and indicators have been set for each of these priorities. UNDP has pledged support8 in a number of areas such as: A. Poverty reduction and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals:
Empowerment programme Programme-based budgeting, sector policies and strategies.
Strengthen national capacities to enforce new environmental measures and legislation Enhance accountability and transparency in environmental decision-making Focus on developing enabling policy, institutional framework and adaptive strategies, and creating conditions for effective natural resources management practices and public-private partnerships in environmental protection
All the above areas of support relate directly to the notion of Maurice Ile Durable. A cursory look at some of the realities in Mauritius presented below supports the need for the Country programme to be implemented as a matter of urgency, and for the MID initiative to be implemented as a ‘multisector intervention’ with pervasive support.
A three-tier Approach is proposed to support the MID Initiative. The Approach is concretised in the form of The MID Support Project that addresses three important aspects:
Development of the National Policy for Maurice Ile Durable Strengthening the MID Fund Provision of Essential Technical Expertise
In developing this approach, the UNDP will have to reckon with the strategic action plan of the MID Fund itself, which is in preparation and which will cover the period 2009-2011. This strategic plan has been prepared by the MID Board committee members and is being finalized by the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities. 1 Development of the National Policy for Maurice Ile Durable
There is currently no comprehensive and coherent project document, official or otherwise that summarizes the overall goal of the MID initiative, and the activities and programmes that will need to be put in place to pursue the goal of a Maurice Ile Durable. Lack of an overarching policy contributes to a situation where MID-related efforts are not be ideally co-ordinated (and this will become more problematic as the initiative gathers momentum), where there may be duplication and gaps, and possibly a waste of resources and time. The positioning of key initiatives such as the MID Fund can also be compromised; for instance, lack of a project document that conclusively spells out the purpose and scope of the MID Fund, defines all of its activities, and lack of a framework for screening projects slows down implementation and can cause frustration. What is now necessary is a national policy in which all Mauritians have ownership, and which all Mauritians ascribe to. Such a policy will bring many advantages to the MID initiative:
There will be one policy document that encapsulates the MID initiative in a coherent and consolidated manner, provides a basis for co-ordinating efforts, balances and distributes effort and resources, and provides overall guidance in the quest for sustainability
UNDP. 2009. Country Programme Document : Mauritius
The policy will be a concept framework and basis for the development of evaluation and approval procedures of proposals that are submitted to the MID Fund. It will help the Fund to keep a sharp focus during the implementation of the overall MID initiative where many other aspects of sustainability requires attention and involvement from a range of players (but may still call upon assistance from the MID Fund) The Policy Action Plan will guide policy implementation yet at the same time can help guide future government expenditure, ministerial involvement at all levels, and will provide and inviting framework for donor interventions The policy will identify and fill gaps that may exists between Ministries and the many other policies that relate to sustainability in one way or another (which are most of them) It will be easy to identify particular policy areas and legislation that may need to be boosted or eventually reviewed Through the policy process all Mauritians will share ownership, which means they will have a good grasp of the Maurice Ile Durable concept, and will understand that issues are being taken care of (but that there needs to be a degree of patience)
UNDP will support a Government-led national policy process in which all government departments and civil society groups will participate, including local communities, the private sector, and special interest groups. The end result will be a national policy that is the result of a dialogue between Government and civil society, one which will conclusively and coherently point the way ahead into the future. The policy will be a guiding document in which the needs and aspiration of the people, balanced with the realities emanating from specialist studies, are endorsed by Government. The policy will be a powerful legacy of the current Government, one which will outlive political cycles and subsequent governments. The policy process is depicted in the flowchart (Figure 1) below. The first step is to establish a strong baseline of awareness. Fortunately a strong start has already been made in creating baseline awareness. However, awareness needs to be expanded to all sectors of society and should be enriched in terms of what people know and understand (focused awareness). Only then can participation in the process to be truly meaningful. The fact that a high level of awareness already exists means that the process has in fact started already. During this first step the policy process can be given official status by the issuing of a statement from the Prime Minister’s office.
Figure 1 The National Policy Process for Maurice Ile Durable
Central to any good policy process is the development of a Vision. This will be the Vision for Maurice Ile Durable, which essentially is a Vision for the country. The Vision is to be developed with the participation of all stakeholders including Government Ministries, though a series of visioning exercises where questions such as, Where do we want to see Mauritius in the future? and, What kind of people do we want to be? An example of a National Vision for Maurice Ile Durable came from a visioning exercise with five schools during a mini Youth Summit on Maurice Ile Durable held at the Rajeev Ghandi Science Centre on Friday, March 20 (Figure 2). Similar visioning exercises, requiring one to two hours, can be held across the nation over a period of two months. The end result will be a composite Vision which will then be the National Vision that guides policy development.
Local com all stakeh
Figure 2 Example of a National Vision for Maurice Ile Durable, as developed by selected schools
The composite Visioning exercise will unite the nation like few other issues that came before it. It touches both the present and the future, and penetrates to the core in terms of what it means to be a Mauritian in a fast-changing global society where many influences are out of control (but to which national responses can be prepared in good time as best as possible). It is not a Government matter only as everyone is affected in small or large ways. It should be noted that the input from the people into the Visioning process will be informed by specialist studies (see Figure 1), some of which are already underway (such as the work of Professor de Rosnay and the University of Mauritius). Other studies, such as a gap analysis of the institutional and legal framework (existing laws and policies) still need to be undertaken. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) on the transport system, ongoing studies on energy production and efficiency, and waste management, are examples of specialist studies that will inform the policy process. Once a National Vision is in place, options will be generated and scenarios will be discussed at ministerial level. The process and its results will be summarized as a Green Paper that will be open to public scrutiny, and further debate will inform a subsequent White Paper which in effect is a Draft Policy to be submitted to Parliament for promulgation as official policy. It is important to note that, in spite of strong participation, the process remains Government-led. Therefore, while the policy initiative has to emanate from the Prime Minister’s Office, there has to be a lead Ministry. The obvious one is the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities considering the premium on conversion to renewable energy and the urgency to address mounting waste issues. Two further structures will help to streamline the process: a Scientific Consultative Forum that can be chaired by a high level experienced person with strong scientific and technical background to be designated by the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities, and a National Steering Committee that will meet every three to four months and which will be a sub-committee of the MID Fund with other relevant persons who may be co-opted as and when needed. These structures will enrich the process and bestow further credibility on it. They
will also function as co-ordinating mechanisms (for research as well as inter-ministerial coordination), receptacles for suggestions, constructive criticism, etc. The national policy should be robust, strongly founded on principles and parameters of sustainability and above all, dynamic so it can adapt to changing circumstances. Its intention is not to repeat what is in other policies but to play an overarching role – in that sense it will be like a rack on which the other policies will be hung like coats - making it easy to identify gaps, overlaps and possibly even contradictions within the extensive legislature of Mauritius. What would the National Policy for Maurice Ile Durable look like?
It would be pre-emptive and prescriptive to say what the policy will embrace as the MID catch phrase emanating from Prof de Rosnay can be very far reaching and all encompassing. However, from the input thus far, i.e. the University of Mauritius colloquium, an array of workshops held during MID Week, a mini youth symposium, and input from a range of parties consulted in the preparation of the current proposal, it is clear that the policy will have a wide reach. It is now generally accepted that sustainability has economic, environmental and social dimensions and that there are many inter-relationships between them. It has also become increasingly clear during MID Week that ‘sustainability’ can be viewed as a state of mind, an attitude that requires a change in mentality, that ascribes to a set of values and principles that are manifested and played out in those three dimensions. To attain ‘a situation where the needs and aspirations of the present generation are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs’ first and foremost requires a conscious set of policy decisions on how to live on the Planet (or in this case, on the island of Mauritius). Such decisions cannot simply be legislated in a ‘top down’ fashion; rather, through dialogue between Government and civil society a far more rigorous ‘top down, bottom up’ process will be followed. This process will be rich and clarifying, and presents a unique opportunity for Mauritius to decide for once in its history where it is headed – as a nation that with all its social concerns is ‘trapped’ in a physical environment with limited resources that are also limiting in terms of how they can be consumed. From this general point of departure and from the signs that appeared during MID Week, it can be anticipated that the policy would comprise a core where the views, needs and aspirations of the people are reflected in a National Vision, followed by sector areas such as energy, waste, social human development equity, conservation, transport, education, monitoring and evaluation, climate change, etc. The cross-cutting issues that define any society may also need to be addressed in a section on its own. In each section, pertinent issues will be listed, with a foundation of guiding principles, and responses and vehicles of delivery can be proposed. The policy will therefore unpack the myriad of ‘sustainability issues’ and then put them back together again in an ordered and coherent form.
Finally, a policy without implementation is not worth the paper it is written on. Therefore the policy will be accompanied by a comprehensive and specific Policy Action Plan (see below) that will guide implementation and make it easy to monitor. In the second year the policy can be enacted, or minor revisions may need to be made to other related Laws. Many policies fail because they lack methodology and the means for implementation. The MID policy will therefore have a clear Policy Action Plan that defines the necessary actions, the players in whose ambit they fall, and the means by which they can be achieved. Actions will be tied to timelines and a simple monitoring system will measure progress and results that will allow for adaptive measures to be invoked. The already existing MID Fund will be comfortably positioned in the Policy Action Plan with the MID Fund Board and operational mechanisms as the main actors for ensuring delivery over the designated time period that elapses in 2011. 2 Strengthening the MID Fund
The MID Fund is a vehicle created by Government to channel targeted investment for the MID initiative; hence its mandate will be closely linked to the policy. Without the formalised policy the MID Fund will remain at the mercy of the tides of interpretation and changes in priorities (perceived or real); but when carefully positioned within a good policy framework it will be able to keep a sharp focus. It is housed in the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities, reflecting the immediate emphasis on the ‘burning issue’ of fossil fuels and renewable energy. The MID Fund will undoubtedly be broadened in its scope. It can easily be led by The National Policy for Maurice Ile Durable which will invoke expertise and mandates from other Ministries when necessary. The 13
MID Support Project will have as its aim the strengthening of the MID Fund by providing an operational unit that can execute decisions by the MID Fund Board while also having some degree of involvement in the other three interventions (policy process, ongoing support for the MID initiative and essential technical expertise) The following structure for the MID Fund Technical Support Unit (TSU) 9 is proposed: A Head of Operations (HO) under the MID Fund chairperson and then three staff under the HO: a technical officer, a communications officer, and an administration officer. The Ministry will provide space and clerical/secretarial staff. UNDP can provide ad hoc guidance or support to the TSU by way of the MID Support Project task manager in UNDP but the expectation is that the TSU will become independent in time. The TSU’s capacity will be boosted by the provision of an outside Technical Advisor funded by AFD for a limited time period. The MID Support Project represents the opportunity to provide a logical framework for the MID Fund and to identify further activities that will strengthen its effectiveness. The MID Fund’s logical framework will provide the necessary guidelines and criteria to assist its directors in allocating resources to projects that support its objectives and also in gearing additional funds from donors, Government and the private sector, in a co-ordinated drive to put Mauritius firmly on a path to sustainability. It should be stressed that there is no need for the MID Fund to slow down implementation while the process leading to policy is being formalized; on the contrary, the MID Fund is critical in terms of keeping momentum going, generating “lessons learned”, and providing input into the policy process. It should be strengthened institutionally as soon as possible so it is not a burden in terms of the host ministry when it comes to making decisions and contracting outside parties. It is important to note that the capacity of the MID Fund Board itself must be deepened – possibly through a study tour, retreats, etc. It is recommended that one of the actions to be implemented by the TSU would be a Maurice Ile Durable Public Awareness and Information Dissemination (PAID) campaign. This will be developed and launched out of the MID Fund in collaboration with many partners including the press. A concept such as “Brand Mauritius” should be considered which could be replicated elsewhere. This will aim to foster a ‘bottom-up’ approach whereby the citizenry become the champions of sustainable development through the popularization of sustainability concepts. (“We have only one island; let us value every person and our collective history, every piece of land and the buildings that we have crafted through our labour, every plant and animal, drop of water and ocean edge, every ray of sunshine and the air; all of these things that sustain us and support our wellbeing”). One of the elements of this campaign will be a sustainability barometer in the form of a Sustainability (or MID) Annual Report that looks at how the MID concept is progressing and being implemented in the widest sense, and above all helping to document and disseminate experiences. This annual report will make accessible to all Mauritian citizens the information gathered through the monitoring programme which is part of the Policy Action Plan. This strategy will target greater self-regulation as one of its outcomes, thereby contributing indirectly to the CP’s aim of strengthening national capacity to enforce new environmental measures and legislation. Through the outcome of heightened awareness of the citizenry, it will also indirectly contribute towards enhanced accountability and transparency in environmental decision-making through the generation of a groundswell of demand for such measures. Moreover, mention is to be made of agreements with the UNESCO, in the aide memoire, to assist in a consultative meeting for the furtherance of the MID concept.
Provision of Essential Technical Expertise
The operational unit will be called the MID Fund Technical Support Unit (TSU), or the MID Fund Project Management Unit (PMU). The latter infers a project of limited lifetime and is usually associated with donor programmes; the former refers to providing support to the MID Fund for the duration of its existence which likely will supersede it initial timelinked mandate. UNDP will fund the operational unit for one year with the expectation that it becomes embedded in the MID Fund initiative and hence the term TSU may be more suitable.
The mandate of the MID Fund and the implementation of the Policy Action Plan will sporadically require technical reports that can inform decision-making at the MID Fund level and generate options during the policy development process. The UNDP country office in conjunction with the MID Fund Operational Unit will commission, oversee and process the results of specialist studies on aspects such as energy, waste, transport, tourism, conservation and other sectors that are central to sustainable habits and resource use. An initial activity which has been undertaken in this context is the review of the Solar Water Heater scheme through technical assistance provided by the UNDP. Other donors, in particular the AFD in the beginning, can be enlisted to help fund specialist programmes when they fall outside the expertise of the Technical Advisor mentioned under sub-section 2 above.
Intended Outcome as stated in the Country Programme Results and Resource Framework (CPRRF):
1. and 2., as numbered in the CPRRF, as well as “National capacities of key institutions to implement global environmental commitments at national and regional levels through integration of environmental concerns in national policies and programmes improved”, which is in the CPRRF but unnumbered.
Outcome indicators as stated in the Country Programme Results and Resources Framework, including baseline and targets:
Virtually every outcome indicator in the CPRRF is affected, either directly through the actions of the MID Fund, or indirectly or directly through the national policy process for Maurice Ile Durable
Applicable Key Result Area (from 2008-11 Strategic Plan): Partnership Strategy
At a project level the proposed MID Support Project will have as partners UNDP, ADF and Government itself; however, it is anticipated that many further partnerships will be launched as the initiative picks up. The partnership strategy is all-encompassing; MID Fund essentially promotes strategies in all its focal areas, some which are already in existence and others that will be defined during the national policy process for Maurice Ile Durable. The policy itself will lay strong emphasis on building interdepartmental strategies, public-private-community strategies.
Project title and ID (ATLAS Award ID):
INTENDED OUTPUTS OUTPUT TARGETS FOR (YEARS) INDICATIVE ACTIVITIES RESPONSIBLE PARTIES Specify parties that have been engaged by the executing entity to carry out these activities INPUTS
Output 1: National Policy for MID
Baseline: There exists no overarching framework or policy for the Maurice Ile Durable (MID) concept Indicators: There will be an allinclusive national policy in place for MID as well as an accompanying Policy Action Plan. Aspects of the policy will be implemented immediately, or possible concurrently with finalisjng the policy, while some aspects of the Policy Action Plan is long-term Targets (year 1) - MID Policy in place - Policy Action Plan in place 1 Targets (year 2) - Act based on Policy completed - Action Plan implementation Target (year 3) - Act in full force - Action Plan implementation 2 Activity Result Policy Process to Green Paper Policy promulgated Action Plan approved Activity Result Act based on Policy completed Action Plan implemented
US$ 100 K
(depending on state lawyers contribution to policy writing). Action plan implementation funded by MID fund and Government departments, private sector and other donors
Activity Result Act based on Policy completed
Action Plan further implemented
Output 2: Support to the MID Fund
Baseline: MID Fund exists but with no supporting structure Indicators: The MID Fund Technical Support Unit will be in place and operational Targets (year 1) - MID TSA appointed - MID TSU operating Targets (year 2 &3) - MID TSU operating - Further capacity building for MID Fund Targets (year 1) - Identify expertise needed - Locate experts Targets (year 2) - Expertise provided - Capacity building 1 2 3 4 Activity Result Appointments completed Workplans implemented Activity Result Actions on LFA in progress Targeted capacity existed and used Activity Result ToRs, workplans available Experts engaged Activity Result Expertise provided Capacity built
Output 3: Provision of essential Technical Expertise
Baseline: Some in-country technical expertise exists (ministries and consultants), but some specific technical expertise will be needed Indicators: Expertise provided on an as-needed basis
Period: 2009 to 2011
EXPECTED OUTPUTS And baseline, indicators including annual targets PLANNED ACTIVITIES
List activity results and associated actions 1. Green Paper accepted widely -Publish Green Paper -Disseminate Green Paper 2. Vision for MID finalised -Visioning workshops undertaken -Digest specialised studies and get input from experts 3. Draft White Paper produced - Drafting of White paper Discussions and workshops as needed 4. Green Paper completed - Discussions with role players and government - Drafting Green Paper 1. Personnel recruited -Prepare TOR for personnel -Advertise posts in local newspapers and UN Jobs Carry out interviews Select Candidate and issue contracts Year 1
Year 2 Year 3
Funding Source Budget Description Amount
Baseline: Green Paper in Place Indicators: Policy completed and promulgated Targets: Policy completed Related CP outcome: Environmental protection; Climate change and energy (see Draft Country Programme, 2009-2011)_
Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities
Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities
Communication and audiovisual equipment UNDP
Supplies X X
Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities
Output 2 Support to the MID Fund
Baseline: No support for the MID Fund Indicators: Technical Support Unit (TSU) in Place
X X X
EXPECTED OUTPUTS And baseline, indicators including annual targets
List activity results and associated actions Year 1
Year 2 Year 3
Funding Source Budget Description Amount
Targets: TSU fully functional Related CP outcome: Environmental protection; Climate change and energy (see Draft Country Programme, 2009-2011)_
2. Office Support for TSU -Advertisement launched for selection of office space -Obtain clearances for office space -Purchase of furniture and office space
Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities
Output 3 Provision of essential Technical Expertise
Baseline: Only ad hoc and unfocused technical expertise available Indicators: All essential technical expertise available Targets: ToRs prepared, some executed Related CP outcome: Environmental protection; Climate change and energy (see Draft Country Programme, 2009-2011)_
1. Technical Expertise provided - E.g. Assessment of Solar Water Heater Scheme • Possible review of the institutional framework of the MIDF activities • Recruitment pathway typically through UNDP
International Consultants X X X
Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities
1. Central to the overall machinery is the MID Fund that reports to the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities 2. Supporting the MID Fund is the MID Fund Technical Support Unit (TSU). The TSU report directly to the Chairperson of the MID Fund in terms of tasks given to it 3. It is proposed that ultimately, the MID Fund Board is advised by a Scientific Consultative Forum as well as a Steering Committee which will be a sub-committee of the MID Fund to ensure high level scientists and technicians are involved and that there is broad-based involvement across ministries, NGOs and the private sector 4. In principle, monitoring and evaluation of the MID Support Project by UNDP, other donors and, if necessary, other selected entities would be welcome as it would promote funding opportunities for the MID Fund. 5. Overall monitoring of the MID initiative by the National Steering Committee as well as the public at large (for instance through the media, publication of the State of Environment Report and other means)
CORE COMMITMENTS AND LINKAGES
The latest United Nations Country Strategy for Mauritius focuses on the environment and states that, by fostering sustainable development principles, UNDP will strengthen the national capacities to enforce new environmental measures and legislation, enhance accountability and transparency in environmental decision-making. Emphasis will be placed on strengthening and maintaining synergies with national and regional initiatives. UNDP will continue to focus on developing the enabling policy, institutional framework and adaptive strategies, and creating conditions for effective co-management, sound natural resources management practices, public-private partnership in environmental protection, and adoption of technologies which are environment friendly and that will result in emission reduction. b) PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENT
The project will be nationally executed with UNDP Country Office Support (Country Support to NEX modality). The Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities will be the Executing agency for the project. A Technical Support Unit (TSU) will be established within the Ministry of Public Utilities to implement the project. The TSU will be responsible for the delivery of all project outputs through direct action or hiring of necessary experts. The MID Fund Board will provide guidance to the TSU in the implementation of the project. This Board will advise the TSU Head of Operations, thus supporting the decision-making process. Ultimate responsibility for day-to-day decisions lies with the TSU, which will equally carry the responsibility for delivery of project outputs. Moreover, a National Steering Committee (NSC) will be established to provide expert and technical guidance to the MID Fund Board in the implementation of the project. The National Steering Committee will meet every three to four months and which will be a sub-committee of the MID Fund with other relevant persons who may be co-opted as and when needed. The NSC will be chaired by the National Project Director (Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities) and will include representatives from the Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities, Finance, Environment, UNDP and other relevant stakeholders. This NSC will advise the MID Fund Board of progress on the delivery of projects by the TSU, thus supporting the decision-making process.
Moreover a Scientific Consultative Forum can be set up by the Ministry and chaired by a high level experienced person with strong scientific and technical background to be designated by the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities. These structures will enrich the process and bestow further credibility on it. The project implementation structure is shown diagrammatically below:
Ministry of Renewable Energy and Public Utilities
MID Fund Board
Scientific Consultative Forum Monitoring of MID Support Project by UNDP, other donors and selected entities National Steering Committee
Chairperson of MID Fund
Head of Operations
Clerical and Secretarial support
MONITORING FRAMEWORK AND EVALUATION
Please refer to the Deliverable Description to complete this component of the template. Suggested text to be adapted to project context
In accordance with the programming policies and procedures outlined in the UNDP User Guide, the project will be monitored through the following: Within the annual cycle On a quarterly basis, a quality assessment shall record progress towards the completion of key results, based on quality criteria and methods captured in the Quality Management table below. An Issue Log shall be activated in Atlas and updated by the Project Manager to facilitate tracking and resolution of potential problems or requests for change. Based on the initial risk analysis submitted (see annex 1), a risk log shall be activated in Atlas and regularly updated by reviewing the external environment that may affect the project implementation. Based on the above information recorded in Atlas, a Project Progress Reports (PPR) shall be submitted by the Project Manager to the Project Board through Project Assurance, using the standard report format available in the Executive Snapshot.
a project Lesson-learned log shall be activated and regularly updated to ensure on-going learning and adaptation within the organization, and to facilitate the preparation of the Lessons-learned Report at the end of the project a Monitoring Schedule Plan shall be activated in Atlas and updated to track key management actions/events
Annually Annual Review Report. An Annual Review Report shall be prepared by the Project Manager and shared with the Project Board and the Outcome Board. As minimum requirement, the Annual Review Report shall consist of the Atlas standard format for the QPR covering the whole year with updated information for each above element of the QPR as well as a summary of results achieved against pre-defined annual targets at the output level. Annual Project Review. Based on the above report, an annual project review shall be conducted during the fourth quarter of the year or soon after, to assess the performance of the project and appraise the Annual Work Plan (AWP) for the following year. In the last year, this review will be a final assessment. This review is driven by the Project Board and may involve other stakeholders as required. It shall focus on the extent to which progress is being made towards outputs, and that these remain aligned to appropriate outcomes.
If the country has signed the Standard Basic Assistance Agreement (SBAA), the following standard text must be quoted: This project document shall be the instrument referred to as such in Article 1 of the SBAA between the Government of (country) and UNDP, signed on (date). Consistent with the Article III of the Standard Basic Assistance Agreement, the responsibility for the safety and security of the executing agency and its personnel and property, and of UNDP’s property in the executing agency’s custody, rests with the executing agency. The executing agency shall: a) put in place an appropriate security plan and maintain the security plan, taking into account the security situation in the country where the project is being carried; b) assume all risks and liabilities related to the executing agency’s security, and the full implementation of the security plan. UNDP reserves the right to verify whether such a plan is in place, and to suggest modifications to the plan when necessary. Failure to maintain and implement an appropriate security plan as required hereunder shall be deemed a breach of this agreement. The executing agency agrees to undertake all reasonable efforts to ensure that none of the UNDP funds received pursuant to the Project Document are used to provide support to individuals or entities associated with terrorism and that the recipients of any amounts provided by UNDP hereunder do not appear on the list maintained by the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999). The list can be accessed via http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/committees/1267/1267ListEng.htm. This provision must be included in all sub-contracts or sub-agreements entered into under this Project Document.
If the country has not signed the SBAA, the following standard text is quoted: The project document shall be the instrument envisaged in the Supplemental Provisions to the Project Document, attached hereto. Consistent with the above Supplemental Provisions, the responsibility for the safety and security of the executing agency and its personnel and property, and of UNDP’s property in the executing agency’s custody, rests with the executing agency. The executing agency shall: a) put in place an appropriate security plan and maintain the security plan, taking into account the security situation in the country where the project is being carried; b) assume all risks and liabilities related to the executing agency’s security, and the full implementation of the security plan. UNDP reserves the right to verify whether such a plan is in place, and to suggest modifications to the plan when necessary. Failure to maintain and implement an appropriate security plan as required hereunder shall be deemed a breach of this agreement. The executing agency agrees to undertake all reasonable efforts to ensure that none of the UNDP funds received pursuant to the Project Document are used to provide support to individuals or entities associated with terrorism and that the recipients of any amounts provided by UNDP hereunder do not appear on the list maintained by the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999). The list can be accessed via http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/committees/1267/1267ListEng.htm. This provision must be included in all sub-contracts or sub-agreements entered into under this Project Document.
Terms of Reference: TOR for key project personnel
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