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7-1 SOIL AS STRUCTURE Early road constructions have concentrated mainly on the road surface pavement. Little attention was given to the sub-grade, the base materials, and the manner of construction more particularly, the placing and compacting of the pavement foundation. As a result, too many road failures past and present were recorded with an endless maintenance and rehabilitation activities. Because of these very expensive undertakings, highway agencies were prompted to undertake advance researches and studies on the properties of sub-grade and soil performance under severe conditions. After a long study of the unending road failures, road agencies have established a more detailed procedure regarding the kind of materials to be used on a particular condition, type and behavior of the soil where the road is to be constructed. Roadway has three major structural parts namely: 1. The Sub-grade or Sub-base 2. The Base Course 3. The Pavement The Sub-grade or Sub-Base is the earth beneath the road, properly arranged and graded, compacted and stabilized. It is defined as the Supporting structure on which the pavement surface and its special under-courses rest. In a cut section of a road, he sub-grade is the original soil lying below the layers designated as the base and sub base materials. On fill road sections, sub-grade consists of the imported materials taken from nearby roadway cuts or from borrow pit. The Base Course is the materials laid on top of the sub-grade consisting of crushed stone or gravel, sometimes mixed with asphalt binders. The Pavement is the material laid over the base coarse consisting of Asphalt Concrete or Portland Cement Concrete. 7-2 Types of Base Course Base course is classified into two types: 1. The granular base course or untreated soil mixture. 2. Treated base course. The granular base course is a road surface of untreated soil mixture described as gravel road.

Gravel road consist largely of stone pebbles or crushed rock particles combined with either; clay, lime, iron oxide or other fine materials sufficient enough to serve as binder of the coarse particles. Construction and Maintenance Requirements of Untreated Gravel Road Surface 1. That the road must be stable to support the super imposed loads without detrimental deformation. It must be resistant against various traffic activities and could withstand the abrasive action of traffic. 2. It must shed the large portion of rain that falls on the surface because water penetrating the sub-grade might soften it and loosen the surface stability. 3. It must be free from large rocks or stoned over one inch in diameter so that it could be regularly maintained by blading or dragging. 4. Gravel road must possess capillarity properties sufficient enough to replace the moisture lost through the surface evaporation. The road must maintain the desired damp condition that is required to bind the particles together. 5. On dry weather, the moisture film on the clay particles should bind the entire mass together, and in wet weather, the first rain that falls on the surface, should expand the clay and close the pores to prevent water from entering and softening the materials. 6. An excessive amount of highly expansive clay materials should be avoided because clay will swell and unseat the coarser materials when wet and ultimately will weaken the stability of the road. 7. Gravel road must be low cost. Funds for low traffic road is very limited that most of the time overlooked in the list of appropriation priorities except on election period. 8. Se local materials. Meaning, those materials that could be found nearby the project must be utilized. If the gravel surface road is to be maintained for several years without bituminous or asphalt surface treatment or other impervious surfacing, AASHTO standard specification requires maximum liquid limit of 35 and a Plastic Index of 4 to 9 and a maximum 8% passing the No. 200 sieve. TABLE 7-1 GRADING REQUIREMENTS FOR SOIL AGGREGATE MATERIALS (AASHTO DesignationM-147) Sieve Design mm Inch 150 25 10 4.75 2.00 0.425 0.075 2 1 3/8 No.4 No.10 No.40 No.200 Percentage by Weight Passing Square Mesh Sieve Grading Grading Grading Grading Grading Grading A B C D E F 100 100 75-95 100 100 100 100 30-65 40-75 50-85 60-100 25-55 300-60 35-65 50-85 55-100 70-100 15-40 20-45 25-50 40-70 40-100 55-100 80-20 15-30 15-30 25-45 20-50 30-70 2-8 5-20 5-15 5-20 5-20 8-25 Suitable for Surface Courses Suitable for Base and Sub-Bases

7-3 Treated Base Courses To stabilize the base coarse, it is sometimes treated with either Asphalt, Lime, Portland Cement or other materials as binders mixed with the aggregate base course. Treated base course is adopted if in the study or analysis of the highway agency, a better road can be produced at a minimal overall cost, or when a politician order the highway office to construct the road with or without study because it was a commitment during the campaign period. Asphalt or bituminous treatment is employed to waterproof and bind the granular aggregate to the sand and clay. Thus, the primary function of the asphalt in a treated aggregate is water-proofing. Asphalt treated base allows a thinner over all depth of the pavement. Different types of asphalt are used to bind the natural materials like untreated granular base and granular aggregate with sands and even clay. The type of asphalt binders for base course depends on several factors enumerated as follows: 1. The mixing procedure is either by plant or field mixing. 2. If mixing is processed in the plant, the aggregate is heated to specified temperature and mixed with either; Asphalt, Cement, Cutback asphalt or Emulsion asphalt. 3. The quality of asphalt is classified as either for stabilizing or for waterproofing purposes only. 4. If the purpose is for stability, mixtures are measured in the laboratory by the Marshall or HVEEM Stabilometer procedures. The weight of asphalt in percentage would probably in the range of 5% to 7%. 5. If the purpose is for waterproofing only, 2% to 3% of the asphalt binder is added. 6. If Emulsion asphalt is used, enough water is included in the mixture to allow compaction at near optimum moisture content.

Sand and Asphalt Base Coarse The sand and asphalt base course is composed of either, loose beach sand, dune pit or river sand cemented with asphalt materials. In the early road construction, sand and clay mixture is not only used as road surfaces but also for base courses. But lately, the Cutback asphalt, Emulsified asphalt or Tars have been introduced as substitute for the clay binders to produce quality base courses for roads and highways. Sand for mixing asphalt should be clean and strong because the surface properties and grain shape must have the quality to resist displacement under load. If in the event that quality of available sand is not satisfactory, it may be blended with sharp angular particles like crushed aggregate, stone or screened slag, stone dust, loess, cement or other non-cohesive minerals to produce an stable mixture. The test could be by the Hubbard Field, Marshall and Hveem Stabilometer procedures.

Asphalt binders with the grade of asphalt cement for hot plant mixing should be: a. Medium viscosity, rapid or medium curing asphalts b. Slow setting emulsified asphalt or c. Tars of grade RT-6 to RT-10

The content of asphalt binder is in percent by weight ranging from 4% to 10%. Compaction is done using either pneumatic tired or smooth wheeled roller. In case the surface is tight and non-friable, sealing could be disregarded. Fine Grain Asphalt Base An asphalt stabilized base and sub-grade constructed with fine grained has a controlled Plastic Index of 6 to 10 respectively. Aggregates with Plasticity Index up to 30 are processed with lime. Those with up to 50% passing the No. 200 sieve and Plastic Index up to 18 can be stabilized even without pretreatment. Soil and Base Course Stabilized with Cement The use of Portland cement in stabilizing soils and aggregates was initially practiced after World War-1 in 1914. 1. Cement stabilization by mixing natural materials and Portland cement compacted at optimum moisture content and cured to hydrate the cement is considerably strong and stable base. It is less susceptible to deformation caused by moisture and temperature changes. 2. Comparatively, this is less rigid than the Portland cement concrete because its modulus of elasticity ranges from 100,000 for clay soils with little cement up to 1,000,000 for the strong mixture. Its compressive strength ranges from 300 psi to 600 psi with flexural strength of about 20% of the compressive value. 3. Portland cement concrete modulus of elasticity ranges from 3 million to 6 million with compressive strength of about 3,000 to 5,000 psi.

The stabilized cement mixture is called Soil Cement produced by using abundant native local materials subdivided into three types: 1. Sandy and gravelly soils containing less than 25% silt and clay. 2. Sand with lesser amount of finer like beach sand, glacial and windblown sand. 3. Silty and clayey soils. Materials having plasticity index greater than 30 is rarely used, unless lime is added. Materials with higher PH or sulfate content are not advisable for use. The cement content for stabilized mixture ranges

from 5% to 14% by volume of 3% to 16% by weight of dry aggregates. Sandy and gravelly soils required less amount of cement, unlike the silty and clayey soils that needs higher percentage of cement. The dry densities of cement stabilize mixture compacted by AASHTO standard methods, ranges from 135 lb. per cubic foot for silty or clayey soils, the recommended field density is about 95%. The quality of aggregate cement mixture is measured by its ability to resist abrasion and disintegration. Other method of testing for stabilized cement content is the Unconfined and Triaxial Compression and Flexure Tests. 7-4 Grading and Maintenance of Untreated Surface The cross slope of untreated surface gravel road must be sufficient enough to drain water to prevent potholes and softening of the roadway, thus; 1. If the road materials are sufficiently stable and water tight, one inch per slope is considered satisfactory although 3/8 to per foot is preferred. 2. If the road is steep grade, substantial cross slope is needed to direct the water into the roadside. Untreated surface road is seldom constructed in less than 20 centimeters loose depth. When compacted, will be compressed to about 15 centimeters thick. Road development adopted the stage construction methods which means, step by step improvement of the roadway depending upon the availability of funds and demand of increased traffic. The sequence of improvement could be as follows: First: It might be an earth road surface. Second: Untreated gravel road. Third: Application of asphalt over the gravel. Fourth: The use of stone type pavement with gravel as part of the base course. Maintenance of gravel road surface is a routine activity especially in maintaining the smoothness of the surface under the following procedures: 1. By cutting off a thin layer of the road surface using road grader distributing the scraped layer uniformly over the roadway surface. The cut is deep enough to remove the corrugation of the road surface. 2. The blading sequence is once or twice a year or sometimes monthly, depending upon the finances, traffic and equipment availability. After blading, the road is compacted by a road roller to maintain the cross section slope and the crown of the roadway. 3. The most effective routine maintenance is done immediately after rainfall where the surface is soft for the blade to drag. 4. Losses of materials caused by grading and traffic wear generally ranges from 1/2' to 1 inch of the thickness per year although it varies due to traffic volume, rainfall, wind intensity, frequency and maintenance practice or habit.

5. Compaction is effectively done by using pneumatic tired or steel wheeled rollers. Where surface is tight and non-variable, sealing maybe omitted.

7-5 DPWH Standard Specifications on Aggregate Sub-Base Course THE Department of Public Works and Highways classified the aggregate sub-base course as Item 200 which consist of furnishing, placing and compacting aggregate sub-base course on a prepared subgrade. Item- 200 Materials Requirements That, aggregates for sub-base shall consist of hard, durable particles of fragments or crushed stone, crushed slag or crushed or natural gravel and filler or natural crushed sand or other firmly divided mineral matter. The composite material should be free of vegetable matter and lumps or balls of clay that could be compacted readily to form a firm stable base. Table 7-2 GRADING REQUIREMENTS FOR ITEM 200 Sieve Designation Standard Alternate US Standard 50 2 25 1 10 3/8 0.75 No. 200

Mass Percent Passing 100 55-85 40-75 0-12

Conditions 1. The fraction passing the 0.75 mm (200) sieve should not be greater than 0.666 (2/3) of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm. No. 40 sieve. 2. The fraction passing the 0.425 mm. (No. 40) sieve should have a liquid limit not greater than 35 and Plastic Index not more than 12 as determined by AASHTO T-89 and T-90 respectively. 3. The coarse portion retained on a 3.0 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have a mass percent of wear not to exceed 50 by the Los Angeles Abrasion Tests as determined by AASHTO T-193. The CBR value should be obtained at a maximum dry density as determined by AASHTO T-180 Method D. Item 201 Material Requirements TABLE 7-3 GRADING REQUIREMENTS FOR ITEM-201 Sieve Designation Standard Alternate US Standard mm Inch Mass Percent Passing Grading Grading A B

50 38 25 20 12 4.75 0.425 0.075

2 1-1/2 1 No. 4 No. 40 No. 200

100 60-85 35-65 20-50 5-20 0-12

100 60-85 30-35 8-25 2-14

Conditions 1. That the fraction passing the 0.075mm (No. 200) sieve shall have a mass percent of wear not to exceed 50. 2. The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limit not greater than 25 and Plastic Index not greater than 6. 3. The coarse portion retained on a 2.0 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a mass percent of wear not to exceed 50. 4. The materials passing the 20 mm (3/4 ) sieve shall have a soaked CBR value of not less than 80%.

Item-202 Material Requirements 1. The portion passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be greater than 0.66 (2/3) of the portion passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve. 2. The portion passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limit not more than 25 and plastic index not more than 6. 3. The coarse aggregate retained on a 2.0 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have a mass percent of wear not more than 45 by L.A. abrasion tests, and not less than 50 mass percent shall have at least one fractured face. 4. The material passing the 20 mm (3/4 ) sieve shall have a minimum soaked CBR value of 80%. TABLE 7-4 ITEM 201 CRUSHED AGGREGATE BASE COURSES Sieve Designation Standard Alternate US Standard mm Inch 38 1-1/2 25 1 20 12 4.75 No. 4 0.425 No. 40 0.075 No. 200 Mass Percent Passing Grading Grading A B 100 100 60-85 60-90 30-35 35-65 8-25 10-30 2-14 5-15

Item-203 Lime Stabilized Road Mix Base Course This item consists of foundation for a surface course composed of soil aggregate, lime and water proportion mixed on site and constructed on a prepared sub-grade or sub-base. Material Requirements 1. Soil aggregates refers to the combination of gravel, sand, silt and clay, or other approved combination of materials free of vegetable or other objectionable matter that might be encountered in the construction of site or obtained from other approved sources. 2. The intent of the specification is to utilize soil existing on the roadbed if the quality is satisfactory according to the specifications and minimizing cost. 3. On the contrary, if the material quality is poor or deficient, aggregate must be obtained wholly or partially from an approved outside sources. TABLE 7-5 GRADING REQUIREMENTS FOR ITEM -203 Sieve Designation Standard Alternate US Standard mm Inch 50 2 4.75 No. 4 2.00 No. 10 0.425 No. 40 0.075 No. 200 Mass Percent Passing Grading Grading A B 100 100 45-100 55-100 37-80 45-100 15-20 25-80 0-25 11-35

Conditions: 1. That, the Plastic Index of Item 203 should not be less than 4 or more than 10. The aggregate mass percent of wear should not exceed 50. 2. Hydrated lime must conform to the requirements of Item 701- Construction Lime. The amount of lime added to soil aggregate should be from 2 to 12 mass percent of the dry soil. 3. Lime should not be applied during windy, rainy or with impending bad weather. 4. The equipment to be used includes: scarifyer, pulverizer, mixer, spreader, hauler, water truck, compactor and finishing machine, including slurry line distributor equipment. 5. Distributor equipment should include: pressure gauge, volume measuring devices or a calibrated tank. It should be equipped with power unit for the pump and full circulation spray bars adjustable laterally and vertically and also agitator to prevent setting of solid lime.

Preparation of the Soil Aggregate Case-1 For New Soil Aggregate 1. The existing roadbed is scarified lightly and bladed to a uniform grade according to the plan, then rolled, watered and rolled. 2. All depressions appearing on the surface are filled, and the weak portion of the roadbed is strengthened with new soil aggregate. 3. Allow one day for measuring, sampling and testing of the sample for approval of the quality and gradation before spreading the windrow for application of the hydrated lime. 4. If soil aggregate moisture exceeds two mass percent of the dry aggregate, apply aeration by harrowing the soil aggregate until the moisture content is reduced to 2% or less. 5. Finally, spread the aggregate smoothly and uniformly over half the road or other convenient width of the surface ready for the application of hydrated lime. Case-2 Salvage Soil Aggregate 1. When materials in the site are to be used for mixing, the surface should be scarified lightly and bladed to a uniform grade conforming to the cross section of the plan. 2. The reshaped surface is scarified again to depth required leaving a foundation of undisturbed material parallel with the profile and cross section. 3. The loosened materials are bladed with a windrow at the side of the roadway. The undisturbed materials are then rolled, watered and rolled. Application of Lime Application of lime shall follow correct procedures enumerated as follows: 1. The hydrated lime is uniformly spreaded at specified percent using either the dry or slurry (wet) method. 2. The lime is distributed in successive applications at the amount and intervals as prescribed. 3. The mixing equipment follows immediately behind the distributor after each application to partially mix the lime with the soil aggregate. 4. It is applied only to specific areas as can be mixed into the soil aggregate during the day of application. 5. Dry application is either by spotting bags of lime in equal pre-determined transverse and longitudinal intervals or by applying in bulk lime from equipped self-loading trucks. 6. If lime slurry (wet) is employed, the typical slurry ratio is 1,000 kilograms lime to 2 cubic meters water. The actual mixing proportion depends upon the percent of lime specified, the type of soil and its moisture condition. 7. To prevent run-off and consequent non-uniformity of lime distribution, the slurry is mixed immediately after each spreading pass.

Mixing Mixing procedures are enumerated as follows: 1. After the last lime application and partial mixing, the entire mass of mixture is withdrawn on the road surface and then mixed by blading the mixture from side to side of the road, or by manipulation producing equivalent results until the whole mass has uniform color. The mixture should be free from lean spots or balls of unmixed particles. 2. Should the mixture show an excess of deficiency or uneven distribution of lime, the condition must be corrected by adding sol aggregate or lime then remixed. 3. If the mixture contain excessive amount of water or volatile matter, as may be encountered in slurry operation, it should be bladed, aerated or manipulated until the moisture and volatile content becomes satisfactory. 4. Whether mixing is completed or not, all loosened materials are bladed into a windrow at the end of each day work and retained as such until operation resumed.

Spreading Compacting and Finishing The methods of spreading, compacting and finishing are enumerated as follows: 1. The materials are spreaded by self-propelled pneumatic tired blade grader or mechanical spreader of approved type. Cutting into the underlying course should be avoided. 2. After spreading, the surface is leveled to the road centerline, then to the outer edges of the road overlapping the shoulder. 3. Each pass should terminate at least 90 centimeters in advance or to the rear of the end of the preceding pass. 4. During the time of compaction, the surface is dragged or bladed as necessary to fill and remove incipient corrugation or other surface irregularities. 5. Rolling must continue until after the surface is in uniform texture satisfactory compacted. 6. Rolling shoulder be stopped whenever there is an excessive pulverizing of the aggregate or displacement of the mixture. Protection, Curing and Maintenance After stabilizing the base course by lime, it is protected against rapid drying for a period of at least 5 days by either of the following curing methods: 1. A thorough and continuous moist condition should be maintained by sprinkling water. 2. The surface must be covered with 50 mm layer of earth or sand and maintained in moist condition. 3. The surface is applied with asphalt membrane of the type and quantity approved by the Highway agency. Item 204 Portland Cement Stabilized Road Mix Base Course

This item consist of a foundation for surface course composed of soil aggregate, Portland cement and water, proper proportions of road-mixed placed on a prepared sub-grade or sub-base. Proportioning Mixture 1. The amount of cement added to the aggregate shall be 6 to 10 mass percent of the dry aggregate. 2. Construction requirement and procedures is the same as that of Item-203 wherein the world lime is deleted and replaced with Portland cement.

Item 205 Asphalt Stabilized Road Mixed Base Course Materials. Asphalt materials should be Anionic or Cationic Emulsion asphalt of the slow setting type. Mixture proportion. The amount of asphalt material to be added to the aggregate should be from 4 to 7 mass percent of the dry aggregate.

Item 206 Portland Cement Treated Plant Mix Base Course A. Travel Plant Mixing Method. The salvage or new aggregate is pulverized until at least 80 mass percent of all the materials other than stone or gravel passes a 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve. Any material retained on a 50 mm (2 ) sieve and other unsuitable materials are removed. Procedure: 1. Aggregates to be treated, is placed in uniform windrow spreaded to a uniform thickness to the required depth. 2. Portland cement of proper quantity is applied uniformly in a trench on top of the windrows or spreaded uniformly over the aggregates. 3. Mixing is done by machine for thorough and uniform blended mixture. 4. When this method is used, a maximum time of 2 hours is allowed for wet mixing, letdown and finishing. B. Central Plant Mixing Method. The plant is equipped with feeding and metering devices that will introduced the cement aggregate and water into the mixer in quantities specified. Mixing continue until after a uniform mixture is attained. C. Spreading, Compacting and Finishing. Not more than 60 minutes should elapse from the start of mixing to compaction of laid mixture. After spreading, the mixture is compacted and finished in accordance with the procedure as enumerated for lime stabilized road mix base course Item 2-3.

7-6 Clearing and Grubbing Clearing and Grubbing is categories under Item-100 of the DPWH standard specifications. Its consist of clearing, grubbing, removing and disposing of all vegetable matter and debris except those objects that are designated to remain in place or are to be removed in consonance with other provisions of the specifications. It also includes preservation from injury or defacement of all objects designated to remain. Specification for Clearing and Grubbing provides that: 1. All surface objects and all trees, stumps, roots and other protruding obstructions, not designated to remain should be cleared and/or grubbed including the mowing required as follows. a. Removal of undisturbed stumps and roots and non-perishable solid objects with a minimum depth of 90 centimeters below sub-grade or slope of embankments will not be required. b. Outside the grading limits of cuts and embankment areas, stumps and non-perishable solid objects should be cut off not more than 15 cm. above the ground line or below low water level. c. In areas to be rounded at the top of cut slope, stumps should be cut off flush with or below the surface of the final slope line. d. Grubbing of pits, channel changes and ditches will be required only to the depth necessary by the proposed excavation with such areas. e. Burning should be under constant care of competent watchman that the surrounding vegetation, adjacent property, or anything designated to remain on the right of way will not be jeopardized.

Methods of Measurement 1. Area Basis- by hectare and fraction thereof acceptably cleared and grubbed. 2. Lump Sum Basis. No measurement of area will be made for this item. 3. Individual Unit Basis (selective clearing). The diameter of trees will be measured at a height of 1.4 meters above the ground. Trees less than 15 cm. diameter will not be measured for payment. The unit basis will be designated and measured in accordance with the following schedule of sizes: Diameter at height 1.4 meters Pay item designated Over 15 cm. to 90 cm. Over 90 cm. -Small Large

7-7 Excavation Excavation is the process of loosening and removing earth or rock from its original position in a cut and transporting it to a fill or to waste deposit. Roadway excavation is classified into: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Unclassified excavation Rock excavation Common excavation Muck excavation Borrow excavation

Unclassified excavation is the excavation and disposal of all materials regardless of its nature, or not classified and included in the Bill of Quantities under other pay items. Rock excavation consist of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that cannot be excavated without blasting or the use of rippers and all boulders or other detached stones each having a volume of 1 cubic meter. Common Excavations are those that are not included in the Bill of Quotations under rock excavation or other pay items. Muck Excavations consist of the removal and disposal of deposits of saturated or unsaturated mixtures of soil and organic matter not suitable for foundation materials regardless of moisture contents. Borrow excavation is the excavation and utilization of approved materials for the construction of embankment or for other portions of the work obtained from approved sources in accordance with the following requirements: 1. Borrow Case-1: Materials obtained from sources designated on the plans or in the special provisions. 2. Borrow Case-2: Materials obtained from sources provided by the contractor. Construction Requirements 1. When there is evidence of discrepancies between the actual elevations and that shown on the plans, a pre-construction survey with reference to the datum plane used in the approved plan is undertaken by the contractor or agency to serve as basis for the computation of the actual volume excavated. 2. All excavations should be finished to smooth and uniform surface. As much as possible, no materials shall be turned to waste. Materials outside the limits of slope should not be disturbed

by the excavation operations. Excavations should be done only after the clearing and grubbing in the area. 3. Top soil encountered in excavation and on areas where embankment is to be placed should be removed to the depth as the Engineer may determine should be transported and deposited in storage pile designated area separated from other excavated materials for later use. The Use of Excavated Materials All suitable materials removed from the excavation area are used in the formation of: 1. Embankment 2. Sub grade 3. Shoulders 4. Slope 5. Bedding 6. Backfill for structures

All unsuitable materials that could not be properly compacted in embankment must be disposed of without delay for it might be included in the work when the engineer turn his back for a cup of coffee. Borrow materials should not be placed until after the fill accessible roadway excavation has been placed in the fill. Pre-Watering and Pre-Splitting Excavation areas and borrow pits may be pre-watered before excavation. When pre-watering is adopted, the areas to be excavated shall be moistened to the full depth from the surface to the bottom of the excavation. The water must be controlled so that excavated materials will contain the acceptable moisture content to permit compaction to the desired density. Pre-watering has to be supplemented where necessary by truck watering unit to insure that the embankment materials contains the proper moisture at the time of compaction. Pre-splitting is drilling and blasting procedure that may be employed to control over break and to give a uniform face to the back slope or rock cuts. Pre-splitting is performed by: 1. Drilling holes at uniform intervals along the slope line. 2. Loading and stemming the holes with appropriate explosives and stemming materials. 3. Denoting the holes simultaneously. If the pre-splitting is under contract, prior to drilling operations, the contractor shall: 1. Furnish the engineer a plan outlining the position of all drill holes, depth of drilling type and explosive to be used, loading pattern and sequence of firing. 2. The drilling and blasting plan is for record purposes only, and will not absolve the contractor of his responsibility for using proper drilling and blasting procedures. 3. Controlled blasting must begin with a short test section of length to be approved by the engineer.

4. The test section shall be pre-splitted production drilled and blasted. Sufficient materials sample to be taken for the engineer to determine if the contractor s method is satisfactory. 5. The holes are charged with explosives of the size, kind, strength and spacing suitable for the formation being pre-splitted ,and with stemming material which passes a 3 inches standard sieve which has the qualities for proper confinement of the explosives. 6. The finished pre-split slope should be reasonably uniform and free of loose rocks. Variance from the true plane of the excavated back-slope should not exceed 30 centimeters. Localized irregularities or surface variations that do not constitute safety hazard or impairment to drainage courses or facilities will be permitted. 7. The maximum offset of 60 centimeters will be permitted for construction working bench at the bottom of each lift for use in drilling the next lower pre-splitting pattern. 8. The engineer may order discontinuance of the pre-splitting when the materials encountered are unsuitable for pre-splitting. 7-8 Free Haul- Overhaul (Item 107) Free haul distance is the specified distance wherein an excavated material will be hauled without additional cost. The free haul distance is 600 meter unless otherwise specified in the contract. The overhaul is an authorized hauling in excess of the free haul distance. For example, if the hauling distance of materials is 800 meters, considering that the free haul is 600 meters, then the excess 200 meters is considered the overhaul. Methods of Measurement The overhaul distance for material obtained and placed within the roadway limits will be measured along the centerline of the roadway. No allowance will be made for transverse of lateral movement to or from the centerline except materials moved to or from designated areas outside the roadway limits. If the contractor chooses to haul materials from other route which is longer than the designated source, payment will be based on the overhaul distance measured along the route designated by the engineer. Payment will be made based on the number of cubic meters overhaul materials multiplied by the overhaul distance in kilometers. 7-9 Construction of Fills and Embankment An stable embankment is attained by spreading the materials into a thin a layer then compacted at a moisture content closer to optimum. These layered process of compaction produces uniformity and higher density of the materials and moisture content. On the other hand, filling materials which are just dumped in thick layers even if compacted will have a varying density and moisture contents from one spot to another. This will result to differential settlement or swell between the adjacent areas of the embankment.

The AASHTO-ARBA Joint Committee on Compaction of Earthwork proposed the following amendment to the original AASHTO density requirements to wit: 1. Granular aggregates or those with only slight degree of plasticity should be compacted to 95%100%. 2. Fine grained aggregates possessing a low degree of plasticity is compacted to approximately 100% at a moisture content near laboratory optimum. 3. Densities for aggregate possessing moderate to high plasticity should not be so high as to lead to subsequent swelling. Compacting procedures should not exceed the aggregate shear strength. 4. Clay soil should not be over compacted beyond about 90% to avoid post construction swelling. Embankment Control Basically, there are two procedures employed to assure specified embankment density. 1. To specify the expected value to the minimum acceptable amount of relative compaction and to ascertain from the fill density tests that the specified value is obtained. 2. To specify the manner and methods of constructing the embankment particularly the layer thickness, moisture control and the number of passes by a roller of specified type and weight. Field control is a matter of ascertaining and defining the specific procedures to be done. What is important is the manner and methods that will yield the expected result. TABLE 7-6 RECOMMENDED MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPACTION OF EMBANKMENTS Class of Soils AASHTO M-145 A-1, A-3 A-2-4, A-2-5 A-2-6, A-2-7 A-4, A-5, A-6, A-7 Minimum Relative Density Requirements*+ Embankment Under 15 m. high Over 15 m. high Subgrade 95 95 100 95 95 100 95 ** 95* 95 ** 95*

The problems encountered in the control of embankment construction are: 1. Difficulties in maintaining uniform moisture content. This is due to: a. Variable wetness of the soil. b. Problems in evenly distributing and mixing in water. c. Evaporation or rainfall. 2. Some soil may not easily assimilate water unless wetting agent is employed. Sometimes soil type cannot be segregated during construction unless brought to laboratory. 3. Materials are hauled from different sources and segregation of the same type is difficult in the actual work. Construction Requirements and Equipment

a. Density test requirements b. Moisture control c. Compaction equipment like: 1. Tamping Roller varies from light unit test weight 6,000 to 10,000 lbs. for an 8 ft. width. giant fully loaded roller, 75,000 lbs. for a 10 ft. width. For

2. Grid Rollers is effective in breaking down colds and soft rock. 3. Pneumatic Tire Roller with rubber tires, weighing 8 tons or more. 200 tons for airport. 4. Smooth Tired Roller of two or three-wheeled type used to compact bases and bituminous surface. 5. Vibratory Compactor is effective in compacting stones of Macadam road. 6. Hauling and Spreading equipment. Embankment on Swampy Areas Conventional construction of roadways in swampy area is not advisable because record shows that muck and plate provide unstable support for fills causing failure of highways and railroads. Construction of roadway through swampy area requires either of the following methods: 1. Removal and replacement of unsuitable materials. 2. Displacement under the following methods: a. Surcharging method b. Vertical sand drain c. Fabric reinforcement d. Weight reduction Removal and Replacement Method is applicable where the unstable material is shallow or thin. Unstable materials are removed to the level of the underlying materials before filling. Displacement Method. Imported materials are carefully placed along the advancing slope allowed to flow under the dense muck to displace it. Sometimes a trench almost equal to the width of the embankment may be blasted out and backfilled at once with stable materials. the blast pushes part of the muck out of the trench and the other portion is liquified for easy displacement. Where muck is deeper or thick, the under-fill method of displacement is applied. The trench is blasted and a large volume of the fill material is dropped to settle into the peak. The Relief Method is also employed after the fill materials are dumped in place. Relief ditches are blasted along the side of the fill to displace the underlying muck. Surcharging Method is applied on low fill over shallow muck up to 30 to 40 centimeters depth. Where top of the muck is soft, displacement through careful filling is done. The fill is then built-up in compacted layers to its elevation allowing settlement to its final grade. Surcharge of un-compacted fill material is laid to add weight and accelerate the flow of water from the muck speeding up consolidation.

Care should be exercised not to exceed the shearing strength of the muck otherwise, displacement of the muck and settlement of the fill may take place. After a period of consolidation, the surcharge material is removed and replaced with base course and temporary pavement. The Vertical Sand Drain Method provides rapid consolidation of deep layer muck. Sand drains are vertical columns of sand that penetrate the muck almost to solid materials. Across this top is a horizontal blanket extending through the side slope of the fill. Under the pressure induced by fill and surcharge, sub-surface water flows up the drain and out of the fill. Rapid consolidation of the muck follows: The Fabric Reinforcement Method is covering the muck with permeable fabrics. Weight Reduction Method is installing a block of Styrofoam over the muck to reduce the weight of the fill. DPWH Specifications on Embankment (Item-104) Embankment shall be constructed of suitable materials defined as: 1. Suitable Materials are materials acceptable that could be compacted in accordance with the contract as specified. Selected Borrow for topping. Soils graded particles that passes a 75 mm. (3 ) sieve square openings and not more than 15 mass percent will pass the 0.075 mm. (No. 200) sieve. The material shall have a plastic index not more than 6 and liquid limit not more than 30. 2. Unstable Materials are materials other than suitable materials such as: a. Materials containing detrimental quantities of organic substances like grass, roots and sewage. b. Highly organic solid like peat and muck. c. Soils with liquid limit exceeding 80 and or plastic index exceeding 55. d. Soils with natural water content exceeding 100%. e. Soils with very low natural density of 800 kg./m3 or lower. Methods of Construction 1. Where embankment lower than 120 centimeters below the sub-grade is to be made, all sods and vegetable matters are removed from the surface. The cleared surface should be totally broken-up by plowing, scarifying or steeping to a minimum depth of 15 centimeters. Sods not required for removal should be disc harrowed or scarified before the construction of embankment. 2. Roadway embankment on earth materials are placed in horizontal layers not exceeding 20 centimeters loose volume than compacted as specified before the next layer is placed. 3. When excavated materials contains more than 25 mass percent of rock larger than 15 centimeters in greatest diameter and cannot be placed in layers of the thickness prescribed without crushing, pulverizing or further breaking down into pieces, such materials may be

placed on the embankments on layers not exceeding in thickness the approximate average size of the larger rocks but not greater than 60 centimeters. 4. Lifts of materials containing more than 25 mass percent of rock larger than 15 centimeters in greatest dimension should not be constructed above an elevation of 30 centimeters below the finish sub-grade. The balance of embankment should be composed of suitable material placed in layers not exceeding 20 centimeters in loose thickness and compacted as specified for embankment. 5. Hauling and leveling equipment should be routed and distributed over each layer of the fill to make use of compaction efforts affording and to minimize rutting and uneven compaction. Compaction The contractor shall carry out full-scale compaction trials on areas not less than 10 meters wide and 50 meters long. Compaction trials with the main types of fill materials to be used in the work should be completed before any work with the corresponding materials is allowed to start. Throughout the period of compaction, the contractor should adhere to the compaction procedures found during the compaction trials for each type of materials, compaction equipment employed, and each degree of compaction specified. Protection of Roadbed During Construction During the construction of roadway, the roadbed should be well maintained and drained at all times. Slide ditches or gutters emptying from cuts to embankment or otherwise should be constructed to avoid damages to embankment by erosion. Rounding and Warping Slope Rounding. Except solid rocks, the top and bottom of all slopes including the slopes drainage, ditches, are rounded as planned. A layer of earth overlapping rock is rounded above as was done in earth slope. Warping. Adjustment in slopes are made to avoid injury to standing trees or marring of weather head rock or to harmonize with existing landscape features adjusting to the gradual slope. At the intersection of cuts and fills, slope are adjusted and warped to flow into each other or into the natural ground surface without noticeable break.

7-10 Sub-Grade Preparation Sub-grade preparation is categorized under Item 105 of the DPW standard specifications. The sub-grade is prepared for the support of overlying structural layers extended to the full width of the roadway. Material Requirements

1. Except when the sub-grade is in rock cut, all materials below the sub-grade is leveled to a depth of 15 centimeters or more as specified to meet the requirements of selected borrow toppings. 2. Prior to start of the sub-grade preparation, all culverts cross drains, conduits and the like including the backfill, ditches, drains and drainage outlets are thoroughly compacted. Any work on the preparation of the sub-grade should not be allowed to start unless approved by the supervising engineer. Sub-Grade Level Tolerance The finished compacted surface of the sub-grade shall conform to the allowable tolerance specified as follows: 1. Permitted variance from design 2. Level of service 3. Permitted surface irregularities measured by 3 meters straight edge 4. Permitted variance from design cross fall of chamber 5. Permitted variance from design longitudinal grade over 25 m. long 7-11 Compaction and Stabilization Whether the soil is used as foundation material to support vertical structures, roads or other structures it is important to know if the in place materials possesses the following properties: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. That the soil must have adequate strength. The soil must be relatively incompressible to avoid insignificant future settlement. The soil must be stable against volume change as water content or other factors vary. The soil must be durable and save against deterioration. The soil must possess proper permeability. + 20 mm - 30 mm 30 mm 0.5% 0.1%

These desirable features could be achieved with compacted fill of selected types of soil properly placed and arranged. Highly desirable characteristics such as strength, low compressibility and stability is associated with high density values as a result of using good materials and proper compaction. Any type of soil may be used for structural fill provided that it does not contain organic or foreign materials that will decompose or otherwise undergo changes after it is placed. The water content in the soil fill has substantial effect on its stability and in the process of compaction. Fine grain silt, and clay soil, or granular soil containing fine materials are affected by vibrations due to its water content. Soil that is too dry is difficult to compact and those that are too wet are difficult to spread and compacted.

Generally, compacted silt is stable. It is capable of developing fairly good strength and has a little tendency for volume change. But silt soil is difficult to compact if wet or if work is performed on rainy period. Compacted clay has very low permeability, an advantage where movement of water needs to be restricted, but clay soils cannot be compacted properly when wet. If the height of the fill is reasonably high, marginal materials to be placed under water should consist of coarse granular materials. fine grain soil should be avoided. The thickness of the initial fill should be greater than the normal fill in order to create a working pad capable of supporting equipment used for the subsequent placement and compaction of the fill. Equipment for Compaction 1. 2. 3. 4. The Pneumatic or rubber tired rollers. The drum type roller with projecting feet or logs called the sheep s foot roller. Vibratory compactors. Smooth drum rollers.

The Pneumatic Tire Roller can be used effectively on all types of soils. It compacts by kneading available as self-propelled unit or as towed units. Load sizes vary from 29 tons to 200 tons of which, 50 tons is commonly used. Light Rollers of 20 tons type can compact 6 inches thick layer with few passes. The 40 to 50 tons roller can compact 12 inches thick layer with3 to 4 passes. The heavy 200 tons type was proven to compact layers up to 18 inches thick with limited number of passes. The Sheep s Foot Roller is limited to cohesive soils. Its pressure varies from 700 kN/m2 to 4,200 kN/m2. The Vibratory Compactor is the most effective compactor or non-cohesive soils available as: 1. Vibrating drum type 2. Vibrating pneumatic tire 3. Vibrating plate equipment On some vibratory compactors, the vibrating frequency can be varied by operation. The frequency ranges between 1500 and 2,500 cycles per minute that is within the natural frequencies of most soil. This natural frequency refers to the value at which the soil particles tend to oscillate in unison giving maximum effect to the repeated impact imposed by the compactor instead of having a random oscillation of particles that would create damping effect. Thus, shaking the particles into a more compacted arrangement.

The Smooth Drum Roller has limited depth of compaction. This is not suited for compacting earthfill due to the size of the drum and the large soil compact. This type can be utilized for compacting limited thickness such as granular base course on highways and the like. The smooth drum roller can be used on earth moving projects to seal the surface of the fill at the end of each workday providing smooth surface for the water to rapidly run-off from the work area. Compaction Equipment and Density Control Strips Compaction equipment should be capable of obtaining compaction requirements without detrimentally affecting the compacted materials. The compacting unit may be of any type, provided that they are capable of compacting each lift of material as specified and meet the minimum requirements. Minimum Requirements for Road Roller 1. Pneumatic Tire Roller must have smooth thread tires of equal size that will uniform compacting pressure for the full width of the roller and capable of exerting ground pressure of at least 550 kN (psi). 2. Sheepfoot Tamping as grid roller should be capable of exerting a force of 45 Newton per millimeter (250 psi) of length of roller. 3. Vibratory Steel Wheel Roller must have a minimum mass of 6 tons. The compactor is equipped with amplitude and frequency controls. 4. Steel Wheel Roller. Other than vibratory should be capable of exerting a force not less than 45 Newton per millimeter of width of the compression roll or rolls. TABLE 7-7 SOIL COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS AND RECOMMENDED COMPACTION EQUIPMENT General Soil Description Sand & sand Gravel mixture (no silt or clay) Sand or Sand Gravel with Clay Silt Unified Soil Classification Sa, SP, GW GP Sm, GM Compaction Characteristics Good Recommended Compaction Equipment Vibratory down roller Vibratory rubber tire or pneumatic tire equipment Vibratory down roller, Vibratory rubber tire, Vibratory sheep s foot Pneumatic Tire Vibratory rubber tire, Vibratory sheep s foot Pneumatic tire, Vibratory rubber tire Vibratory sheep s foot Sheep foot type Pneumatic tire, sheep s foot, vibratory sheep s foot and rubber tire. -do-



Good to Poor


Fair to Poor



Good to Fair


Fair to Poor

Organic Soil


Not recommended for structural earthfill