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A transformer in which the secondary voltage is higher than the primary is called a step-up transformer. The coil connected to the power source is called the primary coil. and the other coils are known as secondaries. used to couple two or more alternating-current (AC) circuits together by employing the induction between the coils. the voltage increase in the secondary is accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the current. . so that in a step-up transformer.More about transformers Transformer. the device is known as a step-down transformer. The product of current times voltage is constant in each set of coils. if the secondary voltage is less than the primary. electrical device consisting of one coil of wire placed in close proximity to one or more other coils.
. However. Invention of transformer The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831. The relationship between electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" and magnetic flux was formalized in an equation now referred to as "Faraday's law of induction” where is the magnitude of the EMF in volts and ΦB is the magnetic flux through the circuit in webers. including winding a pair of coils around an iron ring.Pole mounted distribution transformer with centertapped secondary winding. This type of transformer is commonly used in the United States to provide 120/240 volt "split-phase" power for residential and light commercial use. thus creating the first toroidal closed-core transformer. Faraday performed first experiments on induction between coils of wire. Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments and thus receive credit for the discovery.
induction coils relied upon viberating 1830s and the 1870s. mostly by trial and error. Until about 1880. efforts to build better induction coils.Induction coils The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil. Induction coils with open magnetic circuits are inefficient for transfer of power to loads. slowly revealed the basic principles of transformers. invented by Rev. the paradigm for AC power transmission from a high voltage supply to a low voltage load was a series circuit. Open-core transformers with a ratio near 1:1 were connected with their primaries in series to allow use of a high voltage for transmission while presenting a low voltage to the lamps. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College. He was one of the first researchers to realize that the more turns the secondary winding has in relation to the primary winding. Ireland in 1836. The inherent flaw in this method was that turning off a single lamp affected the voltage supplied to all others on the same circuit. Since batteries produce direct current (DC) rather than alternating current (AC). Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries. Many adjustable transformer designs were introduced to compensate for this problematic characteristic of the series circuit. including those employing methods of . the larger is the increase in EMF.
the magnetic flux linking the primary and secondary windings traveled almost entirely within the iron core. which was 3. with no intentional path through air.4 times higher than the open core bipolar devices of Gaulard and Gibb. the windings were passed through the iron core. the primary and secondary windings were wound around a closed iron ring. In both designs. and Déri had performed the experiments. businesses and public spaces. The new Z. When they employed it in parallel connected electric distribution systems. closed-core transformers finally made it technically and economically feasible to provide electric power for lighting in homes. Zipernowsky the use of shunt connections. Vs/Vp = Ns/Np. in the shell-core. The vast majority of transformers in use today rely on the basic principles discovered by the three engineers. Bláthy had suggested the use of closedcores.B. Closed core transformers In the closed-core.D. They also reportedly popularized the word "transformer" to describe a device for altering the EMF of an electric current. their invention of parallel-connected consumer supply and power distribution systems. transformers reached 98 percent efficiency. although the term had already been in use by .adjusting the core or bypassing the magnetic flux around part of a coil. Bláthy also discovered the transformer formula. Their patent included another decisive idea.
In 1886. the Ganz Company installed the world's first power station that used AC generators to power a parallel-connected common electrical network. The secondary current arises from the action of the secondary EMF on the load impedance.1882. An . ideal transformer. the steam-powered Rome-Cerchi power plant.
. because the field is acting on a greater number of individual conductors. If the second coil has more turns than the first. The movement of the magnetic field induces an alternating current in the second coil. the secondary. In a transformer.How it works ➢In ac power supply Alternating current has several characteristics that make it more attractive than direct current as a source of electric power. the magnetic field about the coil expands and collapses and then expands in a field of opposite polarity and again collapses. the voltage induced in the second coil will be larger than the voltage in the first. a coil of wire is placed in the magnetic field of the first coil. When an alternating current surges back and forth through a coil of wire. voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. but not in direct electric connection with it. if there are fewer turns in the second coil. The most important of these characteristics is that the voltage or the current may be changed to almost any value desired by means of a simple electromagnetic device called a transformer. both for industrial installations and in the home. or induced. Conversely.
vacuum diodes and a wide variety of different materials such as germanium crystals or cadmium sulfide were employed in the low-power rectifiers used in electronic equipment. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT The physical limitations of the practical transformer may be brought together as an equivalent circuit model . into regulated DC voltages. These can be provided by batteries (see Battery) or by internal power supplies that convert alternating current as available at the home electric outlet. normally a diode. The transformer is then followed by a rectifier.➢In dc power supply Most electronic equipment requires DC voltages for its operation. In the past. The first element in an internal DC power supply is a transformer. which steps up or steps down the input voltage to a level suitable for the operation of the equipment. A secondary function of the transformer is to provide electrical ground insulation of the device from the power line to reduce potential shock hazards. Today silicon rectifiers are used almost exclusively because of their low cost and their high reliability.
With a sinusoidal supply. Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage dropped without contributing to the mutual coupling. Rc and Xm are sometimes together termed the magnetizing branch of the model. the iron loss can be represented by a resistance RC in parallel with the ideal transformer.(shown below) built around an ideal lossless transformer. Saturation effects cause the relationship between the two to be non-linear. and thus can be modeled as reactances of each leakage inductance Xp and Xs in series with the perfectly coupled region. and are proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given frequency. Iron losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the core. Since the core flux is proportional to the applied voltage. the current I0 taken by the . If the secondary winding is made open-circuit. but for simplicity this effect tends to be ignored in most circuit equivalents. The magnetizing current is in phase with the flux. Power loss in the windings is currentdependent and is represented as in-series resistances Rp and Rs. A core with finite permeability requires a magnetizing current Im to maintain the mutual flux in the core. the core flux lags the induced EMF by 90° and this effect can be modeled as a magnetizing reactance (reactance of an effective inductance) Xm in parallel with the core loss component.
Autotransformers are often used to step up or down between voltages in the 110-117-120 volt range and . with secondary impedances referred to the primary side Types of transformer Auto transformer In an autotransformer portions of the same winding act as both the primary and secondary. lighter and cheaper than a standard dual-winding transformer however the autotransformer does not provide electrical isolation. Transformer equivalent circuit. The winding has at least three tabs where electrical connections are made. An autotransformer can be smaller. The secondary impedance Rs and Xs is frequently moved (or "referred") to the primary side after multiplying the components by the impedance scaling factor (Np/Ns)2.magnetizing branch represents the transformer's no-load current.
to output either 110 or 120V (with taps) from 230V input. . e. A variable autotransformer Polyphase transformers For three-phase supplies.voltages in the 220-230-240 volt range. A variable autotransformer is made by exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. giving rise to different attributes and phase shifts. One particular polyphase configuration is the zigzag transformer. A number of winding configurations are possible. used for grounding and in the suppression of harmonic currents. or all three phases can be incorporated as a single three-phase transformer. giving a variable turns ratio.. a bank of three individual single-phase transformers can be used. the magnetic circuits are connected together. In this case. allowing equipment from a 100 or 120V region to be used in a 230V region.g. the core thus containing a threephase flow of flux.
has a significantly higher leakage inductance than other transformers. which is sometimes adjustable with a set screw.5 kV AC). The output and input currents are low enough to prevent thermal overload under all load conditions— even if the secondary is shorted. which are series-connected up to 7. Leakage transformer . sometimes increased by a magnetic bypass or shunt in its core between primary and secondary. Leakage transformers are used for arc welding and high voltage discharge lamps (neon lights and cold cathode fluorescent lamps. It acts then both as a voltage transformer and as a magnetic ballast. also called a stray-field transformer. Leakage transformers A leakage transformer. This provides a transformer with an inherent current limitation due to the loose coupling between its primary and the secondary windings.
Another application of the resonant transformer is to couple between stages of a super heterodyne receiver where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by tuned transformers in the intermediate-frequency amplifiers. They can be used to block radio frequency interference or the DC component of an audio signal. or to provide impedance matching between high and low impedance circuits. to split or combine audio signals. It uses the leakage inductance of its secondary windings in combination with external capacitors. and are able to provide much higher current than electrostatic high-voltage generation machines such as the Van de Graaff generator. Resonant transformer A resonant transformer is a kind of leakage transformer. to create one or more resonant circuits. Resonant transformers such as the Tesla coil can generate very high voltages. Audio transformers Audio transformers are those specifically designed for use in audio circuits. . or between a high impedance instrument output and the low impedance input of amixing console.. One of the applications of the resonant transformer is for the CCF Linverter. such as between a high impedance tube (valve) amplifier output and a low impedance loudspeaker.
often include shielding to protect against extraneous magnetically coupled signals. audio transformers are susceptible to external magnetic fields such as those generated by AC current-carrying conductors. Audio transformers used for low-level signals. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split. or capacitance coupled voltage transformer (CCVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal. an inductive element to tune the device to the line frequency. and a transformer to isolate and further step down the voltage for the instrumentation or . "Hum" is a term commonly used to describe unwanted signals originating from the "mains" power supply (typically 50 or 60 Hz). and are still commonly used to interconnect professional audio systems or system components.Such transformers were originally designed to connect different telephone systems to one another while keeping their respective power supplies isolated. for measurement or to operate a protective relay. such as those from microphones. Being magnetic devices. Capacitor voltage transformers A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT).
protective relay. This forms a carrier communication network throughout the transmission network. CVTs in combination with wave traps are used for filtering high frequency communication signals from power frequency. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of wound primary voltage transformers would be uneconomical. The CVT is also useful in communication systems. THE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR A SIMPLE CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER. The tuning of the divider to the line frequency makes the overall division ratio less sensitive to changes in the burden of the connected metering or protection devices. In practice. capacitor C1 is often constructed as a stack of smaller capacitors connected in series. and two secondary terminals which connect to the instrumentation or protective relay. a ground terminal. . The device has at least four terminals: a terminal for connection to the high voltage signal. This provides a large voltage drop across C1 and a relatively small voltage drop across C2.
Wires resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire.Application of transformer A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand. All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. Consequently. transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry. Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. The transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with the supply voltage. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers. transformers enable economical transmission of power over long distances. Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single . By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward.
pair of wires. A balun transformer converts a signal that is referenced to ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to ground. such as between external cables and internal circuits. for example in the internationally standardised Epstein frame method. . The principle of open-circuit (unloaded) transformer is widely used for characterisation of soft magnetic materials.
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