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stated the importance of learning a foreign language at an early stage of life regarding CPH theory. In this part, it is necessary for teachers to know what new methodologies can be applied in Colombian schools so as to develop an appropriate teaching and learning of English. It is important to know that through the time many methods and techniques were proposed so as to find a possible way to teach English. First, making a review of the earliest methods, Celce-Murcia (2001) stated that language teaching swayed between two types of approaches: getting learners to use a language (focused on meaning) and getting learners to analyze a language (focused on forms). The first languages learned were Latin and Greek and this teaching took place in Europe, those languages were very useful, because people could use them in philosophy, religion, politics and business. In that epoch, the educated elite had the privilege to learn Latin and Greek. Those were taught by using aural-oral techniques because there were few textbooks. This situation led teachers to make use of target language texts, manuscripts in which some of them contained vocabulary pairs. In this part, we could see the first attempts in order to teach a second language. Despite the lack of textbooks, teachers managed to teach both Latin and Greek by using aural-oral approaches. This method was very primitive because it included repetition and habit formation, some of the textbooks included grammar translation. It is possible that those people could learn and speak Latin and Greek in an appropriate way. But nowadays, learning a language is not only repetition but language comprehension.
Grammar translation method Richards & Rodgers (2001) asserted that the first method used was Grammar Translation Method (GTM) proposed in Germany in 1840 by Johann Seidenstücker, Karl Plötz, H.S Ollendorf and Johann Meidinger. The goals of this method were mainly to know the target language literature, to know its structures, memorize those structures and translating sentences. It is noticeable that in most of the schools in our country this method has been applied. Teachers stick to the books, translate the sentences and the students do not even have opportunities to interact. To this extent, if teachers in Colombia do not realize the importance of teaching English at the early stages of life regarding Critical Period Hypothesis theory (childhood and teenage) and prefer using this old methodology, the bilingual program will possibly fail. One cause could be the lack of appropriate methods and techniques used when teaching and learning English. Direct Method Then, around 1881 L. Sauveur (1826-1907) opened a school in Boston in order to propose oral interaction in the L2, his method was known as natural approach or Direct Method. This language-teaching method was very popular in France and Germany. It was developed in the 19th century as a reaction to the Grammar Translation Method, this method emphasized on: the use of the spoken language the use of objects and actions in teaching the meanings of words and structures the need to make language teaching follow the natural principles of first language learning grammar was taught inductively correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized Taken from: Celce-Murcia, M. (2001) teaching English as a second of foreign language (3rd Ed) Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Gouin and Prendergast trying to propose effective methods to teach a second language were not taken into account. Paul Passy in France and Wilhelm Viëtor in Germany began to provide new ideas within the field of linguistics. Also the excessive use of linguistics elements resulting in a lot of repetition making unclear the relationship between L1 and L2 and finally this method did not associate language and context as it was explained by Richards & Rodgers (2001). Thus. surprisingly. For this reason. As it is known teaching a second language is not only repetition and avoids using a real context. to give students opportunities to understand a language and see the differences between L1 and L2. Another method was proposed to teach an L2 but the outcome was few acceptable. The Reform Movement Richards & Rodgers (2001) argued that despite the labor developed by Sauveur. audio lingual method was thought to be highly successful in some contexts particularly the foreign-language training of military personnel. it was founded in 1886 the International Phonetic Association and the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) some of the IPA´s principles were: The spoken form of a language is primary and should be taught first The findings of phonetics should be applied to language teaching Language teachers must have solid training in phonetics Learners should be given phonetic training to establish good speech habits . The lack of interaction and a lot of memorization activities made this method to fail. They emphasized on the importance of speech that was not only the written word but the first form of language. Despite this assumption.The problems appeared when this method needed the use of native-language teachers or teachers who had native-like fluency. the goal of foreign language teaching is to associate meaning and context. But. Henry Sweet in England.
The changes that linguists wanted to foster were to give a meaningful and appropriate teaching of a second language by using all the skills (listening. students only had to receive this input and they had problems when they had to use language in the real life. giving way to the learner-centered mode of instruction. Then grammar was taught inductively (students draw by themselves the rule after see the practice) there were no longer repetition exercises. M. needs. students needed to develop ways to learn a language. If a student did not know the definition of new words. speaking. The IPA focused on pronunciation and oral skills which had been neglected when Grammar Translation was applied. Celce-Murcia (2001) asserted that teachers started paying attention to the impact that learners' affective factors (e. Because the teaching of a second language was carried out by the teacher. etc.g. their feelings. because accurate pronunciation was impossible and unreal. authoritative teacher-centered instruction was modified. Students sometimes did not know how.. anxiety. reading and writing).) may bring in the process of learning. because those are common within the process of learning a language. where and when use a determined word. Kroll & Sunderman in Doughty & Long (2005) stated that the native language was not used and translation was strictly forbidden. frustration.) Boston: Heinle & Heinle. emotions. (2001) Teaching English as a second of foreign language (3rd Ed. The conventional. interests. tension. and confidence. . rather than habit formation. Teaching new meanings through establishing associations within the target language rather than establishing associations with the mother tongue Taken from: Celce-Murcia. Students’ mistakes are normal. It was also expected that teachers possess a good level and understand the linguistic features of the target language. The language was seen as acquisition.
Then the Audio-lingual method appeared in the 1950s. and the L2 exclusively. Now it will be explained one of the most common method used in both ESL/EFL contexts. According to his studies.paraphrasing those ones in the target language would be the most useful technique. a professor of psychology at San Jose state university. language charts. students associated the word taught and its physical meaning. Kroll & Sunderman in Doughty & Long (2005) stated that the L2 was then considered the main tool when teachers provided comprehensible input to learners. In the 1970s the Natural approach (Terrell. its goal was to develop in learners the same abilities that native speakers have by listening and repeating dialogues for many hours. Total Physical Response We could appreciate the impact of the early methods proposed in second language teaching and the search for the “best one”. L1 was not used in the Natural approach. physical activities and how to comprehend some features a foreign language has. At this point. the teaching of an L2 began to pass through a process of transformation. 1976) a method which used colored wooden sticks called Cuisenaire rods. Asher claimed that language is internalized through a process of code breaking similar to first language development. The aim of this method was to internalize the input received at an unconscious level. which involved selecting and modifying some techniques from the methods previously proposed in order to create “the best method”. this method used oral commands and physical activities. In the 1960s Total Physical Response (TPR) was proposed by James Asher (1977). As we could see. 1986) appeared. the previously approaches joined interaction. The native language could not be used. intended to teach second and foreign languages. Total physical response (TPR) was a method developed by James Asher. This methodology was based on Krashen's (1982) which he claimed that comprehensible input leads to acquisition. students had to perform the action with those exercises. Through this process . Another method was The Silent Way (Gattegno.
the classroom size could not be a problem and it works effectively for children and adults. Larsen-Freeman (2000) claimed that TPR became popular in the 1970's and attracted the attention of some teachers because they can create a low affective filter in their students. Larsen-Freeman (2000) said that TPR provides some plausible advantages: students enjoy standing up and moving around the classroom. because acquiring a determined . He argued that the brain had to receive stimuli since the early years by means of activating the right hemisphere by using physical activities just as parents do when they communicate with children combining both verbal and physical aspects. Once anxiety is reduced. Asher’s aim is that in TPR the language teacher applies physical activities with their students when teaching a foreign language. TPR could be used at every context regardless age. After this stage a child is able to produce language spontaneously activating the left hemisphere. the students will feel more confident when performing a determined action. because it might be good for learners who need to be active in the class. CPH theory was applied in this method when Asher took into account the theory of brain lateralization. it may be a useful tool when it is applied in those cases where teachers find students who experience difficulty in learning foreign languages with traditional classroom instruction such as dyslexia or lack of attention into the classroom. Taking into account that TPR is a participatory approach.there is a long period of listening in which there is a process of developing comprehension before production in which involved students to follow commands that required physical movement. Richards & Rodgers (2001) asserted that the child responds physically to the input uttered by his/her parents. Thus. It is during this period that the internalization and code breaking processes occur. TPR activities do not require a great deal of preparation on the part of the teacher. despite the fact that through many months the child can receive language forms without uttering a word.
However. it is easier to convey basic target language knowledge by using physical activities that involve them into a both dynamic environment and teaching an L2. TPR emphasizes heavily on the use of the imperative mood. Also there are simple and semi-complex grammar structures and the context around them. in this activity are involved vocabulary and physical actions.structure combining physical activity allows students to grasp a determined word and this knowledge could be stored in the brain for later use. Those ones could be used mainly with children. Despite its usefulness in the classroom. this method proposes useful activities in which teachers can take advantage and apply them in the classroom. that is to say commands such as "sit down" and "stand up". Richards & Rodgers (2001) stated that it is known that TPR is most useful for beginners although it can be applied in adults. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) . Besides. For example a simple activity maybe the well-known game such as Simon says in which students must respond physically to the words of the teacher. the class preparation becomes a challenge for the teacher. And taking into account the age factor. because it could appear an overuse when doing physical activities and students do not have the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a creative way. it will be explained the most important approach in language teaching known as Communicative Language Teaching. because in some cases they find more difficult to understand complex structures. Despite its disadvantages. those activities are limited to learners and can take them to make an inappropriate use of the target language because it will not be able to use complete and complex L2 structures. The main points and some drawbacks of TPR have been explained. This method can be useful because provides students a useful teaching framework if it is applied in an adequate way and must be taken into consideration in Colombia Bilingüe Program. Next. In this part.
. But it was necessary to propose a method in which the L2 was seen as a useful tool which involved the use of all the skills and also comprehend language rather than follow simple commands. then this knowledge will be useful for creative performance later rather than memorization.Previously. he explained his rejection of the behaviorist view of language acquisition in the way how a baby learns a language. What it is important for learners is to activate the abstract abilities. based on his model of competence and performance. We could see that Chomsky’s studies proposed new ways in order to explain the process of acquiring a language. Harmer (1991) argued that Chomsky published a strong attack on Skinner's Verbal Behavior which became justifiably famous. Chomsky made some assumptions justifying his rejection of the behaviorist view in which he argued that language is not learnt-behavior. Harmer (1991) said that Chomsky proposed two concepts within language acquisition. When Chomsky reviewed Skinner's book. TPR offered a feasible. For this reason in 1959. and this language competence (or knowledge of the grammar rules) allows children to be creative as language users (interaction) but it was also implied a critical period into this process of acquisition. Thus. and how it is possible that a new sentence in the mouth of a four-year-old is the result of conditioning. Chomsky claimed that children are biologically prepared to learn and acquire a language. because young children can say things that they have never said before. These concepts were competence (knowledge) and performance (the realization of this knowledge as sentences) competence is what a child gradually acquires. Chomsky’s assumptions related to communicative competence and language acquisition shed some light on the field of language teaching. the environment makes a basic contribution (people who interact with the child) but the child’s internal endowment will help to comprehend a language. optimal way when teaching an L2.
This method derived from communicative approach which claimed that the goal of language learning is promoting Communicative Competence. at the supermarket. at the bank. & Schmidt. Richards & Rodgers (2001) claimed that with the increasing interdependence of European countries. Then the topics to be taught are presented and practiced through situations e. He proposed that competence is developed by joining communication and culture. . it was necessary to teach people languages of the European Common Market and the Council of Europe. R. In this system the language program is divided into portions or units” Taken from: Richards. a term coined by Hymes (1972) in which he argued the linguistic view developed by Chomsky. Then in 1971 a group of linguists decided to search for courses based on a unit-credit system. J. which consisted in a “language-learning system suggested by The Council of Europe along with the Threshold Level (it refers to the minimal level of language proficiency which is needed to achieve functional ability in a foreign language). Situational Language Teaching is a grammar-based method in which principles of grammatical and lexical order are used. For this reason.g. R.According to Richards & Rodgers (2001) Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) had its origins in the late 1960s. (2002) Longman Dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics 3rd edition. Also CLT included making meaningful communication and foreign language instruction applied in all classroom activities. The Council of Europe is an organization for cultural and educational assistance in which education was paramount. produced texts and monographs about language teaching. Pearson: Pearson group limited. (2002) claimed that CLT appeared as a reaction against grammarbased approaches such as the behavioral audio-lingual method and Situational Language Teaching which was developed by British language teaching specialists between 1940 and 1960. J. this organization sponsored conferences on language teaching. at home. & Schmidt. Richards.
Each of these units represents a selection of the learner’s language needs and is related to all the other units in the program. This competence can be defined as their ability to apply knowledge depending on the context the person could be placed (formal or informal) with an appropriate proficiency to communicate. not in absolute. This methodology assessed student in terms of how well learners have developed their communicative competence. Thus. Speakers communicate about something to someone for some purpose. Diversity is recognized and accepted as part of language development and use in second language learners and users. as it is with first language users. . A learner’s competence is considered in relative. 3. That is. Another aim was to find many learning language functions. either orally or in writing. it began a new era in language teaching where learning a foreign language did not only include memorizing grammar rules and vocabulary lists. but it was also necessary to know about other factors such as culture and context where the language is used. Also some students who had the opportunities to study in another country needed to learn a foreign language. The cultural and economical factors pushed people to interact and negotiate among them. Language teaching is based on a view of language as communication. terms. Unlike the previous methods. language is seen as a social tool that speakers use to make meaning. It has been noticeable the work carried out by the Council of Europe to improve the teaching of foreign languages. If one student succeeded in each unit given and then received an official recognition the system is known as a unit-credit system. Also Savignon (2002) discussed that CLT also placed great emphasis on helping students to use the target language in many contexts and places. CLT focused on helping learners to understand the target language rather than forcing them into developing perfectly grammatical structures or acquire native-like pronunciation. The principles of Communicative Language Teaching are: 1. 2.
a traveler. interpersonal. 8. Establish a context to facilitate comprehension. Taken from: Savignon. e. everyday. in an office. English used in a hotel. e. and textual functions and is related to the development of learners’ competence in each. professional. that they use language for a variety of purposes in all phases of learning. a cashier etc.g. Culture is recognized as instrumental in shaping speakers’ communicative competence. Richards (2006) explained that Communicative Language Teaching made a review and modified some of the language teaching goals. formal. a businessman. 4. English for all purposes taking into account students’ needs. The event where the dialogue is developed is important. CLT emphasizes on all aspect of teaching in order to develop learner’s communicative competence such as: 1. in both their first and subsequent languages. It is essential that learners be engaged in doing things with language—that is. in the airport etc.g. Students have to take part by performing a determined role in the context. 7. More than one variety of a language is recognized as a viable model for learning and teaching. Language use is recognized as serving ideational. e. informal or academic situations. in a bank. 2. . materials. No single methodology or fixed set of techniques is prescribed. e. in business or academic purposes etc. 5. syllabuses. S.g. London: Yale University Press. and classroom activities and had a great impact on changes in language teaching in the world.4. 6. 3.g. (2002) Interpreting Communicative Language Teaching: Contexts and concerns in teacher education.
Thus far. those are: Task-completion activities. Fluency-based activities by using real-contexts problems that encourage learners to discuss and propose possible solutions. e. e. because students need to know something about it and writing is used when the teacher or the students ask the class to write a conclusion. games and map-readings which focus on how students use their target language structures in order to complete the task. reading and writing are optional depending on the activity. . explaining what you mean. history etc. Those activities comprehend puzzles. the student or the teacher can hand out a brief reading about the topic to be explained. Know about the lexical variables found in the target language. essay or summary. it is also important to make appropriate use of grammar and activities that imply pronunciation. Information gathering activities. e. listening when the class perceives the input. linguistics. 7. speaking. religion. introducing people. By means of surveys.g. Richards (2006) also offers other classroom activities used in CLT. Finally. Australian and British English. Realize the importance of language functions. interviews and researches students collect information by using the target language.g. CLT is an approach that offers students more opportunities to interact by means of pair and group work that require negotiation and cooperation between learners. 6. asking for help etc. Know about what field of science the topic is about. role-plays in which students practice and develop language functions. reading and writing) are used when the student or the teacher present any topic: speaking when the student or the teacher explain the topic. 8.5. The skills (listening. differences among American.g.
content is applied. students can be accurate at the moment when they have to learn a topic. or literature. what exercises in the book have to be solved etc. workgroups and allowing them to gain both confidence and accuracy when learning any topic. it will be very useful. It is remarkable that in this approach content is the main vehicle in which the class is based on. music. It means that in traditional approaches grammar. skills and language functions are taken into account first. Content-Based Instruction Content-based instruction (CBI) is an approach that appeared in order to convey foreign language instruction by using academic subjects such as history. Role plays. a class in which simple present tense is the topic to be taught. Cooperative Language Learning. but in a content-based class. For example. texts. Also if this method is applied in the schools taking into account the age factor. They are able to make activities. the teacher begins to organize how to teach grammar. beliefs and values. Opinion-sharing activities. which are taught in a foreign language. student A has the information that student B do not. Finally. So student B asks for information in order to accomplish the task. Richards (2006) exposed that this approach is used in immersion programs at elementary and secondary school or even university. In the next section. and Content-Based Instruction are presented. Information-transfer activities. some of the communicative approaches that support CLT such as Task-Based Language Teaching. once these topics have been decided and organized. Activities in which students have to act out a determined situation. Debates in which students compare opinions. the context or content for . These activities consist in making pairs. CLT would provide students many activities in which they have to give ideas and find solutions to a determined problem or situation.
g. students learn an L2. This instruction is common in EFL contexts. then the teacher involves students into doing reading activities. grammar. because it provides a framework in which students can use all the skills. the subject: cognitive psychology and the topic to be explained: paradigms. the teacher classifies the main topics about paradigms.practicing the tense is selected first. ecology. students have to take some courses about AIDS. CBI adopted some principles in the field of language teaching whereby: People have opportunities to learn successfully a language when they use it as a means of acquiring information. e. Also. In some EFL contexts. debates etc. Content is the learning key. The teacher can explain a determined topic by using the target language. Native Americans etc. CBI could be somewhat difficult at first because learners who are accustomed to being taught exclusively in their first language could feel uncomfortable if the . by means of these subjects. e. This approach is suited to attend students’ needs when learning an L2. in Colombia universities.g. Richards (2006) said that CBI can be used in many learning situations such as: Framework of a unit of work. textbooks exercises etc are taught later. excepting those who take a career which involves foreign language teaching. students have to take 2 levels of English which are necessary in order to complete the study program. it is mandatory that students who are studying a determined career must take English levels. First. Guide principle for an entire course. making writing reports.
In addition. Larsen-Freeman (2000) asserted that a procedural syllabus is that in which students have to deal with activities where interaction among peers is important. In this part. etc. For this reason. they have to be in contact with language. it was necessary to propose a series of tasks which included problem-solving elements: when students have to solve a problem. he and his colleagues worked on secondary schools which applied traditional methodology and syllabuses which were based on grammar instruction. Southern India. because they provide a framework in which students have to use language for learning rather than learning a language in terms of memorizing rules and vocabulary lists. Prabhu set up a project which used task-based learning in a very different context. CBI offers more possibilities for students to be exposed to target language by including other subjects. activities such as using the telephone to obtain information. teachers need to be very careful at the moment they help learners to understand what they explain because a particular issue found in students is that they are expected to express themselves in the foreign language in a fluent way.teacher speaks using the L2 through all the class. the language would be learned incidentally. but this contact happens because the students are actively involved in finding solutions to the tasks. share ideas and make use of the target language. task-based instruction also provides learners with opportunities to use language in order to interact and share information when solving a determined task. Prabhu suggested that if classes were meaning-based. Larsen-Freeman (2000). Task-Based Instruction In 1979 in Bangalore. by means of these activities students have more opportunities to participate. . those activities proposed a more effective way of learning a language. drawing maps based on oral instructions. giving orders and instructions to others. Prabhu called procedural syllabus to those tasks which he and his colleagues had proposed in this approach. performing actions based on commands given in the target language.
The objective is that students know how to be prepared to use language. based on grammar teaching. because they involve meaningful communication and interaction. The task in terms of TBI can de divided in two kinds: Pedagogical tasks. two students who have to find the differences between two pictures may be a pedagogical task. although there is interaction those kind of activities are not found in the real world. in a hotel or asking for a meal etc. students acquire new vocabulary when they exchange ideas. comprehensible input and also being concentrated on the differences. Richards (2006) claimed that Real-world tasks provide students a real situation in which students are able to use it when they have to face a determined situation in the real world. Such tasks provide an effective basis for language learning. for this reason the characters should be given at random by . enabling learners to acquire grammar as a result of use language in real situations. but help students to develop useful language use when they interact. and begin to use more communication. according to Richards (2006) TBI tasks are those activities that students have to solve using the target language structures that they possess in order to share ideas among their peers and unconsciously. On the other hand. asking for information at a customs office. It is important to notice that tasks are the bases in which this approach applies its principles. those are activities in which students have to make use of specific interactional strategies and skills and develop the cognitive abilities (grammar. vocabulary etc) for example. students practice different real-context dialogues in order to be previously prepared when they have to face such situation. because the purpose is to develop skills such as vocabulary.Richards & Schmidt (2002) explained that Task-Based instruction (TBI) is also an extension of the principles of Communicative Language Teaching based on using communicative and interactive tasks as the means of planning and conveying language instruction. Task-based language teaching is intended to change the traditional syllabus. For example: making interviews.
students have to choose the best option to advertise two different supermarkets. Creative tasks. this approach has been put into practice in many countries such as Thailand. Competency-based instruction Richards & Rodgers (2001) stated that Competency-based language teaching (CBLT) was an approach that has been widely used since 1970. for example: decorating a house. go to a party. Jane Willis (1996) in Richards (2006) proposed six types of tasks in TBI in which students can be more involved in the process of learning an L2: Listing tasks. students have to establish differences among different tasks that teacher provides. In the real life. how to wear appropriately when attending to a formal/informal meeting etc. go to the beach etc. For example. they choose one and give possible solutions to this problem. Also. Students read articles about real life situations. Activities in which students give opinions in order to change the appearance of something. Problem-solving. CBLT focuses on using English . students have the opportunity to choose what things could be more important when they decide to carry out some of the activities mentioned previously. In this activity. dialogues among people are not prepared. Sharing personal experiences. Philippines and Indonesia. Sorting and Ordering.the teacher rather than being selected by the students. Students share their experiences or a problem some of them could be passing through. Activities where students have make a list in which they include items to be if they would go hiking. those happen spontaneously. In this part. without previous rehearsal. Comparing.
Cooperative learning was proposed in order to encourage students to work together in small co-operative groups. also gives students more opportunities to interact by using real contexts and know how to use language forms depending on the place a person is. In the early twentieth century. rather than teach language isolated because this approach combines both language and concrete tasks. the idea to foster in the schools cooperative activities among the students. pedagogues agreed with this approach because the old methods were teacher-centered. despite its drawbacks this approach tries to look for outcomes rather than teach language rules every class. an airport. Richards (2006) we can see the importance of CBLT in the classroom.skills in everyday situations. also enable them to look for a job. because language learning is based on a list of expressions to be used depending on the place and the people around that place.S. Cooperative Language Learning (CLL) Richards & Rodgers (2001) argued that CLL had its origins from the theoretical work developed by Jean Piaget (1965) and Lev Vygotsky (1962) because those developmental psychologist emphasized on the role of social interaction in learning process. also often used in Communicative Language Teaching. a factory etc. John Dewey was the person who pioneered in the U. then it appeared the approach known as Collaborative Learning (CL). . but language use is not stuck to scripts. Although there are some misconceptions about this approach in which some pedagogues discuss that this is a reductionist approach. to describe personal skills when filling a job application and to understand the main aspects of the job and ask for assistance when necessary. fostered competitiveness rather than cooperation and only the best students had opportunities to stand out. Those activities prepare students to be able to deal with the new challenges in the world. this process requires also cognitive processes and language strategies when it is used. Concrete tasks just include the main linguistic forms to be used in real-life situations by using specific settings such as: a hospital.
Despite its misconceptions in which some have argued that students which possess little English level could obtain benefit form those ones who have a high level. such as a written paper or group presentation. We can say that CLL proposes some important features in language teaching that could be applied in our context. when applying cooperative activities. Co-operative/Individualized. In this part.It was said that this approach helps to increase students’ learning because it is less threatening for many students. such as a laboratory experiment. and they share and provide ideas in order to complete a determined task. Each student works individually when using individualized learning materials. Students work together to complete a task. Jigsaw activities. those are: Peer Tutoring. it allows students to take part in the class by discussing the topics proposed by the teacher. for example group activities could help students to interact among them. Students work together and share ideas in order to produce a product. By making workgroups. CLL could be applied at every context because it enhances learning and interacting skills. the class is more student-centered and the teacher appears as an advisor. each group has a piece of information needed to complete a whole group task. grammar or the purpose of the activity. by means of tutoring each other. Co-operative Projects. we could see the importance of . Also Richards & Rodgers (2001) added some of the activities used in CLL. assisting students when they do not understand some features such as pronunciation. Students can help each other. they can feel more confident speaking among their peers than speaking aloud in front of the whole class. then s/he contributes to a team with his/her ideas so as to get a team grade. Co-operative Interaction. a recipe or presenting a determined topic.
TBI. English is only required and taught as a requisite to take the ICFES exam. CLT has been applied in many classrooms in the world. . The first methodologies were limited and students grasp little knowledge. because the goal was to know about literature rather than developing communicative competence. Communicative Language Teaching appeared as a “key method” because tried to give language a holistic meaning. CBLT and CLL) it is feasible to profit the teaching of L2. most of the institutions both elementary and secondary have proposed the teaching of a L2. when this method is combined by using the approaches previously mentioned (CBI. techniques in order to foster English learning.the new methodologies so as to teach an L2. but this fact does not mean that schools in our country accept this situation because it is important to notice that in our country. If the institutions keep on mind these assumptions about foreign language learning and they do not take into account the real situation about language teaching. it has been a long process in which linguists. Colombia Bilingüe program would probably fail and everything would remain in words. it took into account all the skills and also comprehend language rather than memorization exercises. Somehow. pedagogues and also the SLA theorists have shared their knowledge and contribute to shed light on the field of language teaching. the teaching of English has not been considered as something important. In Colombia. Spanish. This program could be successful if there is an adequate teaching of English including foreign language teachers and also proposing and applying methodologies. Biology etc. because the teachers are not real English teachers and also because English has not been considered as a subject as important as Mathematics. but this subject has been taught inappropriately.
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