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# Governor Modes of Operation

## Turbine Droop control Mode

The Figure shows the Droop characteristics of the Turbine in the given example.

The Turbine Droop Mode can be used during both parallel operation with the grid and also during independent island operation. It is a preferred operational tool in gird level as it yields well to multi machine operation. In small islands which do not go for isochronous control, droop gives stable operation. Turbine Droop Control in Independent Operation When a Turbine is put in droop control in a independent island the turbine the frequency of the turbine is now dependent on the section load. a. Operation when the system load changes -

In the figure, it can be seen that the initial condition, the turbine was feeding a load L with frequency F. In case the section load increases to L2 the frequency gets reduced to f2. The change in frequency is in accordance with the droop of the machine. It can be calculated by the formula Change in Frequency = (L2-L) * Droop % / Full load of the turbine. New frequency f2 = f Change in frequency The reverse happens when the section load reduces. In this case as the load gets reduced to L2 the frequency gets increased from f to f1. The new frequency will be in accordance with the droop characteristics of the machine. It can be calculated by the formula Change in Frequency = (L1-L) * Droop % / Full load of the turbine. New frequency f1 = f + Change in frequency

b. Operation when the manual raise/lower command is given In an independent operation, the turbine frequency is the output frequency, and in case we give a manual raise lower command the frequency of the turbine raises and lowers.

Initially the machine was feeding to a section load L with frequency f, now let the sped reference in this case be R. If the section load is a constant and a manual speed increase command is given in the governor, it shifts the speed reference to R2. This increased speed reference means the turbine frequency goes up from f to f2 as shown in the figure. In case a manual speed lower command is given to the governor, it shifts the reference to R1. This reduced speed reference causes the turbine frequency to go down from f to f1 as shown in the figure. c. Operation when More than one machine is put in droop in the same island In case more than one machine is present in the island and all the machines are put in droop, the turbine governor behaviour is different. Let us assume a small island with two machines put in droop mode. In case there are more than two machines put in droop then the load is shared by the turbines depending on the droop percentage and also on the droop reference on which the turbines are present. A turbine with a greater droop reference will take up a greater load and vice versa. In the same manner the machine with the lowest droop will take up more load than the machine with a greater droop. In practice all machines put in droop mode will have a same droop so that in case of a system disturbance they can take up load or reject load in the same manner.

The figure shows how two machines with same droop and same speed reference react to the load changes. The initial load of the machines is L1 and L2, were L1+L2 forms the total system load. In case of an increase in the section load, both machines take up the load as shown in the figure. Now the system frequency reduces to f and the load by each machine is L1 and L2. The reverse happens in case there is a reduction in the section load, the two machines uniformly shed the load and the system frequency rises to a new steady state point. The basic concept is both the machine when paralled to one another operate on the same frequency.

The figure shows how the machine operates in case when a manual speed raise is given to only one of the machine. A manual speed rise in generator 2 increases the reference to a new point as shown in the figure. When the speed reference of generator 2 raises from R1 to R2, the system frequency also rises from f to f. In the initial condition, generator 1 was supplying load L1 and generator 2, load L2 with system frequency f. When the reference of generator 2 is raised, it takes up more load, and its load changes to L2. As the section load remains the same the, generator reduces its load to L1. The reverse happens in case a manual speed lower command is given. In that case the net system frequency drops, generator on which the speed lower command is given reduces its load and the other generator increases the load.

d. Operation of Two or more machine with unequal droop in the same island -

Turbine Droop Control in operation with the Grid A generator when paralled to the grid has no control over its frequency, the frequency of the gird in the machine frequency for all practical steady state considerations.

The figure shows how the machine when parallel to the grid behaves to grid frequency changes. In the initial condition the generator is supplying a load L at frequency f. when the grid frequency increases to f1, the generator loading reduces to L1 as shown in figure. The reverse happens in case of a lowering of grid frequency, when the grid frequency reduces to f2, the generator loading rises to L2 and shown in the figure. Thus the loading and unloading of the machine depends on the grid frequency and the droop % of the controller.

The figure shows how a machine will react when a manual speed raise or lower is given when the machine is paralled to the grid. In the initial condition, the machine is supplying a load L with frequency f and a speed reference R. when a manual speed raise is given; the speed reference is raised to R2, and for a unchanged system frequency, the load supplied by the generator increases to L2. The reverse happens for a manual speed lower command. Here the droop reference is shifted to R1 and for an unchanged system frequency the load reduces to L1 as shown in figure.

Implementation of Droop in GE Gas turbine systems Droop is a proportional controller. In GE gasturbine systems, the FSRN block is used to configure the droop.
Speed Control Fuel Stroke Reference 190:FSRNV4 G3\FSRMAX G3\FSRMIN G3\FSKRN1 G3\TLC_COMP G3\FSKRN2 G3\TNR G3\TNH G3\L83ISOK G3\TNRI G3\FSKRN3 G3\FSR G3\FSKRN5
f 100 %
CLAMP

17.3006 %
f 22.2 % f 0% f 14.1 %/% f 100.3 % f 0% b 0 f

## FSRMAX FSRMIN FSKRN1 TLC_CMP FSKRN2 TNR TNH LISOK

FSRN

max

FSRN

100 %

G3\FSRN

+ +
x 0

min

+ -

+ +

100 % 1 %/%
f 0% f 0.06 %/sec f

## TNRI FSKRN3 FSR FSKRN5

+ +
x

+
-1 Z A A>B B A A < -B

MIN

FSRNI

0%

G3\FSRNI

FSRMAX

G3\L83SCI_CMD

LI_CMD

L60IR L60IL

0 0

G3\L60IR G3\L60IL

G3\FSKRN6

0.5 %

FSKRN6

The Block shown above is taken from a GE gas turbine application code. In the droop mode of operation, the FSRN , which is the fuel flow reference to the turbine is given by the formula FSRN = FSKRN1 + (TNR-TNH)*FSKRN2 Where FSRN furl stroke refernce TNR Turbine speed/droop reference TNH turbine speed FSKRN1 no load fuel reference FSKRN2 Droop gain for fuel

The control equation can be redrawn as the control system block as shown in the figure , as seen the droop mode is a P (proportional) controller. In the figure , TNR is the setpoint ,or it is the droop reference for turbine , The variation of TNR is done using the TNRV1 block.

Speed/ Load Setpoint 770:_COMMENT 780:_MOVE_B TRUE TRUE 1 SRC 1 ENABLE DEST 1 G3\L83TNROP G3\L83HOST FALSE G3\TNKHOST 0 G3\TNKR3 G3\TNKR4 G3\L83TNROP G3\TNKR5 G3\L70L G3\L70R FALSE FALSE G3\L83JD2 G3\L83JD3 G3\L83JD4 G3\L83JD5 FALSE FALSE G3\L83JD8 FALSE G3\L83JD10 FALSE G3\TNKR1 G3\TNKR2 G3\TNKR7 G3\L83PRES1 G3\L83PRES2 0 L83HOST b 0 L83LOST 113.5 % TNKHOST f 0 TNKLOST 107 % 95 % 1
f b f f f b

800:TNRV1
A B A B

A=B

L33CDMN

b0 b0

G3\L33CDMN G3\L33CDMX

A=B

L33CDMX

CLAMP

max

TNR
min

f 100.3

G3\TNR

b

b 0 L83JD11

TNKR1_0

+ +

100.3

f %

## f 100.3 % TNKR7 b 0 L83PRS1 b 0 L83PRS2 Z -1

TNKR2

The control equation for TNR can be writtern as TNR = TNR * Z^-1 + (L83JD#) ( L70R L70L) In the time domain it can be writtern as TNR(t) = TNR(t-1) + (L83JD#) ( L70R L70L) Where TNR Speed/Droop reference L83JD# - Load rate of the turbine L70R Manual Raise command L70L Manual Lower command This is pure integration using backward integration. As the auto load rate is already specified, it cannot be taken to be a controller as such as the response is fixed and not dependent on the error value. the L70R and L70l can be triggered by either the manual raise command , the auto synch command , the temperature limit command or more importantly the MW control block which is what is used by the preselect load controller. How to set the droop% in the controller Note - this is a sample calculation only, some typical values here, and it may not be what is present at your site. Let us assume that the droop percentage needed to be set is 4 %. This means that at full load of the machine the difference between the TNR and the TNH needs to be 4%. so in the above equation we can fix TNR - TNH = 4 The FSNL FSR is already known from chara graphs of the machine or by a field test at site. Let us say that it is 20%. The maximum base load FSR value is also calculated from graphs in accordance to the site conditions and in later stages from the base load test of the machine. Let us say that this is 75%. There is usually some amount of changes to this constant during the commissioning. So from the above it can be seen that at base load conditions 75 = 4*FSRKN2 + 20 FSRKN2 = 13.75% There is usually some amount of changes to this constant during the commissioning to reflect the field conditions.

## Turbine Load control Mode (Preselect Mode in GE Terminology)

When the turbine is put in the load control mode, the reference is the generator power output and the governor tries to maintain a constant power output from the generator irrespective of the frequency changes in the gird. Turbine load control mode is used only when parallel to the grid and a theoretical Load controller would have a graph like figure

In the load control mode the governor tries to maintain a constant power according to the setpoint in the whole range of frequency operation. Fl and Fh indicates the lowest and highest operational frequency, thus making Fh-Fl the operational frequency range of the generator. In the initial condition, the machine is supplying a power L at frequency f. In case the gird frequency changes in the operational frequency range the power output remains the same. When the set point is raised to L1, the machine loads to load L1 and when the set point is reduced to load L2, the machine unloads to load L2 as shown in the figure. The Load control mode is an extension of the droop control. When you put the machine in droop control and parallel it to the grid the machine load is dependent on the frequency of the gird as shown in figure

When can a Machine be put in load control in an independent island A generator can be put in load control mode in an independent island if there is at least one machine in the same section which can crater to the changes in the section load. Let us consider the following example.

Implementation of Load control in GE Gas turbine Systems The Turbine Load control is implemented in mainly two blocks
Preselcted Load Setpoint 290:_COMMENT 300:MANSET3 G3\K90PSMX G3\K90PSMN FALSE G3\K90PSR G3\K90PSR
f 29.4 MW f 2 MW f 0.1 Meg/s f 0.1 Meg/s

MAXLMT

A B

A=B

AT_MAX

0 1

G3\L33PSMX G3\L33PSMN

b 0 RT2SEL

MINLMT
rate
RATE CLAMP

A B

A=B

AT_MIN

RATE2 RATE1
-1 x

MED

G3\90PSEL_CMD FALSE

f 2 MW

CMD

+ -

+ +
-1 Z

REF_OUT

2 MW

G3\90PSEL

dt

+ +
-1 Z

CDM

## FALSE FALSE FALSE

b 0 RAISE b 0 LOWER

b 0 RL_ENA

Megawatt Load Control 310:_COMMENT 320:L90LV2 G3\FSRN G3\FSRT G3\LK90DB3 G3\LK90DB4 G3\L83RMAX G3\L83PS G3\LK90MAX G3\90PSEL G3\LK90SPIN
f 100 % f 100 % f %

## FSRN FSRT K90DB3

+
A A>B B A A>B B inhibit raise

f 6% b 0

lower

K90DB4 L83RMAX

## PRESEL K90SPIN LOAD K90DB1

A A>B B A |A -B| B

raise

2.6

## f G3\DWATT 0.0178608 MW f 0.13 MW G3\LK90DB1 f 0.33 MW

A A>B B A A>B B

db1

G3\LK90DB2

db2

K90DB2
"1 " L90LR db2 db1 raise

Inhibit raise

L90LR L90LL

b1 b0

G3\L90LR G3\L90LL

L90LL lower

## Physical implementation of the Load controller

In the above diagram let point a be the initial machine position. In this condition the grid frequency is f and load is L . Now let us suppose that the grid frequency has reduced to f1 , now the machine for a instant will shift from load L to load L1 , ie to operating point b. The load controller now comes into action and reduces the reference from R to R1 , such that the initial load condition is attained , with the dead band gap of L+ub & L-lb. Now the new machine operating point is c , with frequency f1 and load L with a new reduced reference R1. The reverse happens in case there is a increase in the grid frequency , now the operating point shifts to point d from the initial position a. Now the load controller comes into action and shifts the reference to R2 such that the initial load condition is obtained. Now the new machine operating point is e , with frequency f2 and load L with a increased reference R2.

## Turbine Isochronous control Mode

When a Turbine is put in isochronous control Mode, the reference to the controller is the frequency of the generator and the controller tries to maintain a constant frequency irrespective of load conditions. The Turbine isochronous mode is used only on independent island conditions and should not be used when in parallel to the grid. The theoretical isochronous controller would be

In the isochronous control mode the governor tries to maintain a constant frequency according to the setpoint in the whole range of frequency operation. Fl and Fh indicates the lowest and highest operational frequency, thus making Fh-Fl the operational frequency range of the generator. In the initial condition, the machine is supplying a power L at frequency f. In case the section load changes the frequency of the machine remains the same. When the set point is raised to f , the machine accelerates to frequency f and when the set point is reduced f, the machine decelerates to frequency f as shown in the figure. The Isochronous control mode can also be taken as a extension of the droop control. When you put the machine in droop control in an independent island the frequency of the machine is dependent on the section load as shown in fig

Implementation of Isochronous controller in GE Gas turbines The Isochronous controller is a PI controller and it is predominantly implemented in the FSRN block.
Speed Control Fuel Stroke Reference 190:FSRNV4 G3\FSRMAX G3\FSRMIN G3\FSKRN1 G3\TLC_COMP G3\FSKRN2 G3\TNR G3\TNH G3\L83ISOK G3\TNRI G3\FSKRN3 G3\FSR G3\FSKRN5
f 100 %
CLAMP

17.3006 %
f 22.2 %

## FSRMAX FSRMIN FSKRN1 TLC_CMP FSKRN2 TNR TNH LISOK

FSRN

max

FSRN

100 %

G3\FSRN

+ +
x 0

min

0%
f 14.1 %/% f 100.3 % f

+ -

+ +

0%
b 0 f 100 %

1 %/%
f 0% f 0.06 %/sec

+ +
x

+
-1 Z

## MIN A A>B B A A < -B

FSRNI

0%

G3\FSRNI

FSRMAX

G3\L83SCI_CMD

LI_CMD

L60IR L60IL

0 0

G3\L60IR G3\L60IL

G3\FSKRN6

0.5 %

FSKRN6

The isochronous mode algorithm is explained below a. once you put the iso mode on in a independent machine , the LISOK signal goes high. the following calculation takes place FSRNI(t) = FSRNI(t-1) + (TNRI -TNH(t))*FSRKN3 (as you can see this is a form of the velocity PI algorithm , and this were the PI is actually implemented in the controller) b. After the calculation the following check is done. If (mod (FSRNI (t)) > FSRKN6) The respective l60ir ( iso setpoint raise) or the l60il (iso setpoint lower) goes high. The LISOK signal goes low thus cutting off the TNRI signal from the FSR block. The L60IR OR the L60IL increases/decreases the TNR, with the help of the L70R/L70L logic, thus raising or lowering the droop reference.

Else
The FSRNI (t) is added to the FSR to get the new FSR value. FSR(t) = (TNR - TNH(t))*FSRKN2 + FSRKN1 + FSRNI(t-1) + (TNRI -TNH(t))*FSRKN3 In the above equation, the (TNR - TNH (t)) is no longer a error signal because, "TNR is not a setpoint any more". When the iso mode is selected, the TNR raise and lower is inhibited from any other source.

Only the L60IR and the L60IL have the permissive to change the TNR. as this particular code is executed only when L60IR AND L60IL is both zero , TNR is nothing but a constant in the equation. Now rewriting the equation FSR(t) = FSRNI (t-1 ) + ( (fsrkn3 * TNRI) - ( TNH(t) * (FSRKN3+FSRKN2)) ) + FSRKN1 + (TNR*FSRKN2) Here now the FSR and the FSRNI now represent the same common output can be renamed as FSRI FSRI(t) = FSRI (t-1 ) + ( (fsrkn3 * TNRI) - ( TNH(t) * (FSRKN3+FSRKN2)) ) + FSRKN1 + (TNR*FSRKN2) Here now the equation ((fsrkn3 * TNRI) - (TNH (t) * (FSRKN3+FSRKN2)) ) is the error signal E(t) FSRI(t) = FSRI (t-1 ) + E(t) + + FSRKN1 + (TNR*FSRKN2) The last equation is the final iso mode calculation equation. if you will see , it is analogous to the velocity form of the pi algorithm. Physical implementation of the isochronous controller Now that we have looked into how the FSR is calculated in the iso algorithm , let us see the controller inaction during actual conditions.