Lupinus The ubiquitous familiarity of the common garden lupin provides little hint of the great diversity encompassed by the c. 280 of species in Lupinus as a whole.
There are two main centres of species diversity in western North America and the Andes, as well as secondary clusters of species in eastern South America and around the Mediterranean. The taxonomy of Lupinus is notoriously problematic and overburdened by a surfeit of names (c. 1800), and while there are several authorative regional floristic accounts, the last monographic account was that of Agardh in 1835, which recognised 83 species. The taxonomy of the Andean and Mexican species is particularly chaotic. Work on a new taxonomic account for the Andean species is in progress.
Lupinus species from the Andes New phylogenies Insights into the diversity and evolutionary and biogeographical history of lupins have been limited by confusion about species delimitation, conflicting nomenclature, and sparse sampling and lack of resolution in previous phylogenetic studies. Over the last few years we have generated a series of more densely sampled (including c. 40% of species), well‐resolved, and robustly supported time‐ calibrated phylogenies, based on DNA sequences from multiple nuclear and plastid genes (Hughes and Eastwood, 2006; Eastwood et al., 2008). While some uncertainty remains as to the precise sister group relationships of the 13 Old World species, current data suggest that the ancestral range for the genus is in the Old World, with at least two independent dispersal events to the New World within the last 5‐10 million years. The New World species (excluding the unifoliolate species from Florida) are placed in two robustly supported clades: (i) an eastern, largely lowland 2n = 36 clade comprising c. 35 species and (ii) a western, largely montane 2n = 48 clade comprising c. 225 species. These two clades are distributed largely allopatrically with only limited overlap in Texas and the south‐central
Phylogeny of Lupinus showing the distributions of the two major New World clades and the diversity life history characteristics of the Andean species. Reproduced from Hughes & Eastwood (2006). Andes, but both contain ancestral North American and derived South American elements, suggesting at least two independent dispersal events between North America and South America. These new phylogenies also provide clear evidence for two independent evolutionary origins of unifoliolate leaves in Florida and Brazil (congruent with chromosome data), resolving longstanding debate about the relationships of these two groups. Of particular note is the exceptionally high rate of diversification in the western New World 2n = 48 clade. In this group a rapid rate of speciation coincides with the transition from annual to perennial life history and colonization of montane
habitats, permitting the exploitation of novel ecological opportunities following recent uplift of the northern Andes. Origin of domesticated L. mutabilis Lupinus mutabilis Sweet is apparently unknown in the wild but is cultivated as an important food crop throughout the Andes and is also the focus of crop breeding and development elsewhere in Australia and Europe. The species exhibits typical legume domestication syndrome traits including indehiscent pods, large seeds, water permeable seed coats, reduced seed pigmentation, rapid and uniform germination and growth, and a nearly annual life history, but retains higher seed alkaloid levels than other lupin domesticates.
Despite this importance as a crop, the origins of domestication of L. mutabilis in terms of where, when, how many times and from what wild progenitors it was domesticated remain unknown. Our phylogenetic studies place L. mutabilis in a well‐supported Andean clade, ruling out earlier speculations that the crop might have originated from wild North American species (Eastwood and Hughes, 2008). However, within the Andes, research to identify the progenitors of L. mutabilis is hampered by chaotic taxonomy, the very low levels of DNA sequence divergence amongst the Andean species, and limited lupin seed remains retrieved from archaeological sites. Despite these challenges, recent field, herbarium and laboratory investigation of L. mutabilis provide new evidence from morphology (leaves, indumentum, habit, flower size, flower colour variation, pod and seed size) and DNA sequence data that suggest L. piurensis as the most likely wild progenitor of domesticated L. mutabilis (Eastwood and Hughes, 2008). This species has not previously been proposed as a putative progenitor of L. mutabilis despite its clear morphological similarities and large seeds. Lupinus piurensis is restricted to the western slopes of the Andes between 1650 and 3300m altitude in
northern Peru and southern Ecuador, suggesting that domestication of L. mutabilis may have occurred in that area. A limited number of flower and seed colour variants are documented within L. mutabilis, but in many respects the species is rather uniform. Publications on Lupinus Eastwood, R.J. & Hughes, C.E. 2008. Origins of domestication of Lupinus mutabilis in the Andes. Pp. 373‐379, in: Palta, J.A. & Burger, J.B. (Eds.) Lupins for Health & Wealth, Proceedings 12th International Lupin Conference, Fremantle, Australia, International Lupin Association, Canterbury, New Zealand. Eastwood, R.J., Drummond, C.S., Schifino‐Wittmann, M.T. & Hughes, C.E. 2008. Diversity and evolutionary history of lupins – insights from new phylogenies. Pp. 346‐354, in: Palta, J.A. & Burger, J.B. (Eds.) Lupins for Health & Wealth, Proceedings 12th International Lupin Conference, Fremantle, Australia, International Lupin Association, Canterbury, New Zealand. Stepkowski, T., Hughes, C.E., Law, I.J., Markiewiez, L., Gurda, D., Chlebicka, A. & Moulin, L. 2007. Diversification of lupin Bradyrhizobium strains: evidence from nodulation gene trees. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 73: 3254‐3264. doi:10.1128/AEM.02125‐06 Hughes, C.E. & Eastwood, R.J. 2006. Island radiation on a continental scale: exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 103: 10334‐ 10339. doi:10.1073/pnas.0601928103