Gender in Kurdish Author(s): D. N.

MacKenzie Source: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 3 (1954), pp. 528-541 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies Stable URL: Accessed: 05/07/2009 09:24
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and the nominal oblique case ending as -e and -4. p. A comparison of all the available texts in the light of their analysis serves to confirm the general validity of the paradigms and therefore of a distinction of grammatical gender. It is simplest to quote Justi's review of these theories: 3 'Der Genetiv wird auf dieselbe W. a. . Kurdische Grammatik. nimlich mit Hiilfe des zwischen das Nomen und das von ihm abhangige Wort tretende Relativpronomens altpers. 1. disguised to a varying extent by the generalization of certain forms. p. Wie die unten folgenden Beispiele lehren. Of the works there quoted the following are referred to in this article: Lerch. cited JJ page. nach Chodzko p. Justi-Jaba. B. p.GENDER IN KURDISH By D. dieses Pronomen erscheint in dreifacher Gestalt als i. e. Kurdische Texte im Kurmdnji-Dialecte. a. 305 wird das i hinter cg und _in a verwandelt. 253. N. 249. Jaba. sind diese Bestimmungen fiir das ganze Gebiet des Kurmand1 The subject of this paper was first suggested in the course of one of many fruitful discussions with Prof. cited Mk section/line. The history of a number of words of known gender suggests that the distinction is inherited.2have remarked on the variety of forms in which the Izafe appears. Kurdische Sammlungen. m. Bibliography. Some have advanced theories concerning the phonetic context to account for this variety.g. Dictionnaire kurde-frangais. In the Northern group of Kurdish dialects the Izafe appears in a number of forms. dass hinter b.eise wie im Persischen gebildet.-Petersburg. 1880. Forschungenuber die Kurden. f. Garzonistellt das Gesetz auf. the extent to which it has profited by his many and detailed criticisms and suggestions. The similarity of these forms to the corresponding Northern dialect forms.. * * * Many writers on Kurdish.St. i. Recueil de notices et recits kurdes. cited Lx page/line. Makas. hinter k das a. bei Rhea stets e. MACKENZIE T is not yet generally accepted in European works that a distinction of grammatical gender exists in Kurdish.2. hinter I mit vorhergehendem Vocal das i. e. hinter 1 mit vorhergehendem Consonant das e stehe. 1. hya. 3 F. albeit inadequately. 127. which will be obvious. Prym and Socin. with two declensions according to grammatical gender. from the time of Garzoni's Grammaticaof 1787 down to Socin's Sprache der Kurden. -j and -4. A comparison of related words in the two groups of dialects shows that in the Mukri dialect also the difference of the forms marks a distinction of grammatical gender. An analysis of these forms into a clear system. e und a. cited PS page/line. 2 Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie. np. In some cases. W. even within a particular dialect. Justi. has been made by members of the princely family of Bedir Xan. is obvious. A hitherto unexplained phenomenon is the appearance in the Central Kurdish Mukri dialect of two forms of the nominal oblique case ending. tya. it has been necessary to modify in quotation the various transcriptions of different scholars. r das e. Henning and I must gratefully acknowledge here.

-A proprement parler. 2 Capt. Throughout the publications of MM.. sollte letzteres Plural sein ? ' Jardine in his booklet on the Kurdish spoken in modern Iraq north of the Great Zab 2 states: 'Qualifying nouns and adjectives usually follow singular nouns they qualify and are connected to them by particles e or a. ex.. se met au vrai genitif latin [sic] de la Ire. et par : a: a la fin du nom feminin. and the grammar (cf. Bahdinan Kurmanji.' Further Socin: 'In welchen Fallen dieses a statt e eintritt. more recently. . Proverbeset Enigmes. i. cited Lt page/line. Bedir Xan in Syria 4 and the texts published by Lescot. Kamuran All Bedir Xan. 37 . 6 Mir Celadet Bedir Xan. Paris. XVI.. This is the earliest traceable mention of grammatical gender in Kurdish. Hawar--Revue Kurde. l'article : du: est rendu par : e: qui se met a la fin du nom rapporte masculin. 8 e. by the similar work of Dr. Der erste jener Laute. These. Chief among these are the many publications of MM. v. 1930Cited generally Rwn. et 2me. fn. au lieu des dites particules. cit. ~am-Damas. ? 155. Not available to me. es liegt vielmehr hier eine Vocalverderbniss vor. are cited generally BX.GENDER IN KURDISH 529 schi nicht haltbar. 1922. A number of these publications.' It is proposed here to set out in some detail the evidence for the presence of distinction of gender in Kurdish. Contes. II. 1933. ? 13. . bahsenedawlata: les nouvelles des ]Rtats. . 3 Abbe Paul Beidar. Elements de Grammaire extraits des cours donnes d l'Ecole Nationale des Langues Orientales Vivantespar L'Emir Kamuran Aali Bedir-Xan. jedoch. 7). ex. GrammaireKurde. I. 4 Particularly Emir Djeladet Aali. 276. . Likewise the remarkable Kurdish grammar of Abbe Beidar: 3 ' ? 8. das a hielt Lerch (Melanges Asiatiques. selon les genres. 1940-42. 211) fiir den alten Vocal des altp. Man beachte . ou celui auquel on rapporte. I. Baghdad. school textbooks. (The 1 op. . are in the British Museum. Each number has a full bibliography of the Kitebxana Haware on the back cover. nave khoudani (i) le nom du maitre. Nasra hykmataeewre Ermanistane.. harakata arde (ae): le mouvement de la terre. dass z. Et si le premier nom est au pluriel. Bedir Xan and Lescot's texts the following paradigms are consistently observed. ou pour marquer le genitif. R. Rowan. xizmdtad-vT unmittelbar neben xizmdte-v7hamTsteht.g. GrammaireKurde. 1931.5 This group of texts is supported by the grammar of Mir Celadet Bedir Xan 6 and. 5 Roger Lescot. hya. p.B. ist noch zu untersuchen. Komisariata Ronkaje Cbmbati. le nom kurde n'a pas de genres. ist der urspriingliche... e is usually used when the qualified noun is masculine and a when that noun is feminine '. Textes Kurdes. 1953. 7 Langue Kurde. classe.-Pour rapporter un nom a un autre.8 In so far as the Izafe following singular nouns is concerned these texts do not differ from the Bedir Xan-Lescot group. Paris-Beirut. PART 3. Le second nom. . Soviet Armenia. F. VOL. Paris.7 In another dialect are the publications emanating from Erevan. was nicht richtig ist. Within the last three decades a wealth of new texts has come to hand. bisweilen mag eine gewisse Vocalassimilation oder Einwirkung der umgebenden Consonanten massgebend sein. e ist aus diesem getriibt. Damascus. Jardine. il prend : ene: pour les deux genres. 1926..

.. ? 19). a [e] Izafe . p. -6 [-o] -in -e [-ino] Izafe e a [a] -e(n) Nouns ending in vowels usually insert an euphonic y before these endings.. mirin-mourir mirina min-ma mort. 241-244. or Lescot's footnote. n'ont pas de genre fixe et sont construits tantot comme f6minins. 12?. Tous les substantifs derives des adjectifs. Obl. . Tous les infinitifs utilises substantivement. tantot comme masculins. le9on) a descriptive analysis of noun genders. which are in the dialect of Mardin.. (ii) Nouns having the 'terminaisons -ek et -ik du nom d'unite et du diminutif ': Masc. pour la plupart derives de l'arabe. Fern.. .' It should be noted further that this confusion between the nominative and the oblique cases affects nouns in the construct state.. N. Textes I.' 'Lorsque le premier terme du rapport d'annexion est un nom d'unite. mezin-grand mezinahl. Masc.. ibid. se forme par flexion de cette voyelle en e plutot que par adjonction de la desinence -1. pour les substantifs masculins comportant un a. cf. Voc. vi.' ' Le cas oblique se trouve parfois employ6 a la place du nominatif: her kesk lii ser textexwe rinist. Sing.' ' ne faisant pas ceuvre de linguiste'. Nouns following the Izafe appear optionally in either of the two cases. la desinence -1 ou -e est parfois omise: . confines his grammatical remarks Lescot. hespekederket. Compare: 1 2 op.. ou mezinz--la grandeur 13?.bajerpour bajarl. les terminaisons -ek et -ik du nom d'unite et du diminutif perdent frequemment leur voyelle.1 Thus: 2 ' Quelques substantifs. 1. Ex. p. LangueKurde. -a(n) [-a(n)] -e NObl. -: Nom. p. to the main peculiarities of his own texts. siven pour sivanT. Note particularly: 'Sont du genre Feminin: .' 'Le cas oblique.' ' La desinence du pluriel est generalement -a (au lieu de -an) et -j (au lieu de -en. qize rabu ser xwe. MACKENZIE original spelling is given in brackets. p. . -e -. Ainsi: egir pour agirT. Kamuran All's Langue Kurde. vi. ' Au cas oblique et a 1'etat construit.) (i) Nouns ending in consonants: Plur.' (cf. 18. The Langue Kurde gives (2me.etc. Fern. cit.. pp.530 D. a l'etat construit).. Ex.

. with the later Soviet publications already mentioned.. say following a preposition or another Izafe. with rare exceptions (cf. It is more convenient to refer to examples quoted in Justi's publication of Jaba's dictionary. to the extreme north-east of the Kurdish area where the Izafe after plural nouns appears as . though all such texts represent a certain fall from grace. Constantinople.. ABS. XVI. Lescot's remarks).J/-ed. j and i. PART 3. Compare: Lx323 du lingi wi.GENDER IN KURDISH 531 Lx357 bibe lau'i pasara tell the Pasha's son . Jaba's texts pertain. chapter/verse. Here. Transliterated by the Rev. 1922. 37* . from the same district of Mardin. the vowel of the Izafe takes precedence of the oblique case ending. age Mkl104 da 'omrad hwa Rwn amrepaza BX ard m.e. the Izafe is always added to the noun stem. Lx141 be lingi wi girt -seized his leg Lx276 jrane wi. Lt4621 heke lawe vi huti hebin if there are sons of this monster Lx358 da lau'i pase gave the Pasha's son .za hakim.' It will be seen from the following comparative tables that. have the oblique ending -e for all nouns while the Izafe appears as j and a.. L4 -S . Thus Makas' texts. Lt4815 bi deste lawe hut girt he grasped the hand of the son of the monster As regards the antecedent. 5 of C5 and j are insufficiently differentiated. JJ4 ar-i be kapek dr(d)-flour Rwn are ma Lt204 ji es te JJ11 ach-i bai as--mill Rwn ase ma Lt426 ise te s--work Mkl7 Ise ta dxor-stable Lt3430 axore hespa JJ4 akhour-i hespan Lt422 bire te bira-brother JJ41 bera-i mezin Mk142 ze braa hwara 1 St. Lt0O4 ji qiza xwe re -for his daughter Lt6627 gThanezTkahindure Qiyaye ~era-having come near to the Mountain of Lions A comparison with other texts of Northern Kurdish seems to confirm the validity of at least the first paradigm above. i. Riggs from the Armenian script of the 1891 translation ' by native pastors from the region of Kharput '. Lx102 ze jirane xoe -from his neighbours Lx435 boca wi. although the values i. still the two forms of the singular Izafe can be clearly discerned. Matthew's Gospel. VOL. The same can be said of the Kurmanji Gospels in Arabic characters. H. H. namely _ and I. nouns have the same gender in all these dialects. Masculine JJ283 oumr-i dirij LtO114 emre wT u/amr-life.J 1'l cited Mat. even when the noun would otherwise appear in the oblique case. Lx488 be boca xo -on his tail Lt210 q.

yih-place kinj-clothes kur-son kar-flock kurk-pelisse kiras-shirt kavir-stone tlw-son mdl-property nan-bread JJ32 Mat.532 bdb/v-father 6arm-skin cav-eye lyd--mountain di--heart cdang-voice dast--hand dav-mouth dtwdr-wall guh-ear gurz-mace gost-meat hal-condition hasp-horse Lt28 D.25 Lt2812 deve vi zalim. N.540 JJ377 Mkl73 JJ387 Rwn JJ416 Mat.69 wi Lt6818 Verme JJ128 Lt4826 Vavexwe JJ124 Mk311 cve. Mkl54 Mat.415 Lt205 li diwer de JJ200 Rwn Lt4227 guhe lawe pTre JJ371 Mkl168 Lt4634 gurze xwe JJ360 Lt3821 gofte hirca JJ370 Mk439 Lt222 i v.48 Lt224 dile wi JJ188 Mkl"O Lt826 denge Mhemmed JJ190 Mkl38 Lt8l4 bi deste xwe Rwn Mkll02 ddste hwa Mat.611 bavexwe bab-i mezin tcherm-ifaqir tchaw-i beleq eave Wi da cjera li dil-i min dile ta denk-i khoch ki ddange dastekapitalista z' ddve mamu divar-i kewri gazeta diwer di-gouh-i vi-da guh. wt Rwn Lt3813 sere ilye Mk202 Mat.34 Lt2211 Mkl5 Lt9421 Lt544 Lt199 kurepire kurremire aldni keriye xezala kurke xwe kirase min JJ347 Rwn Rwn Mkl59 JJ328 Mat. hali JJ139 Mk1137hale mamu Rwn Lt523 hespe Sleman JJ444 Mkll40 JJ121 t147 ciye wan Mkl46 Rwn kbnFet9mbz JJ343 Mat. MACKENZIE yi.ehwa gourz-i pehlivana goucht-i berkh goste qalau hal-i te hale batraka hesp-ifal haspe hwa djih-i bereket lije hwa kindj-i kewin t5J (J kour-i min kyre xwa karijekolxoze kurkehwa kiras-i mari kewr-i rech lawe hwa mal-i miri male gyndija nan-i gherm J J^ AAJ t1O31 keviremermer Lt622 law min Ltl616 male te de Lt200 nanezea .

418 Mat. dialectes. helina hahJiaiked haouch-atchilekan hewar-akhoudi djiwat-a djenazei cs LAo LL5 UL- .hwa ziman-i dmili Lt647 ava heyate Lt305 gihan ber behre JJ65 BX t124 bira men tet burc f. Mk238 JJ146 JJ454 JJ116 Mat.1042 JJ428 Mk160 JJ211 Mat. JJ193 Mkl?69 JJ200 Rwn JJ355 JJ287 JJ147 doukan-a kasabi dar-a servi dor-a hiwi le-dora bako diwan-a khoundkar diwana sewreda garan-a tchilekan ghem-a dili heif-a khou Lt220 gdrdn-herd Rwn y/xam-sorrow Lt443 haif-pity Lt282 hasp-horse ' hesp employe au (Note.ll1 Lt12610dikana yelc sayix JJ187 Lt1242 li bin dare JJ170 Mat. diya wan aw-a gherm JJ14 1TLL6 Mat.523 JJ43 Mat.45 bourdj-a feleki dgia diia chiri ch ir JJ169 Mat.31' Lt502 fIyaye dora w BX diwan f.539 JJ237 Mkll00 JJ263 Mkl74 JJ224 Mat.') hei1n-nest Lt206 Lt47 haus--courtyard Lt89 hawar-cry BX iavdt-Ar. niw-i chewi p6or zine rou-i ve ser-i tchiia sere me shour-i khourousane swire. cheek sar-head su/wlr-sword zimrn-tongue Feminine dv-water bahr-sea bir-mind -tower bury de-mother di/ukdn-shop ddr-tree dor-circle dzwdn-court Ltl61 nave wm Mkl22 Ie ndve md Ltl630 nive seve Lt7619 pore wt Lt9214 rue bire xwe Lt2l7 sere min xwe Lt5631 w~ire Lt4215 zimanewi Mat. ZL : garana xwe xama mbn heyfa wi hespekete feminin est absolument incorrect dans tous les ser helina xwe li hewsa min hawara te civat f.GENDER IN KURDISH 533 nav-name ntv-middle pcr-hair ru-face.1042 j behr-abepel JJ38 Mat.

BX tiv-sun.. stage Lt4O26 konai5aniv saeti JJ319 Lt29 qiza hakim JJ310 qfz-daughter Rwn MkIl" qiza mine JJ409 malt-moon.nawi zin-wife Lt4l" jina w. in sure cases.545 JJ277 nay Lt481 dTi tozi t5z-dust 27 Lt1O2 Lt6O27 xi7skamin xii/wa'sk-sister Mklt8 Lt4229 di nay xwinj dTe Mk167 xa/win-blood 24 Mat. BX kjmds7i-fault kimasi Rwn k5nMy-house. month Lt2232 monetamehki JJ387 Lt2l mata w6i mdt--house 2 IRwn Mkl8 mdtafaray? Mat. With feminine nouns the Izafe appears. 42 times as a.v Mk167 zendtdl JJ230 Rwn The limited extent of Lerch's texts allows a comprehensive analysis to be made.45 nav-middle pi. e.415 Rwna 6 Mk4 Lt4O2 riha huit JJ212 Lt623 roja cara Rwn Mkl161 r3c 5zLt9O6 li ber syiy Lt2O6 bfikin sate 26 Lt88 navadarJ se-shade sdt--year rilhdtama'kdir rouj-a kotchi roza inglaba protetara 62 Mat. Here the Izafe appears as a. 37 times as eeverywhere.St-back re-road fith-beard r5(z')-day JJ415 Rwn JJ79 Ltl228 li pista xwe Mat. 34 JJ215 r Lt4425 bi ser k7j'a eye rja sosjatizmeja Mat. that is. With 61 certain masculine nouns the Izafe appears 41 times as i. the oblique ending as e and i.534 kac'(ik)-daughter 534 N.27 i t)~J.) sei-a daran JJ249 16 Mat.d/win-place. light Mat.27 sat-a nou sata penqa sciun-a men mamu suw-na taw-a hivi toz-a dchi xweska Jinyaj mi-r hwas'kd hwina hwa jin-a awise e.0wina ningi wan JJ265 Mk185 JJ92 tav f. and i. trace Lt6215 . 11 times as i or e-a 4: 1 ratio in favour of . as a high front vowel.4 JJ233 Rwn . MACKENZIE ~~~~~D. Lt32'1 kecika hiitj keccia piciuic mirdi kec6ika kimasiia odjag-a ye koperative kcemasija qonag-aqonsot qyz-a khouhi qiza xabatkcar meh-a nou mal-a bitind mata zara nlaw-aziki lnava gynd pycht-a tchoki riia pan JJ326 Mkl6 JJ354 f.

The following nouns appear with masculine forms in Lescot's texts. xxvi. Pt.zna Xode Tzn-permission Lx486 leberkuli ruvida Lx481 ze kula xoe kul-hole Lx293 sdr ziareti wi ziaret-visit Lx231 sar ziareta wd The collections of Prym and Socin from Tur 'Abdin and Bohtan present an even greater divergence from the paradigm. With feminine nouns -e appears 17 times. II. rarely -i. e : i for feminine nouns. I. the uncertainty in the use of grammatical inflections generally. qTz-daughter. Die Mundart der Mukri-Kurden I. but also in those from Bohtan. It must be rememberedthat the texts represent a number of dialects. Particularly in the Tur 'Abdin texts. nouns appearing elsewhere as masculine having always e. Most telling is the appearance of the Izafe in the masculine form e with such nouns as kac. often e. The evidence for the oblique case endings is not so clear. H.. but elsewhere as feminine : Lt465 bextete but JJ39 bekht-aemir baxt-grace Lt7233 bajareStambule bazar-town Mk31 bazer Mk32'4 bazaramerdTine JJ35 bajir PS47 bazer PS416 le badzra-hwd Rwn badaremada Rwn basara ma Lt217 seve res Lt505 n!ve seve sav-night Mkl2 save cwwin JJ258 chew-atari Oskar -e-. II. The oblique ending is generally -e.1 Representative examples: s-work Lx123 ci Ie wi heiye Lxl112 Tsi wi heiye Lx403 bdvi kc'ik dT Lx320 bdvewan bv -father Lx4011 ziki me Lx913 zike maruan zik-stomach Lx204 padi'shi jena'urdn Lx75 mdru'i padisego padid--king Lx398 Tznewan dd Lx308 be. otherwise our criterion of' accuracy '. zin-woman. of the degree of generalization of the forms. i: e for masculine. the persistent pronunciation of w as v. there can be no doubt that Oskar Mann's strictures on these texts 2 are just. xx. Also the very difference of the versions recorded at times by Prym and Socin respectively obliges us to doubt the hyper-accurate transcription adopted. as Socin has partly noticed. Berlin 1906-9 (cited hereafter as MM page/line). With masculine nouns -i appears 8 times. feminine nouns having sometimes d. The 4: 1 ratio again. Both forms of the Izafe occur. 2 1op. footnote 1. both the influence of the speaker's mother tongue and his imperfect knowledge of Kurdish are evident-consider the recurrent Semitic word order with the subject placed after the verb.GENDER IN KURDISH 535 the a-Izafe. . p. There are 4 cases of the mutation of internal -a. p. alternatively.asan. the widest divergence from the paradigm appearing in the texts of the Zaza speaker. cit. However. -i 5 times. may be a gauge of the phonetic accuracy of Lerch's transcription or. -e twice.

-ha. Ltl210 Ltl517 wi roji-that day Jauityi-finally Lt pass. JJ353 keif-a ve' PS9'-2 PS7 20 kTf~i-min Lt29 qftzahakim Mkll" qizd mine Jdlil mi-rhin[sic] PS68 q-tze Lt4O'3 jina wi PS13 Z'inF-vi [sic] Mkj2l zendl tdi PS315 ve vinj-hWdi di~-mother c&dr-tree kac'(ik)--daughter kif-pleasure qnz-daughter zin-wife We can assume that Lescot's and the Bedir Xans' texts. MACKENZIE ~~~~~D.. Pers. this is not the ending of an oblique case used adverbially is suggested. wi gavJ-then Lt45' 12 sibehe-minthe morning Lt7634 pasy-afterwards Lt6832 wJ sevi-that night Lt22 BX rojeki-one day tinj/7-only.1 . TLhat though owing to the possibility of the generalization of the -j oblique for'mnot proven.g. e. or perhaps archaistic. of nouns having either -k suffix. bihnbreath. by its appearing with masculine nouns also. e. dialects and that in the other dialects considered a progressive generalization of the oblique form -j and of the masculine Izafe j has taken place.. M. Pers. The following feminine nouns appear occasionally with masculine forms outside Lescot's texts. N. closely following the paradigm. : BX careki di Lt815 tu care-never )dr-time JJ112 djar-i beri Lt pass. with the possible exception of the oblique cas'eendings in the Lescot-B3edir Xan texts. Pers. It must be borne in mind that there is also an adverbial ending -j. -iha. carki-then Lt47 cTyewan 1BX cihU-separately YN/ih-place BX cihi civandin JJ121 djih-i tenghi If we assume this ending to have had a separate origin from the oblique case . ben. Lt3211 kecika hiitj Mkl6 ke6ika mCtrd PS757 kdicd bakr5k PS217 kdcj mCtr [sic] Lt6l7 kifa gavan Mkl1'4 kjf~uw. rarely -7. tanhd I 11 . 2 x dar-i .g. All the dialects seem to have introduced innovations in these positions. cf. smell Lt4O27 bena isani Mk3lO bihna funneta but Mk39 bihnoF qabr4ji JJ62 bihn-a khoch PS939 bind-min Ltl2ll d7ya w~T PS114 dTya-hwa Lt24 2 li bin darJ pS914 ddri hevr~is JJ170 31 x dar-a. represent the most archaic. do not appear consistently in the other texts. N. The forms given in the second paradigm above.536 536 N.

raej f. G vayhar. Pxt. cited Pxt.f. and NTS. The appearance of the same word in another Iranian dialect preserving the distinction of gender provides. ow f. Dialect of Siverek cited vol. Oslo. 3 Christensen. Av. OP. Av. Berlin. Pashto. Mann/Hadank.? f. 1927. Iar f.GENDER IN KURDISH 537 ending it may well have been instrumental in bringing about the generalization of -e as the oblique ending in some dialects. Av. in some cases.f.f. In this connexion one can compare. Copenhagen. f. 2 . 88 seq. ap. sau f. sal m. sau m.f.f. 1915. Consideringthe generalization of the masculine form of the Izafe. but BZ maskd. Skt.f. cf.f. Kandflali dialect.. KZ so5 f. rat f. and of Kor cited KZ. The following examples suggest that the distinction is inherited but their variety does not permit us to reconstruct with any certainty an hypothetical state of the old language which had likewise two declensions according to gender. 4 Morgenstierne.. masa m. among Western Iranian dialects. vohuni. Sem. aosah. spa f. Sowf.n. Pit. 1932. sald f. sarad. but G SZ xsap(an). Otherwise it can only bear witness to the arbitrary nature of the allocation of gender to loanwords. Mundarten der GCran. zydni. Av.f. vahdr (f).f. Sem.4 Feminine av-water hev--hope merg-pasture mes-fly marsk-waterskin pist-back re-road sih-shade sal-year sav-night Av. which mainly betrays the gender of a noun.. Sem. G.. G. BZ zydnd. marg f.l Zaza. Pit. Mundarten der Zdaz. Morrison for his advice in this connexion. Av. tan-person xun-blood ziydn-loss es-pain buhdr-Spring Av. only nouns showing the specifically feminine form can be used as evidence. Cited Sem. Berlin.2 and Semnani 3 and the main living Eastern Iranian language. maxsi. wmna f. SZ marayd-f. pp. puxtaTf. Av.. but G tana. Gurani. Av. BZ da f.chdyd. 1 Mann/Hadank. but Sem. I am indebted to Mr. BZ parsti.. Le dialecte de Sdmndn. The origin of this differentiation of grammatical genders in Kurdish is obscured by the paucity of nouns of known etymology. cf.f. cited G. upamaiti. corroboration of the inheritance of both word and gender. Skt. of Bijaq cited BZ. cf. prstiSZ Sogdian r'Sh f. Av.. Av. Pit.. xii.f. bhadrm.n. Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto. Pit.-gnat pasti f. guan f. Sem. 5ba f. Av.

MACKENZIE ddru.1 in his description of the Sulaimaniya dialect of Central Kurdish mentions only the occasional deviation of the Izafe from the form i. cf. but Skt. also Mann. N. D.m.? 21. Edmonds. Sem. anika. 305. zdvar. Av. Av. but G rwaj f. as we have seen. cit.' 'If the adjective is a constant epithet the -y of the Izafe is changed to -e and the whole is considered to be a compound noun: Hemed y rhesh makes Hemed-e-rhesh-Swarthy Hamad Merg y pan makes Merg-e-pan-Broad Meadow. gdman. Av. In this he has perhaps confused the proper Izafe i with the compound vowel a commonly occurring in this dialect. hamina. LIV.f. cit.. raocah-n. Av. 3 op.n. akin to the final -a of a noun qualified by the demonstrative adjective. op. 304 bottom. Av. Chodzko.538 ddr-tree gdv-time moon]light hRva]r6n hadvin-summer ro--day tanur-oven zor-force ani-forehead Av. p. ew invariably followed by the suffix -e) the noun and epithet adjective must first be put in the form of a compound noun: minalh y ziyrek -clever children -the clever child minalh-e-ziyrekeke minalh-e-ziyrek-ek-an -the clever children em minalh-e-ziyrek-e -this clever child em minalh-e-ziyrek-an-e -these clever children.' (Cf. J. raoxsnd. JA. with whom I have been fortunate enough to study this dialect. A.n. Av. but G Pit. I. tanura. 'Etudes philologiques sur la langue kurde (dialecte de Soleimanie)'. Chodzko.n. ruim.n.' 'When used with the definite article (the suffix -eke) or the demonstrative adjectives (em. ru(z) m. 1 Quoted by Justi (above) from M. Sem.n. for permission to reproduce these and later extracts from his manuscript grammatical notes.) This compound vowel a is probably the relic of an -aka suffix. Chodzkoalso mentions3 an accusativeending i. Elsewhere throughout the Central and Southern Kurdish dialects the Izafe appears as t.n.n. dar m. ainika. ModernSulaimaniya Kurdish. 2 I am indebted to Mr. p. Avril-Mai 1857. raoxsnu. ddra f. Av.. C. . To quote briefly from a recent description 2: ' Compound nouns may be formed in several ways: (c) The Izafe -y is changed to -e: bechuwy ga makes bechuw-e-ga-calf kilk y belh makes kilk-e-belh-spade-handle. p.

. ich muss aber zugeben. 2 1 .g.GENDER IN KURDISSH 539 however. dass der den Nominalstamm schliessende Laut dabei von Einfluss sei. I p. Es ist leider nicht zu entscheiden. Es scheint allerdings bei jedem Nomen nur die eine Form gebraucht zu sein.' An adverbial ending -e also appears frequently. . as in the Northern dialects (cf. dass mir stets ein deutlicher Unterschied horbar war. teils auf -. These examples together show that the apparently arbitrary nature of the Mukrioblique case formation is actually a reflexion of the inherited grammatical gender of the noun. The oblique cases. but most nouns ending in the vowel I or o..' sonants e) Although unambiguous examples of the oblique case ending are not abundant in Mann's texts it is possible to find a number of examples with cognates in the Kurmanji dialects. Ich glaube. It is very difficult to give a perfect rule as to which nouns take (i) and which take (e) as case-endings. oder vielmehr unter welchen Bedingungen der eine oder der andere Vokal einzutreten hat. Lutheran OrientMission Society. dass ausser dem Nominativ... entweder e oder T. mentioned below. 1919. cit. noch ein echter . After -ek this shares with the oblique ending -e the mutation to -. has no oblique case ending. weshalb im Mukri dieser Casus obliquus promiscue teils auf -e. Examples: brda-. der die Bedeutung des Akkusativs und des Dativs zugleich habe. auslautet. 37. als auf die durch sonstige Vertauschungen von e und X bewiesene nahe Verwandschaft der beiden Vokale hinzuweisen. Fossum. . p. usually take the case-ending (M).. and most nouns ending in the vowels j or 5. L. .. ibid. he says. chom-e. wdre--at evening MM2425 rozhek--one day MM329 qadirekl-a while MM pass. Inter-Synodical Ev.mdl-e... Casus erhalten sei. . MM pass. or the consonants. Mann states 1: 'Die . Im Mukri erscheint nun diese durch Anfiigung von e.. or in the conor _ (preceded by I.. I. doch zeigen die aus den Texten gesammelten Beispiele vbllige Regellosigkeit in der Verwendung von e und X nach dieser Richtung hin.. usually take the case-ending (e). dazkshaw-e. LIII). gebildete Kasusform auch als Vertreter des Genetivs. Practical Kurdish Grammar. bdb-i.qissa-.. Darstellung Justis gibt an. 'generally take the case-ending s (i) or (e). es bleibt nichts anderes librig. . L et seq. sibhane--in the morning MM34 MM pass. "zabar " or j)... Mukri alone among the Central Kurdish dialects recorded having this distinction. awe shawe-that night nwadshdw--at midnight MM113 rozhe-daily MM326 shdwek--one night Fossum 2 stands by the theory of phonetic context.. Alongside these there are words having a natural gender. . Mann. or in the consonants J or (preceded by I or " zabar "). pp. e. Thus: op. O. Mirza Jiwad vermutete. Rev.

. MACKENZIE MM310 lI sdr dwiri fire MM244 hdr cdndzbdrdJ stone MM1527Id sdr dinz faith MM245 hdr cdndzgzai grass MM45 agar hukcmi bekd Ar.. zhdne MM1110la zhine heaven shop world forest -istdn sadness housekeeper power plain house water-skin middle back road night sleep blood dagger sorrow woman .. Lt12610 dikana yekTsayixi Lt816 ii dinyae BX daristan f.l wdrgirim wealth MM3911bo khatiri doktormdAna Mann MM2014lI hdzdar ddbiremdrgi death MM169 Id nizdrz rock MM83 la hikdydtlpeghambarZ prophet MM1021a kin sagl dog MM2322shari ddkdin fight MM2418kuri wdzirl Vizier MM122 wd bar khuldt God MM131 dili khadn Khan MM1326ld shai hattd khundkdri king MM45 dwe na furoshe MM515 td ewdre MM928 la neu bahre-dd MM1631bahashtebd shtr bekira MM8435durishmi diukne MM2024la dinye MM531 Id waldti ddristdne MM121 ldbdrawe ghame MM1725jel kdbdne MM2032pddishd qudrdte MM164 bdrdi mdiddne MM934 ld mdle-dd MM8334sdr zdarshir mdshke MM534 ciund newe MM1419da pishte MM LIII reye Feminine Lt516 ber aveke BX di nav baye evarede Lt283 hespa behre BX buhist f. ser egir Lt84 JJ41 ber-i achi BX dJneIbrahim JJ373 ghiia-i hechk t1623 heya hukmeesir JJ448 hewir-i awi Lt434 kesi dey ne kir Lt328 male min temam Fu JJ395 Mk145 BX BX Lt4430 Lt2222 mergh-imin zendrdkib'inj min peyxembere stoye seyekJ ji sereferis ya wezire min D.540 Masculine. girt MM23827 khluen-cTd ba MM8137ddsti da khdnjdre MM4117bd ghar dz . N.. JJ287 ghem-a dili Lt208 dizka kevaniye Lt9213 bi qodretaXwede Lt6214 di meydanede Lt644 li mala te Lt96 mTskadimse wt Lt2220 di we nave Lt5621 ser pista qesre Lt5426 bi kija reye de Ltl630 nive seve LtI18 xewa min te Lt4229 di nav xwine de Mk1102 hanjara hwa BX jan f. S MM1733pe bekdtnhawtri dough MM520 fuldn kds7benin person MM4523ma. . Lt6226 jinka ji mn cetir water evening sea MM58 khdrji au shaue MM2822rei khdwe-1.

than the suffix -eke) are the suffixes -e (masculine and feminine) and. XVI. -e are then inherited. I. PART 3. One final manifestation of gender remains to be mentioned. has no masculine counterpart.GENDER IN KURDISH 541 The infinitives of verbs are always feminine. XLVIIet seq. pp. I. ibid. must be a new formation. Compare: eminence BX bilindiya Xwede goodness li Lt2013 qencdye min biki good news BX mizgTniyaxwesiyj truth BX rTyarastiye derwish state MM115 bdrgiddrwishid business bo MM811 kasibWe tu ddak increase MM123 zor la zaddiddaya The forms appearing after the' definite and indefinite articles ' 1 -d and -ek are innovations parallel to those in the Northern dialects. the Izafe. p. 1 2 Mann.e. more rarely. however. VOL. belt sleeping stealing wandering motion Likewise abstract nouns ending in -1 are feminine. eating making harvesting tying. This. recognizes simply the 'definite article' suffixes. LV. 38 . the vocative forms of Central Kurdish. If the normal Mukri oblique endings -7. derk-eke-ykirdewe-the woman went and opened the door -the aunt returned puwre hatewe -the girl with sparkling eyes. which constantly appears as 7. In these Mann 2 sees an abnormal use of the oblique case ending. ibid. Edmonds. jin-e chu. -e (feminine).' chaw-be-xumare The forms quoted by Mann from his own texts are in fact both feminine with the ending -e. 'Alternative and less common forms of the definite article (i. unlike the Northern dialect form. in all probability a borrowing from a Persian dialect. Compare: MM2418diabr khwendinej-dn di xwendine de BX MM624 bo mirishik khwdrdine Lt503 xwarine Febiki Rwn xwaji krbna dewer MM112 bd qal'dtdurus kirdine Rwn cnina zavija kolxoze Lt3426 giredana xwe Lt5630 wexterazane MM67 bo mdr dizTne MM535 d gdrane MM1434hatd hdzhTane reading food. ? 24. used normally for the vocative in Sulaimaniya also.

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