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Roger Melko Arun Paramekanti Ashvin Vishwanath Dong-ning Sheng

cond-mat/0505258

cond-mat/0506457

Outline

XXZ Model

persistent superfluidity at strong interactions supersolid

Field theory Mott phases in (dual) mean field theory Supersolids and deconfined Mott criticality

Superfluid-Insulator transition of bosons in a periodic lattice: now probed in atomic traps

Filling f=1: Unique Mott state w/o order, and LGW works

Interesting interplay between superfluidity and charge order! M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hnsch, and I. Bloch, Nature 415, 39 (2002).

Triangular Lattice

Hard-core: no double occupancy

= hard-core projector

Frustration: Cannot satisfy all Jz interactions - no simple crystalline states near half-filling

Supersolid Phase

Recent papers on XXZ model find supersolid phase near -filling T=0

- D. Heidarian, K. Damle, cond-mat/0505257 - R. G. Melko et al, cond-mat/0505258 - M. Troyer and S. Wessel, cond-mat/0505298

ODLRO

filling

+ DLRO

from Melko et al

-Q BZ Q

soft roton for Jz/J >1

Order parameter

3 sublattice diagonal order

Supersolid Phases

0

ferrimagnetic

spontaneous magnetization= phase separation

antiferromagnetic

particle-hole transform not identical

expect stabilized by 2nd neighbor hopping

Surprises

Superfluidity survives even when V=Jz !

Symptomatic of frustration: superfluid exists within extensively degenerate classical antiferromagnetic ground state Hilbert space

topology of this space leads to proof of diagonal LRO at Jz =

Burovski et al, 2005

- He^4 atoms at boundaries frustrated by incommensurate quasiperiodic superposition of potentials from two crystallites? - Persistent superfluidity stabilized by frustration despite strong interactions?

Mott Transition

Goal: continuum quantum field theory - describes particles condensing at QCP

Holes ~

Particles ~

-Leads to LGW theory of bose condensation -Built in diagonal order, the same in both Mott and SF state vortex anti-vortex

Dual approach: use vortices/antivortices of superfluid - non-LGW theory, since vortices are non-local objects

- focuses on Mottness, diagonal order is secondary - theory predicts set of possible diagonal orders

C. Dasgupta and B.I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1556 (1981); D.R. Nelson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1973 (1988); M.P.A. Fisher and D.-H. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 39, 2756 (1989);

Duality

Dual magnetic field B = 2n

particles= bosons Mott insulator Two completely equivalent descriptions - really one critical theory (fixed point) particles= with 2 descriptions vortices superfluid

C. Dasgupta and B.I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1556 (1981);

N.B.: vortex field is not gauge invariant - not an order parameter in Landau sense

Real significance: Higgs mass indicates insulating dielectric constant

Non-integer filling f 1

Vortex approach now superior to Landau one -need not postulate unphysical disordered phase Vortices experience average dual magnetic field - physics: phase winding

Vortex field operator transforms under a projective representation of lattice space group

Vortex Degeneracy

Non-interacting spectrum = honeycomb Hofstadter problem Physics: magnetic space group

For f=p/q (relatively prime) and q even (odd), all representations are at least 2q (q)-dimensional

1/3 Filling

There are 3 vortex flavors 1,2,3 with the Lagrangian

v>0:

v<0:

-Filling

2 2 = 4 vortex flavors with pseudo-spinor structure z - Space group operations appear as rotations T2 T3 R2/3 T1 T3 T2 T1 R2/3 Order parameters

XXZ supersolid diagonal order parameter

ordering wavevectors dz dy dx

quartic

8th and 12th order

Emergent symmetry: -Quartic Lagrangian has SU(2)U(1)U(1)g invariance -SU(2)U(1) symmetry is approximate near Mott transition -Leads to skyrmion and vortex excitations of SU(2) and U(1) order parameters Mean field analysis predicts 10 Mott phases - e.g. v,w1<0

note similarity to XXZ supersolids

Example: v,w1<0:

- Solution: - Z2 gauge redundancy:

XY field

Phase Diagram

tz

2-sublattice supersolid Z2

3-sublattice supersolid

t Blue lines: LGW roton condensation transitions Red lines: non-LGW transitions - Diagonal order parameters change simultaneously with the superfluid-insulator transition Should be able to understand supersolids as partially melted Mott insulators

Physical Picture

SS3 ferrimagnetic supersolid

Skyrmion

VBS Order parameter: pseudo-spin vector

(100)

(-100)

(010)

(0-10)

(001)

(00-1)

Skyrmion: -integer topological index -finite size set by irrelevant cubic anisotropy Boson charge is bound to skyrmion! Nb=Q

Mott-SS3 Criticality

SS3-Mott transition is deconfined quantum critical point - Non-compact CP1 universality class Motrunich+Vishwanath - Equivalent to hedgehog-free O(3) transition Disordering of pseudospin skyrmions condense: superfluid

Conclusions

Frustration in strongly interacting bose systems seems to open up a window through to observe a variety of exotic phenomena The simplest XXZ model exhibits a robust supersolid, and seems already quite close to non-trivial Mott state It will be interesting to try to observe Mott states and deconfined transitions by perturbing the XXZ model slightly

Cartoon pictures of the supersolid and Mott phases may be useful in suggesting how this should be done

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