# Ann. Inst. Statist. Math.

30 (1978), Part A, 97-104

CONSTELLATION GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR REPRESENTING

MULTI-DIMENSIONAL DATA
KAZUMASA WAKIMOTO AND MASAAKI TAGURI

(Received Mar. 28, 1977; revised Dec. 19, 1977)

1.

Introduction

In the representation methods of multi-dimensional data on a 2dimensional plane, various procedures have been hitherto considered. Most of these procedures are performed by transforming the given multi-dimensional data into two real values using two different real valued functions, and these are graphically represented on a perpendicularly intersecting plane. For instance, in a principal component analysis, the given data are expressed by two 1-dimensional real values, that is, the 1st principal component and the 2nd principal component, and by plotting the data on a 2-dimensional plane taking them as the ordinate and abscissa, the structure of the data is interpreted. In the Andrews' method [1], the data are transformed by a real valued function, and expressed as curves on the 2-dimensional plane. On the contrary, in the radar chart, the Face graph [2], and the Tree graph [3], a graph is drawn directly for the values of data with very simple transformation, and by a visual t r e a t m e n t of the graph, it is intended to grasp the structure of data. These methods are selected according to the object of analysis, and the field of application, and contribute to the analysis of data, but it is considered t h a t information in the 2-dimensional plane has not been utilized sufficiently. For instance, in the graph on the 2-dimensional plane in case of the principal component analysis, it is difficult to grasp visually the actual structure of data. In the Andrews' method, a similar difficulty is accompanied. On the other hand, in the radar chart, the Face graph, and Tree graph, it is easy to grasp visually the structure of individual data, but there remains a problem in the comparison of structure among them on the whole as the number of data is increased. In this paper, Constellation Graphical Method is proposed, in which the problematical points as mentioned above are improved in some parts. In this method, it is easy to grasp visually the actual structure of data 97

f j is linear.--..2) \$~=fj(xj~) . l~a~n ( j = l .2). As the result of the transformation (2. 2. . Although (B) may not be satisfied necessarily. fj(xjo)= xj. l~a~n O~fj(x~. . a = l . 2 .6) (2) (~1~. 2 . (A) must always be satisfied.5) fAx~)= xj'-I = ... 2.-. x2~. the data (2.X jr xj~=min x~ . 2 . ( j = l . (2. where n is a positive integer. \$ ~ . n). . 9" ".. put the set of values of xjo to {1. For example. . n}. . .~) . ~) .. k.)~_zz. (a=l. . 2. The algorithm of Constellation Graphical Method Assume t h a t n pairs of data are given as follows: (2. . we assume (B) in order t h a t actual meaning is clear at the time of the interpretation of results. k). where f j (3"=1. . 1 ~ In case of continuous data (2. ... This reason is to make the interpretation of results easy. 9 n ) . X j ~ .6) as follows: . fk as follows : (2. .1) becomes to the following form: (2. ' " . 2. (A) (2. .1) by k real valued functions fi. .4) where x j u = m a x xi~. 2 ~ In case of categorical data Without loss of generality. A complex number z~ is corresponded to the data (2... k) is assumed to satisfy the following conditions.1) (x1~. x. ~--1 In above transformations.-xj~ ~ . 2 ." 9 ". . (a=l. ( a = 1. ( 1 ) Transform the given data (2. n ) .98 KAZUMASAWAKIMOTOAND MASAAKITAGURI on the whole and to grasp the characteristic for individual data simultaneously. f2. we will show some typical transformations. .3) (B) f j is a strictly monotone function. . 2 . n). When our method is applied to given data.

2. Then f r o m (2.8) j=l ~wj=l...k). .7) where z ~ = Z wj exp (iSis) .. 1). . j=l (a=l. (j=l.0 . 1. Moreover from (2.. 2.. wj>-O. i=4-2-i and wj is the w e i g h t to be assigned to t h e j t h variable and the followings are assumed to be satisfied: (2. Fig. Constellation Graph.. . .. as to the absolute value of z~ we can easily see (2. n). 2 . _% 1 k w h e r e t h e sign of equality holds if and only if ~i~=\$j.0 0. .9) [z~ I: ~ j=l wj exp (iSjo) __j-~-~ [wj exp (iej~) [ = j Z wj = 1 . T h e r e f o r e from (2.9) and (2.0 Fig. Sk~ have same angles. 1. .CONSTELLATION GRAPHICAL METHOD 99 (2.. In this way n comlex values z~ ( a = l . 1. n) are plotted within the upper half of the unit circle on C ~. z~ m u s t exist in the upper half of the u n i t circle on the 1-dimensional complex plane C ~ and is just on the circumference if and only if ~ .3).7) and (2.8).0 ~r : ~ r ' -1.. . .~ for all j and j'. This p a t t e r n will be called by t h e n a m e of "Constellation Graph" (see.10) O ~ a r g (z~)__<~ holds. as to the a r g u m e n t of z~ (2.10).

1). k) respectively. a=l. are assumed to be given. From (3.1) ~j~=fj(xj~). it is understood that the position of the ath data on constellation graph is the end point of k linked vectors whose arguments and lengths are Sj~ and w~ ( j . 2 . x4~.0-0. the reason is as follows.---..0 ~ . 2 . (j=-l. The features of constellation graph may be stated as follows: (a) We can obtain easily the actual structure of whole data and the detailed structure for individual data simultaneously.0 ( j = l . . . 2 . . a = l . 4.. . 2. Then this gives the actual structure of individual data. 3. . 5. Science and English.7) to (3. . n).100 KAZUMASA WAKIMOTO AND MASAAKI TAGURI 3. Representation of educational data Suppose t h a t in a class of a middle school. 2 by using the following transformation: (4. the records of five subjects (xl~. 5. . (c) Many kinds of information can be written on a same constellation graph.. Then we obtain the constellation graph such as Fig. 10. 2. For example.xj~--0.. The features of constellation graph In this section we will investigate the features of constellation graph. .l .. xj~ satisfies 0. that is. or each tree in the tree graph or each curved line in the method of Andrews. 3. We call this linked pattern to the path of the ath data. x2~. we can incorporate much information by changing the shape or color of a end point of k linked vectors. .0. 2. 41). . . .. x3~. Mathematics. when a complex number zo is plotted on constellation graph. w2. 4. Examples Example 1. From the n end points and the paths on the constellation graph. where w. 2 . 4. xs~). 41). Here. (b) The a r g u m e n t and absolute value of z~ have the information of the weighted mean and standard deviation of k variables respectively in some sense. Social Studies. (a=l.0_~xj~_~10.. the path corresponds to each radar chart or each face in the face graph. w.1) z~=Z wj(cos Sj~+i sin \$~) .. and five subjects are as follows: Japanese. We rewrite (2. . j=l k (a=l. 41) are given (see Table 1). it is possible easily to grasp the structure of whole data and obtain the detailed structure for individual data simultaneously. .

the results of average record will be found at once by considering the a r g u m e n t of plotted point. 8 6 2 5 8 3 3 3 9 6 1 3 6 6 5 7 0 8 3 10 Sci. If there is any particularly important subject among the 5 subjects. Sci.. b J=~ ( a = l . as the argument of the points plotted on the constellation graph becomes larger. (1. Table 1. 4 2 5 3 8 2 9 10 9 4 8 7 6 9 0 9 5 9 5 4 2 No.0. 2. it is considered t h a t putting an equal weight is most natural. 10 5 2 6 9 7 5 6 10 6 2 9 7 6 2 6 0 8 8 8 . 0 are respectively plotted at the positions (--1.0.0). From (4. Boy pupil No. the pupils whose records of each subject are all 10.2) z~= 1 E exp (iSj.0. which is extremely convenient in the interpretation of the results on the constellation graph. 9 41). 9 7 3 8 9 5 4 2 9 7 1 8 8 5 1 5 2 9 6 10 Engl. Therefore. 10 5 2 6 9 7 5 7 9 6 3 4 4 7 2 8 3 9 6 8 Records of five subjects Girl pupil Soc.) .2) is as follows.0. 0. the value of weight to be given to the subject must be large. 9 5 3 9 9 7 6 5 10 6 3 4 3 6 1 6 6 10 5 9 Math.0) on the constellation graph. From this fact it is understood that the records of each subject of the pupils are better. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Jap. The reason why a monotone increasing function was used as the transformation formula is as follows. Therefore. 5. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Jap. 6 7 5 2 7 2 10 8 8 2 8 8 6 8 1 9 5 8 3 5 3 Math.CONSTELLATION GRAPHICAL METHOD 5 101 (4. The reason why an equal weight such as w~=w2=w3=w4=ws=l/5 was used in (4.0). but the five subjects taken up in the example are same important for the pupils of middle school.1). 4 7 2 3 2 7 3 8 7 2 9 2 8 7 3 8 8 9 1 7 6 3 6 5 5 3 2 8 7 9 2 8 8 9 10 2 8 7 8 6 7 7 Engl. 3 8 4 5 8 4 8 8 7 3 7 6 5 9 2 9 3 9 6 10 3 Soc. if such a transformation is used. (0. 1.

3 ~ The girl pupils are separated into three groups.378. two constellation graphs as shown in Fig.0 1. we find t h a t the separation between the .102 (~ " Boy pupil Girl pupil KAZUMASA WAKIMOTO AND MASAAKI TAGURI {- : Path o[ the average records o{ the class : Path of the average records of pupil A (No. w2=0.0 0 Fig. F r o m Fig. NO~ (ppm).0 10 0. w3=0.4) and varying t h e value of weights. (ii) The record of mathematics of the pupil A is extremely inferior. because the marks are positioned collectively at the a r g u m e n t s nearly of ~/5. 9.~. 2. F r o m Fig. and floating dust (mg/m 3) in the 16 observation points of a certain city are given (see.002. Table 2). Using the transformation method of (2.620 respectively. 3 and Fig. T h e C o n s t e l l a t i o n G r a p h in E x a m p l e 1. the observation points near by a highway are indicated by the m a r k * and the other observation points by the mark o. and N Q respectively. 3 and Fig. 3=/5. In these figures. Example 2. the total record of the pupil A belongs to the upper of middle group.~/10. 12) and the path corresponding to five average values of each subject for the class. And t h e pollution m a t t e r s corresponding to w~. we can easily see the following points: ( i ) The records of five subjects of the pupil A are superior than the average values of the class except for mathematics. 2 ~ J u d g i n g from the positions of whole points. the following facts are clearly observed. 12) w ~= wz=w3=w'=ws=5 1 6 7 ]5 4 3 8 2 9 1 --I. These data are the daily average values of a certain day in the observation points. 4 are obtained for the weights wl=w~=w~=l/3 and w1=0. 2. w~ are S0. 4. 1 ~ F r o m the comparison between the path of the pupil A (No. Analysis of environmental pollution data Suppose t h a t the data regarding SOs (ppm). w2. floating dust.

016 0.015 0.09 0.=0.0 f Fig.013 0.0 .082 0. 007 0.0 The Constellation Graph in Table 2.025 0.21 0.08 0.0 Fig.14 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 { ~ : Observation points near by a highway 9 Observation points of other area 1.007 0. 0.064 0. 4.078 0.078 0.089 0.04 0.0 The Constellation Graph in Table 2. 070 0.072 0. No.113 0. w~-o. 3. 008 0.039 No. 045 0. q f0 6 \ -1. 075 0.002 ~ 1"6 o N -1. 1.011 0.009 0.014 0. 008 0. (ppm) 0.10 0. 074 D-D NO= (ppm) 0. 1. 074 0.05 0.000 0.00 0. o o 3 7.063 0.CONSTELLATION GRAPHICAL METHOD Table 2.0 { ~ : Observation points near by a highway : Observation points of other area .047 0.0 v 15 11o 13. 9 (ppm) 0. 0.378 w.08 0.05 0.0" ~ 09 12 x .015 0. 5 .017 0.11 0.14 0.04 0.007 SOz D-D 103 The data of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Pollution (ppm) 0.05 NO= (mg/m 3) 0.025 SO2 (mg/m 3) 0.0 .073 0.11 0.09 0.

28. From this example. OKAYAMACmVE~SITY CmBA umvs~Tv REFERENCES [ 1 ] Andrews. ]. we can propose t h a t the constellation graph is useful for discriminant or cluster analysis. Biometrics. 125-136. 3. Japan Statist. Remark. [2] Chernoff. Tree graph method for visual representation of multidimensional data. 361-368.. (1977). The use of faces to represent points in k-dimensional space graphically. Amer. .104 KAZUMASA WAKIMOTO AND MASAAKI TAGURI set of m a r k . Soc. Ass. 27-34. (1973). Statist. (1972). Acknowledgement The authors are grateful to the referee for his helpful comments. This is probably explained by the fact t h a t N Q exhausted from motor cars running on the highway gives a large influence on the separation between the observation points near by a highway and the other observation points. the weight for N Q is maximum and t h a t for S02 is very small. 4. ]. [ 3 ] Wakimoto. F. 68. 4 is more clear than it in Fig. D.. and the set of mark o in Fig. In the Fig. Plots of high-dimensional data. H. K. 7.