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An antenna is a transition device , or transducer , between a guided wave and a free space , or vice versa . The antenna is a device which interfaces the circuit and space. According to the website dictionary , an antenna is defined as “a metallic device for radiating or receiving radio-waves . According to IEEE standard definitions of terms for antennas , as antenna is a means for radiating or receiving radio waves.

**Radiation mechanism and radiation patterns
**

In order to know how an antenna radiates, let us first consider how radiation occurs. A conducting wire radiates mainly because of time-varying current or an acceleration (or deceleration) of charge. If there is no motion of charges in a wire, no radiation takes place, since no flow of current occurs. Radiation will not occur even if charges are moving with uniform velocity along a straight wire. However, charges moving with uniform velocity along a curved or bent wire will produce radiation. If the charge is oscillating with time, then radiation occurs even along a straight wire. The radiation from an antenna can be explained with the help of Figure which shows a voltage source connected to a two conductor transmission line. When a sinusoidal voltage isapplied across the transmission line, an electric field is created which is sinusoidal in nature and this results in the creation of electric lines of force which are tangential to the electric field. The magnitude of the electric field is indicated by the bunching of the electric lines of force. The free electrons on the conductors are forcibly displaced by the electric lines of force and the movement of these charges causes the flow of current which in turn leads to the creation of a magnetic field.

As these waves approach open space. • Back Lobe: This is the minor lobe diametrically opposite the main lobe.r. minor lobes are undesired. Theselobes represent the radiation in undesired directions. • Side Lobes: These are the minor lobes adjacent to the main lobe and are separated by various nulls. Side lobes are generally the largest among the minor lobes. . 2. The level of minor lobes is usually expressed as a ratio of the power density in the lobe in question to that of themajor lobe. Main Lobe: This is the radiation lobe containing the direction of maximum radiation. 2. Inside the transmission line and the antenna. through the antenna and are radiated into the free space. Hence a good antenna design should minimize the minor lobes. but as soon as they enter the free space. electromagnetic waves are created and these travel between the conductors. Since the sinusoidal source continuously creates the electric disturbance.Due to the time varying electric and magnetic fields. This ratio is called as the side lobe level (expressed in decibels). In most wireless systems. Minor Lobe: All the lobes other then the main lobe are called the minor lobes. free space waves are formed by connecting the open ends of the electric lines. a) Radiation Pattern lobes b) Power theorem and Poynting vector c) Radiation intensity. the electromagnetic waves are sustained due to the charges. Radiation Pattern lobes: 1. Explain the following terms w. they form closed loops and are radiated. electromagnetic waves are created continuously and these travel through the transmission line.t an antenna.

H and r form a right handed set such that the Poynting vector is in the r direction and it indicates the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic wave.U will be independent of the angles θ & φ .Bnmvnmvmvmvhmjjhjhjhjhmj Power theorem and Poynting vector: The directions of E . The average power radiated by an antenna can be written as where ds is the vector differential surface = W is the magnitude of the time average 3isualiz vector (Watts /m2 ) Radiation intensity: in a given direction is defined as power radiated from an antenna per unith soilid angle. the total power radiated is obtained by integrating the radiation intensity over the entire solid angle of 4 π Prad = ∫∫U dΩ = ∫ ∫ Ω 0 2Π π 0 USIN θdθdφ For an isotropic source . U = power radiated/ unith soilid angle = Prad/area/r2 Radiadiatin intensity is a far field parameter of an antenna. Hence the time average 3isualiz vector given by where E and H represent the peak values of the electric and magnetic fields respectively. where U is the radiation intensity in Watts per unit solid angle.

the ratio of the radiance produced in the given direction to the average value of the radiance in all directions. The directive gain is usually expressed in dB. φ) is maintained at its maximum value over ΩA and was zero else where.2ππ Prad = Uo ∫∫ SIN θdθdφ =4πUo 0 0 Pr ad Uo = 4π Beam area The beam area ΩA the solid angle through which all the power radiated by the antenna Would stream if P (θ. Beam efficiency The ratio of main beam area to the total beam area is called beam efficiency ΩM Beam efficiency = ε M = ΩA Directive gain: 1. In other words. the directivity of a nonisotropic source is equal to the ratio of its radiation intensity in a given direction.. If the direction is not specified. over that of an isotropic source. the direction of the directivity is not specified. Note that 4π steradians is the solid angle subtended by a complete sphere. the ratio of 4π times the radiation intensity in a given direction (i.e. for a given direction. Directivity: The directivity of an antenna has been defined as “the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all directions”. The directive gain is usually expressed in dB. Of an antenna. so the total power radiated by the antenna is the power radiated into 4π sr. Of an antenna. where D is the directivity of the antenna U is the radiation intensity of the antenna Ui is the radiation intensity of an isotropic source P is the total power radiated Sometimes. the direction of maximum radiance is assumed. power radiated per unit solid angle). 2. to the total power. and expresses the performance of the antenna relative to an isotropic antenna. In this case. the direction of the maximum radiation intensity is implied and the maximum directivity is given by D is the maximum directivity .

i. the maximum power received in a receiving antenna is PAm . We know that the directivity is how much an antenna concentrates energy in one direction in preference to radiation in other directions. since it is the ratio of two radiation intensities.U max is the maximum radiation intensity Directivity is a dimensionless quantity. then the one which has a broad main lobe. if the antenna is 100% efficient.64 = 2. Since all antennas will radiate more in some direction that in others. find the overall gain of this antenna. Umax = Bo Prad = U = Bo(3π 2/4) ecd = 1 G = etD = 0.e .965 × 1.697 = 1. hence it is more directive. The directivity of an antenna can be easily estimated from the radiation pattern of the antenna. it is generally expressed in dB. It may be defined as the ratio of the induced voltage to incident field i. If the power density of the incoming wave is S. Aem is called maximum effective aperture of the antenna. It is given as A lossless λ /2 dipole antenna with input impedance of 73Ω is to be connected to a transmission line whose characteristic impedance is 50Ω . Another way of defining effective height is to consider the transmitting case and equate the effective height to the physical height multiplied by the (normalized) average current. Antenna Gain: Antenna gain is a parameter which is closely related to the directivity of the antenna. Hence. then the directivity would be equal to the antenna gain and the antenna would be an isotropic radiator. Consider this power to be that intercepted from the incoming wave by a maximum effective area Aem. An antenna that has a narrow main lobe would have better directivity.e He =V/E. Hence. Assuming pattern of the antenna is given by U = Bosin3θ . therefore the gain is the amount of power that can be achieved in one direction at the expense of the power lost in the others.14dB Effective aperture: In receiving mode. Effective height • a) Effective height of an antenna is the height of the antenna responsible for power radiation or reception. The gain is always related to the main lobe and is specified in the direction of maximum radiation unless indicated. then Prec =SAem .

(2) 2rλ.He= Iav Hp. .(4) 4 Rr 4 Rr E 2 Ae Zo 2h . Π the same power in terms of effective aperture is given by P = S Ae = . Io He depends upon the type of current distributions.(5) Equating (4) and (5) RrAe Zo 2 He Zo Ae = 4 Rr He = 2 and m2 Friss transmission formula . Linear distributionFor uniform current distribution throught the height The magnetic field for a current element is H= H= He = For any distributed current Substing for Iav in equation (2) h . 2 Ioh 2 rλ .(1) Iav h . 2 b ) sinusoidal current distributionIav = Io SINθ dθ 2 Io Π Io 2h .(3) 2 rλ Π = Substituting in equation (2) From equations (1) and (3) He = Relation between Aem and effective height For an antenna of radiation resistance Rr matched to its load . H= .the power delivered to the load is equal to P= V2 H 2E2 = .

Power density at given distance. Power collected from the receiver. Received power. . With effective area.

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