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INTRODUCTION TO TRANSFORMERS

In generating stations we are producing large range of voltages. We need to increase or decrease the voltages to required level. One of the greatest advantage of alternating currents over direct currents is that, the alternating currents can be easily transferable from low voltage to high or high voltage to low. Alternating currents can be raised or lowered as per requirements in the different stages of electrical network as generation , transmission ,distribution & utilization. This is possible with a device called as TRANSFORMERS. Transformer is a static machine , which transfers the electrical power or energy from one alternating current circuit to another with the desired change in voltage or current and without any change in the frequency. Basically transformers are classified into two types they are 1. step up transformer 2. step down transformer. A transformer is used to increase the voltage is called a step up transformer, while that used to decrease the voltage is called a step down transformer. The step down transformers are generally used to decrease the voltage at substations for the consumers use and the step up transformers are required to increase the voltage at the generating stations for transmission.

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF A TRANSFORMER:


A transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction and mutual induction between the coils . It consists of two windings electrically separated but linked by a common magnetic circuit of low reluctance formed by a laminated soft iron core. The winding which is connected to the supply is known as primary winding (p) and the other winding on which the load is connected is called secondary winding(s). When primary winding is excited by an a.c. supply mains, a current flows through it. This current produces an alternating flux in the core which completes its path through the common magnetic core. This flux links with both the windings because of this, it produces self induced emf in the primary winding and mutual induced e.m.f. (according to faradays laws of electro-magnetic induction) in the secondary winding. If now secondary circuit is closed through the load, the mutually induced emf in the secondary winding circulates current through the load. Thus electrical energy is transferred from primary to secondary with the help of magnetic coil. The winding connected to higher voltage circuit is called the high voltage winding while that connected to the lower voltage circuit is called the low voltage winding. In case of a step up transformer, low voltage winding is the primary and high voltage winding is the secondary while in case of a step down transformer, the high voltage winding is the primary and low voltage winding is the secondary.

Transformer on D.C.
A transformer can not operate on dc supply. If rated dc supply is applied to the primary of a transformer, the flux produced in the transformer core will not vary but remain constant in magnitude and therefore , no emf will be induced in the primary and secondary windings. If no self-induced emf in the primary winding , to oppose the applied voltage and since the resistance of primary winding is low , therefore , a heavy current will flow through the primary winding which may result in the damage of the winding . this is the reason that dc is never applied to a transformer.

CLASSIFICATION:
1. ACCORDING TO PHASES: a. single- phase transformer b. three- phase transformer 2. ACCORDING TO CONSTRUCTION: a. core type transformer b. shell type transformer c. berry type transformer 3. ACCORDING TO FUNCTION: a. power transformer b. distribution transformer c. instrument transformer d. current transformer e. potential transformer 4. ACCORDING TO TYPE OF CONNECTION: a. air cooled transformer b. oil cooled transformer

CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMER:
A transformer is a static device and its construction is simple as there are no moving parts. The main components of a transformer. There are two basic parts of a transformer. a.magnetic core b.windings or coil MAGNETIC CORE: The core material and its construction should be such that the maximum flux is created with minimum magnetizing current and minimum core loss. Core is divided into two parts they are limbs and yoke. The vertical portion on which windings or coils are wound is called as limbs. The top and bottom horizontal portions are called as yokes of the core, which connect the legs and serve for closing the magnetic circuit. Core is made up of laminated stampings to reduce eddy-current losses. Generally thin sheets of high grade silicon steel laminations (0.3 to 0.5 mm thick) are used. Various laminations are insulated from each other by using insulation like varnish. To reduce the losses further, cord rolled grain oriented silicon steel laminations are used for the construction of transformer core. This reduces the amount of magnetizing current taken by the primary winding, needed to produce the required flux in the core. WINDINGS OR COILS: The transformer has high voltage and low voltage coils for each phase the coil may be either cylindrical concentric or sandwiched type. Concentric coils are used in core type transformers. The low voltage is placed near the core from ease of insulating it from the core. The high voltage is placed after it.

Sand witched coils are commonly employed for shell type transformer. The leakage reactance of the windings can be easily controlled by employing sand witched winding. TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS: Based on construction the relative arrangement of the core and the windings the transformers are classified as (i). core type (ii). shell type. CORE TYPE: In this type of transformer, the windings are wound around the two limbs. The flux is same in both the limbs. It has only one magnetic path or circuit. In this type, the windings surround a considerable parts of the core. The primary and secondary windings are split in to two parts. Half the primary & half the secondary windings are placed side by side concentrically on each limb to reduce the leakage flux coils used are of cylindrical type such coils are wound in helical layers with different layers insulated from each other by paper, cloth mica etc. SHELL TYPE TRASFORMER: In this type of transformer, the windings are wound on the central limbs has flux , while the other two limbs have flux \2. It has double magnetic circuit. In this type, the core surrounds a considerable portion of the windings. The primary winding is wound deep near the core & secondary windings is done on it. The coils are multi layered disc type or sand witch type, core is laminated. The shell type of transformer are more robust mechanically.

TRASFORMER TANK &ACCESSORIES 1.TRASFORMER TANK The transformer with core &windings ,is housed in proper container contains transformer oil ,used for cooling is called transformer tank . Tanks for small transformer are fabricated from welded sheet steel and for large transformer form plain boiler plates . the lids of these transformer tanks can be of cast iron .a water proof gasket is used at the joints. 2.LOCATION & FUNCTION OF TRANSFORMER ACCESSORIES The various important accessories with the transformer tank are conservator , breather, explosion vent , oil level indictor, bushings, temperature gauge & Buchholzs relay. A .CONSERVATOR; The conservator is an air tight cylindrical drum containing transformer oil placed at the top of the transformer and connected to the transformer tank by a pipe half of the drum is usually kept empty. FUNCTIONS: A conservator performs the following functions 1. It maintains the oil level in the tank 2. It provides space for the expansion of oil, when the temperature of the transformer increases. 3. It reduces the rate of oxidation of oil because it ensures surface of the oil is less exposed to air. B.BREATHER; A pipe connected at the top of the conservator is left open to the atmosphere through a breather. The breather is a cylindrical tube containing silica gel or calcium chloride.

C. EXPLOSION VENT A pressure relief device provides instantaneous relieving of dangerous pressure and protects the transformer tank against explosion. D. OIL GAUGE The oil leave gauge incorporates a mercury switch . the switch close and actuates an alarm ,when the oil leave has dropped beyond permissible leave. E. BUSHINGS Ordinary porcelain insulators can be used as bustings mounted up to a voltage of 33kv ,above 33kv condenser or oil-filled type bustings are normally used. F. BUCHHOLZ RELAY It is a gas actuated relay . it is used for protection of oil immersed transformers from incipient faults below oil level . this is installed between the transformer tank and conservator.

CONSTRUCTION : It has an oil tight container fitted with two internal floats which operate mercury switches connected to external alarm and tripping circuits . in normal condition , the relay is completely filled with oil. OPERATION : Whenever a fault takes place in a transformer ,the oil in the tank gets over heated and gases are formed . When minor or incipient fault occurs in the transformer , generates small bubbles of gas. These gas bubbles while passing upwards towards the conservator get trapped in the relay, thereby a fall in oil level takes place. Due to this, the upper float tilts and the alarm circuit is closed through the mercury switch and there by gives an alarm to the operator. When severe fault like short circuit occurs in the transformer , large volumes of gases are generated, which rushes fastly to the conservator through the relay. Due to this, the lower float is tilted and in turn clases the trip circuit of circuit breaker, there by disconnecting the transformer from the supply. ADVANTAGES: 1. It is the simplest form of transformer protection. 2.It detects the incipient faults of transformer at a much earlier stage. LIMITATIONS: 1.it can be used only for transformers with conservator. LOSSES OF TRANSFORMER: The transformer is a static machine and therefore has no rotational i.e., friction and windage losses. So that its efficiency is much higher than that of rotating machines. The various losses which occurs in the transformer as follows.

1. CORE OR IRON LOSSES: It consists of hysteresis and eddy current losses. These are caused by the alternating flux in the core. The iron losses are constant losses, because the core flux in a transformer is remains particularly constant for all loads. HYSTERESIS LOSS: Due to alternating flux is set up in the magnetic core of the transformer , it undergoes a cycle of magnetization and demagnetization. Due to hysteresis effect there is a loss of energy as heat in this process which is called as hysteresis loss. EDDY CURRENT LOSS: This loss occurs in the core of transformer as induced eddy currents appear in the form of heat in the core. 2.COPPER LOSSES: These are the losses taking place in the transformers windings due to their resistance.

STRAY LOAD LOSS:


It largely results from leakage fields inducing eddy-currents in the tank walls, conductors, bolts etc., DI-ELECTRIC LOSS: This loss occurs in the insulating materials, particularly in oil and solid insulations.The stray load loss and dielectric loss are small and are therefore neglected.

TYPES OF FAULTS IN TRANSFORMER: For finding the efficiency and losses of transformer we are conducting three types of tests mainly they are a. open circuit test b. short circuit test c. sumpners test let us discuss each test briefly. OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: This test is used to determine parameters of the equivalent circuit resistance (R) and reactance(X).And help to determine in voltage regulation and the iron losses for calculating efficiency without actually loading the transformer. The transformer is connected in such a way that one of the windings H.V is kept open , while the other LV as connected to the supply of rated voltage and frequency. With normal voltage is applied to the primary , normal flux is set up in the core and normal iron loss will occur. SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: The purpose of this test is to determine the copper loss, equivalent resistance and reactance of the transformer. In this the secondary winding LV is short circuited by a thick wire , while a low voltage is applied to primary. the applied voltage slowly increased until full load current flows in the transformer winding. SUMPNERS TEST: The efficiency of a transformer can be determined by conducting the OC & SC tests without actually loading the transformer. However full load test is necessary to determine the temperature rise. Large transformer can be put on full load for determining the temperature rise & accurate efficiency by means of sumpners test . It requires two identical transformer. In this test, the two primaries are connected in parallel across the supply of rated voltage &frequency. The two secondaries are connected together with their polarities in opposition.

ADVANTAGES: 1. Two large transformers can be tested. 2. Transformers temperature rise can be measured. 3. Accurate efficiency can be calculated. 4. Transformers are tested under full load conditions with a small expenditure of energy. TYPES OF TRANFORMER FAULTS: Power (or) distribution transformer (or) being static. Oil immersed and totally enclosed can generate the faults rarely but the effect of even a rare fault may become serious unless the transformer is quickly disconnected from the system. The transformer faults can be divided into three types: 1. Faults in the auxiliary equipment i.e., with in the transformer . 2. Faults in the transformer winding and connection. 3. Over loads and external short circuits. FAULTS IN THE AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT: To prevent the failure of the main transformer windings it is necessary to detect the faults in the auxiliary equipment. The following may be considered as auxiliary equipment. 1.TRANSFORMER OIL : In a transformer the oil should be in a specified level. If the oil is below the specified level then it is a dangerous condition in a transformer because live parts and leads to bushings etc., are to be under oil. If the oil is below the specified level these will be exposed. Oil level indicators with alarm contacts are available to give indication for immediate attention. 2. OIL PUMPS AND FORCED AIR FANS: The oil temperature will give the indication of load on the transfor-mer. If the oil temperature is increased then it might be an indication for an over load or a fault is taking place in the cooling system such as non operat-ion of fans (or) blocking of a radiator valve or failure of oil pump. The rise in the oil temperature because if any faults will be indicated by using a

thermometer with alarm contacts. The proper operation of oil pumps is commonly indicated by an oil flow indicator. 3. CORE AND WINDING INSULATIONS: Incipient faults may take place initially which may develop into major faults if not taken care of at the initial stages. Insulation failure may takes place because of following: 1. Badly mode joints or connection. 2. The insulation of the laminations and core bolts may be damaged during erection or may be of poor quality. 3. The insulation between winding and the core and between the windings and the conductor insulation may be of poor quality or may be damaged mechanically or may be brittle because of ageing or over loading WINDING FAULTS: Electrical faults which may cause serious damage are detected by unbalance current or voltage may be divided into the following classes: 1. Fault to ground or across complete windings such as phase to earth faults on the HV and LV external terminals or on the windings. 2. Faults between adjacent turns or parts of coils such as phase to phase faults on the HV and KV external terminals or on the winding itself or short circuit between turns of HV and LV windings. OVERLOADS AND EXTERNAL SHORT CIRCUITS: Excessive overloading will result in the deterioration of insulation and subsequent failure. It is a dangerous condition in the transformer. Under this condition we have to monitor the oil temperature condition and winding conditions and an alarm is initiated when the specified temperature limits are exceeded. External short circuits may only be limited by the transformer reactance and where this is low fault currents may be excessive.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DISTRIBUTION & POWER TRANSFORMER: S.NO Distribution transformer 1 Used to supply power to different consumers 2 Always step down (k<1) transformer 3 Its secondary is star connected which enables to provide 3, 4 wire supply system. 4 Kept in operation for all the 24 hours in a day. 5 Iron losses takes place always. 6 Designed to have maximum efficiency at about 50% of full load 7 Usual ratings are up to 500 kvA 8 These have good voltage regulation Power transformer Used in generating stations and substations Step up or step down transformers The secondary of this transformer is usually delta connected. Operates mostly when load exists. Losses takes place when loaded. Designed to have maximum efficiency at nearly full load Ratings will vary depending upon service. Voltage regulation is less important

COOLING OF TRANSFORMERS: NECESSITY: In transformers, losses are taken place in core and the windings .some heat will be produced , due to the load current and losses . to keep down the temperature i.e, to dissipate the heat from the core and windings , cooling is necessary. If the cooling is not adopted , the insulation may be damaged . if the transformer works at higher temperature , its output is to be reduced . so various methods are adopted to cool transformer.

METHOD OF COOLING: According to cooling methods , the transformers are either dry type or oil immersed type. 1.Dry type transformer: A small rating transformers up to 25 kVA . the cooling methods used for dry type transformers are (a) Air natural cooling: The heat is dissipated to the external atmosphere by the natural circulation of air around the transformer tank . the transformer core & windings are open all round to air. This method is used for cooling very small rating transformers. (b) Air blast cooling: Cooling is improved by using continuous blast of air produced by a fan and forced through the core & winding. The air supplied is filtered to avoid dust entering the ventilating ducts. The air is discharged through the top of the case. 2. Oil immersed type transformers: In general most of the transformers are of oil immersed type. The oil provides insulation to the windings, in addition to cooling. The common transformer oil is mineral oil. The cooling method in oil immersed type transformer are: (a).oil natural cooling: In this method, the core and windings of the transformer is placed inside the tank filled with transformer oil . the oil absorbs the heat and dissipated to the atmosphere through the tank surface. To make this system more efficient, the surface area of the tank is increased by providing hollow tubes or radiators. Oil circulates through these tubes and tank. The hot oil becomes lighter in weight and goes up, from where comes down through the tubes to the bottom of the tank after cooling. The oil level in the tank should never fall below the upper ends of the tube.

(b).oil blast cooling: In this method , the core and windings are immersed in oil and cooling is improved by forced air over the outer surface of the radiating tubes . this additional cooling as provided by motor driven fans mounted external to the transformer. (c).oil water cooling: In this method , the core and winding are immersed in oil and cooling is improved by circulation of water through tubes placed inside the upper portion of the tank. Cool water is passed through the tubes by a pump. The heat of the oil is carried away by this cool water. The heated water is cooled in a spray pond or cooling tower. SPECIFICATION OF OIL FOR COOLING: The insulating oil provides three functions: (a). It carries away the heat produced in the core & winding . (b). Additional insulation for the winding (c). Protect the insulation from the dirt and moisture. The oil which is extensively used in the transformer oil . the common transformer oil is mineral oil obtained by refining crude petroleum. IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF OIL: 1. high dielectric strength 2. low viscosity 3. purity 4. higher flash point &lower pour point 5. excellent oxidation & thermal stability 6. free from moisture & water 7. high specific resistance 8. low dielectric dissipation factor.

HUMMING OF TRANSFORMER: Generally, the transformer produces noise or hum, and increases with load. THE CAUSES OF THE NOISE ARE: 1. Magneto-striction : It is the property of magnetic material due to which there will be small change in linear dimensions. 2. Mechanical vibration caused by the laminations, depending upon the tightness of clamping, size, gauge, associated structural parts etc. 3. Mechanical vibration of the tank walls and 4. Noise by fans of force air cooling. The steps to reduce the noise are: 1. Preventing vibration of core-plant , which needs the use of a lower flux density. 2. Proper tightening of the core by clamps, bolts etc. 3. Sound insulating the transformer from the tank by cushion padding or oil-barriers.