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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. The word steganography is of Greek origin and means "concealed writing" from the Greek words steganos (στεγανός) meaning "covered or protected", and graphein (γράφειν) meaning "to write". The first recorded use of the term was in 1499 by Johannes Trithemius in his Steganographia, a treatise on cryptography and steganography disguised as a book on magic. Generally, messages will appear to be something else: images, articles, shopping lists, or some other covertext and, classically, the hidden message may be in invisible ink between the visible lines of a private letter. The advantage of steganography, over cryptography alone, is that messages do not attract attention to themselves. Plainly visible encrypted messages—no matter how unbreakable—will arouse suspicion, and may in themselves be incriminating in countries where encryption is illegal. Therefore, whereas cryptography protects the contents of a message, steganography can be said to protect both messages and communicating parties. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files. In digital steganography, electronic communications may include steganographic coding inside of a transport layer, such as a document file, image file, program or protocol. Media files are ideal for steganographic transmission because of their large size. As a simple example, a sender might start with an innocuous image file and adjust the color of every 100th pixel to correspond to a letter in the alphabet, a change so subtle that someone not specifically looking for it is unlikely to notice it.
1 Ancient steganography 2 Steganographic techniques
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2.1 Physical steganography 2.2 Digital steganography 2.3 Network steganography 2.4 Printed steganography 2.5 Text steganography 2.6 Steganography using Sudoku Puzzle
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3 Additional terminology 4 Countermeasures and detection 5 Applications
2 Example from modern practice 5. After his hair had grown the message was hidden.3 Alleged use by terrorists 5.  Steganographic techniques  Physical steganography Steganart example.○ ○ ○ ○ • • • • 5. The purpose was to instigate a revolt against the Persians. and a letter value is given by its intersection position in the grid. For instance. the first letter of the hidden message is at the intersection of 1 and 4. Demaratus sent a warning about a forthcoming attack to Greece by writing it directly on the wooden backing of a wax tablet before applying its beeswax surface. who shaved the head of his most trusted slave and tattooed a message on it.4 Alleged use by intelligence services 6 See also 7 Citations 8 References 9 External links  Ancient steganography The first recorded uses of steganography can be traced back to 440 BC when Herodotus mentions two examples of steganography in The Histories of Herodotus.1 Usage in modern printers 5. the letter positions of a hidden message are represented by increasing numbers (1 to 20). So. Within this picture. sometimes used for shorthand. Another ancient example is that of Histiaeus. after a few . Wax tablets were in common use then as reusable writing surfaces.
Herodotus tells the story of a message tattooed on a slave's shaved head. espionage agents used photographically produced microdots to send information back and forth. (May 2008) • • • • • • •  Digital steganography . See the talk page for details. communicated in sign language during staged photo opportunities. including in recent historical times and the present day. the French Resistance sent some messages written on the backs of couriers using invisible ink. Messages written on envelopes in the area covered by postage stamps. in an attempt to discredit photos that showed them smiling and comfortable. such as delayed transmission while waiting for the slave's hair to grow. Cold War counter-propaganda. informing the United States they were not defectors. hidden by the growth of his hair. crew members gave "the finger" to the unsuspecting North Koreans. WikiProject History of Science or the History of Science Portal may be able to help recruit an expert. then covered it with wax upon which an innocent covering message was written. such as collodion. but rather were being held captive by the North Koreans. and exposed by shaving his head again. Messages written in Morse code on knitting yarn and then knitted into a piece of clothing worn by a courier.tries. crew members of the USS Pueblo intelligence ship held as prisoners by North Korea. In 1968. This method has obvious drawbacks. This was reflective and thus detectable by viewing against glancing light. people wrote messages on the wood. etc. a spy for Japan in New York City. During and after World War II. During World War II. Steganography has been widely used. She was a dealer in dolls.. approximately less than the size of the period produced by a typewriter. Possible permutations are endless and known examples include: • • Hidden messages within wax tablets — in ancient Greece. Microdots were typically minute. In other photos presented to the U. Her case became somewhat famous and she became known as the Doll Woman. while the concealed "plaintext" was itself encoded and gave information about ship movements. World War II microdots needed to be embedded in the paper and covered with an adhesive. Alternative techniques included inserting microdots into slits cut into the edge of post cards.S. During World War II. The message allegedly carried a warning to Greece about Persian invasion plans. Hidden messages on messenger's body — also used in ancient Greece. the first letter of the message seems to be the 14th letter of the alphabet. the last one (number 20) is the 5th letter of the alphabet. sent information to accommodation addresses in neutral South America. and the restrictions on the number and size of messages that can be encoded on one person's scalp. This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. Hidden messages on paper written in secret inks. under other messages or on the blank parts of other messages. The stegotext was the doll orders. and her letters discussed how many of this or that doll to ship. Velvalee Dickinson.
exploiting redundancy in the targeted instruction set.Image of a tree. going by the number of "stego" programs available: Over 800 digital steganography applications have been identified by the Steganography Analysis and Research Center. Development following that was slow. The data to be concealed is first encrypted before being used to overwrite part of a much larger block of encrypted data or a block of random data (an unbreakable cipher like the one-time pad generates ciphertexts that look perfectly random if you don't have the private key). Digital steganography techniques include: • • Concealing messages within the lowest bits of noisy images or sound files. Modern steganography entered the world in 1985 with the advent of the personal computer being applied to classical steganography problems. Concealed messages in tampered executable files. Pictures embedded in video material (optionally played at slower or faster speed). This can thwart statistical methods that help brute-force attacks identify the right solution in a ciphertextonly attack. Removing all but the two least significant bits of each color component produces an almost completely black image. but has since taken off. Making that image 85 times brighter produces the image below. Concealing data within encrypted data or within random data. Image of a cat extracted from above image. • • • • . Chaffing and winnowing. Mimic functions convert one file to have the statistical profile of another.
 Moreover. Contrary to the typical steganographic methods which utilize digital media (images.• Injecting imperceptible delays to packets sent over the network from the keyboard. Only a recipient who knows the technique used can recover the message and then decrypt it. . the plaintext. it is feasible to utilize the relation between two or more different network protocols to enable secret communication. typeface. Content-Aware Steganography hides information in the semantics a human user assigns to a datagram. Blog-Steganography. These systems offer security against a non-human adversary/warden. In this case the selection of blogs is the symmetric key that sender and recipient are using. Delays in keypresses in some applications (telnet or remote desktop software) can mean a delay in packets. or both (hybrid methods).g.the concealment of messages in Voice-over-IP conversations. to the time relations between the exchanged PDUs. an innocuous covertext is modified in some way so as to contain the ciphertext. which include. A practical example of WLAN Steganography is the HICCUPS system (Hidden Communication System for Corrupted Networks) •  Printed steganography Digital steganography output may be in the form of printed documents. the employment of delayed or corrupted packets that would normally be ignored by the receiver (this method is called LACK . Such modification can be applied to the PDU (Protocol Data Unit). or.Lost Audio Packets Steganography). Francis Bacon developed Bacon's cipher as such a technique. audio and video files) as a cover for hidden data. or other characteristics of a covertext can be manipulated to carry the hidden message. producing a ciphertext. e. such methods are harder to detect and eliminate. the carrier of the hidden message is the whole blogosphere. spacing. may be first encrypted by traditional means. This nomenclature was originally introduced by Krzysztof Szczypiorski in 2003. Modifying the echo of a sound file (Echo Steganography). Typical network steganography methods involve modification of the properties of a single network protocol. • • • •  Network steganography All information hiding techniques that may be used to exchange steganograms in telecommunication networks can be classified under the general term of network steganography. Messages are fractionalized and the (encrypted) pieces are added as comments of orphaned web-logs (or pin boards on social network platforms). As a result. resulting in the stegotext. network steganography utilizes communication protocols' control elements and their basic intrinsic functionality. Network steganography covers a broad spectrum of techniques. the letter size. alternatively. Then. and the delays in the packets can be used to encode data. A message. WLAN Steganography – the utilization of methods that may be exercised to transmit steganograms in Wireless Local Area Networks. Changing the order of elements in a set. For example. among others: • Steganophony . These applications fall under the term inter-protocol steganography. hiding information in unused header fields.
terminology analogous to (and consistent with) more conventional radio and communications technology is used. is appropriate. making it much stronger than the DES method which uses a 56 bit key. a brief description of some terms which show up in software specifically. During World War . however. image and video etc. or data file into which the payload is hidden. Traditional digital methods rely on perturbing noise in the channel file to hide the message. The carrier is the signal. is not printable. It is a time-consuming process with obvious resource implications. including the use of magnification. Printing introduces much noise in the ciphertext. However. it might be referred to as a candidate. The new representation of data is smaller in size. Huffman coding assigns smaller length codewords to more frequently occurring source symbols and longer length codewords to less frequently occurring source symbols. Data compression encodes information in one representation into another representation. one notable example is ASCII Art Steganography. or other signal elements which are modified to encode the payload is referred to as the encoding density and is typically expressed as a number between 0 and 1. The method that could be used for text steganography is data compression. however. The payload is the data to be covertly communicated. which is . generally rendering the message unrecoverable. those files considered likely to contain a payload are called suspects. text steganography is considered to be the most difficult kind of steganography due to lack of redundancy in text as compared to image or audio but still has smaller memory occupation and simpler communication. it is feasible to screen mail of certain suspected individuals or institutions. the channel file must be transmitted to the recipient with no additional noise from the transmission. such as prisons or prisoner-of-war (POW) camps. developer chemicals and ultraviolet light. as such. or covert message. such as "a JPEG image"). stego file. If the suspect was identified through some type of statistical analysis. One of the possible schemes to achieve data compression is Huffman coding. stream. These are most relevant to digital steganographic systems.  Steganography using Sudoku Puzzle This is the art of concealing data in an image using Sudoku which is used like a key to hide the data within an image. This is equivalent to around 70 bits. The resulting signal.  Countermeasures and detection Detection of physical steganography requires careful physical examination. or data file which has the payload encoded into it is sometimes referred to as the package. even in countries where large numbers of people are employed to spy on their fellow nationals. samples. Steganography using sudoku puzzles has as many keys as there are possible solutions of a Sudoku puzzle. However. and are easily confused.  Text steganography Steganography can be applied to different types of media including text. The percentage of bytes.  Additional terminology In general. which differs from the "channel" (typically used to refer to the type of input.The ciphertext produced by most digital steganography methods. audio. In a set of files. There are techniques that address this limitation. stream.
It is not clear how commonly this is actually done. assuming the carrier is the same. and blue) at each pixel. the changes are indistinguishable from the noise floor of the carrier. An article in the June 24. If we do it with the green and the red as well we can get one letter of ASCII text for every three pixels. digital pictures (which contain large amounts of data) are used to hide messages on the Internet and on other communication media. "Water-Detecting paper and Water-Detecting Coating Composition Therefor". In general. as well as date and time stamps. high compression reduces the amount of data available to hide the payload in. While compression errors provide a hiding place for data. the easier it is to hide the latter. but not impossible. The simplest method to detect modified files. . A similar strategy is to issue prisoners with writing paper ruled with a water-soluble ink that "runs" when in contact with a water-based invisible ink. Therefore. three prototypes of which were named Sensicoat. 2. detection of steganographically encoded packages is called steganalysis. including HP and Xerox brand color laser printers. and an earlier one. to detect information being moved through the graphics on a website. but media with a large amount of redundant or compressible information are better suited.II. and Coatalith paper. No. raising the encoding density and facilitating easier detection (in the extreme case. For this reason. Kantrowitz. 1948 issue of Paper Trade Journal by the Technical Director of the United States Government Printing Office. In computing. Kantrowitz. will compose the payload.  Example from modern practice The larger the cover message is (in data content terms—number of bits) relative to the hidden message. Tiny yellow dots are added to each page.232. describes in general terms the development of this paper. For example. the objective for making steganographic encoding difficult to detect is to ensure that the changes to the carrier (the original signal) due to the injection of the payload (the signal to covertly embed) are visually (and ideally. however. the least significant bit can be used (more or less undetectably) for something else other than color information. Anilith. a technology used to ease monitoring of POW mail was specially treated paper that would reveal invisible ink. 1950. Any medium can be a carrier. using extremely high compression rate makes steganography difficult. 1948. 2.  Applications  Usage in modern printers Main article: Printer steganography Steganography is used by some modern printers. statistically) negligible. If POWs tried to write a hidden message the special paper would render it visible.445.586. The differences. that is to say. "Moisture-Sensitive Paper and the Manufacture Thereof". patented July 18. patented July 20. green. For example: a 24-bit bitmap will have 8 bits representing each of the three color values (red. even by casual observation). No. an analyst can maintain known-clean copies of these materials and compare them against the current contents of the site. These were for the manufacture of post cards and stationery to be given to German prisoners of war in the US and Canada. Morris S. If we consider just the blue there will be 28 different values of blue. Stated somewhat more formally. The difference between 11111111 and 11111110 in the value for blue intensity is likely to be undetectable by the human eye. At least two US patents were granted related to this technology. The dots are barely visible and contain encoded printer serial numbers.515. is to compare them to known originals. one to Mr.
especially after the terrorist attack of 9/11.org/encrypt using "växjö" as password. without ever showing proof.From an information theoretical point of view. a sender could get messages out and cover their tracks all at once. Other media worldwide cited these rumors many times. it may be noise from recording techniques or amplification equipment.com". for digital audio. The Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera reported that an Al Qaeda cell which had been captured at the Via Quaranta mosque in Milan had pornographic images on their computers. Steganography can be used for digital watermarking. the notion of junk e-mail takes on a whole new light. where a message (being simply an identifier) is hidden in an image so that its source can be tracked or verified (for example. lossy compression schemes (such as JPEG) always introduce some error into the decompressed data. al-Qaeda operatives have been sending hundreds of encrypted messages that have been hidden in files on digital photographs on the auction site eBay." encrypted with http://mozaiq. or even just to identify an image (as in the EURion constellation)  Alleged use by terrorists When one considers that messages could be encrypted steganographically in e-mail messages. and shot noise. For a digital image. 2001 terrorist attack. Coupled with the "chaffing and winnowing" technique. In addition. and that these images had been used to hide secret messages (although no other Italian paper ever covered the story). published in April 2006 makes the following statements: . An example showing how terrorists may use forum avatars to send hidden messages. Rumors about terrorists using steganography started first in the daily newspaper USA Today on February 5. In general. there must be redundancy. it is possible to exploit this for steganographic use as well. In October 2001. 2001 in two articles titled "Terrorist instructions hidden online" and "Terror groups hide behind Web encryption". an article was titled even more precisely: "Militants wire Web with links to jihad". and then transported these via e-mail and possibly via USENET to prepare and execute the September 11. This noise provides enough variation in the captured digital information that it can be exploited as a noise cover for hidden data. this means that the channel must have more capacity than the "surface" signal requires. who in 2004 was fired after allegations emerged that he had fabricated stories and sources. Coded Anti-Piracy). In July the same year. flicker noise. A citation from the article: "Lately. This avatar contains the message "Boss said that we should blow up the bridge at midnight. electronics that digitize an analog signal suffer from several noise sources such as thermal noise. The Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development. that is. particularly e-mail spam. The USA Today articles were written by veteran foreign correspondent Jack Kelley. the New York Times published an article claiming that al-Qaeda had used steganography to encode messages into images. this may be noise from the imaging element.
Despite this. "Confounding Carnivore: How to Protect Your Online Privacy"." (p. and nearly undetectable." By early 2002. Because steganography secretly embeds additional. ^ Pahati.. there are no known instances of terrorists using computer steganography. or information is great. information content in digital products. suggesting that interception capacity was never the difficulty but rather prioritising the target media. subversion by insiders. mobile code. This was designed to detect the most likely image steganography in transit and thereby provide UK Ministry of Defence Intelligence Staff a realistic approach to "narrowing the field". Rangzieb Ahmed. particularly by terrorists but also by foreign intelligence services. 9–10) "International interest in R&D for steganography technologies and their commercialization and application has exploded in recent years.• ".. espionage against sensitive but poorly defended data in government and industry systems. a Cranfield University MSc thesis developed the first practical implementation of an online real-time Counter Terrorist Steganography Search Engine.immediate concerns also include the use of cyberspace for covert communications. OJ (2001-11-29). AlterNet. 42) • • Moreover. These technologies pose a potential threat to national security.." (p. by hackers and organized crime groups.. Archived from the original on 2007-07-16. the Federal Bureau of Investigation revealed that the Russian foreign intelligence service uses customized steganography software for embedding encrypted text messages inside image files for certain communications with "illegal agents" (agents under non-diplomatic cover) stationed abroad. the potential for covert dissemination of malicious software. He was convicted of terrorism. primarily involving fraud and theft of financial or identity information.  See also • • • • • • Camera/Shy Canary trap Covert channel Deniable encryption Invisible ink Polybius square • • • • • • Security engineering Semiotics Steganographic file system Watermarking Watermark detection Steganography tools  Citations 1. Al Qaeda's use of steganography is somewhat simpler: In 2008 a British man. the "Technical Mujahid. 41–42) "The threat posed by steganography has been documented in numerous intelligence reports." (p. was alleged to have a contact book with Al-Qaeda telephone numbers. an online "terrorist training manual". written in invisible ink. including vendors and contractors. criminal activity. .  Alleged use by intelligence services In 2010. a Training Manual for Jihadis" contained a section entitled "Covert Communications and Hiding Secrets Inside Images.
"Practical Internet Steganography: Data Hiding in IP". Networks 2010 Conference. ^ Kundur D. Proceedings of the IEEE (special issue) 87 (7): 1062–78.771065. 13. of The 3rd International Symposium on Information Security (IS'08). "Information Hiding: A survey" (pdf).org/abs/1005. http://arxiv.cam. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 5332.org/web/20070716093719/http://www. 15. 8. ^ Steven J. Retrieved 16 June 2010. 11.pdf.pdf. Anderson RJ.cam. FAP.Digital Steganography Database Exceeds 800 Applications 6.de/iti_amsl/acm/acm02/ahsan_kundur. http://wwwiti. http://firstmonday.unimagdeburg.cs.cl.com. IEEE Spectrum. 2. Retrieved 2008-0902.edu. "Information Hiding Using Improper Frame Padding". Mexico. .pdf. http://irevolution. http://www. Retrieved 16 June 2010. ^ Krzysztof Szczypiorski (4 November 2003). Security of Information Systems. ^ SARC . "Practical Data Hiding in TCP/IP". ^ Echo Data Hiding 7.pw.ac. ^ Józef Lubacz. "Steganography of VoIP Streams".wordpress. ^ Bartosz Jankowski.edu.php/fm/issue/view/80. Multimedia Security. Institute of Telecommunications Seminar. "Covert Channels in the TCP/IP Suite". ^ Craig Rowland (May 1997).ac.pdf. "Steganography 2. ACM Wksp. Kuhn MG (1999).org/story/11986/.pl/~wmazurcz/moja/art/OTM_StegVoIP_2008. Information Hiding Workshop.tele. 9. Wojciech Mazurczyk. http://www.cl. 10. 12. "Embedding Covert Channels into TCP/IP". Retrieved 16 June 2010. ^ Kamran Ahsan and Deepa Kundur (December 2002).uk/~sjm217/papers/ih05coverttcp.http://web.1925. (April 2003).alternet.pw. "Steganography in TCP/IP Networks. http://www. Retrieved 17 June 2010.edu/~deepa/pub/KunAhsTXSecWrkshp03. ^ Petitcolas. ^ Wojciech Mazurczyk and Krzysztof Szczypiorski (November 2008). Retrieved 17 June 2010.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Monterrey. doi:10. Retrieved 16 June 2010.uk/~fapp2/publications/ieee99-infohiding.pdf. Wojciech Mazurczyk and Krzysztof Szczypiorski (11 May 2010).1109/5. First Monday Journal.archive.tamu.0: Digital Resistance against Repressive Regimes". 14. Texas Wksp.HICCUPS". Retrieved 16 June 2010.elka. and Ahsan K.pl/~krzysiek/pdf/steg-seminar2003. irevolution. http://www.pdf. ^ The origin of Modern Steganography 5. Proc. Krzysztof Szczypiorski (February 2010). Murdoch and Stephen Lewis (2005). Retrieved 2008-09-02. 3. "Vice Over IP: The VoIP Steganography Threat". ^ CTO Sea Dogs 4.com/2009/06/05/steganography-2-0-digital-resistanceagainst-repressive-regimes/.ece.wordpress. http://home. State of the Art and a Proposal of a New System . Retrieved 16 June 2010. ^ Patrick Philippe Meier (5 June 2009).
http://www. ^ "British Muslim 'had Al Qaeda contacts book with terrorists' numbers written in invisible ink'". 16. Amsterdam: MK/Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. "Text Steganography Using Huffman Coding". http://krzysiek.org/10. ^ Asad.org/telecom/internet/vice-over-ip-the-voip-steganography-threat. http://pictureworthsthousandwords. • • •  External links • • • .qxd 22. Zoran. Amsterdam: MK/Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Papers and information about steganography and steganalysis research from 1995 to the present. Steganography at the Open Directory Project Examples showing images hidden in other images Information Hiding: Steganography & Digital Watermarking. 24.co. http://www. Artech House Publishers.pdf.appspot.P. Fabian A.wayner.2009. ISBN 1-58053-0354.pw.ieeecomputersociety.html. United States Department of Justice. ^ http://doi. ISBN 978-0-7923-7204-2.wayner. Includes Steganography Software Wiki list.1109/ARTCom. Disappearing cryptography: information hiding: steganography & watermarking. "ASCII Art Steganography". 17. Peter (2002).org/node/6. ISBN 1-55860-769-2. Disappearing cryptography 3rd Edition: information hiding: steganography & watermarking. Retrieved 11 February 2010..edu.http://spectrum. ISBN 978-0123744791. ICIIT 2010.dailymail. Springer.tele.gov/opa/documents/062810complaint2.. Information hiding: steganography and watermarking: attacks and countermeasures. Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking. Wayner.org/press/archives/2005/10/16 21. Neil F. ^ CSIA12i-FINAL. Neil.eff.justice.org/node/13. ^ "Criminal complaint by Special Agent Ricci against alleged Russian agents". Johnson.ieee. ^ Vincent Chu.  References • Wayner. In Proc. http://www. 31-40. Duric.uk/news/article-1061190/British-Muslim-Al-Qaeda-contactsbook-terrorists-numbers-written-invisible-ink. Petitcolas. ^ The Jamestown Foundation 23. "HICCUPS: Hidden Communication System for Corrupted Networks". Retrieved 11 February 2010.pl/pdf/acs2003-hiccups. M. 24 September 2008. Katzenbeisser. Daily Mail (London). ^ Krzysztof Szczypiorski (October 2003). Dr.116 20. 18. http://www. Jajodia. Page(s): 445- 447 19. pp.com/. of: The Tenth International Multi-Conference on Advanced Computer Systems ACS'2003. ^ http://www. Stefan (2000). Peter (2009). Johnson.pdf. Sushil (2001).
D. By Krzysztof Szczypiorski and Wojciech Mazurczyk from Network Security Group. Covert Channels in the TCP/IP Suite—1996 paper by Craig Rowland detailing the hiding of data in TCP/IP packets. Inter-protocol steganography). Steganographic Router.• Detecting Steganographic Content on the Internet. TCP/IP protocols and mechanisms.Steganophony. CA. February 6–8. 2002 paper by Niels Provos and Peter Honeyman published in Proceedings of the Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (San Diego. NDSS 2002. Network Steganography Centre Tutorials.C. v · d · e Cryptography • • History of cryptography · Cryptanalysis · Cryptography portal · Outline of cryptography Symmetric-key algorithm · Block cipher · Stream cipher · Public-key cryptography · Cryptographic hash function · Message authentication code · Random numbers · Steganography [show]v · d · eEspionage Agent handling · Asset · Black operation · Black bag operation · Concealment device · Cryptography · Cut-out · Dead drop · Eavesdropping · False flag · Industrial espionage · Intelligence assessment · Interrogation · Numbers station · One-way voice link · Official cover · Nonofficial cover · Resident spy · Steganography · Surveillance [show]v · d · eIntelligence cycle management I HUMINT/ n Human tIntelligence e l l i Clandestine HUMINT (recruiting · operational techniques · Covert action · Direct action · Clandestine cell system) Special reconnaissance (organizations) Espionage (Agent handling · Asset · Black operation · Black bag operation · Concealment device · Cryptography · Cut-out · Dead drop · Eavesdropping · False flag · Industrial espionage · Intelligence assessment · Interrogation · Numbers station · One-way voice link · Official cover · Non-official cover · Resident spy · . How-to articles on the subject of network steganography (Wireless LANs. VoIP . Internet Society. 2002). Washington.
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org/wiki/Steganography" Categories: Steganography | Espionage techniques Hidden categories: History of Science articles needing expert attention | Articles needing expert attention from May 2008 | All articles needing expert attention Personal tools • • • Log in / create account Article Discussion Namespaces .n t [show]v · d · eHidden messages M a Hidden messages · Subliminal message i n A u d Backmasking · Reverse speech i o N u m e Numerology · Theomatics · Bible code · Cryptology r i c V i s Fnord · Paranoiac-critical method · Pareidolia · Sacred geometry · Steganography · Visual u cryptography a l O t Anagram · Apophenia · Asemic writing · Easter egg · Clustering illusion · Observer-expectancy h effect · Pattern recognition · Paradox · Palindrome · Unconscious mind e r Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.
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