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The Garden History Society

On the Origins of Kitchen Gardening in the Ancient Near East Author(s): Helen M. Leach Source: Garden History, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring, 1982), pp. 1-16 Published by: The Garden History Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1586849 . Accessed: 30/07/2011 06:06
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HELEN M. LEACH

ON THE ORIGINS OF KITCHEN GARDENING IN THE ANCIENT


THE ECONOMIC

NEAR EAST

BASE of culturesbelongingto the 'western'tradition,which had their in Europe and the Near East, is generallyconsideredto be agricultural.By this origins term, we imply cultivationof field crops, both cerealsand legumes, and managementof certainanimalspecies for their meat, milk and skins. Yet the ruralcountrysideoccupied by westernculturesis not only made up of fields and farmyards,but plantationsof trees for timber, orchardsfor fruit, and varioustypes of gardens.Historically,gardenswhich producedvegetablesand flavouringplantsfor humanconsumptionhave been known as kitchen gardens, and they have often included small fruiting trees and shrubs which requireregularattention.These gardensareusuallysituatedclose to the kitchen, and are enclosed by walls, fences and hedges which serve to keep browsinganimalsaway from succulentfruitsand vegetables,give shelterto tenderplants,andarea visualreminderto outsiders that the contents are the propertyof the homesteadand do not fall into the categoryof wild vegetables,fruits and herbs free for the taking. Managinga kitchen gardendemandsa ratherdifferentset of skills and techniques from cultivatingfield crops. In I965 JacquesBarrau1 drew attentionto the distinctive tools used in horticulture,and the close associationof gardener plantsbroughtabout and by techniques like vegetative propagation,transplanting,hand weeding, and selective harvesting over a long period. This association favours innovation and a continued interestin plant diversity.Thus the gardenercan readilyspot a superiorplant(causedby deals hybridizationor bud mutation)and rapidlyincreaseit, whereasthe agriculturalist with his plants en masseand his harvestingmethods encourageuniformityin his seed stock. While Barraumaintainedthat horticultural traditionswere of greatantiquityand might pre-date agriculturein some parts of the world, there was little response to his articlefrom the palaeoethnobotanists who continuedto concentratetheir efforts on the history of cerealand pulse agriculture,and who have publishedquite detailedaccounts of the processesand chronologyof their domestication.2 One of the obviousreasonswas the relatively high recovery rate of the large-seededcereals and legumes in the early Neolithic villages, and the fact that the processof domestication could be 'read'from the appearanceof the variousparts of the seed heads. Finds of large-sizepips, kernels and stones of fruit also allowed the documentationof the origins of the first orchardtrees, Universityof Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

KITCHEN GARDENING IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

especially olives, grapes, dates and figs.3 In addition, since the seeds of cereals and legumes were the utilized componentsof the plants, domesticationand the accompanying improvementin cultivationtechniquesled to measurableincreasesin size. A leafy vegetable like purslane, gathered while young and tender from the banks of a watercourse,would leave no seeds in the settlement. Even if taken into cultivationin plots adjacentto the houses, its seeds would seldomappearin the charreddebrisof house seasonwould floors, becausethe amountof seed storedfor replantingat the appropriate be minute. If we considerthe volumeof carrotseed in a modernpacketwe can appreciate how slim its chances of recoverywould be after a house fire and the passageof several millennia. Furthermore, the selection for qualities such as greater leaf area and less of the bitterness,which characterize domestication manyleafyvegetablesmaynot lead to any significant change in seed size or morphology. Thus if seed did survive, the would have no way of knowingif it werefroma domesticatedgreen palaeoethnobotanist vegetable,a wild potherb, or a weed of no culinaryinterestto the site's occupants. Sincethe most acceptableformof evidence, the remainsor impressionsof the plants themselves, is so scarcefor green and root vegetables,assessmentof their importancein Bronze and Iron Age economies of the Near East and Mediterraneanrelies on from the firstthreemillenniaB.C. evidence and artisticrepresentations documentary
KITCHEN GARDENS AND VEGETABLES IN CLASSICAL ROME AND GREECE

There is now archaeological informationon Romanvegetablegardensat Pompeii,4and in the writingsof Pliny the ElderandColumellaappeardetailedaccountsof horticultural lore and techniques together with discussions of vegetable and fruit varieties.5These modernkitchengardenswith nearlya full range give us a clearimpressionof surprisingly of Old Worldvegetablesin cultivation. Leafy vegetablesgrown at the time of Pliny include leaf beet (Beta vulgaris),blite blitum),cabbagesand kale of at least 12 differenttypes (Brassica (?Amaranthus oleracea), endive (Cichorium endivia),lettuce of some I differenttypes (Lactucasativa), mallow (Malva spp.), orach (Atriplexhortensis), purslane (Portulacaoleracea),rocket (?Eruca and sorrel and/orpatience (Rumexacetosaand R. ?patientia), a group of plants sativa), which included alexanders(Smyrnium and the progenitorsof our modern olusatrum) Their root vegetables and parsley and celery (Petroselinum crispum Apiumgraveolens). were the black beet (Beta vulgaris),elecampane (Inula helenium),radish (Raphanus sativus), several types of turnip (Brassica campestris),a pungent kind of parsnip (Pastinacasativa), and possibly the skirret(Siumspp.). Of the onion family they grew at leeks, includingthe kurratleek of Egypt (bothAlliumampeloprasum), least six types of bulb onion (Alliumcepa), two or three types of garlic (Alliumsativum),chives (Allium and schoenoprasum), some other Allium species which may have included shallots and onions. A number of cucurbitswere grown, especiallycucumbers(Cucumis bunching The Latin term pepones,sometimes sativus)and the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). translatedas pumpkins(a New Worldvegetable),probablyrefersto a type of incorrectly melon (Cucumis in melo).They grewa largerangeof flavouring plants, some overlapping their use with the leafy vegetables.These include basil (Ocimum spp.), caraway(Carum coriander(Coriandrum sativum),cress (Lepidum carvi), chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium),

HELEN M. LEACH

sativum), cumin (Cuminumcyminum),fennel (Foeniculumofficinale), dill (Anethum anise (Pimpinellaanisum),lovage (Levisticum graveolens), officinale),marjoram(Origanum spp.), mint (Menthaspp.), white and black mustard (Sinapis alba and Brassica nigra),poppy (Papaverspp.), rue (Ruta graveolens), savory(Satureiaspp.), and thyme (Thymus spp.). More unusual gardenvegetableswere asparagus(Asparagus officinalis), Colocasiaesculenta,cardoon (Cynarasp.), golden thistle (species uncertain),an edible a maritimum), type of Muscari, and squill (?Urgineasp.), rock samphire (Crithmum A modern gardenermight comment on the absence of carrots. Eryngiumcampestre. Although Andre6maintainsthat it was grown by the Romans, the Latin term daucus might be better translated as the pungent wild carrot, used medicinally.7 The development of our modern carotene carrot from the anthocyanine(purple) form is thought to have occurredmany centurieslater in the Middle East.8 Spinachand globe artichokeswere also post-Classicalcultigens. It should be noted that peas and horse beans (a small type of broad bean), while not described as garden crops, were neverthelessimportant Roman field crops, along with chickpeas, lentils, lupines and some vetches. Roman vegetable gardens at Pompeii have been studied extensively by W. Jashemski.9A gardenbehind the House of Pansameasured26.5 x 30.5 m and had been 'systematically out in rectangular laid by plots separated pathsthatwerealsoused as irrigation channels'.10As Jashemski notes, this agrees with Pliny's directions in his NaturalHistory,1 to mark the gardenout in plots, 'borderthese with sloping rounded banks, and surroundeach plot with a furrowedpath to afford access for a man and a channel for irrigation'. The smaller ornamentalperistyle gardenscommonly revealed evidencefor fruittreessuch as figs, olives, citrusfruits(lemonsandcitrons),andpossibly cherries,pearsor apples. The last threearedepictedin wallpaintings,but theirroot casts are difficultto distinguish, one from another.12 Behind the House of the Ship Europa,a largeenclosedareawas interpretedas a combinedmarketgardenand orchard.A slightly raisedpath runningdown the centreof the gardengaveaccessto two vegetableplots, one with nine narrowbeds separatedby irrigation/path furrows,andthe otherwith five beds. The surroundingarearevealedthe root cavitiesof young vines plantedabout41/2 Roman feet apart, and other trees such as olive and filbert. Brokenplant pots were recoveredin one area of the garden, at the base of tree planting holes. This suggests that trees were sometimes broughtinto the gardenfor planting out. Plant container-grown remains included pieces of filbert shells, a carbonized fig, grape seeds, an almond fragment, and numerous carbonizedhorse beans. Jashemskiargues that the modern practice of intercroppingvineyardswith horse beans was also in operationin Roman Pompeii.13 While there is no set patternto the gardensof Pompeii, in so far as fruit trees might be found in small ornamentalgardens, in mixed fruit and vegetableareas, or in orchards, three important features of kitchen gardens are evident: they are enclosed, they are associatedwith houses, and provisionhas been made for wateringthem, with cisternsand channels. Romankitchen gardensand the cultigensdescribedby Pliny, Columellaand other authors can hardly be described as being in a formative stage. The large number of BrassicaandAlliumtypes, and the many varietiesof lettuce in cultivationindicatea long period of collection and subsequent selection before this time. Their horticultural

KITCHEN GARDENING IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

techniqueswhich involved transplanting,the taking of cuttings and offshoots, grafting andlayeringof fruits, deep digging, the use of raisedbeds, manuring with differenttypes of dung for particular andeven cucumberboxeswhich could be wheeledunder purposes frames,alsogive the impressionof beingpartof an alreadymaturetradition. mica-glazed The Roman authors make frequent reference to Greek writers on kitchen gardening, especially Theophrastus(c. 370-278 B.C.). While drawing much material from them, it is still evident that the Romans made importantcontributionsboth to cultivarssuch as cabbagesand kale, and to cultivationtechniques.From Theophrastus's Enquiryinto Plants14 and a contribution to the Hippocratic Corpus, RegimenII15 composedabout 400 B.C.,we can assembleyet anotherlist of kitchen gardenvegetables for the period some four centuries before Pliny and Columella. As in Rome, leafy vegetables included beet, blite, cabbagesand kales, lettuce, orach, purslane, rocket, and patience/sorrel, the parsley/celery group. Endivedoes not seem to be present,but its wild form, chicory, was used as a pot herb. The mallowappearsas a wild plant suitable for cooking. Gardenroot vegetables seem to have been fewer than in Roman times, chieflyradish,turnipand beet. The latterhad a long straightroot describedas fleshyand sweet. Leeks, garlic and many differentkinds of onions were described, in additionto severaltypes of cucumber, bottle gourd and possibly the melon. A similarand equally extensive range of flavouringplants were grown as in Romankitchen gardens,with an mustardand savory. Many emphasison basil, coriander,cress, cumin, dill, marjoram, herbs and aromatic plants were gathered wild. Techniques of propagationinvolved striking cuttings, sowing seed at various seasons, root division, and separation of offshoots. Theophrastushad a detailed knowledge of seed germinationtimes16which was copied with very few modificationsby Pliny.17 As in Pompeii, terracotta plant pots have been recovered,in this case from threefoot squaretree plantingholes cut into bare rockat the Temple of Hephaistosin Athens.18 Once againwe gaina strongimpressionof a well establishedhorticulturaltradition. The obvious question which arisesfrom this impressionis, when did this classical traditionbegin?We might also ask which cultureswereresponsiblefor the development of the traditionfrom its shadowybeginningsto its fully fledgedclassicalform (which in turn profoundlyinfluencedthe kitchen gardensof laterwesterncultures).There can be little prospectof preparingas coherentan accountof the rise of kitchengardensand the domesticationof vegetablesas is availablefor cerealsor legumes, owing to the scarcityof plant remains and garden excavations. Archaeologists have been understandably preoccupiedwith houses, temples and city walls ratherthan the often ambiguoustraces of buried cultivated soils nearby, which may representthe sole evidence for ancient kitchen gardensand orchards.Nevertheless,what evidencethereis, is worth synthesizing and leads to some interestinghypotheses.
PRE-CLASSICAL KITCHEN GARDENS AND PLANTS OF THE FIRST, SECOND AND THIRD MILLENNIA B.C.

Homer'sevocativedescriptionof the Gardensof Alkinoos19 deservesto be quotedin full since it representsan idealizedfruit and vegetablecomplexof the earlyfirstmillennium, and stressesonce againthe threeimportantcharacteristics enclosure,proximityto the of house and continuityof watersupply.

HELEN M. LEACH

Outside courtyard stretching upto thegates,andwithahedgerunning the but close down of eitherside,liesa largeorchard fouracres, where treeshangtheirgreenery high,the on the withitsglossy the burden, sweet andtheluxuriant pearandthepomegranate, apple fig olive. Theirfruitneverfailsnor runsshort,winterand summer alike.It comesat all seasons theyear,andthere never timewhentheWestWind's of is a breath notassisting, is herethebudandheretheripening afterapple,cluster fruit;so thatpearafterpear,apple on clusterof grapes,and fig upon fig are alwayscomingto perfection. the same In in enclosure thereis a fruitful of vineyard, onepartof whichis a warm patch levelground, where someof thegrapes drying thesun,whileothers gathered beingtrodden, are in are or andon the foremost rowshangunripe bunches havejustcasttheirblossom show that or the firstfainttingeof purple.Vegetable of various beds kindsareneatly out beyond laid thefurthest andmakea smiling row is patchof never-failing green.Thegarden served by two springs,one led in rillsto all partsof the enclosure, whileits fellowopposite, after a runs the providing watering placeforthe townsfolk, underthe courtyard towards gate houseitself. great It is unfortunatethat Homer did not specify the types of vegetablesas he did of fruit. Indeed Forster20noted that in both the Iliad and Odysseyonly fifty plant names are mentioned. Manyof these areof treesand shrubs. Only the onion can be assumedto be a is gardenvegetable.The termfor parsley/celery appliedto a plantused as food for horses, and as crownsof victoryin the Isthmiangames.21It may well have been gatheredwild. The tabletsfrom which Mycenaeaneconomicactivitieshave been reconstructed for the period around the thirteenth century B.C. are, as Chadwick22has stressed, administrative recordsof royalpalaces,dealingwith produceof particular interestto the show flowersand king. Actual plant finds are relativelyrareand artisticrepresentations trees not vegetables. However the tabletsindicatethat extensiveuse was made of herbs and aromaticplants for cooking and perfumery.While some were probablyimported, those listed in large quantities are assumed to have been grown locally and include and Sincefigs, grapes, coriander,cress, cumin, fennel, mint, parsley/celery, safflower.23 and olives were importanttree crops, we can assume that orchardsand vineyardswere present. Chadwickdrew attentionto the practicestill seen in Greeceof growingcereals on the land between olive trees.24Whetheror not the herbsand aromaticplantsgrew in close associationwith vine and figs, or in separate plots or fields, cannotbe determined.If Homer's notion of a mixed orchard, vineyard and vegetable garden reflects a long establishedpattern,then we can take the beginningsof orchardhusbandryin this region as towardsthe end of the Neolithic period (c. 3000 B.C.)25 a possible startingpoint for kitchen gardensas well. The best evidence for kitchen gardeningin the Mesopotamian culturesof the first millenniumis a tablet datingto the late eighth centuryB.C. describingthe contentsof the A gardenof King MerodachBaladan.26 total of sixty-sevenplantswerelisted in fourteen groups, with from three to seven members in each group. Whether each group was equivalentto the contentsof a single 'bed'is uncertain.Though someplantsseem to have been groupedby similarityin appearance use, this is not invariably case. A critical or the assessment of the names, accepting only those with reliable Aramaic and/or Syriac cognates, allows us to identify with reasonablecertaintyonly twenty-six of the plants. The same criteria were applied to the names of vegetables and 'hot' plants listed by R. CampbellThompson in his Dictionary Assyrian which cover the period Botany27 of from I400 to 600 B.C.A furthersourceof vegetablenamesis the list of ingredientsfor a

KITCHEN GARDENING

IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

I feastgiven by the AssyrianKing Ashur-Nasir-Apli who lived in the ninth consecratory B.C.28 Together these sources allow us to assembleyet anotherlist of culinary century vegetablesand herbs. Leafy vegetablesincludedsea-blite(Suaedasp. and possiblyother salt-tolerantspecies), lettuce, purslaneand rocket. Their root vegetableswere a type of beet, the radish and the turnip, the same as for the Greeks. The Alliumcultigens were leek, garlic, and several types of onion, possibly including the shallot. Cucumbers, gourds and the bitter colocynth were grown. Flavouringherbs were the ammi (Ammi coriander,cress, white and black cumin visnaga), cardamom(Elettariacardamomum), and Nigella sativa), dill, fennel and/oranise, fenugreek(Trigonella (Cuminum cyminum mint and/or pennyroyal, rue and thyme. The foenum-graecum), marjoram-origanum, black or green gram bean of Indian originwas an interestingentry in the gardenlist of
King Merodach Baladan. Nearly a thousand years before, about I750 B.C., Mari and

Karanapalaceprovisionsfrequentlyincluded severaltypes of onion and garlic, ammi, black and white cumin, fenugreek, mustard, saffron(?Crocus sativus),and quite large quantitiesof coriander.29 When we acknowledgejust how many plant namescannotbe securelyidentifiedin the Merodach Baladangarden list, but by their context were obviously a mixture of culinaryand medicinalplants, we cannotcategorizeAssyriangardensas being any more 'formative'than those of Classical Greece. Nor can we weave arguments about the absenceof such classesas cabbagesand kales, while so manyplantsremainunidentified, both in the gardenlists and feast provisions. As an example, at the feast given by King Ashur-Nasir-ApliII, a thousand boxes of 'greens' were consumed, along with three hundredcontainersof mixed raqqatu-plants, hundredcontainersof karkartu-plants, one and a similarquantityof tiatu-plants, unidentifiable.30 numbersof cultigensalone, In all the Mesopotamiangardens of the early first millennium may have rivalled those of Classical Greece and Rome. Technologicallythey must have been part of elaborate II, irrigationsystems, such as that constructedby King Ashur-Nasir-Apli leadingto the palaceand temples of ninth-centuryKalach. He wrote: the of orchards all(kinds fruittreesin with of) irrigated meadows theTigris(and) planted
its environs . . . The canal crashesfrom above into the gardens.Fragrance the pervades
garden.31

I dug out a canal from the Upper Zab, cutting through a mountain at its peak ...

of as Streams water(as numerous) the starsof heavenflowin the pleasure walkways. and Amongthe plantsin the pleasuregardenwerepomegranates vines, so we canassume that there was no strict segregationof ornamental productivefruitingplants. and It is important to recognize the discrepancybetween plants identified from the from the seventh/eighthninth-century tablets and those recovered archaeologically century sites of Nimrud and Fort Shalmaneser.The large quantitiesof plant remains identified by Helbaek were chiefly from grain storage jars and wells, and are predominantlycereals, legumes, and what are presumedto be weeds of the fields.32A few date and olive stones, hazelnut shells, fig and pomegranate seeds, and a somewhat of grapepips and prosopisseeds indicateconsumptionof 'fruit', but the largerquantity only indication that vegetables were also part of the diet was the discovery of two cucumberseeds in a well. We know independentlythatkitchengardensexisted, and that a wide range of culinary plants were grown in them, yet a host of cultural practices

HELEN M. LEACH

relatingto storage,stageof growthat the time of consumption,and seed size, rule out the sites. We shouldnot forget recoveryand identificationof vegetablesfrom archaeological that this situationmay apply equally to prehistoricperiodswhen there are no tablets to and fruits. redress biasin the archaeological the record towards cereals, legumes large-seeded Our knowledge of Egyptian kitchen gardens, their contents and horticultural techniques, is considerablygreater because of excellent conditions of preservationof actualplantremains,and becauseso manyaspectsof Egyptianlife wererecordedin tomb models, wall paintings, relief carvings,papyri, and inscriptionscut into rock. Since the key cereal crops of barley and emmer wheat figure prominently, there has been a tendency to assumethat other plant foods occupieda very minorrole in the agricultural system, or were gatheredwild. For the wealthyoccupantsof thirdand second millennia tombs, however, variety in funeral offerings almost certainlyreflecteda wide-ranging diet in their life times. Among the shrivelledremainsof fish andmeat, cakesof datesand barley, loaves of barley and wheaten bread, dried fruits, legumes and beverages, archaeologistshave identified onions, garlic, radishes, corianderand cumin seeds.33 Even the leaves of a type of celery (probablywild) have been foundwoven into a garland
dated to about 1200 B.C.34

Naturally sugary, fibrous, or firm plant parts such as dried fruits and seeds, have survived entombment much better than soft, watery fruits or fleshy leaves; so we are dependenton the paintingsand reliefsfor evidenceof greenvegetablesandwateryfruits. Although there is disagreementover the antiquityof plants such as the beet, Colocasia, artichokes,asparagus,turnip, and cabbage,there is little doubt that the uprightlettuce (like the moderncos) and the kurratleek were grownas earlyas 2400 B.C. and types of ,35 melon, gourd and cucumber at about the same time. During the second millennium, garlic, onions and radishesare also present. Since both fruits and vegetableswere of greatimportanceto the wealthy, we must considerjustwhere they were grownandhow they fittedinto the economicsystem. Figs, grape-vines and other fruiting trees would naturally require separate plots from cultivatedcereals, and these may have been enclosed by walls or earthenbanks to keep out browsinganimalsand thieves. Representations enclosedornamental of gardenswith fruit trees planted round a centralpond are known from a Theban tomb of the period 1420-1375 B.C.36These practicalreasonssuggestthat some kind of orchardshould have been present in Egypt as early as grapes and figs were taken into cultivation. Breasted cited a recordof a fourth dynasty noble's walled estate in the Delta in which 'fine trees were set out, a very large lake was made ... figs and vines were set out'.37Raisinsand grapepips have been recoveredfrom tombs as earlyas the first dynasty.38It is possible thatthe vegetableswere grownbeneaththe treesor betweenrows, a practicedescribedin the third century B.C.39 Estate vineyardsin the Fayum at this time were planted with melons, onions and garlic, and the vine-dressersgainedadditionalincome by selling the surplus vegetables. But we should note that these gardenerswere mostly Greeks and were probablyperpetuatingthe practicesof their homeland.At much earlierperiodsin Egypt, there is good evidence that lettuce and leek plants were grown in separate vegetableplots.40 The plots are depicted as a rectangle containing many small squares laid out in chequerboardfashion. The grid probably represents shallow, intersecting channels

KITCHEN GARDENING

IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

along which water was poured to reach the maximum number of plants. One of the earliest, in the tomb of Mererukadated to about 2300 B.C., shows three men carrying waterin jarsto irrigatethe plot, and gardeners with pointedsticksworkingat the basesof lettuce-likeplants growingon short stalks.41 A much smallerchequerboard plot (3 x 3 on which threecos-likelettucesaregrowingis carvedin the Chapelof SenusretI squares) in at Karnak,dated to about I970 B.C.42 This reappears at least threeotherplacesin the
Chapel.43 In Tomb Three at Beni Hasan dating to about I900 B.C. there is a

of representation a plot made up of 14 x 4 squareswith a dot in each depictinga plant. Two men carrywater jars and anotheris emptying a jar on to the garden. A gardener squats on the plot beside them with a pointed stick like the dibber used in Britainfor planting leeks. Beside him (but not actually in his hand as Klebs's44and Huxley's45 figures derived from Cailliaudshow) are two bundles of vegetables, the lower looking like smallleek plantsreadyto be set out.46The tomb of Djehutihotpe(numbertwo at El of Bersha)dating to about 1875 B.C. also has a representation a chequerboard garden being watered from jars, as well as a squattingfigure with a pointed stick. Beside it, gardenscene datedto grapesor melons hang from a vine trainedover a frame.47Another about 1470 B.C.from the temple of Hatshepsutat Deir el Baharidepicts a chequerboard plot with lettuces growing.48 In the fifth dynasty tomb of Niankhkhnum and
Khnumhotep (c. 2375 B.C.), pointed sticks are shown being used at the base of leafy,

lettuce-likeplants, but the chequerboard patterndoes not appear.49 A knowledge of the conventions for depicting gardens in the third and second millennia only indirectly helps us to interpretthe scene of the importantcarvedmace head found at Hierakonpolis and dated to c. 3100 B.C.50 The 'Scorpion' King is shown with a hoe in his handover-lookingthe junctionof waterchannelswhichflowaroundtwo pieces of land, on one of which stands either a fenced enclosuremade of upright sticks securedwith cross pieces, or a rectangular plot divided into four strips. Although they are not in grid pattern, fine lines running at right angles to the strip boundariesmay representshallow furrows. Surmountingthe plot or fence, in the same position as the as lettucesof laterpaintings,is a palmtree. This sceneis acceptedby Butzer51 the earliest evidencein Egypt for artificial the floodwatersof the Nile which irrigationby controlling reachedEgypt in August or September.In this interpretation see that the king has we used his hoe to open the channel aroundthe rectangular just plot. We cannot be sure, if the picture is of a vegetablegarden,fields intendedfor cerealagriculture,or however, merelya fence arounda palm tree. The normalpatternof land use in dynasticEgyptwas Butzeralso notes that 'winteragriculture,largelyconfinedto the flood basins'.52 on all that Thenumerous representations agree seedswerebroadcast unprepared pictorial furrows hoe-turned beds.Thelimited of plough use than in or soil,rather planted plough
and even hoe preparationin Islamic times . . . suggests that manual preparationwas

restricted drier to locales horticultural or plots.53

If we follow his interpretation,then we must conclude that this well-wateredplot was planted at the same time as the winter cereal crops. There is an importantdifference, however, between this plot and the gardens representedin later wall paintings and reliefs. Because they are being supplied with waterfrom jars, or by the Amarnaperiod (c. 1340 B.C.)by the shaduf (a pole and bucket lever capableof lifting waterup to three metres), they must be springand summergardenscultivatedat a time of the yearwhen

HELEN M. LEACH

the ground water-levelhas fallen considerably.Thus we may be dealingwith a gradual intensificationof gardening,fromwinterplots on levees associatedwith settlementsand palm groves, and watered from shallow flood-waterchannels, to all-the-year-round gardensand orchardsirrigatedby controlledflood watersin autumnand winter and by jarsor shadufbuckets in springand summer. From such pictorialevidence the existence of separatevegetablegardensmust be acceptedfor Egypt from the third if not the fourthmillenniumB.C.Unfortunately,only one complexof gardenshas been excavated,and this, at El-'Amarna,existedmuch later, at about I350 B.C.54 The archaeologistsfound that the larger houses in the city had privatewalled pleasuregardens,usuallywith a kiosk (probably a gardenaltar)and pool surroundedby trees and shrubs.55The North Palacehad a much largerpool garden.In one of the residentialpartsof the palacethoughtto have been the women's section, they found a small courtyardwith columns around three sides: 'In the centre was a sunk gardenwith a low parapetwall round it and steps leading down to the beds which are dividedup into squares.'56 channelranroundthe edge of the beds bringingwaterfrom A the central pond of the palace. Although this was interpretedas a flower garden, the watering system and layout have much in common with the lettuce and leek plots described earlier. At this site a broken terracottapot was found at the base of a tree-plantinghole,57considerablypre-datingthe finds from Pompeiiand Athens. Importantevidence for consumptionof vegetablesby craftsmenas well as nobles can be found in accounts of transactionskept by tomb builders in the period I300B.C.58 Two words, smwand w;d were used for vegetablesin the price entries, and IIOO these occur frequently.59Individual vegetables such as leeks, lettuce and onions are seldom itemized and it is thought that they were included under the overallterms. The quantities are large and must indicate that vegetable production was an important economic activity supplying different classes of people. Royal gifts to the gods at the sameperiodreinforcethis suggestion,since they involveliterallythousandsof bundlesof vegetables.60It has been suggested by Helck that vegetablesgrouped together as smw were planted in gardens, while w;d were grown in fields. Although Janssen61 does not believe that the distinction was used consistently by the Egyptians, it would be reasonableto expect that greenleafyvegetableslike lettucesand leeks would be grownin gardens, while leguminous plants like chickpeas, peas and lentils in small fields comparableto marketgardens. Many matters concerning the types of vegetables grown in dynastic Egypt will and the always be subject to dispute, because of the nature of artistic representations problemsof identifyingplants from the hieroglyphs.We can be certain,however,of the existence of vegetablegardensand orchardsfrom the third if not the fourthmillennium
B.C. THE PREHISTORIC BEGINNINGS OF KITCHEN GARDENING

For the reasonsdiscussed earlier,we can expect little direct evidence of kitchen garden plants, and once we step back into the pre-literatecultures, one of our most important props, written plant names, is removed. Apart from finds of onion bulb scales, a garlic bulb and garliccloves in whatis describedas a Chalcolithic context(c. 3500-3000 B.C.) at the Caveof the Treasurenearthe Dead Sea,62and the recoveryof whatarethoughtto be
2

IO

KITCHEN GARDENING IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

kurratleek remainsin EarlyBronzeAge Jericho,63 there are no unequivocalrecordsof cultivated'vegetables'before3000 B.C. The discoveryof garlicin such an earlycontextis particularly importantfor it could only be grown from cloves or inflorescencebulbils64 and this would mean that it would be subjectto the very operationswhich characterize horticulture.The kurratleek find is also significantfor its green leaves are customarily croppedover a period of fifteen to seventeenmonths, the numberof cuttings depending on the amount of water and manure supplied to the plot.65 Thus, neither garlic nor kurratleek could be treatedas agricultural crops, since one is vegetativelyreproduced, and the other requireswater throughoutthe year to maintainproductivity. Since they occur in fourth millennium sites, we must accept the existence of horticulturalplots, possibly kitchen gardensattachedto houses, or mixed vegetablegardensand orchards. Given the typical patternof close-packedroom complexesin early Near Easterntowns andvillages,and the necessityfor irrigation,we expectthatvegetableswouldbe grownin enclosuresaroundthe marginsof the settlements. garden-orchard The rise of orchardhusbandrymay in fact be closely connectedwith the origins of kitchen gardening.Accordingto Zoharyand Spiegel-Roy,66 olives werein cultivationat Teleilat Ghassul,north of the Dead Sea, in the period 3700-3500 B.C., while earlysigns of grapecultivationare evident in finds from EarlyBronzeAge Jericho.The cultivated date was alsopresentat TeleilatGhassul,with an even earlierfindin an Ubaidianhorizon at Eridu(c. 4000 B.C.). Fig cultivationis thoughtto havegone hand-in-hand with that of the olive and grape. The pomegranate have been a componentof fourthmillennium may orchardssupplyingJericho, since its wild form does not occur anywherein the Levant. stress the fact that domesticationof these fruits representsa Zoharyand Spiegel-Roy67 shift fromsexualreproduction vegetativepropagation,by cuttingsin the caseof grape, to and pomegranate,by knobs growingfromthe olive trunk, andby offshootsof the date fig at palm. The type of caregiven to these cuttings, such as regularwatering,transplanting of shelter and supports, preparationof planting particulargrowth stages, provision holes, and manuring, was directly transferableto kitchen garden vegetables. Thus if vegetable plots supplying leafy greens, the forerunnersof root vegetables, cucurbits, Allium varieties, and flavouring plants, were not already in existence when fruit cultivation began early in the fourth millennium, they would have been a predictable developmentfollowing soon afterthe creationof orchards. The reverse situation may have applied, however: that the techniques which enabled the first domesticationof fruit trees were learnt in vegetablegardens. A third possibilityis thatorchardsandkitchengardensevolvedtogether.At this pointwe should ask what were the likely incentives for the creationof kitchen gardens?Increasingthe locationsin which the plantis available,and at the sametime increasingits numbers,are obvious benefits to be obtained by cultivation, applicableto vegetablesas well as field crops. More specificreasonscan be advancedfor cultivatingthe leafy vegetables. Since the majorityare derivedfrom wild annualswith a shortgrowingseasonin springbefore they run to seed, the advantagesof cultivationwould be to have them availableclose to the settlement,and thereforefresh, or to extend the lengthof time overwhichthey could be harvestedby making severalsowings. To achieve successwith an extendedgrowing period the gardeners would need to supply water regularly to the plots, especially through the summer. Provision of animal manure, either deliberately or through

HELEN M. LEACH

II

accidentalassociationwith dung in the vicinity of settlements, would rapidlyimprove the quality of the leaves by decreasingbitternessand enhancingtenderness,thus giving furtherbenefits. As for the rootvegetables,radish,turnipandbeet, earlyformsmayhave been grown as annuals, and for their leaves and seeds as much as for their roots. to Transportation areaswith cooler temperatures,in additionto attemptsto grow them over extended seasonsmight have enhancedtheirbiennialcharacter thus led to their and root size. The possible wild progenitorof beet (Betavulgaris subsp. maritima) increasing in the Levant as a leafy perennial weed of fields and roadsides.68Raphanus grows which is considered the likely wild progenitorof the radish is an annual raphanistrum weed of fallow and cultivated fields,69 while Brassica campestris, wild turnip, the as a thin-rooted annual, but can be encouraged in as few as ten normally grows believes that true turnips generationsto become a bulbous biennial.70McNaughton71 in the coolerpartsof Europefrombiennialformsgrownin warmerregionsfor originated theiroily seeds. If he is correct,the earlyturnipof Near Easternculturesmayhavebeen a leaf vegetableor a sourceof a pungent oil-seed. The benefitsof cultivatingcucumbers,melons and gourds, would be an increasein fruit size from extra wateringand 'feeding', and a greaterharvestresultingfrom better protectionfrom predatorsas the fruit ripens. Maturegourdswere readilyconvertedinto containers,but in cultureswith adequatesuppliesof pottery, the gourd'smain function may have been as food while immature.Cultivationand selectionof seed from the most palatablecucurbitfruits would lead to a gradualreductionin bitterness.As for the first cultivated members of the Allium group, the value of garlic, kurratleek and onion in adding 'savour'to many types of dishes, would be a strongincentiveto ensureplentiful herbsand spices, while stocks by cultivationand protection.In the case of the flavouring plentiful supplies could be gatheredfrom wild aromaticplants like thyme and savory, which are readily dried and transported,there would be little reasonto cultivate them unless grazingpressurehad made them scarce. But culinaryinterestin the young leaves as well as the seeds of plantslike dill, aniseand cress, might haveencouragedcultivation since the leavesquicklywilt when gathered.For those flavouring plantslike mint, ammi, and the parsley/celerygroup, which require moist ground, the irrigatedgarden balm, representedthe best means of extendingtheir rangecloser to the kitchen. Other herbs, such as corianderand cumin, might continue as field weeds until increasingdemand made them into specialist field crops. In the Levant today, the coriandergrows as an annualamongwinter crops, alongwith fenugreek.72 In short, the benefitsgainedby cultivatingvegetablesclose to the settlement,rather than gatheringthem from the wild, are immediateaccess to a greatervariety, greater controlof the quantitiesand, to an increasingextent, their seasonof availability,and the convenienceof havingclose at hand certainplantsneeded dailyor used as freshlypicked 'greens'. To achieve these benefits the kitchen gardenermust supply ample water and provideprotectionfrom strongwinds and animals.Watershortagefor much of the year was the factor which may have delayed the developmentof kitchen gardeningin many parts of the Near East, and allowed cereal and legume culture to become economically dominant. Evidencefor irrigationdoes not appearuntil the sixth millenniumB.C. ,73 and this is not perennial irrigationbut simply control and distributionof winter rainfall. Under such conditions vegetables could be grown only in the winter season and little

I2

KITCHEN GARDENING IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

would be gained by bringing them together in a separateenclosure near the village. Nevertheless the era in which early dry-farmingand simple irrigation techniques prevailedwould also have seen an importantstagein the transitionfrom wild to kitchen gardenvegetables. At this time, a numberof leafy vegetablesseem to have becomefield weeds, or inhabitantsof disturbed ground beside paths and close to settlements. The wherethe palaeoethnobotanevidencefor this can be found in lists of seed identifications ist has included the weeds which accompanythe cerealsand legumes. In the Mesolithic and early Neolithic levels at Tell Abu Hureyra,74 quantities of wereidentified,as well asSpinacia and Rumex,Atriplex Chenopodium species Polygonum, tetranda wild spinach, probablynot the ancestorof the cultivatedform S. oleracea).75 (a Several species of Polygonumhave edible leaves, especially the old-fashionedgarden P. and Seeds of P. lapathifolium, persicaria P. convolvulus vegetable,bistort(P. bistorta). were importantcomponentsof the last meals of the Tollund, Grauballe,and Borremose men.76 Nearly two thousand seeds of P. avicularewere deliberatelycollected by the Neolithic occupantsof Sitagroiin east Macedonia,77 this species was also found at and Hacilar.78 Polygonumseeds possess a high starchcontent, and this coupledwith edible leaves(in some species)may be the reasonwhy the genus is commonlyencountered.The Rumex seeds at Tell Abu Hureyra are not identified as to species. The only species cultivated as a vegetable in western Europe is the sorrel (R. acetosaand R. scutatus). HoweverZohary79 describessome six speciesin the Levantof which the leavesareeaten in saladsor cooked as potherbs:R. vesicarius, cyprius, crispus, conglomeratus, R. R. R. R. pulcher, R. bucephalophorus. and and wereidentifiedin the Rumexacetosella R. crispus stomachs of the Tollund and Grauballe corpses.80 The cultivated orach (Atriplex has hortensis) severalwild relativeswith edible leaves, includingA. hastata,A. patula, A. portulacoides A. halimus.81 C. was One species of Chenopodium, bonus-henricus and in English kitchen gardensfor its spinach-likeleaves. Its abundantwild relative, grown fat-hen(whitegoosefoot- C. album) used throughoutEuropeas a sourceof'greens' was and seeds. Zohary82 notes that it was 'formerlycultivatedas a breadplant becauseof its plant'. He also highly nutritiousseeds; has a high vitaminC contentandis used as a 3alad cites C. opulifolium C. murale being edible, the first as a potherb, the second as a as and saladherb. These chenopods are annualplants to be found today as weeds in irrigated crops, in gardens,roadsides,and refuseheaps. The eighth/ninthmillenniumsite of Mureybitin Syriacontainssome Chenopodium albumamong its chenopod seeds, but is notable for the large quantitiesof Polygonum ?venantianum.83 (ayoni in south-east Turkey, a site dated to the seventh/eighth At The Aceramicand late and millennium, both Polygonum Rumexspecies were present.84 Neolithic levels at Hacilar85 and includedChenopodium album,two speciesof Polygonum, the mallow (Malva nicaeensis). are This species of mallow, togetherwith M. parviflora, described as potherbs by Zohary.86In the mid seventh millennium deposits of Can Hasan III, chenopods were again identified (including the fathen), in addition to a Polygonumspecies, a member of the Labiateae, and an Atriplex species similar to A. lasiantha.87 (atal Huyiik large numbersof cruciferseeds were recoveredfrom a At deposit dated to about 5950 B.C. They were from the shepherd's purse (Capsella Helbaek88believed that the and sisymbrioides. bursa-pastoris) the salt-lovingErysimum seeds had been collected as a source of oil. An alternativeuse might have been as a

HELEN M. LEACH

I3

pungentflavouringspice similarto mustardwhich is also a crucifer.The young leavesof shepherd'spurse can be used as a potherb in spring.89Seeds of shepherd'spurse and were those of Erysimum cheiranthoides componentsof the last mealsof both Tollund and men.90 Grauballe In the Khuzistan sites of Ali Kosh and Tepe Sabz which span the fourth to eighth and become numerically millennia, the edible mallows (Malva nicaeensis M. parviflora) in the MohammadJaffarPhase(6000-5600 B.C.).The sea-blite(Suaedasp.), a important comments is memberof the Chenopodiaceae, presentin only smallquantities.Helbaek91 a type of cress, at the on the appearanceof a large-seededcruciferousplant, possibly beginningof the Tepe SabzPhase (5500-5000 B.C.). He refersto it as an introductionby new people, but does not speculate as to whether it is a crop weed, unintentionally coincides introduced, or a possible vegetable. It may be significantthat its appearance with the firstevidence of irrigationin this area.In the Mesopotamian lowlands,the sixth millennium site of Umm Dabaghiyahproduced thousands of seeds of the Chenopoand diaceae.92 Helbaek was able to identify amongthem the sea-blite(Suaedamaritima), a type of saltwort (Salsola sp.), but the majority were unidentifiable. Although he initiallybelievedthat they had been broughtto the site attachedto plantsforuse as thatch or fuel, his footnote that sea-bliteis collected and sold as a saladplant in Kuwait today showed that he now favouredthe explanationthat they had been broughtin as food. In that supportof this is the note by Zohary93 the young shootsof Salsolakali areeaten as a site potherb. Sea-blitewas also identifiedin the North Mesopotamian of ChogaMami,94 where earlyirrigationis believed to be present(c. 5000 B.C.). This brief survey of early farmingvillages and towns of the sixth millenniumand earlier, should alert us to the possibility that some of the seeds commonly considered fieldweeds accidentallyincludedwith the grainand legumes, wereof 'wild'vegetablesof tilled fields and disturbed ground which were gatheredas young plants to be eaten as saladgreensor potherbs. Othersmay have been utilizedin smallquantitiesas flavouring plants, either as leaves or seeds. By habit, many of these plants became plentiful wherever man disturbed the soil, and those that invaded refuse heaps would have become noticeably larger and more succulent. In this way, close familiaritywith the of needs, responsesand characteristics a rangeof leafy vegetablesand flavouringplants would have been built up in readinessfor the time when some of them would be taken into cultivationas kitchen gardenplants. On nutritional grounds, the consumption of vegetables and fleshy fruits was a necessity at all periods. Earlyfarmersmay have derivedthe bulk of their fats, proteins and carbohydrates,from meat and seeds of legumes and cereals, but without regular consumptionof leafy vegetables they could develop scurvy, a disease brought on by a have commentedon this need, and in those deficiencyof vitamin C. Few prehistorians publicationswhere diet is discussedit is often impliedthat fruitssuch as caperswould be sufficient. Since the recommendeddaily allowanceof vitaminC for a moderatelyactive man is 30 mg,95 it would be very difficult to reach this amountoutside the caper fruit season,on a diet of cereals,driedlegumesandanimalproducts.Eachadultwouldhaveto drink nearlythree pints of milk per day, which is obviouslynot a feasibleway to obtain vitaminC in any culture. A five ounce (I40 g) portionof cookedcabbageor turnipgreens would be rathermore realistic.

I4

KITCHEN GARDENING IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

The development of kitchen gardens seems to have followed a prolongedperiod when leafy vegetablesgrew in associationwith cerealsand legumes, in the fields, around their margins, and in waste groundclose to the settlements.While this may have been a satisfactorymethod of producingpotherbs and salad greens, some vegetables, such as garlicand onions, were not widespreadwild plants or crop weeds. The same may have been true of certainflavouringherbs and aromaticspices. Once disseminatedby trade, and an eagermarketcreatedfor them, their high valuemay have given the firstimpetus to the formation of kitchen gardens, protected, cared-forenclosures, supplied with ample water. More common vegetablesof the fields could then have been included for convenienceand to be grownover extendedperiods. If at the sametime this processwas occurring to superior varieties of olives, grapes and figs, a vegetable garden-orchard complex may have begun to evolve, possible as early as the fifth/sixth millennium. However full development of the complex in the drier regions would have been dependent on the provision of perennial irrigation. Since it is customary to classify gardens under categories like 'market', 'kitchen' or 'pleasure' gardens, the most appropriateterm for this first garden enclosure might well be 'treasuregarden', a reminderof the high value of the cultivarscollected togetherand protectedwithin its walls. I shall leave it to others to explore the implicationsof a Gardenof Eden which grows, amongstits figs, largequantitiesof garlic.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I should like to thank Dr StephanieDalley and ProfessorJohn Bainesof the Faculty of OrientalStudies, Oxford, for theirgenerousassistancein my searchfor the rawmaterial of this paper, and their subsequenthelpful criticismsof what I did with it.
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19. Odyssey, book vI , 112-32, trans. K. D. White in CountryLife in Classical Times (1977), p. 27. (1953). I3. Ibid., pp. 233-42.

2. For example,M. ZoharyandM. Hopf, 'Domestication Pulsesin the Old World',Science of I82 (I973), PP. 887-94; J. R. Harlan,'The Origins of CerealAgriculture the Old World'in Origins in of ed. Agriculture, C. A. Reed (1977), pp. 357-83. 3. M. ZoharyandP. Spiegel-Roy,'Beginningsof FruitGrowingin the Old World',Science 87 (I975), 4. W. F. Jashemski,TheGardens Pompeii of Herculaneum theVillasDestroyed Vesuvius and by (New York, I979), hereinafter Jashemski. v, 5. Pliny theElder,NaturalHistory trans. H. Rackham Pliny;Columella, (1950) hereinafter OnAgriculture Trees, and trans.E. S. Forsterand E. H. Heffner(x955). 6. J. Andre,L'Alimentation Cuisine Rome etLa a
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20. E. S. Forster,'TreesandPlantsin Homer', ClassicalReview (1936), pp. 97-104. 50

21. Ibid.,p. IoI. 22. J. Chadwick,TheMycenaean World

7. Pliny, bookx x, 27 and 89. 8. 0. Bangain N. W. Simmonds,ed., Evolution of

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9. Jashemski.
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(Cambridge, 1976), p. io8. Ibid., pp. I 9-20. 24. Ibid.,p. II7. in Greece, 25. J. M. Renfrew,'Agriculture' Neolithic ed. S. A. Papadopoulos (I973), p. I49. 26. BritishMuseumCuneiform Texts, I4, no. 50. 27. R. C. Thompson,A Dictionary ofAssyrian Botany (1949).
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HELEN M. LEACH 28. A. K. Grayson, Assyrian I RoyalInscriptions (Wiesbaden,I972), hereinafter Grayson. 29. S. Dalley, Mariand Karana (n.d.), bookin preparation.
30. Grayson, p. I76.

I5

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52. Ibid.,p. 50.

53. Ibid.,p. 89. at 54. F. G. Newton, 'Excavations El-'Armarnah,


923-24',Journal ofEgyptian Archaeology 10 (I924),

3I. Ibid., pp. I73-74. and 32. H. Helbaekin M. E. L. Mallowan,Nimrud 33. L. Keimer, 'The Food of the Ancient 22 Egyptians',EgyptTravelMagazine (1956), pp. Faraosblomster 6-10; V. Laurent-Tackholm, (Stockholm,195 ); R. Tannahill,FoodinHistory and (1975);W. J. Darby, P. Ghalioungui I L. Grivetti,Food: TheGiftof Osiris (1976). op. 34. Laurent-Tackholm, cit., p. IIo. Museum BerlinKatalog 35. [W. Kaiser],Agyptisches der 'Graberunter (1967), p. 32; H. Altenmuiller, in Neue Entdeckungen Prozessionsstrasse. 36. Laurent-Tackholm, cit., p. 96; N. M. op. Davies, AncientEgyptian Paintings(Chicago,1936), plateLXIX,(3), p. 132. 37. J. H. Breasted,AncientRecords ofEgyptI and 38. J.-P. Lauer,V. Laurent-Tackholm, E. Aberg, 'Les plantesdecouvertesdansles souterrains l'enceintedu roi Zosera Saqqarah de (IIIedynastie)',Bulletindel'Institut 32 d'Egypte EstateinEgyptin the 39. M. Rostovtzeff,A Large Third B. Century c.: A StudyinEconomic History (Madison,Wisconsin, 1922), pp. 96-97. des 40. L. Klebs, Die ReliefsundMalereien mittleren Reiches(Heidelberg,1922), p. 76; F. Hartmann, dans (Paris, 1923),p. L'Agriculture l'AncienneEgypte 120; P. Montet,LesScenesdela ViePriveedansles de Tombeaux (Strasbourg, Empire Egyptiens I'Ancien der 1925), pp. 258-59; H. W. Helck, Lexikon MastabaofMereruka, I (Chicago,I938), plate part
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its Remains II (I975), pp. 613-20.

pp. 289-98. 55. Ibid., p. 290. 56. Ibid., p. 297. 57. Ibid., p. 295. Prices 58. J. J. Janssen,Commodity fromthe
RamessidPeriod (Leiden, 1975).

59. 60. 6I. 62.

Ibid., pp. 475-78. Darbyetal., op. cit., p. 653. Janssen,op. cit., p. 359. D. V. Zaitschekin P. Bar-Adon,TheCaveof the

Saqqara',Antike Welt 5(2), (1974), p. 24, Fig. 13.

63. M. Hopf, 'PlantRemainsand EarlyFarmingin Jericho'in TheDomestication PlantsandAnimals, of ed. P. J. Ucko andG. W. Dimbleby(1969), p. 357. 64. G. D. McCollumin N. W. Simmonds,ed., Evolution CropPlants (1976), pp. 187-88. of and 65. V. Laurent-Tackholm M. Drar,Floraof
Egypt I I I (Cairo, 1954), p. 86. 67. Ibid., p. 325.

Treasure(Jerusalem, I980), pp. 223-27.

(Chicago, I906), p. 78.

66. Zoharyand Spiegel-Roy,op. cit. 68. M. Zohary,FloraPalaestina,partI (Jerusalem,


I966). p. I39. 69. Ibid.,p. 325-26.

(1950), p. I33.

to 70. A.M. M. Berrie,AnIntroduction theBotany of


the Major Crop Plants (Leyden, 1977), p. 125. 71. I. H. McNaughtonin N. W. Simmonds,ed.,
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Evolution Crop Plants(I976), p. 46. of 72. M. Zohary,FloraPalaestina,partI I (Jerusalem, 73. F. Hole, K. V. FlanneryandJ. A. Neely, Plain and Prehistory Human Ecology theDehLuran of (AnnArbor,Michigan,I969), p. 355;H. Helbaek, 'FirstImpressions the QatalHuyuik Plant of H. Helbaek, 'Samarran at Irrigation Agriculture ChogaMamiin Iraq',Iraq34 (I972a), pp. 36, 38-39, oftheNearEast 44-45; J. Mellaart,TheNeolithic Civilization (SanFrancisco,1978),p. 268. 74. G. Hillman,'The PlantRemainsfromTell Abu Hureyra:A Preliminary of Report',Proceedings the PrehistoricSociety (I975), pp. 71 and73. 41 75. P. M. Smithin N. W. Simmonds,ed., Evolution ofCropPlants(1976), p. 304. the 76. J. M. Renfrew,Palaeoethnobotany: Prehistoric FoodPlantsof theNearEast andEurope (New York, I973b), p. I8. 77. Ibid., p. 23. at 78. H. Helbaekin J. Mellaart,Excavations
Hactlar (Edinburgh, I970), pp. 197-98 and 233-34. (1975), pp. 152, I55; C. L. Redman, The Rise of Husbandry', Anatolian Studies 14 (I964), p. 47;

Agyptologie I I (Wiesbaden, 1977), pp. 521-24. The 41. [P. Duell], TheSakkarahExpedition.

42. Darbyetal., op. cit., fig. 17.7. de 43. P. LacauandH. Chevrier,UneChapelle Sesostris Karak (Cairo,1969),plates20-23, 26, Ier
29,35-36,39,4I.

44. Klebs, op. cit., p. 76. of History Gardening 45. A. Huxley,AnIllustrated 46. P. E. Newberry,BeniHasan,part1(I893), plate xxix. 47. P. E. Newberry,ElBersheh,partI(I892), plate xxvI. 48. E. H. Naville, TheTemple ofDeirelBahari, 49. von A. M. MoussaandH. Altenmuller,Das GrabdesNianchchnum Chnumhotep und (I977), Tafel
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(1978), p. 201.

part v (I906), plate CXLI I.

79. Zohary,op. cit. (1966), pp. 61-66. 80. Renfrew,op. cit. (I973b), p. i8. 50. W. S. Smith, TheArtandArchitectureofAncient 81. M. Grieve,AModernHerbal (980), pp. 56 and 66I; Zohary, op. cit. (I966), p. I45. Egypt(I958), Fig. 4.

KITCHEN GARDENING IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST 82. Ibid., p. 142. 83. W. vanZeist, 'The OrientalInstitute Excavations Mureybit,Syria:Preliminary at Report of the I965 Campaign.PartII I: The Paleobotany', JournalofNearEasternStudies29 (I970), p. 75. Resultsof the 84. W. vanZeist, 'Palaeobotanical 1979Seasonat Qaynii, Turkey',Helinium12
(1972), pp. 3-I9.

88. Helbaek,op. cit. (I964), p. I22. 89. Grieve,op. cit., p. 738.


90. Renfrew, op. cit. (I973b), p. 18.

9I. Helbaekin Hole etal., op. cit., p. 408. 92. H. Helbaek,'Tracesof Plantsin the Early CeramicSiteof Umm Dabaghiyah', Iraq34 (I972b),
pp. 8-I9.

85. Helbaekin Mellaart,op. cit. (1970), pp. 197-98,


and 233-34. 86. Zohary, op. cit. (1972), pp. 3I6-I7.

93. Zohary,op. cit. (1966), p. 170.


94. Helbaek, op. cit. (I972a), pp. 38-39. 95. J. Yudkin,Nutrition (I977).

at 87. D. H. French, 'Excavations CanHasanI II, ed. 1969-1970' in PapersinEconomic Prehistory,


E. S. Higgs (Cambridge, I972), p. 187.