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HEALTH BENEFITS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
One of the greatest contribution of modern science is the preventing of communicable diseases and prolongation of human life. Some communicable disease can be treated by modern science.
1 LASER BEAM- is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process called stimulated emission. The term "laser" is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Laser light is usually spatially coherent, which means that the light either is emitted in a narrow,low-divergence beam, or can be converted into one with the help of optical components such as lenses. Typically, lasers are thought of as emitting light with a narrow wavelength spectrum ("monochromatic" light). This is not true of all lasers, however: some emit light with a broad spectrum, while others emit light at multiple distinct wavelengths simultaneously. The coherence of typical laser emission is distinctive. Most other light sources emit incoherent light, which has a phase that varies randomly with time and position. The name LASER is an acronym for Light Amplification by theStimulated Emission of Radiation. In 1917, Albert Einstein first theorized about the process which makes lasers possible called "Stimulated Emission." Ruby LaserIn 1960, Theodore Maiman invented the ruby laser considered to be the first successful optical or light laser. obert Hall - Semiconductor Injection LaserIn 1962, Robert Hall created a revolutionary type of laser that is still used in many of the electronic appliances and communications systems that we use every day.
Sweden. Lawrence offers 60-inch cyclotron to John Jungerman. Protons. Harvard treats first patient in its cyclotron. slow down faster than photons. a University of California regent. Lawrence as a way to accelerate nuclear particles to very high speeds. Proton beam therapy is a radiation treatment that delivers high dose radiation to a very localized site. Treatment successfully duplicated on patients in Uppsala. Other forms of external-beam radiation therapy include x-ray therapy and Cobalt-60 gamma-ray therapy. the Berkeley machine is modified to a 76-inch cyclotron. 1930s 1939 1946 1948 1954 1957 1950s 1961 . first proposes using protons for the treatment of cancer. Crocker. D. The beam can be carefully shaped to the dimensions of the tumor. culminating in a peak (called a Bragg peak). 60-inch cyclotron built at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory with financing from the late William H. Lawrence wins Nobel Prize in physics for invention of cylotron. a professor of physics at Harvard and designer of Harvard's cyclotron. First patient treated with protons at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory. In collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington. Wilson. Lawrence protégée Robert R. Machine is used in creation of seven new elements. Radiation oncologists (physicians who specialize in radiation treatments) can treat in two major ways: by implanting radioactive materials in the body [brachytherapy] or by using machines to generate beams that penetrate the body from outside [external beam]. This allows the majority of radiation to be delivered to the target site with less scattering of radiation around and beyond to the adjacent normal tissues. who would become the founding director of the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at UC Davis. not to the surrounding normal tissue. They deposit more energy as they slow down. and there is no risk of radiation exposure to others. Proton radiation is delivered by the second method. Berkeley Radiation Laboratory conducts extensive studies on protons and confirms predictions made by Wilson.. and so deliver most of the radiation to the targeted tumor mass. This tissue-sparing is unique to proton beam therapy.2 PROTON BEAMProton radiation is a form of external-beam radiation treatment. Your body does not become radioactive. Proton beams can be conformed [shaped in three dimensions] to fit the target area.C. External beam radiation does not remain in the body. being particles instead of x-rays. 1929 Cyclotron invented by Ernest O.
Most frequently the term refers to ionizing radiation.3 IRRADIATION. including natural sources. sometimes to serve a specific purpose. and to a level of radiation that will serve that specific purpose. The exposure can originate from various sources. In common usage the term refers specifically to ionizing radiation. This term also applies to ¶non-ionizing radiation as microwaves or to low frequency (50/60 Hz power supply). The term irradiation usually excludes the exposure to non-ionizing radiation. or it can be accidental. such as microwaves from cellular phones or electromagnetic waves emitted by radio and TV receivers and power supplies . and to a level of radiation that will serve a specific purpose. Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation. rather than radiation exposure to normal levels of background radiation. rather than radiation exposure to normal levels of background radiation or abnormal levels of radiation due to accidental exposure. high frequency (as cellular phones. The exposure can be intentional. radio and TV transmissions).is the process by which an item is exposed to radiation.
4 X-RAY computed tomography.5-2% with 2007 rates of CT usage. modern scanners allow this volume of data to be reformatted in various planes or even as volumetric (3D) representations of structures. in order to demonstrate various bodily structures based on their ability to block the X-ray beam. is a medical imaging method employing tomographycreated by computer processing. such as nondestructive materials testing. It is estimated that 0. also Computed tomography (CT) or Computed axial tomography (CAT). however. An estimated 72 million scans were performed in the United States in 2007. Although historically the images generated were in the axial or transverse plane. this estimate is disputed. CT is also used in other fields. Although most common in medicine. Another example is archaeological uses such as imaging the contents of sarcophagi.4% of current cancers in the United States are due to CTs performed in the past and that this may increase to as high as 1. Digital geometry processing is used to generate a threedimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional Xray images taken around a single axis of rotation. through a process known as "windowing". CT produces a volume of data that can be manipulated. perpendicular to the long axis of the body. Usage of CT has increased dramatically over the last two decades in many countries. .
Although this limit varies from person to person. .000 hertz) in healthy. The reflection signature can reveal details about the inner structure of the medium. it is approximately 20 kilohertz (20. young adults. typically to penetrate a medium and measure the reflection signature or supply focused energy.5 ULTRASOUND is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is thus not separated from "normal" (audible) sound based on differences in physical properties. The production of ultrasound is used in many different fields. There are a vast number of other applications as well. only the fact that humans cannot hear it. The most well known application of ultrasound is its use in sonography to produce pictures of fetuses in the human womb. a property also used by animals such as bats for hunting.
SUBMITTED BY:RONALYN MASONGSONG III-ASTURIAN SUBMITTED TO:MRS MARINEL ESCUETA .
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