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Consider the singular completeness and perfection of this instrument as a sort of physical and vibratory counterpart of limit the soul. variety. and for no other instrument can this be claimed. 7 . far transcends it in compass. and only in the quartet it and capable of extended effects of complex harmony but as a tone-producing instrument is and within its limits it perfect —every gradation of sound between tone and semitone is attainable. and with the psychic waves of But whilst the it violin equals the voice in sensibility and expression. its is . and durability. The four strings no doubt and define collectively. No close instrument —the human voice hai'dly excepted provides such a rare vehicle for the emotions — is in such touch with the molecular vibrations of thought feeling.— OLD VIOLINS PRELUDE What when a is the secret of the violin? violinist Why is it that gi'eat appears ? all the other soloists have to take a back seat The answer is : the fascination of the violin is the fascination of the soul unveiled. compass.

caresses. plunges. summed up in accent. possesses accent. The hand on . tears. The piano has little sustained and no modified tone. but once strike a note. the finger-board engaged in pressing the strings but the other hand wields the bow. the outpourings of sound. But the half has not yet been of power in the violin control of two hands is revealed. magnetises and regulates. drives. The trinity placed under the immediate fingers. Your organ has accent and sustained tone. —and further 8 . checks. that trinity in unity of power modified tone. which are in reality the outpoxirings of the musician's soul. that the melting lines of the spectrum can alone supply us with a parallel or analogy. (2) Sustained sownd —to a degree far beyond the capabilities of the human voice. (3) Modified tone —and in such refinement of grada- tion. and a brief survey musical instruments now in use will convince the student of acoustics that nowhere but in the violin do we find to anything like the same degree. it and passes beyond your control. in an altogether marvellous fashion. sustained sound. prolongs.— OLD VIOLINS Next and : I observe that the violin possesses a trinity in it unity of power which invests with a quite singular felicitous completeness of its own : (1) Accent —and in staccato passages almost the accent of percussion. —of ten each hand funcis tioning differently. and not only sets the strings in vibration. but in a very imperfect sense modified tone of all . Your piano soft or loud.

played. playing some of them yet no one was ever wrought to frenzy or melted into a passion of tears by that elegant performer. did the tears roll down the faces of hardened orchestral veterans. how diffe- rently the same piece of music. my reader. the same violin. and Sivori. or. went up and did him. I h^ve often heard him. then a it for violinist at the desk." When down on sound Paganini raised his bow on high. and listened with admiration and approval. was in the habit of . The gentlemen in the orchestra remained calm.'' have heard Wieniawski play hackneyed "Legende" — it his since much may have been somewhere . sounds in the hands of two different players? A few of Paganini's solos were written down. his four strings with a crash. for the matter of that. whilst the other violinists were so lost in wonder that they could hardly concentrate their attention sufficiently to come in at the " tutti. and Professor Ella. it came it What made like thunder ? It was the thunder in his soul When why his violin wailed with sweetness long drawn out. who passed as his only pupil. the But when Paganini drummer on one occasion so shook with excitement that he was uttef ly incapable of playing his part at first all.! PRELUDE Has it ever occuri'ed to you. and even great virtuosi like Lindley and Dragonetti fits ? Why did the people just go off into vein seized the prodigious of laughter when a comic Maestro in the midst of his variations on the Carnival de Venise I .

in a less degree. I never heard anything so weird voices in the twilight —the I wail of lost souls — —one spirit positively saw ghosts.OLD VIOLINS in the sixties. What was it. Nachez. but the the language of soul. because a percussive touch can never have the power of a sustained and modified pressure. Now. not confined to brain but to stimulus. Recent science has thrown some curious side-lights upon this same sense of touch. practice. supposing we bring these thinking pulsating 10 . The same no doubt though is t^ue of the pianoforte touch. the have the power of thought and emotion delegated to them thinking matter extends all is and just as cells. but have never again seen ghosts. The language of touch but half underetood. of the blind It affirms that the trained fingers actually acquire from exercise. and I know not how many more. and the language of touch perfection of touch reached when a sensitive finger controls a vibrating string or nerve and sends its own psychic thrill along the waves of sound or sensibility. in fact. since have heard the " Legende " a hundred times I by Neruda. and adaptation new nerve cells filled with grey matter exactly similar to the thinking and feeling grey nerve matter of the brain fingers of the sensitive musician — . and used even by the fingers. even down the medulla oblongata. Sarasate. which responds when the head is cut oif so we now know that brain cells may be acquired.'' It is is is was the mystery of touch. I had almost — said cerebrated.

is the construction. that deprives the collector but we ought to be very thankful to these monomaniacs. for without them there would be rest. float out. or chipped. and still more often they seem to have an It objection to other people stringing up their treasures and playing on them.! PRELUDE finger-tips and wed their subtle pressure to waves of shall say that these special sound. ? is generated in 'Tis not more This goes far to account for the personal fascination which players exercise through their whatever art. few masterpieces still extant . as not unfrequently happens. of the violin. the emotion. Their soul waves becoming brain waves. they float out charged with nothing The more witchery of the violin for collectors explain. the joy. charged with is in the musician . or i-ubbed. who sound waves may not be so impregnated with brain waves as that sound thus charged with soul may convey through the auditory nerve to other souls the passion. or trifled with by repairers whilst in the collector's cabinet. and when the time comes. All the finest violins are known and carefully stalked —the health of their owners watched . or enforced all events. it At cannot be worn out. and whatever else the heart and brain of the musician inconceivable than thought-reading. through them the violin goes into a period of Devachan. is pei'haps difficult to Very often these fanciers don't play. not so much the sound of his senses . they either find their way to the open 11 . the sorrow. and if there is nothing in the musician.

Hill of Bond Street thinks nothing of a thousand pounds for a really fine specimen of Strad. He knows the influence which that old Gasparo or Maggini had upon the Cremona Brescian models school. and sonority of tone which your attention excitedly sur- occupied the lifelong meditations of Nicolo Amati and Stradivari. levels but full of a variety of like the satiny surface of a fine human body. You might — almost believe that a whole system of muscle a very living organism lay beneath the " back " and 12 — . Amati and Guarnerii from the him even the quaint long ffs of the old makers stand in lovely contrast with the more for still graceful but pointed sound-holes of Joseph or more rounded ones of the great Antonius.OLD VIOLINS market or are picked up briskly by the great sometimes for fabulous sums. as interesting as the study of com- parative anatomy to a scientist. Mr. dealers. company You will soon see he is not the daft creature whom the uninitiated who only want to hear the fiddle are apt to suppose. the face never flat or board-like. He marks with admiration the emergence of the . is and placed side by side with Amati tenor. that ancient viola cut of viol To him model an down from a larger-sized now extinct. sweetness. Then your collector is never tired of dwelling on the perfection of those forms which slowly emerged as the survival of the fittest in that exciting quest for the sensitiveness. Watch select the collector exhibiting his treasures to a after lunch. Anon he will call and sympathetically to the grace of the curves.

and I collectors alike.. and crossed between the rays fibres with millions of tiny cells fit which betray the desiccated resonance —now —through which the sap once flowed for ! But I must not anticipate matter which more proI only wish to perly belongs to violin manufacture. that the violin charm has its own rationale. hearers. is It grows old with it its per- There no reason why should ever generavarnish. at once shielding from decay. which to his eyes are . and with a fulness of and a freshness that contrasts quaintly enough with the fleeting. and withering generations of man. wear out. may perhaps be pardoned if I close this prelude with some words which I used before the Royal Institution in 1872. tions. " The violin petual youth. is "The lives violin the only life fossil which still lives. can be endlessly restored. whilst revealing as years roll on the transparent fila- ments of the mottled maple or sycamore and the pine. for death survives a thousand calamities 13 . but without sacrificing a single quality of sweetness or resonance. PRELUDE belly. in justification of the existence of players. is perennial. silicate-like " The hard durable substance steeped in varnish has well-nigh turned to stone. that sometimes robs its of a has no power over anointed fabric. It sings over the graves of it many little Time. alive with swelling and like undulating grace —and then think of the varnish a sheet of thin jasper. affirm. Even should mishap it bruise or It is break never its fit beauty it . sickly.

and is still cling strangely to their indiviviolin say. the violin reigns all king and queen of instruments —and. its several parts. superhuman supreme. a Joachim. the hesid ! is tame." 14 . duality. even when cut up and dismembered. hands of a Paganini. but see here is a Stradivarius back in its " Thus human immortal power and pathos. so that ' men taking up a patchwork is It fine —the front poor. an Ernst. scattered through a dozen workshops and three hundred years. live on with a kind of metempsychosis in new forms. the in the in its fabric. or a Sarasate. the joy and wonder of the civilised world.' OLD VIOLINS nay.

a string in tension to produce a sound 15 . as they certainly were of plucking. "Were Romans or were not the ancients —by or which we usually mean Greeks Babylonians. one time we thought that even the Romans did its level. which they called "Electron.'" though they made no use of likely electricity. and they may very have been acquainted with the principle of rubbing. Egyptians.— — CHAPTER I VIOLIN GENESIS To me it has always appeared unimportant and not very interesting to answer the question. and how much they knew we are only now beginning to or some other fibre?" discover. They knew most things. but the Greeks were at least aware of the attractive properties of amber. At . but they were We pride ourselves upon the triumphs of modern surgery. and acquainted with the fact that stretched strings could be set in tonal vibration by means of horse-hair. but we now find that the Egyptians were also great surgeons and operated successfully for calculus. not know that water rose to well acquainted with the fact. The wonders of electric telegraphy are doubtless of modem origin. reed.

or of wind instruments such as the pan-pipes. likely. Both Feti^ the viol tribe and Vidal deny that any instrument of existed in antiquity. like the violin tribe was ! known not to the Possibly Personally I am satisfied is that it is a musical instrument at all which figured rattle on that same vase or a torch to a — it might be anything. showing apparently a sort of instrument with apparently a sort of bow. to be of immense antiquity. 16 The strongest is point in its favour as a musical instrument not the . apparently on the of pottery. has been held by some to be conclusive that something Etruscans. Storia Degli Antichi Popoli Italiani). bow and it bow is or something like employed for musical purposes as the knowledge on a priori grounds alone. the and arrows. which are plucked with the fingers or a plectrum. I don't lay any great stress upon pictures of stringed the instruments with something like a bridge taken to prove the existence of a bow. from a broom or a dust-pan. especially if bow happens to be absent —a guitar has a bridge but no bow. slender grounds that the few fragments papyrus. so has the zither and the bandoline. talked-of Canino Vase (fig. and at least as old of percussion instruments such as the drum. bow string for drilling holes. The muchof Micali's 103. vol. iii. or mural decoration yet revealed the fact. savants are wrong. I known it to us have not think probable that these Like the use of the wheel.OLD VIOLINS without ever elaborating the idea in an instrument for musical purposes.

Crouth. that is all.VIOLIN GENESIS rough image on the astrojiomer. seated beside it. from the musical point of view. We probably see the descendants of any such in- struments as may have existed in tho^e times in the Ravanastron. and double-bass out of that confused. too much time. is and doctor. A few retain a gleam of practical importance for the because they have been cut wise used up during the violin collector. 382). Oui. and Rotta (see " Music and Morals. it is with the distinct evolution of the 17 violin." p. by name Chiron. and a surplus of barren anti- quarian begins not even with the building up of the viol out of the Rebek. have been bestowed on the origin of the viol tribe. Altogether. Art Museums and to do with them. which has been recognised by some as the oriental precursor of the occidental fiddle. down last for tenors or other- three hundred years by violin makers . : the others remain of interest to the bones of fossil musicians only like crocodiles. but of musical instruments. and often grotesque crowd of viols still and viol da Gambas. No. We have little They are of no more living account than the Egyptian mummies in the British Museum. they are curious studies in the comparative anatomy. but the fact that a musician. not of reptiles. I think that. by . tentative. vase. violoncello. specimens of which ai-e exhibited behind glass in our Loan Collections. but with the emergence of the violin tenor.

from the nondescript. companion of each cadence. who was alive to the tricks of the trade.OLD VIOLINS which I mean the violin tenor. the octave laid and the discovery of the perfect the foundation of the art of modern music (Monteverde. and doublebass types. Soon after this the modem divisions. un- gainly machines. Italy arose tenor. The endless discussions as to exactly its when the violin proper made appearance. and divided the voice into bass. and even special lovers of the violin. muffled in sound and dubious in form. that for me at least begins the history and the interest of the violin tribe. will probably continue to agitate those whose minds have a special aptitude for such researches. The genius of these elect types is inseparably con- nected with song —sacred song. The violin emerged. I from Vuillaume''s clever the first remember one of certainly quite judges in Europe. and not always distinguished forgeries. tubby. violoncello. a suitable viol was told off as the voice. alto. A veiy general statement will pro- bably satisfy general readers. dusky. 1570). or the tenor proper. The name of Duiffoprugcar haunts period. or when the viol da Gamba got modified into the current violoncello size and shape. assist their Viols were used in churches to play chants in unison with the monks' voices (probably also to defective musical ear). this dim transition his and although the violins extant under name have all been discredited. and When the singing-schools of treble. showing me a reputed 18 .

19 . a He is now known to have visited Paris. by its intelligent curator. Mr. viol is extant There is fine portrait of him etched by the engraver Wariot in 1562. DuifFoprugcar was born in 1514 at Fussen. First the viol is selected to double a part. viola. next a viol is made in a modified way to suit the part. known and violoncello. and very soon the modification assumes the forms and proportions as violin. Hill. in the Bavarian Tyrol.VIOLIN GENESIS / DuifFoprugcar (hung and labelled in the South Kensington genuine. It is owned by Messrs. amongst the various viols represented no such instrument as the easy to see how inevitable was the differentia^ first tion of the violin tribe from the moment that a vocal quartet came to be conceived of. and within recent years secured for the Brussels Conservatoire Museum Mr. its linen-lined. . once owned by Vuillaume. and to have worked at Lyons.There no evidence call that Duiffoprugcar ever made what we should a and very good negative evidence to the conIn a curious old print exhibiting his portrait. Victor Mahillon. viol Museum). he then believed to be had it lost the tubby characteristics of the tribe was. Donaldson's beautiful viol da Gamba is the only other is known specimen of violin. with a map of Paris inlaid at the back. and a curious by him. but claim to be a Duiffoprugcar was withdrawn. is trary. in fact. which It . a copy of which violin appears. an early Brescian violin. He was an inlayer and mosaic worker. his work.

when it would occur to them that the vocal parts might be played instead. gradually. Next. the struggle to displace the old viol 20 . and the missing tenor or bass voice would be supplied by a viola. it developed gradually. music would be written independently for such combinations.— OLD VIOLINS But in the early days of violin genesis the instrument . and so the developed bom of new musical needs and new musical viol noises- knowledge. You cannot say exactly when perspective was disItalian violin covered or rediscovered by the painters. and presently the treble or violin would show a tendency to throw the others into the shade. It string trio and would happen thus : Two people would meet to sing. or three would meet who could not sing at all. and thus the independent position of the instrument would quickly be established. In the midst of the old chaotic world of that preceded it. The instrumental trio and quartet thus at once came into being. All attempts to date exactly the stages of differentiation this- of the violin tribe are likely to be misleading. and with even more accuracy perhaps than the very average voices would attain to. and the voices would be egged out altogether. was quite subordinate to the voice conquered its it only gradually independence with the emergence of the string quartet. and at last be thought worthy of a solo all to itself.

The violin hath put the viol out. and the slow disappearance of the whole clumsy aptly lived summed up in the words of one who at the moment of transition." 21 . He writes " In former days we had the viol in Ere the true instrument had come about But now we say.— VIOLIN GENESIS players craft is . since this all ears doth win.

The porous deal and the close- grained maple or sycamore thus thrill together. produces the subtle resultant of violin tone. whilst the sound-post. the ribs welding the back and the belly into an organic whole. It unites in itself and welds together the masculine and feminine qualities." and poured forth violin. checked. all nor ribs alone. collected these differently vibrating in and made musical the "soul. poetically called by the French the soul of the violin {Vdme du violon). That tone is the offspring of neither back nor front.CHAPTER II VIOLIN CONSTITUTION One of the subtle charms of the violin is that it may be called bisexual. collects the quick and slow vibrations. both blending in harmonious and sympathetic union. and fusing them. Its very fabric is bisexual. and each supplies the deficiency of the other. but of surfaces. and yet excited by the slower and harder pulsations of the maple back. easily moved vibrations of the swelling front are controlled. as the breath of life from the ff holes as out of the very mouth and 22 nostrils of the Surely the children of the violin are nothing . The soft.

They are so sensitive that they respond to the lightest feathery kiss of the powdered and anointed horse -hair only when smitten. The bow is the male and the strings vibrate are the female elements. ministers. without them the very strings would be unable to yield their infinite variety of tone and is inflection of all meaning. construc- these are so put together as to 23 resist a strain . and simplicity we may say as a horse. only about a fragment of an inch thick. they laugh. but coaxed or agonised.— VIOLIN CONSTITUTION but the sweet and subtly compounded sounds that it utters. but. — they mui'mur. certainly the violin of instruments the most human. they scream. and is sympathetic. Yes. at others calmly and masterfully swept. pressing out the vibrations and generating those magnetic thrills which go forth charged with the musician''s very thought and feeling. they sigh. for the violin It is truly bisexual. they weep. at once. They wait and pine for this magic touch. by the simplest and soundest mechanical tion. without They are its them the might of the bow itself would be impotent. also a miracle of art. and long for their own fulfilment. strength. whilst the finger-tips. personal. sometimes almost torn. They can only touched —swept into a tempest of emotion or caressed into tender whispers. The and bisexual figure holds good even to the bow when strings. aid and abet the masculine power of the bow. as light as a feather It is and as stz'ong slips composed of thin sheets or of wood.

firmly extremely difficult to detach and once only in my experience has the neck of a violin proved it unequal to support the enormous pull made upon the strings. and the whole fiddle came to pieces in . vapour-bath /treatment of the tropics. If all were soft. fi-om the tension of the four strings. neck. The early viol-makers no doubt at first selected their wood empirically. be metallic and light. but it soon became an established rule to take a soft wood for the belly and a hard wood sound would be for the back. my hands. In the middle of an attempted passage the neck quietly doubled up the strings fell in a loose cluster. What no effect been able to time nor wear and tear had had been suddenly achieved by the peculiar hothouse. The neck glued it is is let solidly into the ribs and fastened against the lower part of the belly.^and tailpiece. I had bon'owed a for experimental purposes in one of my lectures at Colombo.OLD VIOLINS of about a hundredweight upon the belly. Six sycamore ribs and twelve internal blocks and linings suffice to hold the back and belly together. lifts The neck its carries the scroll ebony finger-board and or head characteristic —so its expressive that makers can almost be recognised by physiognomy. The heat was violin intense and moist. The glue had liquefied. It by was in Ceylon. neither must the thickness of back and front be uniform each must be thicker — 24 . When it. the sound would . the muffled and tubby if all were hard.

Monsieur Savarfs experiments with specimen strips of Stradiuarius backs and bellies showed that in most cases tested there was the difference of one tone between the belly and the back. can judge of these densities even by the wood. but occasionally the interval was greater. but how thick oi* how thin must depend upon the relative densities of the relative densities wood. a 1724 and a 1690 Strad gave the interval. more than the substitution of a long violin neck for a short one. so that Stradiuarius worked his backs and bellies on some regular principle. The problem was to find the best vibrate together which would in timber —a cunning connoisseur set in vibration. The increasing tension of the modern pitch has made it necessary to strengthen all the old violin sound-bars. feel of the Of course the densities will affect the tone yielded by the difficult wood when and it is to believe that Stradiuarius and his school were unacquainted with some exact technical method of testing the acoustic properties of these woods. A 1717 and a 1708 Strad back both yielded a bellies F j|. for the neck no more affects the tone than the screws in the 25 .VIOLIN CONSTITUTION towards the middle. The sound-bar is a subtly proportioned strip of pinewood running nearly all the way down the middle of the belly inside. sound-bar readjustment difficult a delicate surgical operation. that his best were was found made with only a full tone between back and belly . as the increasing demands for execu- tion have compelled the lengthening of It is needless to say that the is all their necks. it On examining specimens of Joseph Guarnerius.

might chance to be seen at all." The it finger-board inlaid. Many forgeries have thus been rudely unmasked. still more would they have been puzzled could they effects have heard the extraordinary and complex 26 we . He worked and to sell by deception (not because he as cared for his craft or respected his instrument). But bad work follers you as long as yer live Yer can't get rid on it. is fatal to the nervous system of the violin the wolf may sud- denly be evolved —that horrid dull growl which sets the teeth on edge. and which. is of black ebony . But any blundering with a sound-bar . The best old masters finished everything inside their violins as carefully as the purfling and the joinings which would meet the eye. 'Tis allers askiu' to be done agin. and his works do follow him ! But Mr. only to sell. . and this although a century might elapse before those tiny smooth blocks in the angles. Lowell says is "Men as worked thorougli the ones that thrive. in the old fiddles was often There need be little said about it except that the old masters would be puzzled to know and what a player could want with our long finger-boards. the forger only having troubled to make clean the outside of the cup and platter.— OLD VIOLINS head. just as sure as sin. whilst within you find the dead men's bones of his slovenly dishonesty. or that carefully-cut close lining of wooden strips fitting neatly to the bellies as a glove to the hand. once generated within the violin. is so difficult to diagnose or to cure.

said the asses' bridge. if they happen to have mislaid or broken youi-s. which of course mar the vibration. finger-board is The height of the strings above the to some extent a matter of fancy. the touch heart's content . On the other hand. and two slender violin. strings You will notice in old finger-boards the have worn deep channels. not be possible to " stop " fifths or any other chord in tune. is if the strings are too close down. vibration. for indeed thereby hangs a The hard-wood its bridge. A child or young girl would soon be discouraged with attempt- ing to press strings raised too high above the fingerboard. but it is in closer and more intimate contact with the instrument than 37 . But the bridge not only exercises the most important and indispensable functions of carrying the four strings under a combined pressure of seventy pounds. feet clinging closely to the smooth belly of the seem has been sometimes treated with scant courtesy writei-s. I notice repairers will send you back your violin with a bran-new bridge. and your tone ! The Bridge with its I had almost tale. and of course depends on the height of the bridge. and of course the higher you ascend the harder must be the pressure. whimsical perforated visage. and no apology. its by and even makers do not all fully alive to importance. The Finger-board must or it will be kept smooth and even.VIOLIN CONSTITUTION manage to produce with our extended compass and phenomenal measure shifts. in spite of the absence of frets to intervals. no doubt light to your sufficiently full but you cannot get a will suffer.

OLD VIOLINS any other of its appendages. I dislike all new ones and why. The only further details fit to be noted here seem to be the button supporting the tailpiece. It is tailpiece. The Tailpiece. in its size. to which we may add the purfling and other occasional inlaying. the thickness of strings. material. and most dangerous to with the close and quasi marital relations which exist between the violin and bridges. and fixture and the far less important tailpiece. It is so squeezed it. is the bridge alone to bring the raw sap of youth to vex the mellow and desiccated repose of melodious age ? The your position of your bridge. is strictly indispensable. I love old its . like that of your sound- post. upon the wood as to be almost pressed into far more so than the finger-board or the blocks and linings. bi-idge. and possibly from successful exit the sound-holes. the adjusting of your screws. of course.. 28 . I am aware that I have been thought fanciful in this matter. and back nothing goes on in that wondrous air column enclosed in the violin walls without the bridge taking cognisance of hindering or aiding and abetting its it. which has a character of its own. but an experience of many years has convinced suits me that it is not easy to get a bridge that trifle a violin perfectly. ribs. or even the charged with the primary vibrations from the strings tions of the belly. belongs rather to the ' management than to the constitution of the violin. and the secondary vibra. when the rest happens to be old.

consists of three thin strips of wood —two ebony or whalebone." —"a thing 29 . or how it is decorated. and and occasionally is resisting chiefly ornamental. though deall nuded of superfluous decoration and meretricious adornment. And thus the perfect sounding violin. and one of white wood inlaid. the faint till in the hands of the Cremonese makers memory of the gorgeous mother-of-pearl.VIOLIN CONSTITUTION but it does not much matter what it is made of. ivory. The PuRFUNG. ebony. — glued together In the purfling we have the last survival of the inlaying as applied to musical instruments. yet remains a miracle of art of beauty and a joy for ever. little It that the instrument. survives only in the naiTow three thin lines of the purfling which strike the contour of the instrument and give piquancy to its form. notice that the further you go back the rately inlaid are the viols You will more elabowas thought in those fitly and violins. but as music developed and all tone was reckoned important. might exploited to show skill off" be the conceit of artists and the of cabinet-makers. although damage to the outlying edge. every detail likely gi-adually dis- to interfere with this new development all appeared. gold and silver embossing. which was more days of rudimentary music than a toy.

but his date after all 1621-83. at once and for ever. you will observe that he dwelt on the high-road between the Tyrol and Italy. it is It is comes eai*ly is from the north of Italy. where he lived. and that his training. The name of Gasparo di Salo (Bertolotti was his real name). CHAPTER III VIOLINS AT BRESCIA The violin proper is an Italian creation. ahd his market were Italian. who was in reality the father of the violin. differentiated the instrument as a distinct type. true. Stainer.. now chiefly famous for his double-basses and violas. in the. near the town of Hall. and possibly something in the heavy salt seasoning of the Tyrolean pines which specially favours that peculiar resonance. Salo is a lovely spot on the shores of the lake of 30 . must ever be revered by students as the master of the great Maggini. and durability for which the Brescian and Cremonese schools are famous. sense of having clearly. his talent. But Brescia was there is really the home of the violin. sensitiveness. whilst that of Maggini is 1590-1632 and if you visit the frontier village of Absam. an maker. and he bore a German name.

who is termed his " gaz'zone. This is proved by a legal document. I have seen and played on one veiy the property of Lord Amherst fine Gasparo strings violin. culture. Gasparo's share in violin-making proper could not have been very great." or apprentice. dated 1602. was early famed for its its Foreigners went there for the sake of and the Corporation records show that sacred It is music especially flourished there. which has lately been discovered.VIOLINS AT BRESCIA It Garda. and Gasparo died in 1610 or thereabouts —a fact which. known Duke of Leinster's . but on the This almost unique Gasparo violin bulgy. as the earliest violin orchestral music appeared in Italy in 1608. —D and A is still rich whole the tone and pure. and Dragonetti possessed more than A giant specimen. bearing the joint signatures of Gasparo and Maggini. but a great improvement on the old viol build. as the after. Gasparo's basses are still much sought one. taken in connection with the extreme rareness of any Gaspardian instru- ments which can be called violins. 4th rather muffled. schools. 1st and is mellow and powerful. and about twenty miles from the big town. the head is long and quaint-looking. seems to argue that the piccolo violino which was presently going to be master of the situation was only just creeping up. in that town. but lacks that finish and character which later masters put into their scrolls. in the province of Brescia. now certain that Gasparo migrated thence to Brescia and worked Maggini was as certainly his pupil.

Brescia in 1600 was under Venetian rule. and bom at Botlicino. and I exhibited it at the Royal Institution in 1872. is His work heavy and lacks refinement. which afterwards became the family headquai-ters. and monks who befriended Gasparo when he was down in the world in health and fortune and was a couple of sadly needed it. for its music. and especially music. walls were spreading woodlands It boasted of and ploughed a splendid brick palace. Paolo Maggini was the child of his father's old age. The town or fortress was from its very position constantly in the midst of wars and rumours of wars. and was appropriately famed amongst other things for its manufactory of swords and armour. letters. and a print as late as 1764 probably gives us a fair notion of what it looked like between 1560 and 1632. Swift brooklets ran down the streets. and outside the fields. and an old Duomo . The gi-eat princes of Italy at this time (1512-1630) were patrons of art. The Cathedral Dom full was famous orchestra. it as they have since been. Gio.OLD VIOLINS bass. but his tone grand and full-bodied. a Castello. Brescia was at this time a strongly fortified place. the Broletta. may still be seen is at the South Kensington Museum. near the town of Brescia. in intimate relations. It is surprising how little military commotions seem 32 . and a massive belfry of rough stone (Torre del Popolo). the streets were adorned of San Pietro de with frescoes. and had an organ and The viol-makers and the monks were then.

survives. inter- But when it is remembered that war does not rupt the functions of religion or diminish the importance of the clergy (nay. who could afford to pay. soothsayers. in the stormiest times of the Visconti and Medici. and they probably made impartially for for — any one. in fact. on his labels (all — dated Magginis are therefore frauds). As he put only the name and place. the manufacture of musical instruments. Paolo Maggini Magino or Magicino. the State Archives of Brescia have revealed some interesting gleams of 3 33 . have been an uninterrupted lute makers at Brescia from line of viol and cither and 1300 and onwards. He worked in Brescia few of his instruments survive. His violas are as rare as Gaspare's violins. His handwriting. Up to of this within the last few years very little was known man Gio. is of the meagrest description. however. either at Bi-escia or at Cremona. illustrious princes of this period Recently. and the personal information to be squeezed out of them . it is not easy to assign fixed dates to any of his instru- ments.VIOLINS AT BRESCIA There seems to to have affected. or mountebanks friend or foe . some of which but the signatures of are no better. would lead one to suppose that his education was very moderate. as druggists. we can understand that the musical instrument makers might have been as much in demand. often enhances both). but he distances all other makers in the attention that he gave to that newfangled and suspiciously regarded instrument the true violin. but not the date.

bits of of timber hung up on the walls the .OLD VIOLINS information which enable us to show him in his work- shop with one apprentice. before me. Zurich (1539-91). the same meagre appliances and absence of superfluous luxury would doubtless have greeted our eyes. surrendering the ground floor to the violin business. and afterwards A picture of his house in the Contrada del Palazzo. workers as Maggini. leisurely. the glue-pot. storeys. the planks and the fiddles and strips wood in blocks. made chiselled their own glue and vamish. But our gorgeous modern spoils of the East. and chopped and own wood. and a young wife. the tools. him a dowry. lies Vechio del Podesta. Maddalena Anna. aproned artificer is carefully trying a lute as he sits on his three-legged stool. our modern workshops all sorts fail with their exquisite mechanical appliances and of labour-saving machines. studios hung with the and iridescent with precious pottery and curiously worked metals. we have an authentic picture of such easy. In a woodcut by Jost Anian. It has but two and the family lived upstairs. 34 . Franchino. somehow three-legged stools. What simplicities ! Were we to enter in imagina- tion the studios in which the greatest pictures in the world were being painted about this time. ground their their to rival in quality of production those old masters who sat on own pigments. calm There is the rude substantial bench. aged nineteen. who brought children.

ill to the altered and the need for an instrument which would felt render leading melodies effectively was just in proportion as such melodies became multiplied with the rise of vocal music. writei"s Most on the violin seem to have a passion for cutting up a maker's life into periods. they were of large seem lower than they are. as though a man could rise one morning and say "Go to now. sacred and profane. come to speak of Maggini. Naturally at first the pupil made like his master Gasparo. Now They had a heavy which makes the sides look.VIOLINS If AT BRESCIA you consider Maggini's period (1560-1632) you will see how exactly the direction of his genius was conditioned by the demands of his age. for in reality the ribs are not higher than those of the Amati. contracted." All that can be safely said after such and such a time Maggini or Amati dropped or adopted this or that feature as a infer that rule. or elongated thus. in which the back shall be sloped so. His violins suggested big viols on a small I scale. but the old viols were seen to correspond times. let us enter upon period number three. rather than any so-called three periods. and we may influences. size. a maker came under such and such and so forth. The singing-schools of Naples had resulted in a call for stringed instruments in increased numbers. 35 . and the curve of the bouts tilted. and the belly brought down thus. I will trace roughly but clearly what may be called his continuous development. is.

OLD VIOLINS The heads size. because. nor purfling itself sharp. If I may hazard the remark. with the reduced no increase of refinement or delicacy has yet . been reached now. it was Maggini's glory to have assisted at the individualisation of the " King " type. the slab sides. look rough. The Maggini bellies now cease to be cut on the slab. even is the gi'ooves for the purfling are not neat. little as there can be doubt that some existence violins labelled Gasparo are the work Stradivari violins of his pupil. just as early in are signed Nicolo Amati. By had already individuality lost. is The reason obvious. Then Gaspare's sound-holes have got narrower credit for the hands of his pupil. and bellies are cut on in —that is. the fluting of the not smoothed. the Maggini's early backs. and Gasparo has probably got some of the improvements of Maggini. across the grain. they are cut without symmetry scroll is now. risen to and dignity which has never since Stradivari got the violin all ready made. is The stride between Gasparo and Mag- gini far greater than that between the late Nicolo the time Nicolo died the violin that supreme and independent it and the Strad.. Presently we become aware that Gasparo is dead and buried. but show the long parallel grain lines of the 36 . in my opinion Maggini did not copy so long or so seriously the work of Gasparo as did Stradivari copy Nicolo.

violas or tenors of There are only about eight gini's . A chest is described by an old writer as " a large hutch it. with several compartments and partitions in lined with green baize"" each (we have since gone heavily into velvet and plush). Mag- known they do not vary in their proportions. Amatis the art of wood selection for sonority and sensitiveness seems already to have reached the 1650 Cremona delicate. and the Dumas' tenors are good specimens of Maggini's first independent work illustrating the above characteristics. a practice entirely discarded by the Cremona Sir masters. The tenor's //holes are they are higher than in the same maker's violins. they are short. like almost all this master's specimens. with the usual Maggini bevel at it the comer joints. Joseph Chitty's. short. The model of the Dumas viola is of the master's most arched type a feature much exaggerated by — Stainer and his followers. and broad . the back and belly both in two pieces the bass bar and blocks inside have been strengthened . It is. little The sound-holes are more but still a quaint. set close to the edge. Sternberg's. 37 . The Dumas family were friends of Beethoven. and They posenthusiastic admirers of Maggini's work. These corners give a special phy- siognomy . and Mr. sessed at least one valuable " chest " of his instruments. VIOLINS wood as in the AT BRESCIA . the top curves as usual larger than the bottom ones. they are invariably bevelled inwards. level. upright. adorned with double purfling. and make no appeal to the eye like the later Cremonas..

the bouts and mitres cut with clear intention. and the for all succeeding violas. we notice that a very high standard of finish has been reached. Maggini's later varnish runs out of the old Gasparo 38 . they could not. The Dumas-Maggini . Its admirably defined is no one in looking at this tenor can say. the sound-holes quite as sharp as theirs ." or " This it set is a big type violin. who obstinately adhei-ed to the Stainer high bellies with deep side grooves. type is glows with rich golden . above all. but never so marked in physiognomy as the Amatis. Gasparo brown. to any of his predecessors. the arching has at so early given. Observe the improved purfling. violin is in equally fine condi- tion it looks so new that some have supposed that. was not at once adopted by Maggini^s Stradivarius at last fixed later it Cremonese regulated successors. but it is absolutely authentic and genuine. it must be a copy made by Strad of the older master. Before Maggini died. it and in a model from which no maker has found it safe to depart with the exception of Duke and Klotz. The Cremona makers worked on but they did not re-create the tenor. although eighty years before Stradivari." It is a distinct viola type. it. unknown to him in his earlier days. inside. The Dumas tenor is in exquisite condition it the varnish unlike the old tints. " This a little violoncello. but. or.OLD VIOLINS the rough tooth of the well-known Brescian plane has left its is mark on the wood . as for the matter of that. last come down — this true hint.

black A very fine single-purfled formerly in the collection of Prince Caraman Chimay. VIOLINS AT BRESCIA as luscious as brown into orange and golden yellow. neither double nor even inlaid. his double purfling. and a sixfold trefoil sometimes occupies the centre of the back but an acute observer has noted that there is no instance of the central trefoil com. The Maggini 'cello is not the son of the It is double-bass. twisted. out of the purfling.. Antonietti. the proportions are. as were. Many of his violins retain the old taste for other inlaid orna- mentation. as it were. possesses an unrivalled tone of the Maggini timbre. enlarged from the tenor. bined with the clover-leaf pattern. but the father of the tenor. and there very little doubt that the 39 . Although Maggini adhered to there it . ai-e specimens of his work in exhibitions without least is and at one curiously but not carelessly made purfling at the back instrument is known where the lines. not reduced from the flat-backed Maggini's bent was entirely in the direction of the smaller violoncello pattern. anything to be found in a Joseph or a Strad. The early and even the is later Cremona 'cellos were too large. but a graceful clover-leaf pattern often found at top and bottom of his backs. Not less remarkable than this great maker's definition of the violin and viola types was his conception of the violoncello. He does not run into is maps and portraits. but merely drawn sharply in violin. much more like a large tenor than it like a small double-bass bass. now in the possession of Mr.

his parish church. and De Beriot have found him have not extolled Maggini. Lorenzo. Paolo. bell - rather than biting like Stainer. We hear plenty about his wife. and plaintive. but Leonard. It is more than probable that Maggini himself was in 1632. a victim to the plague which raged at Brescia and that he was House. if great players Vieuxtemps. Ole Bull. no taken. dying at the Pest official note of his death may have been At any rate. It has been said more than fifty by a competent authority that not extant Magginis are known. and in England at present (1897) about thirty violins. and more may be on account of the rareness and inaccessibility of his instruments. ten violas. his son describes himself as "filius quondam Johannis Pauli "" — the son of the late Gio. aged and was buried in a neigh- bouring parish. Strad. tone of Maggini is The full. fifty-eight. have failed to reveal the date of his it is death. His last income-tax return is dated 1626. hastily interred. Maggini died at the comparatively early age of one. and he 40 . and but two violoncellos and one double-bass.OLD VIOLINS powerful influence of Maggini can be traced in the evolution of those perfect but moderately sized Strad 'cellos which date mostly after 1700. fifty- All researches made in the archives of S. or soft resonant like and like sensitive like Nicolo Amati. who died 1651. it sufficient. Anna Foresti. the year of the plague. and the worst of that the registers of that church prior to 1700 have disappeared. mellow. or. in 1632.

VIOLINS was dead in 163S. what was of far more importance. of six children. and therefore could not have been more than fifty-one. owned con- siderable property in and out of town. and. Maggini was doubtless well ofF. so AT BRESCIA latest in he must have died at 1632. was the father violin. the father of the modern 41 .

with stately cathedral so little known or visited. Cremona. With Brescia the assumed immigration of makers from (the —the emergence of the is Amati family name of Amati and not found in the Brescian archives). very situation (xpi fiovof. I ti'avel Cremona town is a place to set one dreaming the place have narrated elsewhere my pilgrimage to which so ungratefully forgets almost the very tradition 42 . Cremona. strife. from the association of ideas which they excite. with its antiquated back streets. supporting portico columns of one of the noblest cathedral fa^des in Italy . owing to its " high rock " and " alone "). and a deeper harmony for the lover of music. yet possessing two of the finest red lions couchant. Cremona. its drowsy quiet life gliding on apart from the beaten thoroughfares of truly.! — CHAPTER VIOLINS AT ! ! IV CREMONA still Cremona Amati two words making melody with their very syllables. which. their final residence at Cremona —begins the classic period of the violin. ancient city of was the battle-point of the middle ages from the days of the old Goths and Lombards down to quite modem its times.

fiddles When Antonio married. account of his is went even one 1698. Stradivari. Let us now try and come face to face with these immortal makers. and Guarnerii. and made his- from 1520-46.VIOLINS AT CREMONA of the Amati. it has that they again collaborated. names are hung up high which no discords of the middle ages. Italian. and whose like the stars. a period in which there are no joint productions) but as there are much later been assumed violins bearing their joint names. brother great aftenvards master of Stradivari. according to one labels. so better. or brawls can ever reach. . which beats Stradivari himself. Andrea Amati violins (pere) settled at Cremona. which cei-tain. Latin). violins jointly as well as separately. Nicolo (not He the brought with him Nicolo. late labels If we trust some of these —the brothers being bom about 1555-56. tolerably he went on working even longer than Moses. and one of the joint violins being dated 1687 follow that the venerable artificers were violins — it would still making at the age of 136 years. sieges. who made prove. whose fabrics alone have given it a musical immortality. natural undimmed and his unabated. or Stradiuarius. brother of is Antonio. for there if a Geronimo violin dated this Geronimo. together (there being. Antonio and Geronimo. the of neither seemed to im- The brothers ceased for a time at least to work it is said. down to the age of 148! with his eye strength 43 . who only worked till he was ninety-three. was born about 1556. writer's Geronimo. Andrea Amati had two sons.

label was stolen from the old —the . acquired from Brescia the Maggini type. filled and the label clapped on to cover the fraud whilst any Geronimo violin dated 1698 would be by Geronimo. son of Nicolo or at most. and a certain Don Nicolo Amati. son of the great Nicolo (born 1649. last two figures of 16 — being .. Stradivari and Andrea Guarnerii. He was certainly the founder of the is but not much known about him except that he his violins probably. almost certainly. with Geronimo. and that are somewhat smaller. as the would be certainly demand for Italian instiniments by makers of repute had well set in before 1700. But with this Geronimo Amati. A good deal has been said about his violins. arched in the belly. which easier to seems very doubtful. we need not trouble ourselves beyond recording their names. and his own son. was working with his pupils. OLD VIOLINS The confusion has arisen from confounding Geronimo. son of Geronimo and grandson of Andrea. son of Nicolo (born 1649). the late Antonio and Geronimo workshops in. the younger Geronimo or Girolamo Amati. Andrea Amati and family. believe that. brother of Antonio. died 1740). with a varnish that runs out of the Brescian brown into the mellow and brilliant gold and ruddy tints common 44 to the Cremona varnish . an Italian priest. signed Geronimo But if there exists a and Antonio it dated 1698. one made up by some enter- prising pupil out of the debris of the elder Gei-onimo's workshop —^perhaps about the time that Nicolo the Great.

and sumamed the " King. This is known as the Its history is romantic. but a certain want noticeable. The Amati heads plicity or scrolls retained a certain sim- and antique Brescian look even after the finish and form of the body of the violin had left the Brescian 45 . but they disappeared from Versailles in the political disturbances about 1790." May 1827. beautiful." was sold amongst some others belonging to Sir William Curtis. we are told. of France. 1572. twelve — small pattern. known as " les petits violons du roi " there can be no doubt. especially on the fourth string. said workmanship. twelve large. some violins made by the brothers have a considerable carrying power. But its if Amati tone is is of cabinet. The arms backs. along with other qualities of sonority.— VIOLINS AT CREMONA the later Amatis have a tendency to revert to the browner hue. not concert quality." The Amati 1596-1684. quality of a kind unequalled for charm and sensitiveness. of power is is characteristic. and although not loud. it having been presented by Pope Pius V. which culminates. the full The "A" is "E" soft and delicate. and the third very and round — qualities which are also conspicuous in the brothers Geronimo. of France twenty-four violins. of France. A "Andrea Amati Cremonentis faciebat. to Charles IX. That Andrea made some choice violins for Charles IX. sweetness of tone. were painted on the to have been of beautiful and they are 'cello. in the great Nicolo. " Bridge's viollo.

of which Joachim. of Ascenzio. with a bend of perfect regularity and smoothness. and Piatti were often the other members. we learn that it was a favourite violin of Charles IV. the admirable early player. The double purfling of Brescia is but the brothers purfled very beautifully. Riess. The violins of Antonio are better than his brother's. was a viola was really a Richard Blagrove. but. reduced the arching of his bellies. but the joint oftenest forged. They have been Gore Ousely once sometimes cut down. unfortunately cut down. singularly enough. too large. Geronimo. I have cei-tainly played on instruments deeply grooved. violins are the best. 46 . it and used a reputed Amati. of Spain.OLD VIOLINS school far behind. Her Majesty the Queen has a line painted Amati. also gone. and have been The brothers indeed made excellent violas. as the fashion then was. which I remember playing upon many years ago at Tenby —tone very full and mellow. Monday Popular violinist. it Many of us (1897) can remember how richly contributed to the triumph of a quartet. but Gagliano. after separating from Antonio. a priest at Madrid. and from the MS. The over-arching of the early makers and scooped side-curves are generally supposed to be a vice in acoustics finally overcome by the gentle natural curve and flatter models of Nicolo. with- out improving his tone-power. a brother of Henry Blagrove. but it is perhaps possible to ride a theory too hard. and Miss Seton's Geronimo Amati is a rare specimen. but. Sir Frederick had a fine specimen.

trouble himself It is much with 47 his grandfather Andrea. the Stradivari model ority of the late is preferable. or even Nicolo Amati. specimens command ^2000 (1898). Nicolo. 1898) . achieves it is really the greater genius. known that in both these Amati makers the late Cremona flat curve is conspicuous by its absence and whilst I do not for a moment deny that the flatness of . a question whether the last perfection of an art or the man who makes possible the man who actually Pietro Peru. and the prices fetched by the finest Strad and the finest Gasparo. I think the superi- Cremona tone may be due to a good It will always be many other things beside that. the great son of Geronimo. had It is well no business to sound as loud as they did. popular opinion generally plucks the blossom without much about the roots.£'1000 not an and his finest uncommon figure for a good Strad. which.£'250 is is nearer the mark. gino or Raffaello in painting in literature .. VIOLINS with rounded bellies. practically settle the question as regards the violin-makers. according to the orthodox "theory. was bora in 1596. AT CREMONA powerful Dukes and piercing Stainers. Nicolo was quite aware that he resumed in true he did not himself the fine qualities of his distinguished family and improved upon them. for <£'4iOO is an unusual price a fine Nicolo (. Handel or Beethoven in Gasparo but and Maggini or Stradivari troubling itself violin -making. in 1684. and died close upon the seventeen hundreds. Chaucer or Shakespeare in music . whom he probably regarded as a worthy old gentleman .

Among the pupils of Nicolo in 1653 sat the brothers Guarneri. Cre- monem Hieronymi (The italics are Fil. when as a boy he fell to copying and cai-ving backs and bellies. They inin thus : — " Nicolaus Amatus fecit. for between and can be picked up even less.) Nicolo the Great's smaller patterns father's made in his workshop are not unfrequently to be met with. in his father's little workshop at Cremona. his labels embody an immortal acknowledgment of indebtedness to both masters. almost three-quarter brown varnished. Andrea Guarnerius having witnessed the marriage of his master 48 . sense of obligation or and perhaps labouring under a merely out of genuine affection.OLD VIOLINS quite out of date. ac Antonij Nepos 1677. On the death of his father and uncle he found himself in possession of a work- shop which inherited a great name. which set his hand and head agoing. little in those small. There could have been size. violins to attract the but there were qualities in the some- what larger models of the famous brothers. the touch of Nicolo very soon becomes distinctive. £dQ and ^£"100. but which was destined to transmit to future generations the greatest violin names in the world. or But as we watch his dates. and twisting ribs and throwing scrolls. Geronimo and Antonio. Nicolo the Great doubtless followed and imitated his father Geronimo. but wishing to miss nothing." mine. opposite the west front of the Saint Dominic Church. and sweet but feeble-sounding aspiring grandson .

the side-grooving is less pronounced. lightening as were the model. sound-holes of Nicolo are pointed and somewhat . but with an increasing tendency to get flatter. Marshall . " one of the finest ever seen or heard. Somers Cocks (1898) has a most glorious Amati violoncello. and a is more still delicate purfle (never double). the year of his death. Stradiuarius. the scroll is cut a little too flat for the later but passes as the century style. and giving the whole physiognomy of the instrument a grace and piquancy hitherto unattempted. or. and by the side of Andrea Guarnerius sat a young man named Antonio Sti-adivari. wanes into a somewhat to be chosen larger and bolder The wood seems almost as much for its mottled or fine-grained beauty as for its acoustical properties. aiTesting it drawn out into the eye. 49 Mr. and those dragon-blood stains which give to some Strads and Josephs such tints like the sunlit dashes of warm and generous mellow red on a ripe nectarine. Mr. the eye of a connoisseur will notice an inci-ease in size. The eai'ly Nicolo varnish is of brownish Brescian type. The naiTow taste. a finish in workmanship. The model somewhat high in back and belly. whilst the corners are noticeably finer points full of character. Most of the Nicolo violins before 1645 are of the smaller pattern." so said to 4 me a distinguished connoisseur. but later on it glows with the rich amber tints of Cremona. as we usually call him.VIOLINS AT CREMONA Nicolo and signed the register. but after this date down to 1684.

and a violoncello. where the varnish still remains.. whilst supposed by some to add to its sweetness. Nicholas or Nicolo cer- tainly belongs to the softer and more yielding sex. OLD VIOLINS Bulley's violoncello. It continues to sing like vibrating silver bell." as the French say. has not disappeared as in the Strad grand model. the Nicolo is The tone is lovely and sensitive. was clearly ' An unique set of instruments by the Amati family worthy of mention is the quintett. The one If Joseph before me. a viola. or Rugerius. 50 . generally held to interfere with the volume of tone. no obstacles it is won almost before wooed. as if intoxicated with after the itself. The tone is most delicate. if not forged whilst his supremacy over one of his best Francesco Rugereo. and of ravishing sweetness. Rugieri. In the sweet . is gem of tone and workmanship. The side-grooving. on a It seems to leap out almost before the horse-hair has feathered the strings. melts into light orange with clear golden gleams in is the strong male. Nicolo's work was carefully imitated. and par truly delightful to handle. but it has become less pronounced. Nicolo the lover finds no bars. It is excellence the lady's violin. We are interested to know that in his own time pupils. a also a rare Jerome (the younger) Amati. it. evidently the model on which the 1700-35 Strads are "caique. novr (1898) in the possession of Miss Willmott.^ The grand Amati violin pattern runs some and is of the Stradivari violins very hard. composed of three violins. long bow has 'tis ceased its contact.

chiefly and doubtless made a good many instruments. " was a maker of great repute in his profession. was one of the witnesses to the 51 . 10s. Andrea Guarneri (Andrew Guamerius) the apprentice. to have bought a violin with a Nicolo label =£'12. The GuAENEim violins family must have made as violas or if as the sand of the sea in number. was scarce worth to him more than three doubloons. a maker of less credit. avowing that he had given a higher price because the violin had a label of Nicolo. and above all Peter.) and paid twelve doubloons complained bitterly that on for it." he adds." The violin. pupil. the frequency of their labels may be taken any guide and in truth they were a long-lived and industrious family. and labels in numbers far beyond what all the great makers of Cremona together could have produced. led to the early fabrication of pseudo Josephs. the for Tomaso thereGrand Duke of Modena. he had discovered the name of Ruggeri underneath The aggrieved upon applied to his liege sovereign. But the reputation of Andrew and violins. as we have seen. for AT CREMONA find we that a certain Tomaso Antonio (or about Vitali. the petitioner therefore prayed the Duke for redress. the great Giuseppe (Joseph) del Gesu. but violin now it was proved to be only a by Rugerius the he said. who seems inside. The made the application the point. Whether he got fact that he it or not was no little doubt very important to him. summary redress.. removing the false label it. but of very quence to is conse- us. VIOLINS acknowledged. " who.

The wood of his rare however. struck out a freer line of work. Many of the violins of Andrea Guarneri are of the smaller Nicolo pattern. finest workmanship. with their Brescian-looking sound-holes set low down. in 1652 he man-ied. There is a well-known second 'cello now (1897) belonging to Andrea Gianbattista Miss Theobald. 1626. and most sought after by amateurs. name in the church register as his birth. his nephew) and Pietro. can boast of singularly fine acoustic qualities. But next to is the great Giuseppe del Gesu. and two of his Giuseppe (not the great Giuseppe. and in power the of tone they are superior to his father's. worthily sustained and improved upon their father's reputation. always well finished. and Nicolo enters his pupil's fifteen. of his Giuseppe. the sound-holes less The gi'ain of his bellies is often wide. varnish and fine wood. almost too profusely rich. the scrolls are is and the varnish superb. His narrow-waisted boldly-curved instru- ments. aged which gives us the year of till He worked on sons. his rich. Brescian. and not 'cellos. give his violins quite a characteristic appearance. of son Giuseppe.OLD VIOLINS great Nicolo Amati's marriage in 1641. born 1666 to 1739. from golden intO' tints to pale red. conspicuous. but somewhat inferior. Pietro Guarneri flower of the familjr. the distance is between the sound-holes themselves are rounder and beautifully cut. as distinguished from Del Gesu or " Jesus " Giuseppe. 1698 . although plain in appearance. which has thrown some writers 52 . but not over-finished workmanship.

who worked at Mantua. What can be more simple than of his superiority for the great Giuseppe. most probably to his uncle Most writers have speculated blindly enough upon This his distinctive appendage "del Gesu. all kinsfolk. been a violin-maker at his teaching so the young Giuseppe owed and cousins.VIOLINS AT CREMONA rhapsodies about setting suns and the colours of the rainbow. from a side branch. singularly enough. but a distinguished Giuseppe from this. Bernardo. therefore the great Joseph was Guarnerius. and He not in direct descent from Andrea or any violin-maker. should call himself the 53 . as well as anxious to distinguish himself from Gianbattista. conscious Gianbattista. and it is that his father. and was born at Cremona in 1683. being the son of one John Baptist Guarnerius. in seeking for recondite origins. worthy to measure swords (or bows) with Stradivari. just as nephew of Andrea the great Nicolo was the nephew of fact separates our his illustrious Andrea Amati. son of Andrea. though preferred before them. The and father of the great Giuseppe was the son of one Bernai-do Guarnerius. we come to the one is man who. son of the lesser Giuseppe. son to of Andrea Guarneri. does not seem to have all." some talking about the Jesuits or a supposed is religious bent. Passing over a lesser Pieti-o. neglect the simplest facts and ignore the easiest explanations. and coming after both. came. who was a cousin of Andrea. his father. one of the many cases where sapient antiquaries. with the exception of the great Nicolo.

Giovanni." or Jesus. a good deal with his uncle and cousins. he should have been apprenticed to study the art with his cousin Giuseppe. in which case he must have working all lived next door to where Stradivari was thi'ough his finest period. he may have had names and small scruples in so lightly treating sacred subjects. the liver. Cremona and must have been. and he his early inspirations may have drawn is from his cousin.OLD VIOLINS "del Gesu. it is Since Del Gesu worked at no great stretch of fancy to suppose that when he showed the family bent for violin-making. but probably met him every afternoon at the neighbouring and was doubtless often about his shop. as I think. not only worked next door to Strad. who followed after the John Baptist of the family? So far from indicating any of particular reverence for religion. Why. Of course the differences in the work of the two 54 . who lived there. and the influence (or otherwise) of Stradivari upon him. it impossible to suppose that so able a tact with man could be in daily con- and yet wholly insensible to the influence of the greatest maker who ever lived. son of Andrea. as a cousin and nephew. me and to partake more of a if. the assumption this bold title seems to . The question as to who may have been his master. in needless mystery. has also been involved. certain in-everent levity as tradition says. and Pietro. Andrea. and though Giuseppe's violins are rightly said to be in the style of his cousin's Gianbattista. he cafe. great Giuseppe or Joseph was somewhat of a free and perhaps even a sceptic. year in year out.

bold. and the Guarnerii with Giuseppe del Gesii. bell-like Strad. . In about 1540. for to di'aw these comparisons before describing the master may seem like putting the cart before the So let us now. As I have had occasion to remark elsewhere.VIOLINS gi-eat AT CREMONA The massive. cheek by jowl by-and-by Stradivari migrated to No. and belly of the Giuseppe del Gesu there are sometimes more. scroll. locate the great Cremona and peep into workshop No. and finish masters are obvious. and taken apprentices. S. 6. fact also before alluded to. 6. then set up at No. trained his sons. lines original and less scrupulous of Joseph the Great. Stradivari. violin shops at in the Piazza bequeathing to Nicolo his plant and pupils. who died in 1745. then worked together. who died in 1737. without further ado. these three shops opposite the 55 . next door. Amati. mark the masculine as contrasted with the sweeter and more feminine qualities of the gentler. there be none like them . 5. now Piazza Roma. distinct originality. the powerful (almost brutally powerful) all the loud trumpet-like imperious tone. Andrea Amati had set up his modest establishment. eight years). Domenico. these three names. the Guarnerii. that between the back The and the belly of the Strad there whilst between the back is usually but one note. the latest and gi-eatest of that family (surviving Stradiuarius. Stradivari and the early Guarnerii . as Rafael But enough horse. all prove sterling and was distinct from Perugino or Michael Angelo from Leonardo da Vinci.

" the Alard. quiet years of peaceful labour. who ran and who. the Messie. Joachim and Wilhelmj's "Strads. he deliberately went back to the Brescian Gasparo and Maggini models for inspiration. Canon Percy Hudson's violoncello. the Rode. must be clearly defined before we describe the parallel with. the Fountaine. the Tuscan. estimation of most violinists. sweet. between 1560 and 1760. the king of the Guarneri. seems to combine in himself. all the greatest violins in the world. there never were nor will be three such violin shops. the Betts. The time had come when powerful tone The Amatis were sensitive. was wanted. If only he could add their volume to the Amati sensitiveness —an hour more or 56 . the position of Giuseppe del Gesu. now demolished. in long. and larger weak tined . now in the Town Hall in Genoa. now Lady Halle (1898). Here were made. Domenico. the Stradiuarius on which Ernst. is Nothing about Giuseppe Guarneri del Gesu more remarkable than the determined way in which.OLD VIOLINS big Church of S. and the Viotti violin world. in steady and friendly rivalry. rise and progress in the of Stradivari. —these be the wonders of the But in following the development of the Guamerii family into the seventeen hundreds. after examining the Amati types. the ne plus ultra of all violin perfection. the Pucelle. in the and more massive Brescians Giuseppe found the suggestion of what he was desto make perfect. The Giuseppe del Gesu on which Paganini played. the Dolphin. plays.

but in its clear crystalline is depth and transparency. are amongst his The one used 57 . effect He was watching the on the volume and quality of tone. He tried many experiments : flat make. was what he is spent on the cutting of corners or neater purfling it what did matter? wanted. after the death of Stradivarius. and sometimes disproportionately long. perpendicularly. His frequent habit of cutting the wood upon the a contre sens. cross. He weis like a man who had no till time to think of the delicate cooking he had stayed his main appetite. sound -holes cut almost slanting. Mr. shortened. yet with a light hand. and when he had in his own way conquered then. Alfred Gibson''s instrument (1897). but laid on thoroughly. power. full make. whether empirically or by calculation. of Del Gesu's later violins. then. brush is also as light as a feather. Ruskin used Del Gesu's to say that Sir Joshua Reynolds' touch was so light that he could paint on a gossamer veil . Some finest. scroll. and the sentiment thrown off in the bull- dog type of his head or boards so much criticised. dating from about 1740. and not till workman- ship improves. and brings out each pore and vein by the agate-like varnish — ^not agate-like in the sense of the French chippy vamish. his that secret of grand sonority. in the thickness of his in the boldness rather than the grace and delicacy of his curves.— VIOLINS less AT CREMONA Strength. shows up the coruscations of the grain. a superb specimen of Del Gesu. as in the case of Mr. is Del Gesu's varnish never clotted.

father. rival — still his own who was Stradivari's pupil. as there undoubtedly in the case of Del Gesu. and belong to this period. I prefer to put this legend wholly aside. Del Gesu estimation. now in the Town-hall at Genoa. now is in the possession of Maurice Sons. Ludwig by Mr. It seems. liver may not have held sacred things in high and he may have been somewhat of a free — this rests on the authority of Carlo Bergonzi's grandson. The story runs that Giuseppe. 58 . got him any wood she could inferior pot-boiling fiddles. and stories will come forth finely variegated when there is an extraordinary absence is of reliable facts. and he made these which she disposed of for such moderate sums as she was able. Joseph which is Whenever a Joseph or a presumed not up to Joseph's standard comes it is into the market. and the other lent to Mr. are particularly fine. got into trouble and was locked up for many years. Alard's. The life of Joseph Guamerius more or less en- veloped in mystery. in the Museum of the Conservatoire of Music. for instance. who was not even a contemporary of Del G«su he may have got the gossip from Bergonzi. Frazer. dubbed a Del Gesu prison-fiddle. being a somewhat reckless person. and doubtless a interests are maker. and tongues may wag when or seem to be opposed. and Vieuxtemps''. during which time the gaoler's daughter find. also belong to this great period. Turin. utterly impossible to get at the truth about the so-called prison fiddles. Paganini's Joseph.OLD VIOLINS by Professor Sauret.

different who did and the names of two very men. have before now got mixed up. A his Giuseppe del Gesu is much more . — his output. But he is placed on a level with the immortal Antonio by some who know how to handle him. and the confession of Anastasius since it faith thus recited by command of now passes as the creed of Samt A thanasitis. 59 . one illustrious and the other obscure. difficult to find than a Strad Stradivarius. and the prices of his wares have already reached four figures. emphasises the Trinitarian doctrine chiefly connected with the name of that illustrious doctor. in whose presence a creed was recited by one Bishop Victricius. as compared to that of his life is as one to six was shorter. Something similar is said to have happened to the great Athanasius. whose name has been confounded with that of the obscure Pope Anastasius.VIOLINS There is. AT CREMONA however. and working career probably more erratic. as says the legend . to the detriment of the illustrious one. but Canon Bazzi of Cremona has lately unearthed one Girolamo Guarneri die in prison in 1715. no direct evidence whatever that Del Gresu was for years in prison and that he died there.

painters. but even Maggini. 60 . Individuals try to reverse may chafe under it. were saluting one another. and Giuseppe Guarnerius. and the lonely seats are kept for the mighty. but you will never succeed in pushing from their pedes- tals the great gods whom posterity has once decided to bow down to. the true aureole forms about no head to order. And why. and musicians.CHAPTER V VIOLINS There is AT CREMO'tiA— Continued something inexorable about the consensus of posterity. and writers may its verdict. De Beriot Paganini may choose may prefer his it to play on a Maggini.? . and Joseph. You even have crazes for the revival of neglected poets. who stand round as vari tain. is able to say exactly why. leave Stradi- apart by himself like a Colossus on a moun- and yet no one. not the greatest connoisseur. individual violins above del still When so many esteem some Strads. We only say it is the way with all the greatest there something of the mystery of heaven about the incommunicable touch . and when Joseph all Gesu is held to run the magic master very hard. Nicolo Amati. Strad stands apart upon his mountain for men can is to look up to and wonder at.

little girl. 61 He must . None of them seemed whom he — to have inherited their father's genius .VIOLINS AT CREMONA Antonio Stradivari or Stradiuarius was born in 1644. Stradiuarius married at the age of twenty-three a woman of twenty-seven. it was surely worth a little speculation. bore him five two of whom died before him so that in all Stradivari had eleven children. tools. three years. the boy Giuseppe Guarneri to see his uncle Andrea. and the date of his birth is fixed by a violin label (1736) in his own hand- writing. were young garzoni or apprentices together in — sat on the same work bench. and he adopted her one children. in 1737. His second children. married several years later. and Francesco Stradivari made even decent and so far maintained the great name as to succeed at first in selling their wares at their father's prices. wife. The it buyei-s probably hoped that at least the wood might have been selected by Stradivari pere. We get the date of his death from the register. whose maiden who had been a widow for name was Fen-aboschi. the workshop of the great Nicolo Amati as stated before. and if there was the chance of getting a spare rib or back or belly with a touch of the master upon it. in his ninety-third year. in which he states that he was ninety-three years old when he made the instrument. and doubtless In and out of that shop ran. and died. only Omobono fiddles. no doubt. used the same discussed the same problems. and much of probably was . By her he had six some of whom died before him. Antonio Stradivari and Andrea Guameri.

but still married) Antonio seems to have master's work- continued closely to copy Nicolo." It is generally held that for some years. but surely. Andrea was doubtless the if older pupil. own name to any He was learning. and became himself the great Del Gesu. no mention of the youthful Stradivari having accompanied Andrea Guarneri to the wedding of his master. roughly between 1660-70. thou wouldst create. but he appears to have followed his master's develop- ments continuously. and worked generally. There exists a Stradivari violin with a label Nicholai 1667). not from pride. which brings us to within fourteen years of Nicolo Amati's death. Giuseppe imbibed a taste for fiddle-making. Nicolo Amati . it is hard. blocked out. " If thou wouldst teach. mixed varnish. At time Antonio followed closely the violins of the early Nicolo rather than the grand Amati pattern. slowly. copy. Stradiuarius simply made up. and Antonio Stradivari was taken on later. and many violins of his between 1660 and 1670 pass as 62 . and about that date (when he left his Amati (anno shop. to believe that what must have been a acquaintance with the mighty Stradivari should have had no influence whatever There is in forming his ideas and methods. drew. but in 1660 he begins to sign his name. learn first . I insist lifelong upon it. he called made what are sometimes Amati this Strads. but because his master made him do so. glued. but without signing his fiddles. and when. From before that date to about 1670. later on.OLD VIOLINS have always found Stradivari there .

Domenico. which he speaks of "his intimate friend Antonio Stradivari. he left all his tools and his plant not to his son Girolamo. but to Antonio Stradivari. at the ripe age of eighty-eight. has left an in MS. whilst others are called Amati Strads. When Stradiuarius married (about 1667) and left Nicolo Amati. to 1684 was a period of great activity. is dated 1720. now in his decline. closest intimacy with Nicolo. even some pot-boiling Stradivari violins often plain about this time. his for Desiderio Arisi. and some are apparently joint productions. remaining a close copyist of Amati. a Cremonese. and not may then have been made as the young family increased. at buy Piazza Roma. then just forty years old. and almost next door to them.VIOLINS AT CREMONA Amatis. but he . then about thirty-five. in the square opposite the great Church of S. ." 63 The MS. a great improvement in Stradivaii's technique he doubtless kept on terms of the but up to 1672 at least. is Antonio's wood up to the best taste and selection of his master. four years before the death of Nicolo. he set up round the corner in the same street as the brothers Guamerii. or seventeen years before the death of Stradivari. Antonio had so about ^800. From 1660 perhaps haste . and benefited by the abundance of orders flowing in for Amati violins which the old master was unable to execute. evidently remained his right-hand man to the end and when Nicolo died. interesting far prospered as to be able to 1 house (which I visited in 1880). In 1680. From about this time connoisseurs notice .

make fiddles in odd shapes. flowers. and he did . within the present century. The master was not above lutes to order. wonder that he who could else. perfectly plain Stradivari guitar in fine conIt is of exquisite close-grained wood. or with a twist in the curve maker of deed. I have I often wanted to hear the sound of that guitar.OLD VIOLINS Arisi alludes to a point of great interest which early excited my attention and curiosity —the many-sidedness of the man. 64 . as mathematicians say. for each branch of his art. he qualified himself to the nth.'''' Inmake anything that was in demand. "is also my intimate friend Antonio Stradivari." writes Arisi. or were. Hill own a dition. ebony. carve such scrolls could carve a head or anything There are. living cellent "In Cremona. is sometimes ivory. making mandolines and Messrs. inlay. or big or small. instruments made with small figures. but everything Stradivari did was perfectly done. children's fiddles. or longer or shorter for experiment. he could here or there. arabesques. is Everything that comes from his hand finely is accurate in drawing. an ex- all kinds of musical instruments. The Marquis Carlo dal Negro of Genoa owned a Stradivari harp in 1820. other gems of workmanship some of which it is to be feared have perished. Sometimes his decoration merely painted in black. he could " fancy-pui"fle " to order. or mother-of-pearl used. noticed a Stradivari cithern in the South Kensington Loan Collection with an elaborately carved female head I did not of great beauty.

France. Arisi. Saxony. Nay.VIOLINS In these days one AT CREMONA draws. and 65 . is The bitterness of competition not always due to rival makers. Music walked it. his varnishing his On nerii the death of Amati. faster than the instruments could follow When the King of Poland wanted a Strad violin he knew his man. another blocks out. and is whilst the competition was quite wholesome. Pheidian beauty . they had worked as boys together. but often to over-production . even England were anxious for Cremona there was a market for them all. His heads and ara- besques are worthy of Cellini. Stradivarius did all. touched up each other''s backs and bellies. another finishes. and now that the Cremona violin was in the ascendant. with orders to stop there and bring back the twelve "So. 5 " Voleme arrived in 1715 on the 10th June. rivalry was other than They had all been brought up to- gether. and such a thing as over-production of fiddles in those days was unknown. and kings and nobles from Spain." says violins ordered for the court orchestra. his scrolls is and curves are of own. his inlaying of the finest Florentine mai-queterie . varnished each other s ribs. and sent his Capelmeister Voleme to Cremona. the orders that came in could not be executed fast enough. there no reason to suppose that their a friendly one. man another inlays. criticised each other's scrolls from boyhood . they had doubtless lent each other tools. Stradiuarius and the Guarhad the Cremona market to themselves. Germany. and fiddles. and did all consummately well.

royalty. I than yourself. to the great skilled 1715. After the death of the illustrious Nicolo Amati. In 1682. this careful copyist." writes Lorenzo Giusartificer in a Venetian nohleman. altos and 'cellos. he was not only on his mettle." and that you can bestow upon But we must not anticipate. and as chiefly for the nobility. this accurate and tireless student and experimentalist begins to assert his strong individuality. but he could as afford to work just he chose. His scroll departs from the feminine Amati type and becomes striking and independent. which were to be presented to our King They were so much liked that his Majesty ordered a viol di gamba of Stradiuarius in 1686. James 66 . his varnish is almost fancifully varied from rich gold to soft velvety red." But "There tiniani. His wood is variably chosen with the utmost care. Michele Monzi. for a chest of violins. and when all the instru- ments were ready he took them with him to Poland. his middle bout curves are prolonged. sent him an order II. now inhe made clerical and the higher dignitaries. not in the world. at is this time Stradivari was at his zenith. his sound-holes recline more. and as I wish to preserve a record of such an illustrious man and famous trouble you with to this letter to ask whether you feel disposed finish make me a violin of the highest quality it. a rich Venetian banker. his corners are pronounced. "a more maker of musical instruments artist.OLD VIOLINS remained there three months. this patient pupil.

Pope Leo XIII. different sizes for different is The fallacy of ages from childhood upwards one which will always smile to makers and those acute persons who teach the violin and buy their pupils' in- struments. which of course have to be changed as the childi-en grow up. for larger and larger ones. in existence. It has been since sold in England to Dr. as I did myself) than be given a small one. had ordered a violoncello and two violins of him. There are extant several very small violins made evidently to order about this period. on his imdex who has lately placed the violin expurgatorius of instruments.. besides making him " one of his private attendants. it had lost its ivory purfling. Charles Oldham of Brighton. inlaid with ivory. When last in the market." an title. the tenor is.VIOLINS AT CREMONA In 1685. which has since been exquisitely i-eplaced by Messrs.but when I was eight I could hold a full-sized 67 . A child of eight had much better play the violin like a violoncello (at the age of seven. The Bull. as being too frivolous for the solemnities of divine service! Yet Pius IX. I believe. honorary arius but equivalent to appointing Stradu- instrument-maker to the Cardinal Archbishop. Cardinal Orsini. afterw£irds Pope Benedict XIII. I have always protested against this. In 1687 Stradivari makes his famous set of instru- ments for the Spanish Court. Hill. rarities One of these —a violin —found its way into the hands of Ole famous violinist. this fact to his Holiness We commend (1897). with a scroll-work running round the sides. was a pretty good fiddler.

constiffens about not using dwarf fiddles. when at six or seven years of age I played the violin like the violoncello. " good for trade. but near enough. Artistically they are gems. almost £is toy specimens. Thus from the very had to unlearn first. say they never heard a violon- with such a tone as yours. musically. it certainly did not I believe I mine. tended that for a child to use a large fiddle his muscles." In 1690 Stradivari executed a celebrated order for the Prince of Tuscany. Neither theory in fact. The players in the orchestra are unanimous in express- ing appreciation. I believe. no doubt. My having brought orders from to the knowledge of such a person as his Highness your great skill will doubtless procure you many 68 . through the Marquis Bartho- lomeo Aribati. the brain bothered with the narrower stopping learned in the preceding period. The brain learns intervals. my partiality for old bridges. stiffen I don't believe it. An is habitual tenor player never plays the violin quite in tune. writes : Of these chefs-d'osuvre the Marquis " I assure you the Prince has accepted your instruments with more pleasure than I could expect. and so every time a larger violin is placed in the pupil's hands. I never my intervals in stopping the strings. fallacies. made by the Amati and Guamerii well as by Strad. am also in a minority in is. I have never got anybody to agree with me Joachim.OLD VIOLINS violin to my chin — ^not quite in the correct position. no one can regret the exquisite cabinet. They they all declare your instruments to be quite perfect cello . Still. and vice versa .

I cannot forbear to call attention to the exquisite chromo-lithographs of the Tuscan violin. These instruments are known as 69 . The Tuscan viola and violoncello are still in the Institute at Florence. order was given in 1684. from the relics of Stradivari in the possession of the Marquis della Valle. and was bought by Mr. it came back for more. or after 1700. only other point of great general interest before the year 1700. when Stradivarius enters on his golden is the deliberate manufacture of a certain num- ber of violins on a pattern distinct from the Amati.VIOLINS his exalted AT CREMONA then follow more orders for house" —and two tenors. The Grand Duke. David Ker in 1794. as there was found amongst his instruments a violin of the grand pattern bearing the later date. It on the very verge of his great period. and the lucid description and history of this masterpiece. On this occasion. and from any patterns adopted by himself before 16861694. that the great violin-maker characteristically cases for the royal enough made the most beautiful instruments. and I advise all lovers of Cremona who get the chance to go and inspect them. The period. still. The seems. but the instruments till were not handed in 1690. bearing the date 1690. decorating them profusely with armorial bearings and symbols appropriate to each instrument. Hill's last-named famous handsome monograph. we learn. 1716. in Messrs. He all is declares it to be in the very finest preservation with an unbroken and authentic record. and to possess the noblest qualities of the incomparable master.

but not adopted by the cautious Strad Nicolo's death. his meditations might run thus " Flatten the belly —thicker here or there according to . year after year. and a testing of tone problems. or anything else unexpected.e. whether in sound or colour. and glued and var: nished. Enlarge 70 . density of fibre air column restrained by nan-ow width. We have known painters trifle same way. So you can have study in construction. wood. as compared to the 1690 13-inch Strad. through his own violin lore. Gainsborough would paint and Whistler symphonies in green. Having mastered all he was evidently at last trying a series of daring experiments to settle in his for ever certain problems of tone. but 14<-inch. but in reality it was no but study in arrangement of colour. as in the long pattern. As Stradivari mused and carved. in. empirical ventures. till some years after From 1694 to 1700 Stradivari not only went out of his way to make long Strads. . but same cubic inches of air allowed for in length or height of ribs. which not only looked longer because they were narrower and pinched actually were longer i. and Turner would recreate the light that never was on sea or land trifling.— OLD VIOLINS a long Strads. and they seem to be a sort of constructional or experimental link between the smaller Amati pattern and the grand Strad pattern of 1700-37 — model evidently suggested by the gi-and Nicolo. In other respects also he walked traditions. only differently defined by different shapes of instruments. own mind once and with colour in the his blue boy. mauve.

VIOLINS width. according to the density or elasticity of the back and belly. for were worked up after his death. suggested by the vibration of a string ." ponders Stradivari " thick or thin. Try old seasoned wood for back. . thin it if How would it be ? wood if inter-congenial That gene- A good secret that. transverse. bits of precious rally succeeds. ? bulgy curves and grooved What did Nicolo aim at with size. but AT CREMONA by different thicknesses . a joined back. of com-se And 71 its position? A little — slightly diagonal to be in the . best or indifferent That would to patch depend on wood attainable. see how if different densities of wood go together. trace one of these grain. He had of his best The plank must have been known the remains of it to his pupils. to have kept his wood of the finest acoustic properties for best ordei-s. lower the ribs on more sides. thin planks. with the flatter back and which gives louder tone. or a back in one piece. He seems . his grand pattern Adopt his width and and flatten his belly. thicken it try effect of . matical curve of nature. higher ribs on flat curves . Try and save ?) his sweetness (did the gi-ooves give that belly. newer for belly. . " Now for the sound . favourite planks we can by a stain that runs through the and the wood crops up again and again in some fiddles. adopting the mathecertainly that gives power. Is ?. or vice versa wood hard." — . but an open one ! wanted always the patcher This idea of patching was certainly one of the most inspired thoughts that ever occurred to him.

which Stradivari devoted for the better part of a Dolphin. for violins. for. .OLD VIOLINS line of vibration. place the varnish. The violinist is well golden period. inclining for I some time to yet do not know that any one has noticed that in violoncellos Strad reversed this order of work. the Messie. after about 1700.£1000 and upwards. could never have come forth. and 72 . Tuscan. a fine Strad will be worth to him from condition. and diminishing their size. Betts. an age at which so many have achieved their greatest He was at the acme of his power. 1700 the master had reached the ripe age of work. no one could teach him anything now. making his early violoncellos large. which him gold its . and in fifty-six. As he reached his golden period he probably felt that the demands made by virtuosity and tone-power were quite larger type of violin alike consistent with a and a smaller and more manageaware of the value of Strad's will cost able size of violoncello. and without which those Cremona chefs-d'cBuvre. patience. demanding unlimited time. I have tried to indicate the kind of observation and meditation. and love. I have alluded to Strad's taking late to the large Amati pattern the small size. the and Pucelle Strads. and fame .''" it slightly And But that a few separate paragraphs by-and-by. experience. according to The long apprenticeship was at last over. will call for another . Study it effect on power of different strings by placing a fraction of an inch one way or aslant for experiment. century to his art.

the wood densities. a Canova his score. Tadema a Flaxman his pencil. if it He no more treated every violin as had the same constitution than does a physician treat every human body alike it is not so much nitrogenous or carbonaceous food. which characterises his great period from 1700 to 1730. had nothing to He could at last wields his wield his tools as a Millais or a binish. secret was not merely in the pattern or shape he could vary his curves.. and he could do it. The violins are not all alike. the free dai-ing curves of his grand pattern. the harmony of health. or as a Mozart or Wagner handles his he wanted. and the lightly the tossed and lifted scrolls. and the proportions and quantities which should be combined for the requisite result. according to your digestion and temperament. and yet produce masterpieces. VIOLINS appai'ently he AT CREMONA learn. the analogy between the constitution of a violin and human body —how varied is the texture. and how close that of a tissue. which will produce in that instrument. Strad knew that the . the cool defiance of precedent and uniformity. and so much but it is these and other things used in proportion. He knew it what and do with a spon- taneous ease and joy which seems even now to smile to us from the saucy comers of his bouts. chisel. No one has failed to notice the masterful all ease. and he could mix them differently like a master colourist. liquid. because he knew all about the air column. and even symmetry. emancipation from mannerism. and density of the component 73 . the quality. is your body. fibre.

off" seemed to do all for itself like Instead of the player showing it off'. magic. and 74 . the gi-and pattern Strads are all made with a trained. from the melting and almost iridescent tints of the varnish. it is said. The beauty and wood are quite violins and can compared with other of the same period. however. in the grand period. and though very charming.OLD VIOLINS parts of each — I have endeavoured to point out as succinctly as I could. whose name easily be acoustic properties of the Dolphin special. he begins to feel he has nothing to learn in tone production. its I shall never forget its It exquisite sensibility. To Dolphin Strad. some of which are much plainer to look at. and somewhat different in form. and appear to be playing. press the keys. It is almost like sitting at those ingeniously contrived pianos that make elaborate music. according to those laws which govern the tone qualities aimed at . it shows the player . almost inspired instinct. So. and elegant poise of that it bears. it seemed anxious to speak before it was spoken to. so called. and you merely have to put your hands on a dummy key- board. fiddles are by no means alike to look variety. To me. the violin almost suggests the graceful fish life. but the at. hardly so bell-like in tone. freedom. when touched. The last time I had the privilege of touching the Dolphin Strad was at ringing notes and my lecture on violins before the Royal Institution in 1880. They have the charm of imaginative this great period belongs the com- bined with the unity of supreme excellence.

VIOLINS then you roll off AT CREMONA perfectly. Strad best opinion limits the The probably bears the palm. Compared with any other maker except Vuillaume. It seemed to me quite perfect but I suppose one must bow to experts in such matters. I believe Messrs. There are. and it steal when appears. and there is no time to lose. a careful portraiture of known Strad. before. a few more famous speci- mens. both as regards output and survival of work. Hill are pre- paring the most complete monograph on Stradivari which has ever yet or few pages. An every elaborate description. together with its history. others dismembered. however. finest and one of the known for tone . as far as recoverable. whilst some are at the bottom of the sea. be a monumental work. which are of such unique interest that they cannot be passed over even in so general a survey as this. number of instruments which Strad made to about two thousand. I must leave for some more gifted and industrious recorder. bought for 75 . only eight hundred of which at most are known to be extant. Hill. quite perfect. Lady Halle still plays on Ernst's violin. varnished dark red. Mr. and a I only wish I could dip into their It will certainly. MS. it is dated 1716. Chopin and Mendelssohn scarce play your scales ! though you can Since then Vuillaume's sound-bar has been replaced with a stronger one by Messrs. of Croall (1897) of Edinburgh is the happy owner M. Artot's Strad. as many of these gems are known to have been destroyed. is ever likely to appear.

to whom further on I devote a special section. nor can I understand the statement its recently made that tone to elicit. I was seated up in the top gallery at one of Benedict's fifties. monster season concerts early in the A romantic interest attaches to two Stradivari violins which have come down to us in absolutely perfect condition . 76 . Wlien eyes. be seen till Vuillaume it had then never been touched or played upon. it after the Count's death.OLD VIOLINS dP500. and at passed to Vuillaume. it It bears date 1716. the other the Pucelle or the Virgin. I first saw the Messie I could not believe my It was covered throughout and uniformly with thick rich red-brown varnish. without inserting ribs. his He lengthened the neck. I have heard the faintest vanishing whisper of its strings on the Covent Garden stage when. it but never allowed Tarisio bought his to be played upon. The Messie was of that remarkable secured by Vuillaume after the death man Luigi Tarisio. and own death in 1854 it was exhibited (No. 91) in the South Kensington Loan Exhibition of 1872. as a boy. he fixed it to a block placed outside the Count Cozio de Salabue had bought it in 1760. laid on with a firm brush. but. one is called the Messie. and presented to her by the Earl of Dudley wonderful and some in his others. I shall never forget the it effects elicited from by the great magician Ernst is difficult palmy days. Tarisio would never let possessed it . and for the first time unveiled beneath glass to the gaze of admiring thousands. new neck.

especially in his later must have been intentional. but not heavy and massive like some of the elegance. that it eye not tolerating even the suggestion of mechanical uniformity. The " Messiah varnish back is in two pieces.£2000 has As it of Edinburgh now been played upon. and I venture to say that seems a pity that the woi'ld should not sometimes its be allowed to hear voice . gi-eat Del Gesu's. The head is and graceful. thrown off like a ribbon lightly curled about the finger. It . one side of the scroll cut a little lower than the other. The Greeks worked "" similarly. It is of the grand pattern. "the scroll. in which two of our finest violinists should be invited to play on the Messiah 77 . no two sides of their Corinthian capitals ever quite matching. and drawn in. his artistic period. Crawford for .'" as I have elsewhere observed. the Messiah recently bought by Mr. The istic black outline was artistically conceived. a well-advertised concert. seemed to have the workshop only the day before varnish was upon the anointed glitter of the fresh it it. always so character- a part of violin physiognomy. as it called full attention to the scroll curve. looked hardly dry. full a practice One "y" is a shade lower than the other so common with Strad. and completely covered with this —of no other specimen can light be said. but beautiful as a of a certain special grace and Pheidian carving.— VIOLINS level AT CREMONA left and lavish. only faint traces of this remain in other violin heads. the lines of the scroll are picked out with thick black paint. the corners are absolutely unrubbed.

To me each is there seems to be to choose between them a distinct conception. and the lengthened finger-board which the develop- ment of advanced virtuosity demands. the belly is a little higher than that of the Messiah.e. not been interfered with i. and the Pucelle i. . All the old violins have had these bars strengthened. so that the audience violins might hear the same under different fingers would be an epoch in the musical world. thus giving four solos. but ful by others. with the Messiah's graceful The head is stronger and less than that of some Strads (the Dolphin's. Her contour.e. for instance) the Virgin's back is in two parts. its The "Virgin" so called interior organism had. although her varnish is a good deal rubbed in places. is by some considered less gi'acelittle more graceful than that of the Messiah.— — OLD VIOLINS — . These readjustments the Pucelle owes to Vuillaume. Vuillaume's hands. is The because Pucelle or Virgin the last Stradivari violin is I have space to notice. repair about her is The only vestige of where the chin has rubbed into the 78 .. and their necks lengthened. rather contrasting bi-ight red. She is in fine preservation otherwise. The an- nouncement would doubtless pack other St. James's or any London hall.. each player upon each instru- ment once. is The Virgin's varnish of a rich soft brown and yellow tone. up to the time when it came into M. so fanciful are even good judges. the inside bass bar had never been touched. to meet the strain of the modern high-pitch tension of the strings on the belly.

seldom seen without a chisel in his hand. Glanday. there is a rather marked indentation of the ciu-ve beneath them.a VIOLINS purfling. sought for and admired impartially by the less ideal. or come round or criticise a carelessly cut scroll of . and hanging away in the lower bouts. — perhaps rather gaunt figure. a banker. and the great republic of Art dominates the ages. and passed to his heir. I sometimes seem to see the gi'and old man standing at the door of his modest but comfortable house tall. thin. In vain does imagination seek to recover the image of the great maker as he lived and his being shine. AT CREMONA Tlie which has accordingly been renewed. running straight out in the top bouts. Behold him just risen from his to superintend stool. Virgin is The in labelled 1709. most likely not for ever mental pro- a man of many words. friends and the foes of his country. and very jealously guarded by her owner. She is now the property of is a member of the same family. 1840 (of course it is a Tarisio violin) it has been owned by Mons. moved and had local dis- through ninety-three years of shower and Undisturbed by petty sieges and turbances and changes of administration. le Roy. and comprehends whilst it survives the rise and fall of dynasties and empires. Mons. carrying on cesses connected with his subtle handicraft. comei-s are somewhat fancifully cut. and she reached Paris . he wrought out calmly his own match- Violins have no politics.

80 the original . and stands for a moment looking down the street. or Monsignor C. but they do not stop to speak to him. so patrons or patrons' emissaries had to sit down at Cremona and wait on the master's convenience for else. he mutters a rebuke or rectifies a curve. and exhort him to more finement. or Padre B. a sovereign going then nearly as far as five go now. but we must remember that the value of money was far greater in those days. and before he goes up into air. Capelmeister A. The old man comes to the door. and get for reply ser- something too enigmatic or oracular to be of any vice . they Only later. will chat re- with Joseph Guarnerius. at the cafe-cabaret. he salutes the neighbours as they pass.OLD VIOLINS Bergonzi. He sold his violins for ^10 (=£^0). or tell his sons they will never uphold the if reputation of the firm as it is they do not work harder . that almost sacred attic. his best pupil . in those moments of rare leisure when he emerges with the regularity of clockwork to sip his vino or sirop or coffee. the masterpieces that could be got nowhere His prices seem to have been altogether moderate. where hang the varnished fiddles and anointed strips a-drying. and at known that the master detests interruptions home. open to the at the top of the house. he for that. He wears his woollen nightcap and his inevitable leather apron. know he has no leisure it may be. inquire timidly may surprise him for a chat. and when the violoncello or quartett of violins ordered are likely to be ready.

fresh from still my the house of Stradivari. the blessed soft airs his jour- 81 . nails upon which he hung up And I saw out upon the north the wide blue sky. and bathed with ineffable tints in the cool of the evening when the light lay low upon vinery and hanging garden. for there seems to have been a proverb current at Cremona. money. to place the reader in the atmosphere in which Antonio Stradivari worked for more than half a century. and what a sky full of clear sun in the morning. and flecked here and there with orange streaks prophetic of sunset. pai'agraph I gave a full description of the great maker s . entourage. he must have made. on the old towers of S. Cremona. fell if he looked north his eye Marcel lino and S. full of pure heat all day. if he looked west the Cathedral with its tall campanile rose dark against the sky. An- tonio. at the distance of over a decade. with the sun his helper. then standing in the Piazza Roma. just mellowing to rich purple. I stood in the open loft at the top of his house where still in the old beams stuck the rusty old his violins. Here. Although he had a large family. up in the high 6 air. if not inherited. or spangled with ruddy gold the eaves the roofs and frescoed walls of the houses. which I need not here repeat but a single I may serve better than anything that can now write. Whenever Stradiuarius looked up from his work.— ! VIOLINS price of his violoncellos AT CREMONA and violas does not seem to be known." visit to Some yeai's ago. " As rich as Stradivari. the light his minister.

the S. his funeral tablet was rescued. what time the work-a-day noise of the city rose ears. both of his wives and six of his eleven children. registering the number of his years in each case. certainly full of marvellous vigour. evidently worn out natu- and nobly. his dying only nine months before him. with an old man's natural pride. the Chapel of the Rosary in the Church of all his Domenico. opposite to which he had lived was pulled down. and the sound of matins and vespers was in his through the long warm days worked Antonio Stradivari. or in the parish of unable to ascertain. and it is from one of the latest of these. He rally sank quietly to rest. unpalsied senses. dated 1736. that we know his age. When S. it is and now in the ? Town in Hall at Cremona. Anno Many last wife of his family had preceded him to the grave. simple inscription: Matthew. but. life.!* was —"Sepolcro 1729. Before the time came for the busy hand to fail Antonio ceased to sign sign a few all the violins that he made. Canipo Santo I of Cremona. he continued to down to the year of his death." The tablet bears the following di Antonio Stradivari E svoi Eredi. if not with his eye quite undimmed still and his natural strength unabated. but in the present family where are his ashes Are they vault of the Stradivaris. a signifi- cant and painful event in a life so regular and unevent82 .OLD VIOLINS neymen. and unduUed perception.

The name worthy. Domenico is now the Piazza Koma. who appears to spend his time chiefly at Milan. in the parish of S. but in one belong- ing to Signer Francesco Vitani. and afterwards occupied Stradivari's own house with his son. several years ago recently. at reflect to receive lustre. and when an average Cremonese is asked about Stradivari. Domenico was pulled down . in violin-making The achievements up in the up to the first quarter of the eighteenth century are clearly summed names 'of Antonio Stradivari and Giuseppe (del Gesii) Guameri. . It would be an interesting and thorny question to excellence have since debate whether any variations of importance or additions in been noticeable. resent the notion that a man in good society should ever have had ancestors connected with Sic transit. 83 . their mantle and something of their Carlo Bergonzi was Stradivari's favourite pupil. if of Carlo Bergonzi at once stands out as not to be bracketed with that of the two least mighty men. he lived next door. AT CREMONA and one which may not unnaturally have hastened his own end.VIOLINS ful. Domenico vault. The Church of S. and of course we naturally look to the best Cremonese makers. the house of Stradiuarius was destroyed only The Piazza S. and may possibly fiddle-making. who followed these giants of tone-power and sweetness. None of the family seem to have been buried in the S. Matthew so it may be Antonio lies there. he thinks of the fashionable avocat of that name.

and fii"st followed at Stradivari's example. the feeble. and some othei-s after his death collected from the debris of the great man's workshop. left and Stradivari him all his tools and plant. To what extent he succeeded must be decision left to the judgment and of connoisseurs. for as Antonio his early fiddles on the pattern of Nicolo Amati. bell-like sweetness of the Stradivari. Bergonzi conceived the ambition of attempting to weld the power of Giuseppe Guamerius with the round. scraping. and he won it.OLD VIOLINS He issued finished many of his master's late violins. the opera house. later on. He made But worked at Cremona between 1720-47 or 50. and before the death of the old man. This dominant idea has modified even looks bold and loud. He Yet is the pattern not Guarneri. past. bright. and muffled was a thing of the The was instrument had finally emerged from the no longer to be a mere adjunct to the voice sacristies in dim and cathedral choirs in the . their powerful sonority. so did Bergonzi closely copy the grand Strad pattern. which his no doubt. and the gi-and musical arenas of solo virtuosity. And so undoubtedly what Bergonzi aimed at was body of tone and carrying power. its sphere henceforth its was to be out wide wide world. 84 . triumphs were to be won in the concert room. his pattern. that he clearly saw for all violins of the must be the indispensable quality future. but the grand quality for violins are increasingly appreciated is. cloister. The old tinkling days were over viol tone .

also characteristic The scroll is — flatter in some places than that of his master. velvety. is now are. is massive. the scarcity of his instruments . His working was but about twenty-five years. but assertion made to look bold and full of selfby reason of the strongly defined and promi- nent curl of the ear. I. only about sixty authentic instruments of his life known. may in part account for this but in France. is of a red Cremona brown. In Count Cozio 85 . The whole the laid fittest. a certain bold angularity about the bouts. Sears of Boston. and quite the right sort. and fully especially in England.VIOLINS AT CREMONA Notice the larger breadth of but Stradivari modified. and said in specimens to have cracked and become scurfy. development of the lower part of the violin as well the sound-holes set lower and nearer flat to the purfling. and a freer . Two is notable Bergonzi violins are those in the possession of Miss Eissler and Signor Simonetti. and some It tear it is even clotted in places. build . recognised and much sought There however. Until within the last few years Bergonzi has not received his dues . the top curve. which stands out and at once challenges attention. and the model which Stradivari discovered to be favourable to loudness. not of is of the strongest. he after. to allow . There a famous Bergonzi double-bass of singularly possession of fine quality now in Mr. The very varnish for wear is on with a lavish hand. The Bergonzi if will outlast the Strad it will be the survival.

where he died. five There were sons . but Count Cozio de Salabue. other Bergonzis —a son and grand- made fiddles. His son.OLD VIOLINS de Salabue''s collection there were two very line Bergonzi violins. his model flat. lived at Lorenzo Guadagnini (1695-1740). but without the gi-ace of Antonio. but returned to die in his native town. In fact. bom He at Piacenza. His make is bold. it I have called Bergonzi Stradivari's best would be very unfair to ignore the merit of poses as a pupil of Stradivari. dated 1731 and 1733. Willy Hess equal to the best of Lorenzo's work. and at last to Turin. quite He was always changing his place of residence. is careful to mention that Giovanni Battista Guadagnini prided himself upon being no mere copyist. his head original. 1786. about 1795 he removed to Milan after leaving his master at Cremona. and were far surpassed by some other makers who themselves belong to the decline period of the Cremona they all school. who thought very highly of him and bought several instruments from him. but they were of no account. His own explanation was that the envy of 86 rivals made . is the Guadagnini in the hands of Mr. esteemed than his imitated Stradivari perhaps more closely than his father. but Cremona till about 1740. 1711- made violins which are almost more highly father's. Giovanni Battista. his varnish not so rich as his master's. and wandered from Piacenza to Milan. Although pupil. the only one of that name who He was born In at Piacenza.

But he came to him when the Cremona art was already perfected. and to this day his instruments. father and son. especially his matchless violoncellos — alas ! too few in number —are little if at all inferior to the best of Antonio. but of these first two. but it is much more special impoi-tant to notice the influences chief makers worked than to identify under which the them with towns. . the Venetian. assisting in all probability at the very manufacture of the most wonderful instruments in the world." as the novelist Charles Reade called him. and studied the finest models. the " mighty Montagnana. account It has been the fashion to separate the Italian makers into schools according to the place at which they happened to live the Milanese. violoncellos at Venice. the Bolognese. A Cremonese who works at Venice but is still carries the Cremonese traditions with him belongs to the Cremona school. &c. and Thus. and survived three years. There were seven Guadagninis made the violins between 1695 and 1881. made Cremona violins and He worked between 1700-40 bis master only as a pupil of Stradivari. Montagnana^s outline is by no means a 87 servile copy . but his neighbours said that his frequent migrations were due to his hot temper. alone need be taken of. With such a training.VIOLINS AT CREMONA own who each town too hot for him. on his amval at Venice he easily took the lead and kept it. the — Neapolitan. a Cremonese.

Up till then all the Cremona violins have the Cremona varnish. In his varnish we notice the singular change which came over the Cremona varnish after about 1760. Strad and Giuseppe Guarnei'i. makers These frauds are great successors who had the vogue of the day. It is flattened at top . Montagnana. but he copied him more in rough work than in his great qualities. Bergonzi. He from having often been labelled Guarnerius or Bergonzi. and Storioni. too. now being unmasked. As I noticed in the case of Bergonzi. flat. Joseph Guarnerius. he second to none. and bottom. honour which due to him. Balestrieri (very fine in Montagnana.OLD VIOLINS of Stradivari. after that time it simply disappears. big build. powerful tone). have at last a chance of taking their proper places and fetching their prices. and Guadagnini's style. the relative thickness of his slabs. Guadagnini. his glorious varnish. Montagnana no doubt embodies and transplants to Venice the Cremona secrets. and the few of the Cremona giants. and in the cunning knowledge of those likely to fibre den- sities in back and belly which are is sound well together. Why is it? This 88 . and seems to the eye less graceful but in his selection of wood. owing to the paucity of his instruments as well as to the splendour of his contemporaries. has not until is lately received the suffers. When we come come to the any show of last to Lorenzo Storioni (1769-99) we maker of importance who can with a second or model was his Storioni's plausibility be called even third rate master of Cremona.

the approved flat scroll is one of the golden age. A violin remark- able for its tone is the Gennaro Gagliano that has been used by Mr. the ffaxe set low down. of course. Alessandro are associated with the Neapolitan school. and It see is the work is sometimes lacking in finish. Storioni's instruments are not much esteemed England in Italy. craft. in the varaish of Alessandro Gagliano that we some con- nection with Stradivari. but his small and rather mean. carrying with him the Cremona school. 1695-1730. Alessandro and being a person of native Gagliano migrated to the South. but are thought a good deal more of may here fitly mention the Gagliano family. 1700-37. but really derive their importance from Gagliano. classify Attempts have been made to the various towns in which Italian violins were made during the Cremona period into schools. Otto Peiniger for solo purposes during many years. who Cremona. no doubt. life Alessandro Gagliano was actually in early fide a bond pupil of Stradivari. un- mercifully overshadowed by the prestige of the immortal workshops in the Square of S.VIOLINS interesting problem I AT CREMONA shall have to consider in my in chapter on Cremona varnish. Finding himself. which is about as profit- 89 . the first of the name. his vamish very often being fine in colour and of the right texture. enterprise. and founded the so-called Neapolitan His model was. Domenico at Cremona. I as yet. was distinguished for his very fine red varnish.

and not to mix them up with the great central figures which have formed the subject. Some fine Venetian and Milanese makers like Mon- tagnana and Serafino inclined to Stainer. arched belly. i. to treat style. the Stainer model. Venice.e. for the sake of completeness. gentle greater Antonio influence with curves. with its elongated form. find but two influences great its . the Nicolo. but Stainer himself learnt at Cremona. for them later more in catalogue the guidance of the student.OLD VIOLINS able an occupation as the attempts to divide the work of individual niakei-s into distinct periods —one period —the runs into another. and Bologna can also boast of a few respectable names. you Cremona. naturally attracted good makers like Grancino. and brown-yellow varnish. the Giuseppe and form. and I hope absorbed the attention. flat and red and yellow varnish and the German. Florence. The Milanese school.e. Testore (pupil of Grancino). Roughly speaking. 90 . whilst the Roman and the best (Naples) Neapolitan adhered more to the Cremona all type . deep side-grooves. and Pietro Giovanni Mantegazza (16871720). but I prefer. and men like Tecchler (Rome) and Gagliano who went South copied either Stradivari or Giuseppe Guarnerius. of the reader of this section. i. on account the great importance of of the capital. and one school runs into another. of which I shall presently speak.

has rather upset the idea that the kit was a reduced violin. and an ingenious writer has now unearthed a by Maso Fineguerra. question. by this time. is thus triumphantly argued by Mr. originated in Germany. the kit being in reality a small violin. by the way. the . on the contrary. Fleming that of. the father of engraving about 1460. in which Thalia is represented playing on a small violin pochette or kit —which. Shebek. that the the kit instead of the kit following It violin followed the violin. faster alas ! —can like and cheaper than anywhere and if we trust to German believe writers Dr. not say the violin. I am quite willing to leave the viol origin an open If. we might to almost that viols. even the predecessor and every suggestion 91 of. VI GERMANY knows that most things be made in Germany else. "every schoolboy. on the one hand. Benvenuto his father Cellini tells us that long before 1500 print made the finest Italian viols at Florence. but seems to show. violins —including. Albert Diirer and his father-in-law both made violins and dated back to 1500.CHAPTER VIOLINS IN Of course." to use Macaulay"'s famous phrase.

" an English picture with a tomahawk and a boomerang.OLD VIOLINS violin came from Italy. such questions It is of quite secondary importance. a German whose instruments are remarkable for a as Sir full and piercing tone. he had ever seen. but kit. were all the rage when good Sir John may have a little blinded his eyes to the if Cremona chefs-d'ceuvre —few of which. and that the greatest." fiddles The popularity of an English maker. As we approach the great figure of Stainer we are in the presence of a man who stands only second in popular estimation to the gi-eatest of the Cremona masters. commonly reputed to have studied at Venice. if not the earliest. I do not assume at once that the objects depicted were necessarily " made in England. But it is no small tribute to the power of the German that for at least a hundred years he retai'ded the due 92" . and whose wrote." But. any. Indeed. or. Jacobus Steiner or Stainer. Duke. so great a musician and eminent an authority John Hawkins ^vrites in 1776: "The violins of Cremona are exceeded {sic) only by those of Stainer. sufficient to notice that the first tinctive features of instruments possessing the discall what we from the viola and the violin. is German maker. as distinguished the viol tribe. as some say. who followed the German Stainer model. came from Brescia and Cremona. learnt his ai-t under Nicolo Amati at Cremona. in his ardour he fails to notice that although an Italian print shows a woman playing on a the kit she plays on might all the in same have been " made If I see Germany. as far as this book are is concerned.

Whether he went home the village belle or stayed home and mamed whom he appears seven first to have compromised. who died at Hall in 1877 : Jacob Steiner or Stainer was undoubtedly born at Absam. Poems and novels have been written about this unhappy child of genius. at story of his having been a pupil of the gi-eat is Nicolo. but. but it must a boy he came under Nicolo Amati's influence. and who bore him daughters and one son after marriage and one daughter before. The arguments Cremona in favour of Stainer having visited life rest in his early a good deal on romance said to have refused to —the marry. France. as far as I can gather. The great argument against Steiner ever having received early instruction at Cremona seems to be that he affected the tubby raised bellies and deep side-grooves of the old German be remembered that if as viols . and lutes amongst other things to and fro.— VIOLINS IN — GERMANY recognition of the Ci-emonas and gave a faulty direction to the violin pattern throughout England. and they have been quite recently unearthed and sifted by Herr Ruf. for mules and pedlars constantly earned all sorts of merchandise T—viols. a village not far from Hall. lay on the high-road between the Tyrol and and doubtless nothing that went on in the northern cities of Lombardy was long in finding its way to Hall. the only reliable facts seem to be these. whose daughter he is unreliable. and violins. it matters very little to us. it was at a time when Nicolo him93 . The townlet Italy. and Germany.

Thirdly. and never went to Cremona at all. and which was then common throughout the violin-making world. and German he mained. as fast as he could and was turning out instruments 94 make them. the meagi'e facts of this remarkable man's Stainer's popularity was so enormous that ten times the number of violins he could ever have made have been attributed to him. remain more interesting to the antiquarian than to the collector. Secondly. interest Still. perhaps from motives of national pride. forming such admirable pupils as Klotz . accentuated it Germano more. that re- All these questions. already formed. that he visited Cremona later.— OLD VIOLINS self approached far more nearly the raised viol form therefore consistent with all than he did later on when his own model improved. he advanced rapidly in became violin-maker to the Emperor's court. and wsis appointed one of the Archducal servants. 1669 favour. The Steiner pattern : is these theories Firstly. Stainer married in 1645. an indescribable and a deep human pathos seem to cling about life. and his name has been forged quite as often as that of the great Stradivari. and was too proud German he was. that Steiner adopted the raised pattern which he found at Cremona. when his own model was to alter it. returning early to Absam. that. he adhered to it. upon which much ink and paper have been spent. . and.

and incompetent family may even have contributed to this so unhappy close of a splendid but blighted career. like a shot down. Jacobus petitioned the Emperor Leopold. in 1689. The attentions of his wife and eight daughters did not prevent him from going nay.VIOLINS IN and Albani. Stainer seems to have dragged on a wretched existence for six years longer. He was. overburdened with care and debt. and run. or both. a helpless mad with worry and want. he was very soon. and who was a great musical amateur. Leopold turned a deaf ear to the immortal violin-maker. fell GERMANY a victim to the odium Heretical books were found in his possession. and a Lutheran in far too near to the preserves of Absam was Mother Church. as Stainer was also miserably in debt. who won for himself an easy immortality . He died in 1683. by supplying Wagner with funds. whose protege and employe he had been. when he theohgicum. hawk on a pheasant litigious. They show even now the wretched at Absam the bench to which man is said to have been bound when his paroxysms came on. His wife died in great poverty six years in this ssid life-story for his afterwards. having got out of prison. not only insane but insolvent. in fact. There seems no room 95 . a Lutheran. or heretical opinions were expressed by him. Leopold lost his opportunity unlike Ludwig of Bavaria. and perhaps somewhat people of genius and independence of character are wont to be. for money. In 1677.

said to have lost both of them in a shipwreck. least his household more thriftily. called Peter is and Paul. brought into it those business faculties abilities in without which the most brilliant every de- partment of life so often make shipwreck. for of 96 . as we learn from a tombstone in the Pilgrims"' Church at Absam. on the other hand. and the one son. it is difficult and illus>- to connect with the trious Jacob. trial to patrons. whose reputed date citizen is about 1665-69. Herr von Reimer possesses a violin with label "Markus Steiner Burger und Geigenmacher. another eminent soloist. rescued him from moved the hearts of his great saved him from going mad. deprived the great artificer of a coadjutor who might have been interested in building up the firm. managed his debts. although he has been called his brother.OLD VIOLINS sentimental retreat into a monastery on account of his inconsolable grief for the death (?) of his wife. A certain Marcus Stainer. perhaps. Veracini. and. and who called himself violin-maker. and that is all that can be ascertained about this other Stainer. and some say he was a monk and actually Stainer in the workshop. by the way). or at But. born in 1657 and dying in infancy. we might have expected her to have kept her gifted husband alive. Had she been such an inestimable blessing. eight daughters were doubtless a a couple who seemed always hard up . assisted Jacob The two of great violinist Tartini is said to have possessed this man''s instruments. anno 1659" (not a very clerical label.

may be seen is in the famous Elector twelve. the its kept up through half length . and forgeries are innu- merable. His something akin to the Amatis . that arrest the attention of even must a casual obsei'ver. and one of the greatest curses of the fiddle market. one of these he said to have made 97 . dated 1645. deep Amati a lion's aide-grooves. the varnish is yellow (or as in the Elector Stainers). ill-fated genius Jacob Alone he remains . as the one important rival of the Cremonese school all alone he stands at the head of the Germans.VIOLINS IN GERMANY is an Andreas Stainer. is one in the possession of Mr. copies. The rise is Stainer belly is much higher than the back. Russell of Bedale. the circular-topped sound-holes rather shorter than the Cremonese. The early pattern. beautifully thrown end of the sometimes head carved with the art of a Stradivari. shaped. contrasting with the palish-yellow belly earlier specimens bear varnish —such A are the leading characteristics of the great Jacob. . good example of them Jacob's finest type Stainer 7 . The general look of a Stainer is so distinct from that it of any maker except such as copied him. So everything tends to keep the apart. 1660. with a sort of pale-rose flush in it. nothing but the name known. they are also of the smaller pattern. the close to the sides of the strong. peg-box often dark brown. Genuine Stainer instruments are rai-e Stainer labels. Yorkshire. narrow purfling lying roundly moulded edges. the longscroll.

The popular legend but there . pungent contrast tone that —the type of original was quite new. after musicians in the seventeenth century were only beginning to be cultivated in the delicate appreciation of tone nuances. J. no shadow of proof that he ever was there at all perhaps. and as the may have been a obscure Guarneri who he del did get locked up seems to be responsible by transference for the great Joseph so Gesu's legendary for incarceration. beauty. if one Markus Stairier who is reputed to have made Peter and Paul was a monk. that epoch. most connoisseurs are agreed that the two quite authentic "survivals of the fittest" are miracles of workmanship. perfection of Stainer tone. and it may have been the sharp. when the Elector Stainers were made. Benedictine monk. less tonal difference between the early Amati and the later Strad than between the Amati and the full-blown Stainer.OLD VIOLINS for each of the Electors. Stainer's Monk Markus may do duty It reputed sojourn and residence in a Benematters very little dictine monastery. and the there about that tone. For. as it were an creation —which at once arrested and held the ear of all. The Stainer tone ! What is which for 150 years so fascinated the musical world as to dull the perceptions of so experienced a professor as Sir John Hawkins to the more exquisite timbre of the finest Cremonas ? No one but myself is responsible Perhaps there early is for the following conjecture. The pi'oof of 98 . however. refers is them to his Benedictine monastery.

difFerences would not be far to seek. The Stainer tone is a sort of drastic. tickled and "grise. almost an intoxication and the ear that has it. to the ear." as the French 99 by his wiry . Thus. of violin exploration and discovery in 1827. or absinthe to the palate. biting tone of A violinist in all the the orchestra could first fiddles. too When. With a bound he reached the opposite pole. make his Stainer cut through and once the it taste for that sort of tone was excited. that the between the Amati. should not have been more clearly apprehended. would be to the ear what curry. stinging stimulant . The superb qualities of the great Joseph have been appreciated only since the Strad craze. a man —had bought a Ruggerius and find that —an orchespaid for a Joseph. dying only in 1854. by the sharp. He was the very antipodes of the tubby. for instance. the Guarnerius. muffled sound of the old viols. or the superb ringing brightness of the great Antonio. the Strad. and the Bergonzi or Ruggerius. tral leadei-. the exquisite velvety timbre of Amati. who began arrested his work clear. in his own original way. but the world-wide cult of Strad dates from Tarisio. or quinine bitter. Stainer met the crying want of his age for loud and piercing tone. or is vinegar. been once caught by it craves for and misses it even in the loud richness of Joseph. though to us amazing. But any tyro would be Stainer.VIOLINS IN this GERMANY It is quite notorious. The coarse ears of the multitude were at once say. we do not it until he was label dissatisfied with he discovered that the was false.

and the really splendid qualities which we grant un- grudgingly to the best of them. all to have their ears Just in proportion as music developed and the musical ear got trained to higher and higher refine- ment. the forged parasites and impudent copies which have for years sailed under false colours — labels (libels. without any special gift of theirs. and desire above tickled. or the tinkle of a triangle. whilst the rage for Stainer. or the blast of cornet. a These considerations alone. and in the cabinets of collectors. prices. Klotz. declined. and Duke The I have no wish to disparage these last-named fine artificers. in my opinion. awakened attention like the roll of a drum. and soloists soon found that it was an immense help to wield a novel and stinging timbre which. who like pungency. and I fully expect that in years there will be a revival of the Stainer craze. and that in this shaking in auction rooms. just in that measure did the great and subtle qualities of the Cremona school emerge. for the popularity of Stainer in all ages the bulk of hearers belong to the musically untrained. must always make a few them much prized. increasing rarity of their instruments. so that specialities of tone became a cult for the ear. I mean) 100 . as specialities of colour for the eye. and that his violins shall may if then touch Cremona . I be very glad they do it will mean that at last we shall get something like a definite sifting of this great master's best specimens. account .OLD VIOLINS intensity .

they ought certainly to have married his eight daughters and relieved him of some of his heavy family responsibilities. and Albani but as it became the fashion to dub every one who made respectable violins in Germany about that time. Germany with Of the is great violin manufactory which. a pretty steady stream of pseudotill (or scuula) Stainers poured forth from Mittenwald about the year 1750. but lived it is certain that. relationship uncertain. and showed traces of the Stainer model. modem writers have grown properly cautious about dogmatising. Sebastian of Mit. Sebastian Klotz or Kloz (1675) and his son Mathias (1696-1709) made excellent the son's to the father's. Vidal says that his sons inundated false Stainers." things will fall off into the The best pupils and followers of Stainer were Klotz . and some prefer There were. violins. family adhered he and his mainly to the Stainer model. tenwald visited Florence and Cremona but although when he returned to his native town he announced his intention of making a second Cremona of Mittenwald. said to have revived the re- commercial prosperity of the town.VIOLINS IN GERMANY — limbo of violin refuse and other " made in Germany. and reproduced very successfully the Stainer tone. If all Stainer's reputed pupils had really worked with him. four other Klotz. on the suppression of the Mittenwald Fair in the seventeenth century. whilst the Klotz family and worked. no trace now mains . besides. *' pupils " of the great man. 101 .

and rival the Amati tone. where mention made of an Albani fiddle which he left with the memorandum that it had belonged to Corelli. Hennell (1898). made few. but Albani pere (1621-73) was certainly Italian. Arthur Hill of the late the William Corbet. Arthur Hill great credit. violins. 102 His instruments . Albanis are more highly esteemed than the violins of Albani pere. It is further significant of Albani's Italy. played on an Albani. which . is and disposed of them in his will. in the Italian Tyrol. who had a large collection of rare fiddles. is Tecchler.OLD VIOLINS The Albani family. if seems to have made few. any. the best of which ''cellos very hard. stand midway between the Cremona and the Absam school. This a very interesting example of a carefully excavated fact. strange. Corelli. E. violoncellos he worked Rome between 1695 and 1735. they are varnished red. like the Tecchler. although his son also Joseph was with the Cremona model. is and does Mi". examination made by Mr. W. also called a pupil of Stainer. perhaps most esteemed run the Strad 'cello is in for his violoncellos. A very fine Tecchler the possession of Mr. though he was born and lived at Botzen. Tecchler is and there are as his master in several others in this country. and the Joseph Albani's violins pass for Italian. where he style made German bitten fiddles in the Italian and for the Italian market. that the popularity in most accomplished maestro and comThis appears certain from an will of poser of the early part of the eighteenth century. if any.

nothing so good as Stainer was done there before him. of German violin-making begins and ends with Jacobus Stainer. 103 . and nothing equal to The golden age him has been done there since. to say the least. The subsequent history of "violins made in Germany" is. are sometimes rather cumbrous like Stainer's^ his varnish is yellow. very mixed.VIOLINS IN GERMANY .

and Fendts. instead Ward's future. which drew at once the patronage of the 104 . but it seems as if France and England had to look forward. and so. into golden quality. and probably of being. Forsters. with very advanced prices . no doubt accounted for by the streams of violins pouring out of the Italian and German workshops. France and England have never yet gone beyond a doubtful silver age. whilst thinning out by wear and tear and loss older gems. behind them. the superior reputation of Cremona. but also the Banks. The French work contemporaneous with the Cremona period is not nearly so interesting. and perhaps the Vuillaumes and Chanots. they may still be found to have their future before them. but there is good reason to the think that the manipulation and alchemy of time. will not only transform the Piques and Lupots. nor do the makers appear to have been nearly so capable as the men who followed them towards the This is close of the seventeen hundreds.CHAPTER VII VIOLINS IN FRANCE Italy and Germany have to look back to their golden age. like Artemus the Dukes and Hills.

brown. he varnished pale red. arching even a little more than Jerome. against him except Claude Pieray (1700-25) worked in Paris. His violins have not yet reached a high rise. in the luxurious palities. Duchies and Princi- the churches. but tells it lacks power. but may possibly they are by no means scarce. selling figure. warm and He reverted to the Jerome Amati type. which in these advanced days for cabinet playing. which had already been left behind by the modified forms of Stradivari (1700 great period).VIOLINS IN FRANCE Spanish and French Courts. and it came to pass that Italy and Germany made for the world. Jaques Boquay (1705-30) and Boquay worked on the early Cremonese model. his varnish is reddish soft. The Cremona Pieray (1700-25). the thickness of his wood. is The quality of his tone good. as well as in little French work. and not always securing the best quality of wood. but he was far enough removed from the Cremonese influence to follow a line of his own. and in the small Electorates. violin-making flourished. some think capriciously. and 105 . and Roman Catholic. period in France can boast of but two considerable names. and perhaps the small de- mand for stringed the huge demand instruments in France compared with in Italy and throughout Germany. and followed the later Amati contour. transparent. for So there was a poor market as yet In Italy. each of which supported Germany in its band Reformed so all and gave an indirect impetus to the churches. Whilst varying.

106 . immortalised ' The This Fent in England. the Pieray and Amati being too obvious. A Tom violin of Pieray''s was advertised in the coal-heaver. famous for his varnish copyist. had not of Cremona. is no relation. But the really great silver-gilt if not golden age of French violin-making dawned with Lupot (1736-58). are sufficient to decide for ever the superiority of the Strad model over all others. but he evidently the late to the larger pattern of Amati sale of Strad.^ an admirable whose violins often sell as Lupot's copies of Strad. Vuillaume (17981875). which he had defined. Their lives were chiefly occupied in repi'oducing the unique Antonio minutely without attempting the least modification of the ulti- mate Cremona form. dimmed affinity the fame However. The labours of these great French disciples of Cremona. then so strong in England.^'' which shows that even at that date the Stainer influence. and Fent. The father and grandfather of Nicolas Lupot resided firm of Lupot. as far as is known. it would of course have been between absurd to compare him to Stainer. was extended by Pique (1788-1822). as Britton. dates back to 1696 or somewhat earlier. Gand (1802). Chanot (1801). and Aldric (1792- 1840). . copyists and occasional forgers as they were. to the family working whose name is spelt Fendt.OLD VIOLINS turned out a small and large pattern inclined . the musical "a very beautiful violin. and as good as a Cremona. by Nicolas Lupot (1758-1824).

and distinctly mellowing 107 . and. Luneville. But Nicolas Lupot was a gi-eat workman.VIOLINS IN FRANCE at diflFerent times at Plombiers. Of course his violins have rubbed since and aged since. and not caiTied away with the fashion of the times. But Lupot are never got rid of the glassy. he copied. or tried to take in buyers. His eye was enamoured with the Stradivari grand pattern. but Nicolas was Nicolas bom at Stuttgart in 1758. as that Hamlet modestly puts it. is the rubbing bare by time of a Lupot very different from that fading away upon the where always a subtler film fibres of a Strad. but they have aged and rubbed honestly. and his best violins are such loving and faithful copies of the great An- tonio that many amateurs and some professional judges have been deceived by them. honest as violin copyists go. protecting the wood seems to linger. and Orleans. he never aged his copies prematurely. Lupot was a man of great discernment. and varnished throughout. neither his own work nor yet his father's show any leaning towards it. he reverenced his great Cremona model too much to palm off his own work as those of the master. chippy French varnish. He returned to Orleans in 1770. and are every year increeising in value. a sort of mist of vamish to the end. and although his warm orange laid tints generous and the vamish has been on with a lavish hand. Although during the first twenty years of his life he must have seen and heard the German model of Stainer extolled. " indifferently honest "" — is. He did not imitate.

He became his best as . early in this century. which involved the manufacture of the annual prize violin to be presented to the gold medallist of the this year. but a gi-eat tribute to Still honesty is the superior popularity and merit of Lupot. Pique is quite a considerable person. and come under the criticism of all musical Paris. The moment Nicolas Lupot amved in Paris. second only to Lupot as a maker. influenced He must have been his dis- by commercial considerations. who entered 108 was much beloved by his Lupofs pupil in 1802. unvarnished. and contented himself with a fraudulent is sm-prising that he should have stooped to such a device. were recognised orders flowed in. Lupot's He was in the habit. would cer- tainly call forth the mettle of one who admittedly "took the cake. and he remained rival in the and remains without a French school. Franc^ois Gand. One of these it is rivals was Pique. He was appointed maker to the Paris Conservatoire. his said. He had better have left the varnishing alone label. his talents .OLD VIOLINS in tone and sensitive quality. and to academic privilege we are doubtless his finest eftbrts. master. Pique was so clever that he could have afforded to be honest." but was not without formidable rivals. indebted for some of A violin which would annually at the time be associated with one of the chief musical events of the year. and labelling them with own It name. of buying fiddles varnishing them.

Time has ing invented a new industry—the art of repair—which Francois Gand raised to a veritable art fine (Mennegand. Lupot. married his daughter. lack altogether the Italian grace and finish of his master. Ebsworth Hill split him). and the sin of the brazen forger. But Pique had some conscience. it fissure cannot be He would spend days over mending a crack became with him a sort of passion of ingenuity. Pique would join and mutilated grain in such a way that. Rambeaux and have since i-ivalled W. KoUiker. without the aid of a microscope. Pique (1788-1822) is by some held to have run Lupot Pique avoids at very hard as a copyist of Stradivari. He may have passed himself off as Lupot.. treats with acids. 109 . but at least he never posed as Stradivari. but The firm of and Bemadel is still of high standing in Paris. the patch or closed spotted. VIOLINS IN pupil. and simulates the cracks and the wear and tear of time. life. as some surgeons pretend that a skilful operation will not only prolong positively improve the constitution. who cannot refrain from emphasising the peculiarities of his model. and and profound to the knowledge as a repairer no doubt gave common but risky notion that an old violin was im- proved by being mended. who bakes and rubs. once the eiTor of the vulgar copyist. Gand The but violins of Fran9ois are useful and solidly built. FRANCE and succeeded to his busi- ness in the Rue Croix des Petits Champs in 1824. It was almost worth breaking a fiddle to have his exquisite skill rise it mended by Gand.

two years before will Lupot. which are already up to dggOO (1897). that he never aspired to invent anything new or alter anything old. the violinist and composer. Pique died in 1822. and was never tired of extolling both Lupot and Pique. the ingenious brain for ever evolv- ing new sorts of bows. the reverent repairer. out of which he alone could select at a moment's notice what he re- quired . with a shrewd eye to business. and his violins improve every year. . I could not find a better one than Jean Baptiste Vuillaume of Paris. 110 —the Pai-isian.OLD VIOLINS Those conversant with Pique''s instruments observe a very high and conscientious finish throughout. screws idolater of the old forms. —the careful. and the who had so firmly gi'asped the truth that violins and all that belonged to them had culminated at Cremona before the middle of the eighteenth century. A figure of Vignette of J. fiddle shapes. and the dreamy worker always apparently in the midst of a chaos of material. who . Yet the two men were very different. his customers. and by-and-by fetch prices second only to those of Lupot. the ready purveyor of whatever sort of article careless distributor of happened to be wanted. many years on a Lupot. played for Spohr. Vuillaume. B. and kept them waiting for months the clever copyist. neat. and the his wares. If I were to seek for an appropriate pendant to the in William Ebsworth Hill London. systematic enthusiast. who forgot what he owed .

and died rich . But look at Jean Baptiste lies Vuil- laume's portrait — it before me as I write: the jaunty embroidered and tasselled velvet skull-cap. the Londoner. the two great connoisseurs might well hang by side in twin frames. You it were nothing in particular to him. duke or pauper . Ill . the mouth a as we often see it in . and the tendency was born and bred in I had almost said the cult — the blood. . but differently interesting. and are rich. — Both were hereditary violin-makers. but a face that betrays a mind ever alert. and the market generally. united by a enthusiasm and speciality of craft and knowledge. and died with but a moderate competence. and the sti'ong quiet face. who made few fiddles. the well-arranged black satin tie. I can remember old Hill's dreamy gaze. the all. grave sharp look and keen eye.VIOLINS IN FRANCE made many fiddles. but repaired innumerable antiques. and famous. The force of contrast could go no further . men of speculative and ingenious minds the firm fine nose. peering at me with screwed-up eyes through his spectacles. was your fiddle that gave you the importance or the reverse in his eyes. the well-cut coat. variously unique each in his own way. you can look at the two men's faces. capable of dominating its owner's gifts. whilst the man was genuinely devoted to the art and craft which made him great. his customers. for they like two types. nay. not dreaming at but taking everything in at a glance little aslant. side Yes. and see the secret of their characters ^vrit plain enough.

Vuillaume was early saturated, in his father's work-

shop at Mirecourt, with
Paris drew the


the secrets and arts of the

trade, long before he served his apprenticeship.




then only nineteen, with



typical Parisian of Parisians, has


Hugo, that

somewhere described the Frenchman's inborn love of
his capital, the centre to

him of But


art, pleasure,



and invention.

So to Paris must

your Jean Baptiste go.

whom ?



but Chanot (Francis), incomparable worker, copyist,
forger, suitable adept, indeed, for such a bright novice.

With Chanot, Vuillaume remained
dabbled in
beck and


1821, when

he went over to Let^, the organ-builder, who also

and was glad to have at


call as

a foreman such a


the experience of Mirecourt and the craft of Chanot
at his back; in fact, he lost no time in taking the

young man into partnership, and the partner throve
years old.


well that he married in 1828, being then just thirty

Things ran smoothly with Vuillaume


his wife did

not drink, or abuse him, or waste his money.

His home

was happy, and, in the sunshine of domestic peace, his

expanded in the direction of that growing

market which was created by the taste for old



and supplied by the not always
better than Chanot.


of Chanot.

But Vuillaume went one
not's trick


was to produce such deceptive copies or 112



patch with counterfeit backs and

of his


or to forge downright a whole antique, to be foisted

upon some unwary but

ill-informed enthusiast.

Vuillaume, to his honour be


soon discerned

that the world at large could not be

won by

but that men were the slaves of imagination and

This timely and philosophic discovery made

him famous and wealthy, almost at a bound.
loved the old Italian fiddles


he had the best opporadmirable






enabled him to copy them


to counterfeit

the wear and tear, even the cracks and worm-holes, the
inlaying, the

rubbed varnish, the old wood






pounds, or even

he proposed to provide

people with new fiddles, which looked like old ones worth

or a hundred pounds.
device succeeded beyond the dreams of avarice.


Orders poured in faster than they could be executed.
Just look at the old man's

Can you not

see the

shrewdness, betrayed by that slight pucker in the

which discovered and worked
dency of


familiar tenif


nature to possess what seems,
is really


can't afford to

buy what




the secret

of cheap art,

shoddy satsuma, coarse blue china, com-



oleographs, and


Palais Royal jewellery


every bazaar reeks with

whilst the biggest

warehouses are not above selling a made-up wine that deceives the palate, a walking-stick not ebony, only
paint or stain, and furniture not really inlaid, but
ditto ditto.

So Vuillaume began early those amazing 113


copies, chiefly of Stradiuarius,

the innocent, and for a

which even now deceive moment may even puzzle a



was no doubt shoddy, but shoddy
fine art, like those

of the best sort
roses so subtly

shoddy raised to a



made out of silk or cambric that we pop them into water to prevent them from


This new-found copying industry was a delight as
well as a profit to the clever French craftsman.


loved a



he copied



men copy


old masters again and again,

they know eveiy touch

of the immortal workman, and revel in


" I have completed," remarked Vuillaume in his declining yeai"s, " three thousand instruments, all sold, all

and the money spent, and

it affords




Like Ebsworth

Jean Baptiste loved to do

it all

Every instrument was varnished



own hands, and many are made throughout by him. But what is the actual merit of Vuillaume''s violins


Fine work, yes; admirable counterfeits, yes; but the
great expectations raised by the appearances are unfortunately not always answered by the tone.

His best

are good, and will run into forty pounds, perhaps more

but his worst are dear at



Nor can


laume pretend to

rival in


his great

French pre-

Pique or Lupot, who copied, but without
of age,

registering the defects

and decay,

which are so cleverly reproduced in Vuillaume's typical



It is

an exaggeration to say that Vuillaume baked
but he treated the wood chemically in




ways, besides reproducing

and even

not only


this artificial

age put upon his planks


to carry the mellowness and timbre of

wood grown
pair instead

naturally old, but seems actually to im-

of improving






but too apparent as the instruments recede in time

and farther from the hand of the too cunning
however, a few fine quartets of instru-




ments, one of which, made for the Comte de Chimay,
lately exposed to public view in Messrs. HilFs win-





These are varnished equally

throughout, and no attempt at ageing the wood or







The work


charming and

finished, as in the best

Cremonese models, and the only wonder
everything about them
still, is is

that as

so good, the tone


But Vuillaume claims to be judged by a high standard, and so we

judge him.
Vuillaume's ingenious brain was ever devising im-

provements and novelties, but few of them have turned
out successes.

He made
use, it

a violin tenor, but


never came into

being too cumbrous.

He made




but, although hollow, it

was found to be too heavy.

He made
bridge, but

a sourdine tailpiece which acted on the

has never superseded the usual simple





He made

a self-hairing bow,


by Mr. Withers

but most


prefer to

pay a small sum and get their bows haired,

just as most


prefer to get themselves shaved

it is less trouble,

and does not cost much.
finish as

Apart from
skill as

a workman, and

a copyist, Jean Baptiste Vuillaume's



will rest largely


his connection with Tarisio.

As we have seen, he not only dealt with him
but bought

the violins found in the bedroom along

with the peasant carpenter's


His possession of the Messie, which he kept
source of great anxiety to


glass case, and never allowed any one to touch, was a

him during the




in 1870.

last I




man-ied the celebrated violinist of that

Alard, his daughter, who name " In my

spoke to you of Alard's violin and




of certain valuables I have here.

do not knaw

what to do with them,

for if one survives, one will

able to recover the valuables

when the hubbub and some sons can be buried, but violins cannot be bm'ied." And again " Where ought I to place all

these in case of pillage



referred chiefly to his violins,

and old medals

received in the Paris Exhibition from 1827 to 1855,

and the Great Exhibition medal in London, 1851. Later on we are relieved by reading " I have found

quite a safe hiding-place protected from
(Trace de la ^

fire, et

puis a

Dieu !






All went well with the treasures, and in 1875, when he
died, the Messie fell to the joint share of his only

children, Jeanne



Jeanne (Madame Alard)

bought out

Claire's interest for five

hundred pounds,

the violin at that time being valued at one thousand.

In 1890 Messrs. Hill bought

it for

Mr. R. Crawford


the unprecedented figure of two thousand pounds, the


ever given by a dealer for a single instruit


Mr. Charles Reade valued

at six hundred,

but that was several years ago, when a


could be obtained for about three hundred and twenty
Prices have run up since then, and (like " Charley's Aunt " ^ as we write) are " still running


to the

end of

his life

Vuillaume was a great

and he hurried over to London when quite an
to attend the sale of Mr. Gillot's fiddles.



mistook the date, and arrived a day after the

He He

came into Mr.


shop in Wardour Street, and gave

vent to his disappointment.



whom he always

when in London, had bought several instruments, and had a second deal with Vuillaume then and


to the Frenchman's gratification.



interesting to catch this glimpse of the

two greatest
to face for

of the age


one moment, and in such friendly and characteristic


popular comedy (1898).






an amusing fact that hardly a Continental writer

on musical instruments, M. Vidal excepted, has thought

worth while to give any reasoned account of the

English viol and violin-makers who have occupied such

a distinguished place in the
I heard the other

histoi-y of the art.

day of an American school






the islands in the world as unim-

portant details calculated to confuse the minds of



England, of course, being a small

was one of the

to disappear.

The names of Barak Norman, Banks, Forster, and Duke may be somewhat confusing, but we must risk
the mention of them just for the sake of an approxi-

mate completeness.




that in Queen Elizabeth''s time the Eng-

were really almost a musical people.


the viols came across from the


Countries or Ger-


many or from Italy has never seemed to me a matter much importance. Undoubtedly the viol and its
is cloisteral,


and that means

Italian, since

the arts along with Christianity spread from the

great Italian centres

—Rome, Florence, Milan, Brescia

still and tapestries dazzle us behind glass at the South Kensington in such Elizabethan Museum. it rise the Italian singing-schools of whilst the viols. who first began to compose and play har- . and for a short time it England were even going to lead the art of viol manufacture. silks. or gems of Renaissance seem to architecture as Knole and Hatfield."" Modern music cadence. culminate in the Brescian Maggini and the Cremonese Amati patterns (the very word Madrigala. or in these gorgeous brocades. The father of Galileo the astronomer declared in lutes were at that time 1583 that the best made in England. a little loosely perhaps: " The viol passed from the Italians to the English. the viols were genuinely naturalised and acclimatised seemed as if in England. " and J. viols is Italian and clois- teral).VIOLINS IN ENGLAND is and in Elizabeth's time Italian influence in English music as it is as marked that in the Shakspearian drama. rises in Elizabeth's reign with Monte Verde and the discovery of the octave and the perfect Along with Naples . the hymn of the Mother of God. and we know that lute-making and viol- making so invariably went together that in France and Italy the violin-maker is to this day called a " lutier . improved to meet the new demands. J. which touch as with the glory of a foreign world the palatial seats " of our old nobility. and the which accompanied such part- songs were doubtless of Italian origin. for all that. But. Rousseau remarks.

's band (1625) there were "eleven 120 . and we have to flesh. the and the also devil. moreover." everything that the savoured of festivity was tabooed. In Charles I. and mutilated our cathedrals throughout had by this time crept out of the cloister and joined hands with the frivolous Rebek. At all events. and who imparted the knowledge to other kingdoms. the concert room. but music in any secular forms was mightily discouraged its by the it Puritans. and that he. Viols art. whilst in higher religious form was associated with Prelacy and Papacy. But the move- ment did not go on. used at fairs and pothouses. all sincere religion. and I cannot for a moment doubt of music and the manufac- that what checked the rise ture of musical instruments in this country wjis that same Puritan craze which snubbed the land. an old writer and quite a musical expert (1676). and the fury against art seemed part and parcel of least. according to the masses at To Cromwell's honour be it set down that he was still personally no such extremist. in Cromwell's time and " Barebones-praise-God period. and the sanctuary. and which made provision for the more innocent as well as the more perilous delights of music in the home. wait for that reaction in favour of the world. the theatre. smashed the stained glass. saved for us Raffael's cartoons of its . mentions the viols of Ross (1598) and Smith (1633) as " old instruments " in his day." Mace.OLD VIOLINS monised pieces for it. which marked the Restoration.

's "petits violons du roi. in a brief span of achieved his almost Mozartian fame. "They played Anthony Wood airy before him viols . and died at the early age of twenty-seven." so the violin was creeping up. in the French fantastical light way. after which. The King had no doubt got his notion of fiddle bands from Louis XIII. at his life. better suiting a tavern or a playhouse than a church. and we cannot doubt that his Majesty's royal 121 . less respectable The King was so seriously addicted to music that he could hardly hear a sermon and never eat his dinner without the solatium of his four-and-twenty fiddlers. instead of anthem or solemn wind music accompanying the organ." Tis an ill wind that blows nobody and nothing any good. life.VIOLINS IN violins ENGLAND at last and four viols." writes in the diary of his " " as being more and brisk than the its and the grave Evelyn writes in 1662: much and resents the invasion of the upstart " petit violon" profane intrusion. He "One of his Majesty's chaplains preached. who. was introduced a concert of twenty-four violins between every pause. over whom presided no a person than the immortal Thomas Purcell. meals." and from the French Court. but not until Charles II/s restoration did the full-fledged violin come in with a rush of " four-and-twenty " less fiddlers. our " merrie monarch " bor- rowed a good many other ideas of a and harmless character. just ten years younger than the incomparable Wolfgang Amadeus.

the Duchess of St. especially the new-fangled violin. the mother of the Duke of Monmouth (Lucy Duchess of Walters). ladies These were bound to be musical. retained his services at court." and its jaded tastes by frequent novelty and emotional excitations. able. like the Duchess of Cleveland (Barbara Palmer). Paul Wheeler and who were the Spohrs and De Beriots of had to hide their diminished heads. As to worthy Mr. greatly favoured more and frivolous diversions with which secular music. their day. a Swede. the Portsmouth (Louise all de the Querouaille. they We are not surprised to hear after this that his Majesty installed the great Balzar as director of his twenty-four violins. Evelyn calls him "incompardiffi. Even John Evelyn succumbed to the witchery of Thomas Balzar. The revellers at Whitehall soon attracted to the capital the greatest violin players from foreign parts. acknowledging the victory. Mell. as music the undoubtedly delighted flattered his "merrie monarch. and buried him in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Mr. who amved in 1656. so that the rest flung down their violins.'" he played off at sight the most amazing culties with ravishing sweetness and " improvements he played a full concert on his single instrument. and electrified the Court. He seems to have been the Paganini of the period." OLD VIOLINS mistresses. the actress). Albans (Nell Gwynn. a French girl). were associated. 122 . and the rage of virtuosity began. The supremacy of the new violin pattern was achieved.

whilst its progress in Italy was steady and continuous. violins to fall —began . and Banks is 1795 ? The answer not far to seek : the fact that violin manufacture was checked by the Puritan movement in England. and the popularity of the king's band. and. I do not say that the superior climatic conditions and 123 . and pupils afar off too.— VIOLINS IN ENGLAND It will be convenient to focus our attention on English violin-making about this time. The Brescian and Cremonese fiddles were hardly known in England.e. Duke 1769. Forster is 1713-1801. as the court set the fashion. we should naturally expect the English viol-makers would be wide awake to the importance of supplying the new want. and such was the case. there The supply of foreign violins. and what the Italians made were chiefly for home consumption. As the English were great viol-makers in Elizabeth's time.. for which was now a gi-owing demand abroad i. W. for doubtless the arrival of these foreign players. There were plenty of old back upon but no old the violin was a new pro- duct. we may ask Why did they allow the Italians to : take the lead in violins of violins at least ? Why is the English school fifty. when we resumed the industry. a hundred years cCceuvre? whilst later is and the best English violins than the early Cremona chefs- Why Nicolo Amati's date 1596-1684. in England and France tury waned. to give out as the cenviols. enabled the Italians to steal a march upon us which turned us into pupils. gave a great impetus to our native manufacture.

Henry Jay (1744-77). virtuosity and the advance of the musical . Both Spain and Germany conEngland put it fessed to the fact. and sensibility undreamed of by the old viol-makers became de rigueur. the Kennedys. but mediocre fabricators. but used yellow varnish. 124 . such sentiment as was required for the perfect evolution of the violin could hardly be found outside Italy. one of. English - violin maker. power. and tenors Panormo and Parker. used masters). . and a timbre. the two first excellent eighteenth-century makers. chiefly of violins most prolific . if not the earliest. Italy was bound to win such Tyrolean woods. the musical Urquhart was also a maker of exceptional Pamphilon (1685) was a fair and excellent workman. we make special mention of John Rayman. who was to this day no one has ever Stradivari ! The English Amati " but been called " The English who copied Amati. in response to the demands of art. Passing by Aireton (died in 1807). such varnish. courts must not also be taken into account but when attention was called to improved tonal quality. the famous kit-makers (the kit is a tiny instrument with chiefly normal neck and finger-board." OLD VIOLINS generally the ai*t atmosphere of the small Italian . violins owned by Britton. Accordingly the highest praise that was ever given to an English maker was given to Benjamin Banks called " (1727-95). originality. nor could aside. father by dancing- and son (1730-1870). such sun. " An extraordinary Rayman " was amongst the coal-heaver.

some of which he may have seen " Barak : Norman and Nathaniel Cross. fecit 1702. known to have adopted the Brescian was probably the earliest English maker He retains some of the decorative use of violoncellos. the instrument thus to speak for itself. viols. moderate tone. sold fiddles at St.VIOLINS IN ENGLAND high model." Mr. " Peter Walmsley. after Meares made at esteemed. in which. we are bound to notice on account of his early date and more solid reputation. of purfling. after the style of the early bell foimders. about whom little to speak of is known. "Barak Norman" worked and Paul's Churchyard (1683-1740). similar to the labels of Del Gesu. is supposed "Nathaniel Cross wrought scroll my back and belly" (the and sides being by Barak Norman). first chiefly that tenors of excellent quality. reputed to have taught Barak Norman. He attendant flourishes. His label runs thus. is except that he was probably a pupil of Rayman's. with quite splendid vai-nish." good copyist of Stainer and an excellent maker. London. at the Bass Viol in S. Meares. Paul's Churchyard. His violins are much He was a close copyist of Maggini. at Ye Golden Harp in Piccadilly. which rapidly went out as the new violins came in. Three of his viols were exhibited in the South 125 . He runs his purfle into his monogram with Meares is model. with a J* and crown above it. Walter Brooksbank of Windermere had one of the Cross viol da gamba.

" Great-gi'andfather John (1683). with the violin he played — since. and William. his violins to the public He commended on them himself. The musical world owes a debt of eternal gi-atitude to the Forster family there were four of them. but he was a many-sided man. " Father William. country dances and on village We upon may be sure he never lost an opportunity of parting." bears in the north. " Old Forster. but one of them. No.' 2. commonly called Old Forster. a native of Brampton. the greatest maker in the north —the greatest by playing maker in all England. who also made spinning- "William.OLD VIOLINS Kensington Loan Collection of 1872. naturally. for a consideration. It remained for Stradiuarius. He was not beneath playing at gi-eens. . 3 (1764-1824). had been cut down. people would often be seized 126 . dated 1690. wheels. No." His sons. to discover and the model of the bass viol that needed no cutting down. off the palm. he made his market. The Born second Forster (1739-1807). in the dawning year of fix the eighteenth century. " Grandfather William. ' tlie Forster. out of the spinning-wheel industry of Cumberland. a gi-eat repairer of viols. called Simon Andrew (1731-1869). like his father. and afterwards a maker of violins. maker of spinning- wheels and violins. the two brothers William (1733-1824).

but finding there neither demands for spinning- wheels nor fiddles. Afterwards .VIOLINS IN ENGLAND with a desire to possess themselves of an instrument which they had heard discourse such excellent music and to the purpose. he leaves Beck in 1762. and made none but the best. then so popular in England. he seems to have sunk so low as cattle-driving. and sets up at Duke's Court. and. he at East. How much more easy must it have been for the man who made them. For about ten years Forster adopted the high Stainer pattern. and attracted the patronage of amateurs like Colonel West. as then. of Tower Hill. Indeed. a site now occupied by the National Gallery. takes to gunstock-making. and played them on occasions when his purchasers' spirits were high and their dispositions yielding. but that pluck. was even in the gi'eat whirlpool of London. sighing for Cumberland was played but new worlds it to conquer. Unable to get his wages raised. I have sometimes known professors in these days who would so cunningly play to their pupils that they have been able to palm off for considerable sums quite inferior instruments. is in itself a tribute to his versatility sets and Presently he up in the Commercial Road. last "strikes ile'" till with one Beck. About 1759 Forster seems to have concluded that out. he came south. to dispose of his exceptional wares. and there makes such fiddles that Beck grows fat while Forster remains lean. He was quite a young man.

'" Peter Pindar (Dr. is had by this time attracted the attention of royalty. received the altogether diplomatic your 'ighness do play like a Brince. who. and the Duke of Cumberland. prompted him to revert to the later Amati gi-and pattern as he reached his ripe maturity. Old Forster's versatility his and enterprise is still further shown by opening communications with the great it is chiefly Joseph Haydn." and who.. and then went to Strand. Amongst his patrons were George III. reply. He son. George TH. also He changed his varnish before the is close of his life. when he asked Haydn. He made 128 . probably one of "Old Forster's. and said to have found the secret of solving amber with the assistance of the chemist Delaporte.'s said even to have once dined with him off black pudding. and he had not miscalculated. Martin's Lane. and mortal Symphonies. " Vy. who had been listening to him. Walcot) and Bartolozzi the engraver were also amongst Forster's patrons. was fond of playing the violoncello. The same cleverness which prompted him to give the English a dose of the Stainer model when Stainer was the rage. to him that England owes the introduction and publication of Haydn's im- The shrewd old man doubtless saw the profit which lay hid in a scheme which would popularise the greatest writer for stringed instruments who ever lived.OLD VIOLINS he 34<8 set up in St. as Prince of Wales. who invented some stuff known as the Verins Martin. how he thought he played.

as though. and has the first to write a — deserved well of all succeeding writers. William made some very good instruments. His son William already suffered Haydn much from the foreign competition. two or three of which only approached the Forster high quite a He died in 1824. he worked for a time with Thomas Kennedy. They are steeidily He died in the same year as (1808).VIOLINS IN ENGLAND 'cellos but four double-basses. There was no doubt a certain amazing versatility erratic vein in the Forster family. sometimes taking a turn in the orchestra at the violoncello desk. but which in his son and grandson degenerated into speculative eccentricity. 129 . but clever and manysided. and his tenors and are thought better of than his rising in value. which in Old Forster took the shape of and profitable enterprise. He was Forster. the duty which protected the English manufac- tures having been removed. The son went in other in for buying grocery. but they do not rank very high. but got away from him and went in for play-acting. but they do not equal his father's and he made a great deal . of rubbish for the trade besides. about fifteen instruments alto- gether. and invested bad businesses. who quote him 9 with a touching simplicity of faith. history of the violin. they are those signed S. He made level. suddenly. The grandson turned out veiy unmanageable. still His brother Simon made a large number of violins tenors and 'cellos. whilst young man. which was just beginning to tell. violins. A.

is — not likely to be neglected by Lindley's successors. with the This was none round -topped Stainer sound -holes. he must needs be the best authority. whose favourite instrument was a Banks. At 'cello the name of Benjamin Banks lift all tenor and players their hats . Sandys speaks of a rare long-shaped violonof his quite of the Stainer pattern. and no Salisbury. because the first. but there is no reason to suppose that the two artificers ever met or materially interfered with each other .— OLD VIOLINS forsooth. in the midst of the confusion. and a name extolled by the great virtuoso Lindley. Benjamin Banks copied Nicolo Amati very cello closely. as some think. but Mr. his splendid work even sm-passed. other than the great Lindley's famous instrument which so nearly escaped destruction in a coach dent. spill. Benjamin Banks (1727-1795) was a contemporary of Old Forster (1713-1801). whilst Forster worked express trains bore fiddles or fiddle-buyers swiftly to and fro in those days. by his sons James and Henry is bound to hold the market again. He flew to his 'cello- and was found seated in a 130 ditch. even though they may be the happy possessors of Stradivari basses. quietly play- . had but one thought. for in Banks worked at London. acci- The passengers had a bad shaking and a bad his violoncello and Lindley and among them. for although the later importation into England of Cremonas has somewhat obscured our countryman's fame. but the rare enthusiast. case.

that on his bellies being often clotted. as out of an old cedar-tree which had been blown in his lordship's park (Wilton). down might course have been foreseen. it is said to kill the grain. B. a great failure in tone.B. but it it is "right enough. too. but that does not affect his tone. assure ENGLAND his himself that beloved was Mr." and pocketed the doubtful whether the Earl ever got his money''s worth. but also stamping his instruments in several places with his own peculiar seal. another expensive freak of ignorance and eccentricity doubtless it like a tin kettle. and was musically of no use whatever. VIOLINS IN ing away to uninjured. 131 . Some of us may have heard an ingenious itinerant violinist playing on a tin biscuit- box with similar results. and probably. The Earl better. Lucas had an excellent Benjamin Banks his varnish violin. of excellent quality. I remember a very sounded carefully made violin. Of Banks made money. a sus- picion of the extent to which his in vain after his death. Banks made no double-basses. but Banks tenors and violoncellos are more esteemed.. in technical parlance. but badly laid on. idea of his Benjamin had a very good own importance. difficult name would be taken He tried to make this more his labels in by not only varying about four different ways. is yellow- brown. all of silver. It was. scrolls are Benjamin's not very elegant. so that. tirely who presumably knew no ordered a violoncello of Banks to be made enof Pembroke.

. a real Duke is seldom seen. He for was originally a Swiss cabinet-maker. they have but a partial right for. I cannot close this brief survey of the old English makers without a mention of Bernard Fendt (1756— 1832). as his sons worked with him. violins. and Dodd took him 132 also into the . went into business with Thomas Dodd. OLD VIOLINS Benjamin's sons old fell far below their father. in In reality the best Dukes are on the Amati pattern. Duke's varnish It is is also of a yellow or yellow- brown hue. and this retarded for at least fifty years the triumph of the Stradivari grand pattern. and with whom. but the man left quite a instruments in a cellar number of white unvarnished when the business was sold. whom. all of which were duly completed and sent forth with his name. he began to make Fendt soon got hold of another cabinet- maker. The fraudulent Dukes exaggerate the high bellies and deep grooving of the earlier Amati. but they are few number. will increase. not likely that Duke's reputation though the raiity of genuine Dukes and the plentiful number of counterfeits may still run up a few real specimens to fancy prices. but coming to London. a compatriot. as Duke (1754-69) was remarkable having largely contributed to create in England the Stainer furore which so confused the judgment of amateurs in country. and thus pass for Stainer pattern. and though there are innumerable fraudu- lent Dukes about. to which. it is by no means certain that every fiddle in Banks"' shop at the time of his death was made by Benjamin pere. however.

to my eyes very dark but the light in William Ebsworth Hill's old . that superlatively well. seemed better than the garish sunlight for that dusky brood —even as the moonbeam. Many of his best imitations were made by Fendt. strewn. relieved lishment was hung. who has thus created the reputation of two makers besides himself. would have equalled violins. so that Dodd's varnish became as famous as Dodd's bows. according to Sir Walter Scott. lined. but he did business to great prosperity. and dusty which that very moderately sized establight. which he said paid better than making with his own name in them. who died only in 1851. his father had he not been seduced by the vicious practice of prematurely ageing his thus pandering to the taste for old fiddles at the expense of the fiddles themselves is —for it notorious that such frauds do not improve by age. His son.VIOLINS IN business. So the dim on foggy days with a casual gas-jet. E. Fendt afterwards Betts. — yes. left Dodd and worked for John who was famous for his imitations of fiddles Amati. shop in Wardour Street was good enough for him debris of fiddles. . touched the 133 . and littered o'er with. however. was to varnish them. A Dark Vignette of W. All he had done. a greater glare might have flouted those hundreds of old brown fiddles. or even a candle-end. Hill. ENGLAND These two clever artificers soon raised Dodd''s and Dodd thus had the honour of putting his own name in their violins.

the familiarity with violin constitution. born not of incivility. Hill in those days. In his back shop he conducted repairs. Hill. others with their good. knife. be- hind the counter. Hill tried to do too much. knew the we shall perhaps ever see Cremona makers. Hill's work (barring his exquisite repairs and carving) is likely to rank with theirs he was an nearest approach to the great . When the duty on foreign violins was removed there fiddles. I have seen him there.— OLD VIOLINS grey ruins of Melrose more tenderly than the light of day. admirable maker. but of Such as knew Mr. inattention. bad. the and sake. and frequently brought his " repairs " into the front shop. into a specious and consequently no patent asbestos appliances for converting the impure London gas blazing rival. Mr. following the market. which entirely swamped the demand for new ones of Mr. I do not say that any of Mr. but he very soon left off making. but the art infallible intuition its and craft atmosphere. or scraper. poured into England a continuous stream of English make. single-minded love of the violin for own 134 . busy with gouge. turned his attention to repairing and dealing. There were no electric lamps in those days (in 1870). and indiiFerent instruments to own be done up they were received pne and all with the same mild and tolerant abstraction. When customers or applicants for advice arrived —some with cheap German fiddles which they fondly believed to be rare specimens of Cremona. the knowledge.

know exactly when can I hold see. wonder. so a judge's eye gets out. he seldom answered but would look up immediately he was spoken dreamily through his spectacles without laying down his file or knife. more than enough to monopolise a lifetime of devotion this is — what made Mr. I can see 'em at work. and the handling of one no more is like like another's than the touch of one painter another's. a fiddle. and I know exactly how much I I don't tell everybody. I can see the knife here or gouge there. mystery. for instance. and just at first I can't see any- thing —those I see fiddles tell me nothing. I don't know how I can and there are days when I don't trust I leave my oflF judgment —days I can't see. you had to wait Mr." little but The casual first. Ebsworth Hill the the grand old fiddle-makers. good time to. looking at fiddles for this fiddle a day or two. mark of a special favourite I know which way he used his tool for such to cut and slice. "talk about not spiritual heir of " Why. Hill. and how he held is and such a kind of finish. and when I can't see tongue .? I know the sort of tools Stradivari or Joseph used. visitor could make very of old Hill at There 135 ." he said to me knowing the touch of this or that maker. Well. and : let oflF oracular sentence as tell some such dogmatic and " You want to know how I can tell . ." When you took a Hill's fiddle in to show Mr. it's a peculiar state of mind — just as a player or a surgeon's I hand gets out.VIOLINS IN as ENGLAND a thing of beauty. and when I come back I take up and that. once. my and when I can't see.

Again I mentioned my has brought you his fiddle to friend's name " Mr. . gave one quick glance and its a couple of taps. Some people found him very trying knew whether he heard what you said but when at last he favoured you with a remark. but he took no notice whatever his delicate adjustments. : look at by my advice. and then resumed his work. Perhaps you can tell him what ought to be done. nodded. he then deliberately looked in 136 . You never indeed. We both stood in front of the counter. eyed my friend through his spectacles with cold interest. it and taking the instrument in his hands. unexpected and sometimes I one day entered his shop with a friend fiddle who had a it which he much prized. and indeed but needed over- was a really valuable instrument. His action was often alarming. he remained absorbed in and no Prince of the blood would have fared any better than we did until he had finished what he was about. I had to rouse him a second time before he seemed to grasp the fact that anxious friend its my for had taken his precious it in his Cremona from hand ready case and was standing with laid the magician's inspection. you discovered that he had not only heard your words." Hill looked up. I addressed him on behalf of my . but that he had accurately gauged ycm. new neck.OLD VIOLINS was a curious sort of inner otherwhereness —to coin a word —about him. hauling. and was bending over a scroll old Hill that he was fitting on to a friend. At last Hill down his tool.

assuring him that it was all right. or it he would never have torn to pieces then and there. and declared that he first then heard his Cremona for the time. ENGLAND off tore the finger-board. and seeing that Hill was in no mood for talk. 137 . William Ebsworth Hill came of a family of violin-makers and violin-players. and the gentleman need not stop and we got no more . and he threw the loose fragments aside in a heap. and said he would attend to the matter by-and-by. and drove a knife under the belly. and with such words I strove to comfort I my perplexed and anxious friend. Hill" mentioned alter his lute prolific in Pepys' viall. and that the great repairer had shown more interest than usual in his valuable instrument. I shall never forget the rueful re- and amazed look with which his my poor friend beheld the tearing to pieces of Cremona. who from was born 1715. The fiddle was soon in pieces. out of old Hill that day. Diary as being employed to and Joseph was a carried and excellent violin-maker. but I touched him on the arm. loosened the neck. who immediately became absorbed in his work. got him out of the shop. when the fiddle came back owner was more than satisfied. Joseph Hill. and on business in the early part of the eighteenth century at the sign of the Harp and Flute in the Haymarket. Mr. was proud to trace the his descent "Mr. took up his repairs again. am bound to add that although Hill kept him its waiting several months.VIOLINS IN astonished owner's face.

like the present Bond Street. Lockey Hill. as in it — one was almost the earliest string quartet cast London —he assisted in delighting and educating a select public in the mysteries of chamber music. He acts as a sort of go-between to violoncello and violin. an excellent violin-maker. It is seldom that a tenor player ever comes in for direct commendation. Henry distinbrothers Hill in guished himself as an admirable quartet player. HilPs father. which has been since so freely expounded by Ella's Musical Union and the Monday Popular Concerts. Henry Lockey. . Berlioz always spoke of Henry Hill in terms of the highest praise he even went so far as to say that he considered him one of the first performers in Europe. when. followed their father's vocation alone. whilst the other two. although so important to the combined effect. all msude violins and three played professionally. and Cooper the best.OLD VIOLINS He four had five sons . died in 1835. with Sainton. and well do I remember the splendid tone of his Barak of Norman tenor at Willis' Rooms as far back I think as 1848. known in the middle of this century as Mr. and Lockey left four sons. Hill of Wardour Street. There are too few concertos or strong parts written 138 . Piatti. are usually lost sight of between the grand work of the bass and the brilliant lead and musical embroideries of the first and second violins. but his individual efforts. The Hills seem prolific in sons. who became in his turn the father of William Ebsworth Hill. The third son. was the father of Henry Lockey Hill.

His sons have a collection of two hundred. a viol d'amore which was to be played by Ebsworth's brother. certain that He was educated at the Borough Road it is School." Mr. so only they were of the finest metal. under glass his simple ordinai-y He by worked with extrafastidious finish. rate plant before they could produce anything decent. the Cinderella of the establishment. is now the property all in one. William Ebsworth Hill. In 1851. and he heartily despised artificers who needed an say. of Mr. Hill's Barak is regrettable Norman seur.VIOLINS IN ENGLAND for the poor tenor. of the Brussels Conservatoire. but he went early to the bench. which violas when one thinks of the glorious of Maggini and the Amati. under the well- known Dr. equalled his He prefeiTed the commonest tools. For this purpose he used only a bradawl and a knife. the Prince Consort having expressed a wish to hear a concert of old instruments. A good maker. rapidity. for at the age of fourteen we find him in cutting bridges in his father's workshop. our great repairer. employed Lancaster. Mr. they have also reverently preserved tools. Henry 139 . and no two of the same pattern . he was wont to could make a fiddle "with a knife and fork. Doyle. He used to scorn the mechanical labour-saving appliances which now enable workmen elabo- to turn out hundreds instead of dozens of fiddles. and has left many beautiful specimens. connois- and dealer was born in 1817. Hill's skill in bridge-making on one occasion misled so eminent a judge as Monsieur Fetis. his life he returned to bridge- and towards the end of cutting.

turning Mr. pointed to "W. Alfred to Monsieur Victor Mahillon the curator." says Mr. " is not an old bridge ." An incredulous smile overspread the worthy curator's face. In due time the viol d'amore. set About 1838 he Road. and Monsieur Fetis. his attention happened to be at Brussels. junior. Hill" stamped upon it. George's 140 . and bridge. wishing to perfect himself in the technique of his art. required a I new quickly made. and not long Hill. afterwards Ebsworth. which had been lent by the Brussels Conservatoire. which was quickly changed into a look of apologetic admiration and surprise when up the bridge. artistic work of the Cremona was called Mr. bridge. He happened to pitch upon the d'amore bridge. went to study under the accomplished maker Charles Harris. Alfred Hill. to Monsieur Fetis' eulogium on the antique viol d'amore "That. which Ebsworth very remember hearing Hill perform on this viol d'amore with seven strings. E. one of Ebsworth HilFs sons. at one of Julien's Monsieur Popular Concerts at the old Surrey Gardens. was returned. who was the Principal. was very monograph on old viol much bent upon hunting up bridges.OLD VIOLINS Hill. Southwark. it was cut by my father. which he declared to be a highly interesting gi'eat specimen of the period. up for himself in St. of Oxford. Ebsworth Hill's father died in 1835. The elaborate arpeggios were most fascinating. and unlike anything I ever listened to before or have ever heard since. and engaged at that time in writing his valuable Stradivari.

and he found he had more work than he could well manage. Mr. It is not too much to say that Arthur. They were They had time or and diagnosing most of the great violins now extant. Alfred. It was there. steeped from childhood in violin tradition. his sons. HilPs acquaintance.VIOLINS IN ENGLAND collector. special chances for seeing. No money was spared by tion. and I was always drawn to the yoimg boys. the well-known his earliest patrons . was one of but his fame soon spread. and had the profoundest sense of his importance and ability. & Sons now holds in the The boys inherited violin tendencies. I used to take him my fiddles. and who could be trusted to give an honest opinion. which for many years was as much the violin quarter in London as the Rue Croix des Petits Champs is in Paris. that I first made Mr. William. Alfred and Walter went to Mirecourt. who frequented their father's shop. to study that could be taught in the most brated workshop in the world. handling. From Southwark. scientific and cele- 141 . and have not failed to qualify themselves assiduously for the high position that the firm of Hill violin world. and Walter Hill have enjoyed unique opportunities from their earliest childhood. when I was little more than a boy. Woolhouse. their father on the boys' educa- and certainly no boys ever made a better use of all their privileges. Hill went to Wardour Street. He was also much resorted to as one of the few men violin whose judgment on a admitted of no appeal.

who had watched proceedings for years and slowly qualified themselves for every department. to the extent to which now carried. he did or closely superintended every- thing. and when the old man's apparently inexhaustible powers of work began to give out. he made every doctored every fiddle. Hill had many bad debts for fiddles his memory was infallible. or a new. For years everything that came — . came in and broke up the one-man system —not before the work. and he was cheated right and His fame was so widespread that oi-ders poured in which could not be executed . From what has been said it may have been inferred. distributed first kept proper accounts for the 142 . but his memory for accounts left. regulated or replaced every sound-bar and sound-post. and even strung the fiddles for his clients with his own it hand is — in short. and never missing an opportunity of acquiring a fiddle. old or new fact.OLD VIOLINS Arthur stayed at home and kept his eye in. that Ebsworth Hill was not. being a thing unknown in those early large profits . the sons. adjusted every screw. division of labour. financially speaking. financially confusion was becoming worse confounded. being always in close attendance on his father. days. and not erroneously. That such a system could not bring in was obvious. which was likely to bring grist to the mill or credit to the firm. into the shop passed through his hands repair. time. a business man though he did all his own business. and in a few They trained their workmen. shocking.

branches. and straightforward. thin. lighted up with a whimsical smile full for the man was though mostly of a genial sort. He was very much more of an all-round man than — people who merely conversed with him on violins would Highly educated. including their morals. word. Once call in the witness-box he a dangerous customer. he was certainly not. Mr. were a perpetual feast to all who were he admitted to his intimacy. assured. cases. of humour. it but was greatly opposed to difficult to extract and was from him any opinion likely to was what the lawyers lead to it. He was absolutely decided. and moustache early gone grey a thoughtful face. His sons have treasured many of 143 his wise and witty . but he never said what he did not know. and would never budge from his opinion.. In his own special line was without a rival. and an extraordinary insight into character. the largest individual violin-dealing in- dustry in the world. VIOLINS IN years built its ENGLAND when considered in all up what is. His sly remarks on men and their manners. and under pressure of cross-examination often raised a laugh at the expense of counsel. with light hair. very keen. in the usual sense of the suppose. His manner was per- fectly quiet. Hill was a man of striking appearance: spare. He was frequently appealed to in doubtful litigation. but he had a great acquaintance with human nature. often blue-grey eyes. perhaps. He did not always say what he knew.

shillings. " Hax-k. he's doing the lovely. was sold as It A violin. damages to The company demanded a valuation. and used by the members of the private band. would say with a comical twinkle. The owner was fifteen guineas. and would not even accept last called up. Panormo. Hill had once before. but was obliged to had actually borrowed the instrument as deputy in the Queen's it. On one occasion a claim was brought against a railway company for sixty pounds' damage to the belly of a violoncello. Hill." confess that he The soi-disant owner was perfectly dumbfounded. Hill remarked dryly when the gentleman had left the shop." The manner was often worth more than the matter. and be assessed by Hill. looking up from his work. "That man's complaint is wind in the pockets. now. said to such by a dealer in Pentonville Road. furious. : Mr. which he repaired for about thirty Five pounds he thought would be very liberal damages. when employed only seen it Band several years before. came into 144 . Hill was at and in- made the following unpleasant statement " This It is strument does not belong to this man at all. angrily submitted. one of the instruments belonging to her Majesty. The claimant at last Hill reported on the instrument." Of an amateur who was proud of showing off his style on his fiddles.OLD VIOLINS sayings. His memory was as extraordinary as Tarisio's. be by F. On one occasion he refused to sell to a cus- tomer who already owed more than he could pay. and had never restored Mr.

His only relaxations and long walks on of his life Towards the he found Hanwell. Hill Sundays. some years before he died the direction of alFairs practically passed into the hands of his sons. whom For had he had so admirably trained to succeed him. and owing to the foreign wood. are well known. ribs English maple. difficulty of getting good from my father made the back and it. superintending a large staff of workmen. " Made for in the year 1812. an extremely abstemious were reading close life. himself surrounded by his sons. 145 . who was asked it in to take said : part payment for another violin. aged seventy-seven. but I should like to have for it. " This fiddle was not made by Panormo . and will allow £10 On Mr." belly. Hill immediately proceeded to remove the the inside was wi-itten in pencil. and to them is entirely due the present great commercial prosperity of the firm. was made by my father about the year 1812 for my brother Henry. It could not possibly have a good tone. William Ebswqrth Hill sank gradually from senile exhaustion of brain power.VIOLINS IN Hill's ENGLAND He it hands many years afterwards. and his workshops at adjoining his country home." led my son Henry Mr. and died in 1895.

and 146 . buttressed by arguments weighty enough to confound all opponents. aroma of gums. are beyond me. and I don't like The proportion of subtle weights and measures. essential and what not. or hold some one fixed opinion. the disputations of science and the general incapacity of scientists to agree about mixed problems puzzles and sometimes " impatients " me. as the French say. that the laboratory aroma to the chemist. avoirdupois or troy. and general apparatus for scents the and his nose oils. or the smell of is paint to the artist. I have smells. of stables is What the odour to the lover of horses. "baths. I should like to pose as the clear exponent of the famous Cremona secret. experiences an atmospheiic sensation which enthuses him for his work. no insight into crucibles. he spirits.CHAPTER IX VIOLIN VARNISH When a true chemist enters a laboratory fitted up •with the usual mysterious tubes. crucibles. In wading through various treatises on Cremona varnish I regret to say I have experienced vague emotions of annoyance and perplexity which I would fain conceal from the reader." distillation.

as yet we cannot events. serves to Cremona fashion perhaps dabbles himself with gums and alcohol. it is One maintains that merely for the preservation of the wood. at all Cremona fashion to our new fiddles. to reflect that no one has mixed or applied it in but that fact only since about 1750 whet the curious appetite. it affects is the tone still equally though exactly how decorative is a moot point. me to consist in the discovery that we have as yet failed to discover as. that certain. another it that greatly affects the tone. or.VIOLIN VARNISH based upon the " triumphs of modern research. and each writer braces himself for renewed disquisitions. that it is colouring has varied withi each school of makers as obvious. it . apply it in It make the stuff. may be consoling. To me varnish is it seems almost a truism to say that the for all three purposes is : good that it preis serves the wood certain." The triumph of tnodern research seems to the Cremona varnish. and pumps So violin fiddle-makers with a view to wringing the secret out of the Cremona sphynx. and the third that it is chiefly decorative. but not very satisfactory. though exactly is how open to discussion. although we may speculate about it and at moments seem to come very near the mark. visits workshops and scrapes bits off Cremonas when he can. 147 . is entirely mixed the whole subject that the world can't even decide in what the proper functions of the varnish consist. though taste in the much as some makers have varied with themselves.

with an intelligent description of various a brief quotation from the inimitable writer Charles Reade. Some be is authorities maintain that the wood should first saturated with oil before the colouring varnish applied. gives just five in his valuable book on old appearances. The wood. A stick 148 . but never exposed to rain and waits patiently for its anointing. so that until some age has been put on and the wood has become desiccated and shaken free from the grosser oily particles. and content myself with a few probable suppositions and a few more generally descriptive remarks. As for I am not writing for violin-makers. has to be and varnished afterwards. George Hart. Taking this view. and not a single recipe.OLD VIOLINS For for my part. Hart to tread. but only I shall collectors. pages on Italian its varnish. : the process would be something of this kind The white belly is cut from fine pine which has been six or seven years drying in the sun. I applaud the courage and reticence of Mr. the vibrations are the tone consequently dull. but leave it free by itself. and merely act oil as a sort of veneer for the colour varnish which has got to be spread over the transparent sized first covering. violins. who. a practice which has a tendency to clog the pores. after reading a dozen disquisitions on the Cremona varnish. and inspecting hundreds of fiddles a quarter of a century. in fact. stifled and Others declare that the sizing of penetrate the oil should not to desiccate wood far. certainly not rush fear in where shall authorities like Mr.

We are told that the resins used soft. belly. or the oil sizing. because the most elastic and friendly to the waves of vibration. is gamboge then pow- Gamboga. added. shown up as by a kind of Rontgen rays by the oil size. like is a flavouring to taste. are the best. The colour coating thus lies like an agate film over orange. solidity. may be soft. The mastic and dammar resins seem to unite. from Calcutta. Siam. in the greatest perfection. from the Coromandel Coast. are said to have used nothing but The 149 . dered and dissolved in pure alcohol sloes are is some- times added. and transparency. or red. from gum beloved of artists.VIOLIN VARNISH of that resinous yellow. and through the top varnish as through coloured glass may be seen brown — —dyed all the delicate curls and fibres of the wood. and ribs are thoroughly dry. is An and alcoholic solution of these mixed with essential oil of turpentine. or China. much-talked-of. . sandarak and the long resinous tears of benzoin are treated with pure alcohol. divided into hard and and that of these the such as mastic and dammar. freely oxydised (or exposed to the air) laid on the perfectly dry surface in successive layers. one yielding red orange tints. or when a yellow ground not desired. each layer being allowed to dxy separately. old-fashioned The Cremonese the soft resins. the three essential properties most suitable for varnish — elasticity. WTien the back. and the other a deeper red. the colouring. The chief colouring ingi-edients appear to be of two kinds of sandal-wood.

and credited with giving a certain flush to splendid sanguineous bellies some of the rare Cremonese now. is was never used by Stradivari. . merely reminding our collectors for practical purpose that the Brescian varnish is soft and brown. most un- The usual way of rubbing a violin and smelling the surface has always seemed to reliable test. is amber varnish ? Certainly The it usual answer there no such thing. On the other hand." So here ject. does not seem now to be commonly forthcoming. a resinous " — gum from the Draconian Draco. mastic.— OLD VIOLINS dragon's blood. what is upon which the judicious amateur dotes. and and resins to the disputatious. And is." or another." and a to go on. but with- 150 . "I smell amber. as as life lias woes we may say " As long as man has nose." and a third. As long or. " I smell benzoin. me to furnish a " I smell fourth. I desire to take my leave of this thorny sub- and with a sense of oils relief I abandon crucibles to the expert. for it said the secret of fusing that hard gum was only discovered by Martin the chemist in 1737. " I smell nought " and this battle of olfactory . One saith. as saith the poet organs is like " As long as man has passions. The Calami Draco of Borneo has taken The old dragon's blood has been much talked about. its place. I hear that amber has been found in the varnish of Giuseppe del Gesu —by what analysis I do not know. the year of Stradivari's death.

liliaceas trees) ceased to be in deItalian mand. and the very ingredients. dragon blood (of the markets. varnish .g. the whole. the French. soft and sometimes velvety brown. it was pro- bably the ordinary varnish of commerce. the Cremona amber-coloured (early) or (later) light red orange. brown and muddy. On at all. but they unfortunately put out of court the kind of varnish best suited for violins soft. with a subtle roseate flush at times. varnish is Some of the English even approximating remarkable. the normal German. and these ready-made compounds proved excellent for furniture is not prized for its resonant or variously tinted qualities. e. that of Dodd closely to the Cremona school. and consequently disappeared from the 151 . &c. the best solution of the Cremona mystery seems to me that it was probably no mystery which also best accounts for the disappearance absurd to suppose that the varnish used of the varnish towards the middle of the eighteenth century. It is by at 1740 least one hundred makers for more than one hun- dred years (for Italian violins from 1550 to 1660 up to all have it) could have been a secret . VIOLIN VARNISH out the magical Cremonese transparency is .. but glassy and chip- ping rather than soft and glossy. superseded by the quicker and more convenient spirit-varnishes which came which in and thrust it out of the market. yellow-brown. and very as it rubs away. and glossy very clear The Venetian varnish of many shades is the Stainer. elastic oil —the yielding. Cremonese in colour.

and how the old mastei's mixed their colours now no one knows." 152 .— OLD VIOLINS The materials being differently composed. . how the ancient war. the varnish was The trick of mixing it got lost it along with the stuff to be mixed. as seems. how the Medicean poisons were distilled. once an open secret. as we galleys were rowed have to write of these unexplained disappearances of the lost and missing " Gone. how the Pyramids were built how Stonehenge was poised. and made no sign. most irrecoverably. Of the Cremona varnish it must be written. At one time every one knew . now absent. lapsed and lapsed. and the Cremonese secret.



scrape the inside of a cat with the outside of a

horse "


from an accurate or exhaustive description

of violin playing, nor can I understand
strings are called cat-gut at



since they are


from the intestines of the sheep, goat, or lamb, and
have absolutely nothing to do with pussy,

can only suppose that the frightful and melancholy

tones habitually elicited by inexperienced players


have reminded people of the nocturnal cat


to credit that maligned animal with providing part of

the mechanical apparatus for their production.


late years a great deal has been said
strings, of

about the

extreme importance of the

adapting the
I freely

player to the fiddle's constitution, &c.


that some players with very strong hands, like Lindley

and Dragonetti, can manage thicker

strings with effect
I also

better than people with weaker muscles.


generally that it would be a mistake to string a sensitive

old Nicolo

Amati with

thick strings, which a robust

Joseph or Bergonzi might be able to bear

that a raw


fiddle to be

rubbed down

in the orchestra will also
it is

take to thick strings

and that 153

pretty obvious, as


every player knows, that one cannot stop fifths in

good tune


the strings are not relatively well pro-


a truism that

it is

best to


and that

false strings are

buy the best abominable. But I

do not go much beyond


would say about



say about bows, that bad


always complain of their tools, and that, as Paginini was



a mere


—to discourse excellent
much out

music with a tobacco-pipe or a reed, so his admirers were often surprised to notice that he would go into
the concert room with his strings very
Practically I

do not suppose that one

violinist in


a string-gauge; he soon learns to judge


by the eye what
these days

his fingers want,



tone requires, and what his violin exacts.


of analysis and detail, there

being nothing

untalked about, writers have

tened quite within the last thirty years on the strings

but I have often noticed that players who
are those



over these details, which are doubtless of importance,


are least able to avail themselves of the
Perfect gut, rosin

perfect conditions which they seek.



and an

exquisitely poised bow,

no more make a



scientific sanitation

makes a healthy sub-

I cannot too persistently urge that the violinist

bends conditions to the magic of his will and his

His business


to qualify himself, and then get the


best fiddle, bow,


strings that

he can.

This ought

he to do, and not to leave the others undone.



no reason to suppose that any advance


the manufacture of gut-strings has been

the seventeenth century.

dated 1570, gives

made since Even a work by Le Roy, the best recipe yet known for the
"to prove them between

detection of false strings.



needful," he says,

the hands in the manner set forth in the figure " (which

we reproduce) and he goes on to explain what everybody now knows that if two lines only appear, the string is true if more, false. But he fails to add that


such a rough test only holds good for the thinner and
simpler woven cords.

In Doni's book (1647)



such subtleties as these

" There are



relating to the construction of instruments which are


to modern artificers, as, namely, that the best

strings are

made when the north (and the worst when

the south) wind blows "

—a suggestive hint

relating to

the acknowledged importance of atmospheric, perhaps

magnetic, and at any rate climatic, conditions.


do we make our

Putting aside mature sheep and goats, we




in September.


open him at

once, and take the intestine whilst


on an






thoroughly without delay.




about fifteen hours in cold water, with a
few hours more.


bonate of soda, and then substitute tepid water for a



Now we are ready to remove the fibrous or muscular membrane from between the peritoneal and mucous membrane. This is done by women, who scrape it with a cane. The precious selected membranes are
then soaked in jars containing an ammoniacal solution they are then rubbed through the fingers three times

a day, treated with permanganate of potash, cleaned,
sorted, cut,


split; and,


the threads are


—three or four thin threads

for first violin strings,

three or four thicknesses for the second, six or seven

"D" string.

Double-bass strings take up to eighty-

five threads.

Further twistings, soakings, and polish-

ings take place, into which

we need not


and the

are finally dressed with

and then

I have


gone into these details to show with what and complex elaboration string manufacture is

carried on.


false string is

due to

inequalities, lumps,


varieties of texture in the



only the defec-

tive part can be distributed either near the

head or

the tailpiece, outside the vibratory length, your false
string becomes true.




the experiment of

reversing the string, putting tail portion headwise or
vice versa, will

sometimes remedy the defect.



For the fourth or silver sti-ing the gut or silk (which is wrapped with pure silver, or copper, or alter-

nate silver and copper wire.


beautiful French

patent silver fourth, as smooth as polished

incomparably best for solo playing

it is also





opinion too


thinner, than the mixed silver

and copper


which are very serviceable for
to rise (and of gut strings

rougher orchestral work.

The vice

of silver strings


with heat ; but if your screws are in perfect order,

and you are expert enough, you a rapid subtle twist during a




bar's rest, or

a quick

nipping the head of the peg between the
third joint of your left-hand forefinger.


I have seen

Sarasate tune two pegs thus in the course of a very
brief « tutti."

Mr. Hart may be accepted as a
the relative merits
strings at present in the market,
stantially agree with

final authority


and the different schools of violin and
his dicta sub-

my own




he gives the palm to the Italian


due to the good climatic conditions, which enable their
manufacture to be carried on in the open
light of that favoured clime.

and sunbrilliant,



strings are yellowish, hard,


and a

rough in


The Neapolitans

are smooth, soft in texture, and

whiter in appearance.

The Paduans
" false."





Strings " made


" (Saxony), as


set off against the

swarms of trade German


rank next to


The French rank
their patent

Their larger strings are

better than their seconds, which are


made of

are hard


fine brilliant,

Roman gut

but not comparable, " E " string.



opinion, to a

The English make a good,

serviceable, dull green

looking string, durable, uneven, and not unfrequently

To my mind English strings are only fit for rankbut not good enough for the

and-file orchestral fiddling,

Mr. Heron Allen, who has given great attention

to such details, says that the best strings in the market
are imported from Signor


Ruffini of Naples,



have always had a weakness for





cannot be

used in


Never buy from any but the best

they can't afford to keep "job

going vera



—these may be

bought up by provincial houses


retailed to

an undiscerning public.

Notice that small "job lot" people do not



to keep their strings


I should

rather say,

they keep them too long and too dry.
It does not follow that even the best strings will

turn out successes
too dry.
I once ordered


they have been kept too long or


£1 worth of Roman " E " and another ^1 worth for a friend.
brittle as

strings for


all all

arrived as dry

mummy wood


snapped as I put them on.

In about a week I got a


unfortunate friend

who had



all his strings

have but one counsel to

had snapped. give. Take the best

firm's advice

and pay the best




can afford


Always keep a couple of 158



stretched "

this will save

your " E "

lengths in your case. If you are a soloist you some annoyance and delay should string go in the middle of a performance.



far, then,

and no

further, need I discuss violin

strings; but there are

two other

violin adjuncts not

important enough to
to the

call for

a separate chapter. I allude

mute and the


The mute



on the bridge to give the sound that singular
like the

faint far-off

whisper of a ghostly


The mute has the

singular property of

making the

abnormally sensitive for the time.

The mute
personally, I

made of wood, metal, or vulcanite; much prefer the metal mute it does

the business

more thoroughly.



not a good practice to use the

mute habitually while

practising to subdue the sound.


violin really resents the use of the

mute at


put up

with it for a short time (just as a

good horse

not resent a spur or a bearing-rein in
after the removal


For a minute or two
particles in its

of the mute the violin does not quite recover


some of the

to a different or eccentric vibration

wood have been exposed by the dominating
not immediately

mute, and the

full tonal vibration is



though you had put a man in
his full supple-

boots with leaden soles for a time and then suddenly

him he would not at once regain

ness of

last thirty years the cult

Quite within the
rests has

of chin-

become almost




was a boy

people held the violin honestly under their chins, and


my chin extremely uncomfort- but I may be " thei'e's very much out on''t.'" of date. vulcanite.'''' as Pepys an end 160 .OLD VIOLINS a few used a it silk pocket-handkerchief. and in such or. much rubbed by centuries of I have nothing to say against the various velvet. and to able . but something between the chin and is the violin no doubt good for the protection of old instruments already too beards and bristles. except that in my eyes they are extremely ugly. and ebony fixed substitutes for the homely pocket-handkerchief. I much prefer to this day. minor matters "chacim a son would say. gout.

the virtuoso who throws sympathetic vibrations the cords of a Cremona. who. The wood of his wand. filling space with their musical magnetism. which are in direct contact with the therefore the psychic artisfs and and emotional vibrations of the soul are wedded closely to the physical pulses air of sound which throb in the agitated air column of the Cremona. No Mesmer. spirits and seeking only the medium of kindred suitable and organisms to utter through the vibrating human nerve tissues of others the open secrets of the player's soul. or magician of the East. choice and seasoned. and flow forth in the waves (like light and heat). receives through the varying pressure of his five fingers the waves of his personal magnetism. If ever mortal could call the spirits it is from the vasty deep. The back hairs of his thumb will often touch even the strings. face to face .CHAPTER He who wields the violin XI VIOLIN BOWS bow aright wields the wand into of a magician. and delicately graduated and tapering. controls a more 161 subtle force than does the violinist. from the forests of Femam- buc or Pernambuco.

We have been sent out to wild islands and continents. hair limp. (or things frescoes. bow. 162 . therewith the lifts his tapering wand and rules " Tides of music's golden sea setting towards eternity. the —we have been like led up to ancient monuments and shown bows and other monkish manuscripts. iv. sculptured missals. viol bows of Europe — all more or less primitive. and intro- duced to the Ravanastron bow of ancient Ceylon . supposed to be bows) on vases.). viol player. the bow of the Jloorish rebab . Paul himself was a fingers to In Paul Veronese's Marriage at Cana (Versailles) this is well shown.) and a movable sliding nut. in which the hand the diiference between iii. twelfth. this clumsy finger regulation of the hair tension would be less convenient to manage. those who indite exhaustive historical or con- structive treatises on the violin has been treated archaeologically —the bow. Of course. and hence we come upon the eighteenth century with a strip of notched metal (Fig. wood and hair and rests on when held to the chin. and apparently held his bow chiefly by the hair for this same regulative purpose. C. eleventh. Simpson (the division " viol viol "). gives a somesplits what more advanced both (Fig. and thirteenth century loose. 1667. or hair and with no means of regulating its tension except press the hair or tighten it for by the introduction of the a moment. the ninth.OLD VIOLINS with his audience. with sometimes gut for hair." By violin.

in answer to a need. so for our purpose the violin bow begins with the emergence of the violin. and Tartini (1740) (1740) is (Fig." VIOLIN As BOWS began in the its for our purpose the violin proper eighteenth century with the emergence of true type from the viol tribe. culminated the art of violin bow making. But is the Corelli bow authentic. demanded qualities of balance. is easy to see what called forth Fran9ois Tourte. and rubato. He is the Stradivari of We give his portrait. bow's head has superseded.) Although the Stentor (Fig. Refinements and delicacies of tone. Cramer (1770). bow. the done It more rounded form of Francois Tourte. arpeggio. lightness. A glance at in the bows of Corelli (1700). varieties of execution. the younger son. dealing with staccato. show the evolution the direction of the Tourte bow and although Tourte generally credited with substituting the screw for the cremaillere. various styles upper shifts and of bowing. and " after Tourte is still the greatest recommendation a bow can have. for some reason. but father and son were both master-workers. was comparatively Forty years afterwards Viotti comes to Paris. the earliest working date of Tourte pere ? With the bow. nothing has been since in advance of Tourte. or in reality a bow subsequent to 1740. Viotti (1780). and elasticity which 163 . Fran9ois Tourte. and with him dawns a new era in violin playing. ii ) will . methods varied and brought to perfection. his He came He It doubtless heard of Tartini and examined short and cumbrous. vi. it will be noticed that Corelli's bow (1700) has already got the screw.

Fernambuc wood was only imported for dyeing purposes. who is worked with his father. to which he had been early apprenticed. by the sheer bent of his own genius. very Cremona violins. as often the case. It combined and light- but was very difficult to obtain. The poor stuff given Fi-an^ois to work upon when. Fran9ois Tourte was rescued from the clock-making business. was the male Cinderella of the family. and there may have been jealousies and disputes besides. as only pieces with straight grain were required. called aloud for a suitable and sympathetic companion to caress. whole trees might be cut up in search of a 164 pound. beginning The to mature as the century waned. He had fashion to deal with strips of old sugar-barrels and into bows. he was allowed to enter the parental workshop a little. ness. But as soon as he got a free hand he ex- perimented with all kinds of wood. which he sold for about fifteen- them pence each. His brother. suggests that he after eight years of watch-making. . the father failed to see which of the two sons was to carry on the fame of the house. and arrived at the conclusion that the only wood suitable for his purpose stiffness was Fernambuc wood.OLD VIOLINS would have been quite thrown away on the old sawing and scraping school of the seventeenth century. draw from them their sweetest tones and most vigorous powers. excite. on account of so many ports being in those disturbed times blockaded. and the price had risen in Paris to five francs a Then. charm. was not the genius. and.

The nut would be button. in each Fig. or up to 250). the careful flattening of out. but both the father's and the eldest son's bows are held to Tourte's. even when They were doubtless largely labours of love with this matchless artificer." for riguevur." — He fixed the proportions —length. all Tourte had This may. 150 to 200 (modern exigencies require more. The weight nicely poised with the gold. often made of tortoise-shell. they came into the open market. between 29'134 of the bend is inches and 29'528 inches. and would now fetch. tortoise-shell. fancy His bows. . or hair combed out and not taken from dead horses who may have lain some time in the shambles. sold for three and now is fetch =£"30. is a small wedge. BOWS produced. in which nips the hairs and keeps them The it fine selection of hairs. the exquisitely graduated thicknesses. 165 . This accounts for the high prices first of Tourte bows. no education but that of a watch-maker. above all. now held to be de characterise the intuitive genius of Tourte. silver with ebon nuts. mounted in guineas. be now too short for the strain of execution put upon them by modern players not so Francois and all bows made " after Tourte. if ever prices. jewelled with mother-of-pearl. the preference for live hair. as may be seen flat. vi. Tourte pere originated the backward bend of the bow. and gleaming with a gold screw These cost £12. or ebon of the nut . I say advisedly "intuitive genius. which not cut but artificially bent by heat . who could neither read nor write.VIOLIN few likely strips.

which it has not been found safe or expedient to depart from. which inside the moved by the screw up and down rigid . or violoncello bows. who has been nicknamed the English Tourte. as Tourte them The one point in mechanique in which the invention of F. women. must be perfect. i. and there he was buried. have given him his fine sense of delicate and exact proportions. which remains thus the length of the hair exposed for playing always remains the same. Vuillaume may be thought to have improved upon Tourte alone is is in his fixed nut for viola. and walked with a shuffling He wore his clothes until 166 . left them.— OLD VIOLINS indeed. and excepto use long armed proportions. in the The bows air swell or taper same place. This consists of a metal nut. left the mechanique. and as the columns in the violins of Strad give the same note. men may have the wood. and lived chiefly at Kew. but it is still remarkable that exami- nations of the diameter of Tourte bows in different places give uniform results. without any detriment to Tourte's tionally principle children. Violin bows may be . He was his own worst enemy he was undersized gait. in stature. and admirers.e. main nut. shorter or longer. even but the the balance. even He was when born in 1752. as far as I can see. B. was John Dodd. so do the bows of Tourte yield the same proportions. tenor. He was always out its his reputation was at height. smaller or larger. The only other original maker of the first rank and excellence. Poor Dodd had his friends . at elbows.

VIOLIN BOWS air. He doubtless had his secret. are not very uncommon he died only . But the bowlast maker them all Richmond Workhouse. he had his qualities no bribe or stress of want could make him swerve from his sense of what . and whether he Dodd's bows in 1836." When the old fellow was known to be excessively hard up. for he died of bronchitis at the altogether respectable age of eighty-four. and a broad-brimmed hat somehow gave him an additionally dilapidated I am afraid he drank. could or could not teach he refused i?1000 offered him by some one who wanted to learn it. His wood is as magnificent as his it workmanship. tired I will out. Selle. Indeed. who has given us some of the above details. . but was possibly one that he could not impart. and ended at in the not say whether he can be exactly cited as a frightful example of the degrading effects of liquor. He would take no apprentice. and. and Dr. where he less consumed what to experienced topers seemed an immoderate quantity of a drink called " pearl. strange to say. for although his habits were said to be regular. John Dodd the bow-maker must not be confounded 167 . kind Mr. was due to his art. the his most regular of them all was four daily visits to the public-house. came to the rescue. Richard Piatt. for fear he should learn the trick it. these true musical wands do not run into a five-pound note yet (1898). they were in rags. a musical professor of the town.

John lived in Blue Bell Alley. brother of the great violin-maker (1774-1837)." which more respectable than a forged resort. not to mention Jacques Lafleur (1760-1832).OLD VIOLINS Dodd the fiddle dealer and vamisher. don't sell Many bows that as his are is stamped "d'apres Vuillaume. and whilst a good bow is a luxury. them now and But then a good player can use any bow. but the rustic suburbs suited his habits. an admirable imitator of Toiu-te." certainly "scuola de. it little mattered Vuillaume of Paris made excellent bows. Mint Street. Southwark. Lupot. before he went to Kew. died. who employed Fendt and Lott to make the fiddles. and as he had acquired a European reputation before he where he lived. ! and at another time with a rush It would be unfair even in a sketch only professes to seize like this. and even founded a school of bow-making. It is said that Paganini on one occasion excited the wonder and enthusiasm of his audience by performing on his instrument with a long churchwarden clay pipe. label to which violin dealers do so commonly Vuillaume's hollow steel bows have never "caueht on. which the salient point of general interest to collectors and amateurs. a real violinist will be able to perform very respectably with a bad one." though good players have used again. was the first to line with metal the groove in the under- 168 . John Dodd the bow-maker was the brother of Thomas with Thomas Dodd.

He it. whose bows are already known throughout the world owing to their attractive appearance and good balance. Some ignorant people talk of rosin as "greasing the bow." "warp. will alone decide Time Tubbs' position in the scale of bow- makers. roughened by in- finitesimal particles of rosin. or those who deal with them. stayed with him eleven years. Peccate went to Vuillaume in 1826. We have now among us one James Tubbs. which prevents the horse- 169 . You can do this by confining yourself to the best shops. and then became foreman to Fran9ois Lupot. Chanot. to prevent BOWS wear and tear of the ebony or tortoise-shell.-t. Withers." and flexibility. about which pages have been unnecessarily written. Domminique Peccate (1810-74) have almost rivalled Tourte. useless. for time alone will determine the question of "last. of course.VIOLIN side of the nut. and general en- durance of efficiency. sence of friction it is It is not the absence but the presets the strings in vibration." Smooth horsehair or greased horsehair is. where he entirely began latterly he worked on his own account. which the surface of the horsehair. Hai. is also thought to He was originally a barber. On rosin. to Hill. and Vuillaume. I have but one word to say —get Go it pure. hand required in ton- and transferred the delicacy of sorial operations to the fine adjustments and elegant tapering and octagonal proportions of violin bows. ended his life at Mirecourt.

'" gum I notice that the best players use plenty of rosin and never let the matchless violinist bow get thirsty. would be mute. however thirsty the bow may be. and the habit of smothering and smearing nous dust is its beautiful smooth belly with thin glutivile one. . "Why. may not have time to clean up. and the art of Cremona. way you avoid rubbing the oleaginous particles of the into stickiness. let To Mori : average rosiners me give a word of advice. but it was not enough for Remenye. Ouri. you of the Stradivari and the Amati violins and the Tourte and the Dodd bows ought to have. 170 .OLD VIOLINS hair touching the string with a continuous pressure. a most and worthy only of thirdThese rate second violins at fourth-rate music halls. but powder the rosin off into the hair with quick rubs and a light hand . who please to powdered away in clouds. or you musical galley-slaves are no fit guardian of such treasures. remem- ber that. in all rapid as to sound continuous. pupil of Frank " Don't rub the horsehair down smooth with in this long sweeps. so that it receives in reaHty a succession of tiny shocks.'" calling aloud for rosin. This is what renders the succession of vibrations so rosin. you have no rosin on you cannot expect the I violin to speak Yet it thought my bow had But plenty of rosin on. the violin. Without spite of strings and bow. early given me by my old master. I remember the Remenye taking up my violin and bow and without. the violin does not require to drink.

lived amongst these rustics of a favoured clime. and the simple who turned out Sunday finery for a little re- laxation and merriment. for a time. enjoying in his their simple pleasures.CHAPTER XII VIOLIN TARISIO This extraordinary man. Our air. autobiography interesting glimpses of that opeurhearted . in return. and to a great extent in France. vintages were being gathered in. and contributing 171 own . especially German of the Stainer and Luigi Tarisio. He wandered from place to in their place. Forster. Mathews has given life in his delightful free. mended Charles their benches and fiddled for them at the vineyard cabarets. doubtless regaled the Italian carpenter with open-hearted hospitality. what time the folk. like W. and Klotz pattern. whilst he. open- for he also. eked out the scanty income which he derived from a very poor making tables and benches for the peasants by playing dance music on fiddle at village routs. at once created and answered that demand for for Italian violins which followed both in England. the rage the German. originally an obscure Italian carpenter.

by his histrionic gifts and a somewhat free-handed distribution of coin. to their revels and their needs. not always very honestly. Luigi Tarisio soon began to be dominated by the spell of his violin . tools in hand. the cunning Tarisio would view with unaffected pity the miserable old battered Cre- monas which were then lurking siastical nooks." ill-adjusted." but " violins to repair." He usually had with him a decoy violin or two. pitting his own growing knowledge of their merits against the ignorance or necessity of their owners.'" nor " shoes to mend. the life of a nomad life as common pedlar — which enabled him to glide without suspicion into half the sacristies and convents in Italy. his cry Wherever he went. in some local cafe or monasterial domicile of priest or cathedral musician. bag on shoulder. and over a glass of lemonade or a bottle of wine. split as in a thousand eccle- with the "wolf. Gradually Tarisio the car- penter and Tarisio the fiddler seemed to be merged in Tarisio the cunning repairer and Tarisio the still more knowing buyer. and generally out of 172 and whipping out . He bought chiefly by exchange. and basket of was not " knives to grind.— OLD VIOLINS peculiar way. in the shape of common fiddles in good playing order. to repair them all in way of trade. for money he had little or none. to possess them. but he began in the early years of this nineteenth century to lead that it seemed to outsiders. he got to notice other the violins. sorts. ill-strung.

and in this way he possessed himself. a Strad. and Tarisio would decamp with an Amati. he understood the supreme Antonio and the power of Giuseppe. which. a Joseph or Bergonzi treasure. But Tarisio knew this.VIOLIN TARISIO his common fiddle in perfect order. bag of old violins one day for over his shoulder and set out. qualities of the great Nicola and how to separate the excellence of all from those of Andrea. and other grades of merit of which even the admirers of the Cremona school in England seemed entirely ignorant together. All Amatis at that time were lumped and Stradivari and Giuseppe Guarneri were all hardly known at all. in a few years was able to gauge accurately the merits of the different great Italian makers. on foot. He knew exactly where to rank the Amatis. was there in Italy for such priceless what market Cremonas when for fiddles their owners were prepared to give them up worth from five to twenty shillings ? But why did Tarisio go '' to Paris? He probably indeed wisely that the Stainer craze. of instru- ments which now fetch over . before he tossed his heavy and a good deal more. with the infallible instinct of a born collector and connoisseur. and the huge ^ ° 173 . Tarisio. for Paris. or anyhow else he could.£'1000 in the open market — if ever they get there. would play a few notes on each. they say. of. after a little clever mending. might be worth a fortune. often for a few francs. so manifestly to the disadvantage of the Cremona that an exchange was soon effected.

would have killed his market nearer home. The famous bronze-gilt horses from S. the Dying Gladiator. grimy and unkempt enough to claim kinship with the man who had " used somebody's soap sixteen years ago. and how. and. Aldric.OLD VIOLINS crop of common violins then being made in Germany. and the shrewd Tarisio may have ? thought. dustman's sack over his Aldric a very poor sort of pedlar. and installed in a vast hall for the benefit Of rage course a rage for everything Italian was the result. Raffaello's Transfigura- had been canied in triumphant procession and instruction of the people. through the streets of Paris. must have heard when a boy how Napoleon had ransacked the art treasures of Italy. who had narrowly enough escaped the guillotine the great in 1793. under the advice of the cultivated Marquis d'Aveze. and tion itself." first The fashionable violin dealer was at inclined to in Tarisio's show him the door. conqueror had inaugurated a high Art Exhibition for the people. who had begged and fiddled his way for days and weeks across country. He carried a huge He seemed to M. Marco. why not a for old Italian fiddles One day in the year 1827 there arrived at the shop of M. since when he had used no other. more in amusement or out of 174 . a travel-worn man in ragged clothes. Then he I. but probably something independent manner betrayed that indefinable quality we call character. Venice. the Cupid and Psyche from Rome. at that time a famous violin dealer in Paris. shoulder. the Apollo Belvedere.

and bonhomie which laces. not even like. all human ever again have Tarisio's opportunities. with all his enthusiasm and self- was a man of exceeding cunning. pottery. and had that tact. clever The or in French tradesman was conversing with the probability ever will see. Now. M. and fervently 175 . and suchHe had with him no Strad. He quickly found the tables turned upon him. affability. no Joseph. or to such as may have tried to fancy collecting as they passed through the Italian towns. with due astuteness. concealing his emotion. It is easy to imagine his astonishment his indif- what he saw but he seems to have kept up in the least of. the sacrifice. for no one can greatest violin connoisseur that the world has ever seen. Aldric was soon undeceived. a grand pattern Nicolo. quickness. the his best wares had not brought . on he had come on a voyage of disand only produced a small pattern Nicolo Amati. pedlar. not supposing the poor creature before him could be aware of the treasures he sought to dispose M. covery. shi'ewd cai-penter this his first visit So. M. and has often proved so fatal to the amateur of old and objects do a little de vertu. Aldric. Aldric allowed the pedlar to empty his sack of fiddles on his counter.VIOLIN TARISIO pity than with any serious intent to make a deal. Ruggerii. is well known to tourists in Italy. but he had brought enough. and half-a-dozen Maggini. at . ferent manner. even should he unite in himself Tarisio's extraordinary qualities. and haggled over bargains in small curiosity- shops and market-places.

offered him a small sum for the lot. Strads. but with his full. nicely done up. but. and Chanot the elder opened their privileged doors to him. but he forgot that he himself had to create the market. with unabated energy. and offer As his stock indifferent fiddles increased he could a greater selection.. Vuillaume. with his empty bag indeed. OLD VIOLINS hoping the shabby man did not know the value of his wares. cially and espe- Vuillaume had the acumen to see that in Tarisio he had lighted upon what gold-diggers call a veritable " pocket. to his ignorant and confiding but not over-wealthy Italian patrons. Tarisio was far more than a connoisseur and dealer 176 . . Guarneri. doubtless with those picturesque in- vocations of horror to the Virgin and all the Saints which seem necessary to the Italian who attempts to convey to a " screw " the mingled indignation and pity excited in his generous offer. which Tarisio refused. Thibaut. bad. and readily parted with the worst ones. back to his monasteries and cabarets. and so at last he left. He was now beginning to be known far and wide as a clever repairer and a convenient dealer. When next he journeyed to Paris he met with a dif- ferent reception." and gave him higher and higher prices for the harvest of Amatis. he recom- dazzled menced his search. of good. ragged pockets far from Back to a little Italy. and artistic breast by a mean Tarisio was certainly disappointed.and Bergonzis which now flowed steadily into Paris through this odd medium.

and he at last worried Chanot into parting with it for 1000 francs.VIOLIN TARISIO he was a singular and most whole-hearted enthusiast. to a Spanish lady. who had sold the patched Strad." which only meant that she would part with it for a consideration. the fiddle-maker. which. sold the remainder. " Sir. finding the trunk in one place and the head in a ditch miles away. "The man's whole soul was in his dealer. interviewed the donna who possessed the patched Strad. with a brand-new back made by himself! The precious belly caught Tarisio's eye in the shop window. Off went Tarisio to Madrid. at once said. the instrument is at your disposition." then goes on to relate how once. and who. just as the Roman fragments of the Hercules Farnese. or what she considered This was refitted to be the good round sum of 4000 francs. extracted from the bewildered Ortega. " He would sooner possess one Strad than twenty such carriages. As the novelist Charles Reade (who was himself a great fiddle dealer and knew Tarisio) has fiddles. Reade when a splendid which no money would buy from him. the required information. 12 177 . He was a great He had gems by him Mr." He would stalk the back antiquary stalked the or the belly of a valuable fiddle until he recovered the whole. had them nicely and back. well said. the carpenter remarked. equipage rolled by him in Paris. ribs fitting belly of a Ortega. after the fashion of the high-bom Spaniard. Chanot had stumbled upon the cracked Strad violin in Spain. a mere bagatelle for such a treasure. but a greater amateur.





by Vuillaume,


now known
in the

as the

Spanish Bass.
It w£is sold for .£'800,

and exhibited


Kensington Collection of 1872 (No. 188).


one occasion, says Charles Reade, Tarisio was

crossing the


of Biscay with his famous Spanish


ship rolled

Tarisio clasped his treasure


and trembled.


was a terrible gale, and for
real danger.

one whole day they were in

" Tarisio spoke


to me," continues his friend, " with a shudder.

Ah my

poor Mr. Reade,' he exclaimed,


the Bass

of Spain was







to Tarisio also being

that did not seem to matter so

with hardly a


not too


to say that,

memorable exception,
Brescian fiddles, which

the great Cremonese and

now command such prix
cunning hands

have passed through the
Tarisio the

of Luigi

and most of them have at one
artistic skill

time been benefited by the tender and
of Vuillaume, his great patron.



who by


time wore



and no longer carried Cremonas

a sack on

his back, visited


in 1851,

he was received by

the whole trade as a person of rare quality, as indeed

he was.

Mr. John Hart took him to


Mr. Coding's unique

As one by one

the owner took his treasures

out of a glass cabinet, before ever he had got within

two paces of

Tarisio, he was

amazed at hearing


called out.

A glance was sufficient.

Tarisio had

had them

through his hands


"King" Guar-

Lafonfs Guarnerius, the matchless Bergonzi,
called the

the Marquis de la Rosa's Amati, Ole Bull's Guarnerius,

the famous Serafino





which might never have reached Mr. Goding had
the Italian carpenter

not been for the enterprise and indomitable energy of

who now

stood before him.

Barring a narrow

of dealers,

may seem

strange that so remarkable a


should not have

been more widely known and esteemed during his
of dealers amongst

time; but we can well understand that the restricted

whom he

moved, did not

find it to their interest to place their special


" pocket " within reach of the wealthy amateurs out of


they themselves were busy making their market.


had he been dealer


and enthusiast

second, might have done better financially

but he did

not do badly, and he wanted


except the privilege
his life

of handling Cremonas to the end of
in their

and dying


good company. did both. Although there was a

strain of geni-

about Tarisio, he never seemed to unbend except

in the

company of



as he


too cautious to give himself away to Italians, from


he was gradually securing








and immortality, the

only people who really knew Tarisio were the few

Vuillaume, the


John Hart the
in England,

dealer and Charles

Reade the


In his own land he remained to the end nothing but
the quiet unobtrusive repairer and occasional dealer in
dilapidated fiddles.
It seems

he had removed to Milan, where he was

quite safely hidden, along with his fiddles,
attic at the top of




a second-class restaurant in the Via

Legnano Porta Tegnaglia.


one was ever allowed to enter his room.


locked himself in and he locked himself out.

saw him going up and down the


and that

they saw of him.

One day
stairs for


1854 Tarisio dragged himself up those

the last time.

monition of his end,

Whether he had any prenone may know certainly no one

was with him when he died he locked himself
necessaries of



was noticed that

but came out no more; nor

had he gone down to the restaurant

any of the


last the

neighbours thought


time to ascertain

what was taking place
but their

in that mysterious attic.


seemed to have watched his strange movements

efforts to find out who he was and how he lived had been hitherto fruitless, as he made a point of carrying on his particular and nomadic business at a distance from his abode. They were not going to be baulked

any longer,

so they knocked,

but there was no answer.
There, on a squalid



they broke open the door, and a strange and

piteous sight burst

upon them.

couch, lay the pedlar, quite dead.

Around him


seemed chaos 180

piles of fiddle-boxes,


fiddles in

and out of

cases, tenors, 'cellos, violins in



violins whole.

Half-a-dozen Strads there

a Gasparo (afterwards Mr. Bennetfs), a Ruggieri (Mr.

T. R. Bradson's)
different makers.


about a hundred Italian



Here, too, was found the " Messie " or " Messiah."

These trophies created
but to the joy of the
been hunted up with


enthusiasm at the time,



two nephews, who had by the municipal autho-

a sealed packet was found containing valuable


and a considerable amount of gold.

The The


matter of



instant his friend and patron Vuillaume heard

of the magician's death he hurried to Milan, and visited
the nephews at their farmhouse.

" Where are the
" At Milan



but we have six here."


the spot Vuillaume opened the cases.



contained a splendid Strad, the second a Joseph del

Gesu, the third a Carlo Bergonzi, the fourth and


two Guadagninis, and the
1824, when


the famous Messiah,

preserved by Count Cozio de Salabue, intact until

was bought by Tarisio.

Vuillaume came to terms with the nephews for these

and then

not a


in visiting the famous

attic at Milan,

where he found 246 more, which he

bought at once for ^3166, leaving the astonished heirs no doubt laughing in their sleeves, under the impression that the gobe-numche of a Frenchman had been nicely

by the wily


When we
for the lot,

remember that a couple only of these gems now more than the sum Vuillaume paid we may well remember the proverb, "He

laughs best

who laughs


Vignette of Paganini.

have advisedly steered clear in this

volume of violin-players and violin-music, excepting
in so far as

they acted or reacted in any way upon the
progress towards perfection.






point of view, the growth of music appears to be responsible for the definition


survival (as the fittest)

of the violin, violoncello, and double bass
sity is certainly responsible for

and virtuo-

the lengthening of the


and finger-board, the strengthening of the

sound-bar to

an increased string-tension, and

the lengthening of the bow.


virtuosity can claim

nothing more than these

trifling details.



pattern of 1684) to 1700 has

remained completely

by the



demands of

In this the grand pattern violin stands out


and singular contrast to the old grand pianoforte. and
his followers,


imperious demands of Liszt and Thalberg, Rubinstein

have compelled a


of improve-

ments in strength, sonority, delicate mechanism, and

undreamed of by the old
later Erards,


and only


by the

Broadwoods, Collards,

and Steinways.

But not a

single substantial improve-


ment has been made in the violin since the last one left the hand of the great Antonio at Cremona, and not even a trifling modification of any sort has been adopted
or applied to the grand violin of the golden period for
at least a century.


excuse then for introducing


name and

portrait of Paganini into this



not because he reacted in the least degree upon the
art of violin-making, but because he accepted it as an

absolutely finished art, and asked for nothing which

he found not in Strad and Joseph.








Paganini was the greatest of

players in this cul-

minating century of the musical art

—a man admittedly

unsurpassed in the opinion of violin experts like John
Ella, Cipriani Potter, Onry, and others, who, for forty

years after his death, listened to
violinists of

the phenomenal

an age which boasts of Ernst, Joachim,

Wieniawski and Sarasate and Ysaye.



has not

been possible to produce the face and figure of any of
these great old makers, with the one exception of Lupot,


belongs at best to the silver age, I have thought

worth while to glorify their work by reproducing the

grand though eccentric face and figure of the one


who has

invested their chef-cToeuvres with that romantic

glamour, that almost unearthly prestige which the violin
alone amongst instruments can lay claim
Paganini's favourite violin,

a Joseph Guarnerius,

in its case under glass to this hour, open for all eyes

to inspect, in the Town-hall at Genoa, his native town, to which he has bequeathed

His dying



that no one should ever play upon
speare's curse



upon those

who should move

his bones.


great musician's orders have not been quite so

scrupulously observed as those of the immortal bard

of Avon. In " My Musical Life " will be found my " Homage a Paganini," together with a woodcut of

Danton's very

fine bust,

given to

who played

in the orchestra

me by John Ella, among the violins when
fame of an

Paganini visited England.


so ephemeral as the

actor, or musician, unless they leave books or music

behind them.

Henceforth the phonograph

may do

something to give future generations some idea of the
fascination which lived

and died with them

but no


will ever give

us even a faint echo of

Siddons' declamation or Paganini's playing
alike buried with the generation

these are

which they charmed



if I


Leigh Hunt's description of

Paganini's performance

we have something




may hazard

the hibernianism, of

the " Pale Musician's " mighty personality and power.

Somewhere between the forties and fifties, I remember, as a very young boy, standing awestruck before a thin,
gaunt, dislocated



of Paganini in an


dresscoat, with wild

dreamy eyes and arm

uplifted high


as Leigh Hunt describes him before his bow came down like a crash of thunder on the strings but let the lively and graphic essayist who heard him, speak

for himself


" Paganini, the


time I saw and heard him, and the


Suspending ere it fell a nation's breath. Blissful yet laden as with twenty prayers. said to himself after a sigh. seemed it literally to strike it. ' the depth and identicalness of the impression which he made upon everybody.' To show Italian. Dreary and gaunt. foreign or native. He smote. Th' exceeding mystery of the loveliness Sadden'd delight. through the arm akimbo of a man who was perched up before me. The house was so crammed that. which made a kind of frame for it .! — VIOLIN TARISIO ! first time he struck a note. so strong. just going to commence. so fervid thick with love. and clinging to the serious chords. this O Dio and person in had not been said long when another O Christ ' the same manner exclaimed. With godlike ravishment drew forth a breath So deep. as through a perspective were the face bent and the raised hand of the wonderful musician." 185 . Loading the air with dumb expectancy. ' Musicians pressed forward from behind the scenes to get as close to him as possible. That Juno yearned with no diviner soul To the first burthen of the lips of Jove. and with his mournful look. with the instrument at his chin. or to melancholy eyes One that has parted with his soul for pride. and there. And in the sable secret lived forlorn. an who ' stood near me. and looking exactly as I described him — 'His hand. on the stage in that frame. glass. I happened to catch the glance of his face. to give a blow. and they could not sleep at night for thinking of him. being among the squeezers in the standing-room at the side of first the pit. he almost seem'd Too feeble. hanging his pallid face 'Twixt his dark flowing locks.

These accomplished noblemen. MITTENWALD. and. about that time. pictures. which did so establish the much to supremacy of the "petit violon" over the crowd of competing viols which then held the popular ear. to pupil of the celebrated assist Mirecourt lutist him in finishing these important court orders. AND MARKNEUKIRCHEN MlRECOURT MiREcouRT workshops. The gi-eat princes of Lorraine occupied a castle of a short distance from pleasure called Ravenel. employed Nicolas Ren- who was a Tywersus. at Mirecourt.CHAPTER VIOLINS XIII AT MIRECOURT. in Lorraine has the glory of being associ- ated from so early a date as 1566 with the Cremona Andrew Amati. 186 . touched with Florentine culture. often made excursions into Lombardy. musical instruments. and delighted in the refinements of the Italian prince- doms and duchies. as we have seen. six small fiddles for Charles IX. ironwork. They brought back with them laces. who made auld of Nancy. died very hard.

fiddle- and in close touch with the great Italian makers. indeed the fiddles often passed for Cremonas. Mirecourt undertook the modest but equally useful duty of multiplying Cremona school violins. which circulated far and wide throughout the French provinces. in the heart of the Vosges mountains.. popularity of these Cremona replicas brought The 187 . with his expensive mistresses. Mirecourt long held supremacy as one of. the honour of supplying that rapidly growing violin market which was now springing and whilst Cremona made few foreign largely for home consumption and a more courts. he left behind him Nicolas Renauld. Jean Medard. and frequently reached our own shores . Louis XIV. their private lute-maker. When Amati left Paris. if not the most important mart of fiddle manufacture. was deeply in- by the work and models of the early Amatis. certainly spared no money or patronage to secure those who could in any way minister to the extravagant court pomp and artistic amusements of the Pompadour and the Petit Trianon. with easy access to the grand timbers of their ancient forests. and we find his friend fat and co-worker Medard installed in the same office under the Grand Monarque.VIOLINS AT MIRECOURT Tywersus. within beck and call of Lombardy. and Nicolas Medard. who slipped into the lucrative post of luthier to his French Majesty. who. whither he had gone to present his violins in person to Charles IX. It shared with Mittenwald and Markneukirchen up. and from the school of Tywersus came Nicolas Renfluenced auld. Meanwhile Mirecourt..

Nicolas. was a native of Stuttgard. and its at one time Mirecourt. and these. was fast becoming a elaborate in- byword for bad fiddles. Medard. as we all know. or people who study the fashions go to Paris. just as people violin manufacture. whose run some of the finest specimens of Cremona very hard. he carried with him to Paris. in number. who wish to know what can be known. To Mirecourt we owe Rambaux. eight Mirecourt. his sons William Ebsworth Hill was careful to send 188 . three at Paris. but all the others lived and died at Mirecourt. of Maucotel. Menegand. and above Vuillaume.OLD VIOLINS on that inevitable deterioration follows over-rapid in quality which always production and cheap wares. Francis and George Chanot both came from there. were bom at Two settled at Brussels. go to Mirewho study art go to Rome and Florence. and was succeeded by Gand. The Lupot violins family are claimed as natives of Mire- court. although the greatest of them. town in- Every one of the Vuillaumes. in spite of dustry. The names vestre. Silall and Deragay. and came from Mirecourt. Happily the danger was seen and speedily checked. cluding the immortal Jean Baptiste. where he died in 1824. who was born there in 1802 and died there only in 1870. and Mirecourt now stands out as perhaps the greatest and most excellent emporium of modern All court. His father was All his tradi- a Frenchman. tions belong to Mirecourt. must little always shed an imperishable lustre upon the in the Vosges mountains.

has called forth an abundance of fair makers beyond the limits of Mirecourt. in Breslau. and we be sure that they did not come away until they had possessed themselves of everything that Mirecourt to teach the violin maker or the connoisseur. Rampfler.. in Frankfort -on Maine. M. Zach. cost price. in in Turin. the late Furber. Marchetti. if not quality. Hel. . 6d. .£16 to The ever-increasing demands for " trade fiddles " of all kinds. who has trade branches in Paris and London. the Chanots. London Bemardel. in Milan. Lenk. Voigt. lOd. VIOLINS AT MIRECOURT may had to this celebrated school of violin art. Lembok. but Markneukirchen probably leads in cheapness and quantity. Thibouville Lamy of Mirecourt. Bros. and for further general information the reader may consult the toler- ably exhaustive catalogue index of makers at the end of this volume. as distinguished from the solo violins reserved for the use of virtuosi. The best Mirecourt fiddles will fetch from £6 The Gand and Bemardel prices range from ^20. Mittenwald. Silvestre. Cremona. In England Hill it is enough to mention such names as and Manchester &Sons. in Lille. Guttermann. in Brussels. London in Paris. Sprenger. Germain. for the bulk of which I am indebted 189 . turning out quite playable fiddles for the modest figure of £1 to £2. Bittner. and Markneukirchen. Darche. . selling at about 4s. Liebieh. manufactures a violin at about 3s. Ceruti . in Munich. Audinot. to ^£"10. Duncan of Glasgow. and Chardon in Vienna. . Guadagnini . 10s.

and the woods. over- river-side. were of old trees. who excited 190 . then close full up to the town. before the days of Matthias. to be found in the Wetterstein hills. fair to Bozen. MiTTENWALD.: OLD VIOLINS to the studious and admirable labours of Miss Stainer. was a town of considerable importance from very early days as the halting-place for the to the Danube. Her booklet issued is entitled " Violin Makers. for it is on the banks of the dear shadowed by the Wetterstein and Kurwandel mountains. until one Matthias Klotz. who in his less boyhood is said to have been apprenticed to no a person than the great Nicolas Amati. the importance of Mittenwald began to ." and it forms series one of the music primers of an educational by Novello & Co. was wont to come a dreamy." The prime hazel and maple. quaintest frescoed of Bavarian towns. and wrote up outside his house " Matthias Klotz. In old days its Mittenwald. for which in more recent times the After the removal of the place was chiefly famous. Romans on their way which resulted in the establishment of the handy mart or Mittenwald fair. with houses and its picturesque Isar. is of splendid quality. It long retained its peculiar caravanserai character. decline trade and commerce suddenly seemed to have made unto themselves wings. ill-regulated sort of person. Thither. im jahr 1684. Geigen Macher. settled at Mittenwald.

and he mad from worry and want. The probabilities are that he was a pupil of both with their work. and perhaps ridicule. but the sanest thing he ever did was to tap those trees and listen to the sound. and now that the greatest of German makers was dead. Matthias Klotz was only nineteen when he came to Mittenwald. to bring who down the model certainly did visit flatter Cremona. but by this time the Mittenwalders. for they workman with favour and hoped he might do something of the kind for Mittenwald.VIOLINS AT MITTENWALD hammer and then did go the curiosity. points to the strong influence Absam otherwise which was upon him — could —whilst the tendency noticeable it hardly be in the fiddles of his son Sebastian. Certainly his relations with Nicolas Amati are not very well defined. of the villagers by tapping their trees with a his ear close to the putting wood to hear the sound. who had heard how the eccentric tramp with the hammer had gone back to Absam and made the place famous by his fiddles. They were not mistaken. indicates that the firm at all events 191 . Stainer had died incoherent and insane at Absam. Mittenwald was soon destined to become noted in It is its turn for its fiddles. His name was Jacob Stainer. than was fashionable at this time. were prepared to receive the young hospitality. They thought he was mad. One year before Klotz arrived at Mittenwald. — in the sense of being familiar The fact that his violins are some- times mistaken for Stainer. generally affirmed that Klotz was a pupil of Stainer.

not say that Herr Reiter. directs the school and factory. under Government. but Sebastian''s fiddles are much esteemed. is The school instructs about twenty boys. Whether from haste or ignorance. is now the most prominent Mittenwald maker. the Klotz wood. especially that used by Matthias and Sebastian. three hun- Out of eighteen hundred Mittenwalders. The I will place provides from fifteen to twenty thousand instruments per annum. now less prolific than that of Markneukirchen. although of the firm. Joseph. Matthias or Sebastian Klotz attended to the carefully. all his nephew.OLD VIOLINS reflected the later the Amati model of Nicolas. who died very year Klotz came to Mittenwald. who is an artist versed is in the old secrets and the old enthusiasms. who was a pupil of Vuillaume. including zithers and guitars. His brothers. and Egidius. whose teacher was Johan Vauchel of Wurzburg. founder industry. 192 personally . and laid on rather more lavishly than was the habit of Mdtthias. and Herr Neuner. The Mittenwald time. Master Reiter. son of made fiddles of the same type —varnish running from yellow to brown. and dred are fiddle-makers. is sometimes found to be worm-eaten. George and Egidius. preceded it in point of and undoubtedly it was through Bavarian Mitten- wald that the Cremona influence reached Saxony. Had methods either of Stainer or Amati more they would have observed that wood cut the sap in it in spring with was not calculated to last like the drier autumn timber.

stir once provincial villages like Mirecourt. and remarked to a visitor "the " I. besides violins and twenty- having repaired some four hundred others. Something. Brescia. Quiet resting-places. and it throws a kind of sudden flashlight upon the origin of an industrial centre which has since become one of the most sided famous emporiums of violins " made 193 13 in Germany. to America. some two hundred five 'cellos." Makkneckirchen. Catholic or Protestant. too. secluded valleys of the Tyrol. — ! Markneukirchen. Master Reiter. far from the of mighty cities ! —such retreats seem to have been ever favourable to the development of violin manufacture.VIOLINS AT MARKNEUKIRCHEN workshops. but he them all. never let other day. after all." . ! sleepy Italian towns —Mittenwald. to Russia. most of which were. Cremona. chiefly intended for the sanctuary. one go out of my hands that has not been thoroughly tested. mountains of Saxony Mirecourt . of simple and almost naive religious sentiment has entered into the production of the earlier violins. 1677 to 1772. and where not. The lately arts and craftsbook of the Worshipful Guild of Violinmakers of Markneukirchen. and I have sent out into the world. has been unearthed and translated by the manyand indefatigable Heron Allen. responsible for the " trade fiddles " that annually pour from the Mittenwald He himself has supervises made comparatively few fiddles. Athens.

labelled with every known name. Amen " and then follow the names of George. whilst Thus. Hans and Gaspar Hopf chiefly and from Graslitz. Schonfeldes. instrument maker. They settled. and . at the retired and mountainous village of Markneukirchen. is sum not much above that astonishing cost price. reformed Lutheran way. from grew the famous Guild. Polles. Gaspar. which by-and-by was responsible for scattering abroad violins innumerable. " In the name of the Holy Trinity. locksmith. Guild on easy Gottfried Pitz was admitted to the 194 . the cost of production has got lings. Many of these workers were all-round men. twelve families. the principals being Reicher. was a Frederick Jacob was carpenter. bad. about the year 1627.. whilst they were compelled by the rules of the Guild to produce diploma instruments and others of recognised quality. and indifferent for it is a notable peculiarity of the Markneukirchen makers that. down as low as about four shillabelled Stradi- and a very playable instrument. their uneventful annals begins enough with. Carl 1587. actually sold for a vari. emigrants. one Andrea Gher. this modest nucleus. OLD VIOLINS Here we read how a mere handful of masters and workmen went out from kith and kin into a wilderness —some would say a paradise— the sake of worshipping God own way—that to the new for in their is say. schoolmaster. and general Gasper Reichel was a barber. The book which records characteristically . and did not confine themselves to fiddle-making. to the number old of sixty-six. of quality good.

gentlemen failed to marry as per contract . to marry the daughter of a master that at least staved payment. if match did not come to off. or part was remitted by favour. the masters' . As some money —there were various ways of lightening the burden when the candidate happened to be a desirable addition to the Guild —he was allowed to pay in instalments. and was admitted for ten thalers. youngest daughter of Hans Martin Schcinfeldes also Johann Christian Envel. Hans Adam Narlitzer. but in case he could not make up his mind to marry the girl. had " half a mind to marry the youngest daughter of Reichel. in 1761. he would have to pay thirty-one In no case is it recorded that any of these thalers. house. who " intended " the to marry a master's daughter. One Kretchman also "intended" marry the . but sons of a master were admitted on a reduced fee of five florins. he was to pay up in full. or any other master's daughter. The apprentices often got in cheap that way. was admitted on reduced terms." VIOLINS terms. on the undei-standing that. because he soldier. with a Most of the masters were expected to have a decent room large enough to entertain the Guild this cost with their wives at a banquet on their installation. They had to pay a tax of one florin on being admitted to mastership. AT MARKNEUKIRCHEN had served his country as a cavahy The master-workers were mostly people of some substance. A off" popular means of efiecting economy was to propose .

With first the spread of the Reformed opinions. the demand and basses led to a prodigious develop. by these enterprising artificers have flooded all the orchestras of the world. ment of the Markneukirchen industry nese models. providing them with samples of every maker. At Mittenwald the crop of a similar community flourished. and still German instruments made. there at arose a certain demand for violins in the new dis- churches. and couraged any approach to ornate services. practically founded the modern orchestra with created the for violins its symphony. the fame of the Markneukirchen makers soon spread throughout Europe. but the growing demand stringed instruments of good quality for secular bands soon counteracted the effect of sectarian bigotry and clerical parsimony . from Gaspar and Maggini to Stradi196 . or would have sufficient influence to suppress the fact of their rejection. but were surrounded and as the finest masters not only had ready access to the best Cremo- by some of the maple timber in the world. or an over- supply of instrumental accompaniment. felled in forests full of seasoned trees hundreds of years old. and modem oratorio and quartet. and when one Joseph Haydn. A decree that numthe for the violins used in church should be reduced in bers little naturally spread consternation throughout country town .OLD VIOLINS daughters probably took very good care of that. and made. but the rigid Lutherans soon smelled the odour of abuse and reversion to Romanism. bandmaster to Prince Esterhazy in Vienna.

Nuremburg. Prague. and began to obey the inevitable law by which a mature centre distributes itself gradually. the dandelion get blown abroad over 197 . The increased demand for instruments resulted Mittenwalders that the — necessarily in a tendency to deterioration. as the seeds of all lands. and thus the old centre became like a flower that had overblown itself." Every master had to prove himself equal to producing one masterpiece as a sample of his skill.VIOLINS AT MARKNEUKIRCHEN and Guadagnini. The quaint " Deo Gloria. it was also through the Cremona methods filtered readily into the more northern region Markneukirchen. which did not escape the attention of the Guild. and rigid rules were drawn up. and Paulus have all been en evidence at vari- ous European Exhibitions as medallists and exhibitors of distinction . called "Beneficent Mandates for the Suppression of Abuses. vari. Wurzburg. Bergonzi. the Guarneri. pupil of the great Stainer. losing as it were its own central wealth in its circumference. but. though it was freely admitted that a cheap demand involved a cheap type of instrument. and Franken. The Mittenwald makers owed their inspiration Egidius Klotz.'''' record of the Markneukirchen arts and craftsbook ends with the year 1772. and with the words Since that date the names of Reichel. Schuster. which could not be expected to rival the diploma standard of tone and finish. as famous for their fine hazel-fir timber as the chiefly to They were Markneu- kircheners wei-e for their maple . after a great fire in 184<0. a good many families left the town.

The delusion that a fiddle is the better for being maltreated due to this : —Many people observe that fiddles. The fiddle-doctor has attended to your violin's its bruises. but in spite of the knocking about to which your favourites have been exposed. fixed the loose sound-bar. more you knock about a horse the better he A good horse will take a great so will deal of spoiling. killed it internal economy. battered. come out with the true Cremona timbre . will recover marvellously. glued tight the rattling back. attend to his so will a violin. even a good fiddle. ribs. disorganised which went like into the skilful repairer's hands sounding tin kettles. is not in consequence. and beast. and you glue him up. readjust dry. if you turn him out to grass and ailments. his nervous system. and readjusted your Cremona's 198 . if Your well-bred when broken down. belly. is is knocked about the better similar to the theory that the goes. and gently healed the wolf or fiddle stomach-ache from which was suffering.CHAPTER XIV VIOLIN TREATMENT The notion that the more a fiddle it is. their old. my deluded friend. but that. keep him and coax him a is all bit.

VIOLIN very soul {Tdme TREATMENT which is du ." that the inis cessant and continued playing upon an instrument what Joachim ca.! . he went up to <£'4<0 at the auction and stopped. shook his head. the man who was with the hammer paused and lost looked at the dealer. for once the dealer had been too clever and his Amati 199 for a £5 note. is Tiever Neglect good . but you were the dark horse and made another bid he winked at the . supposing it to be a bogus bid . . and go a mere wreck to the workshop. having already half sold it in advance for twice as much as he meant to give. so long as a violin lasts — and how long it will last is still is a vexed question just as — fair wear and tear and attention as work. as a general rule. O young What is ? You that precious thing committed to your have brought it home from the auction- room ^your Amati. knocking about player is never good ! Lay care it to heart. the sound-post. good for a fiddle and cleanly habits are good for man and beast. — auctioneer. when I say " use. I am not forgetting." and that collectors have been great benefactors by withdrawing choice instruments from wear and tear. better to keep it and so it fares well but remember. It knocked down to you. There was a conspiracy to keep down the bidding. exercise. 'tis a fiddle in repair and use than allow to get out of both.lls said to result in its getting " played out. giving them thus long periods of suspended animation but. An influential dealer wanted to buy it cheap. violon).

the changed sound-post must grow to the newly-directed strain and tension of the vibrating boards . Of what attention is he not worthy! Take him to a subtle violin medicine-man. must have time to forget that it ever was a crack 200 . he is already more than two hundred years old. pull him to pieces with excessive you get him back. but you do mean to have a quality a round. but it has a crack in one rib. tap him. He has got a crack —perhaps more than one. and will sit down before him and think He will then take him up. and may have a mark of the young Stradivari's chisel about him. You don't expect a trumpet-sound like that of a Joseph. by constantly thrilling with the rest. and the filled-up crack. care still and reflection. soft. like the ripple of water and incomparably sensitive and intime tone. get it home . the refixed flanks must learn to deal with the air column. Your treatment has to begin where the The convalescent is home comes after the hospital your house the convalescent home. handle him. not to be surpassed by Strad and never reached by Stainer. When be not quite satisfied. you may but wait. who will at a glance see what he has got to deal with. The glue must dry. Why.! ! — OLD VIOLINS You it . or quite the bell-like ring of a Strad. there is something wrong about is the timbre of the A string unequal too weak — —sweet. fiddle-doctor's ends. Of course your early Nicolo has got to be over- hauled.

it lies your cheek . winter as you would think of your it don't let get chilled at night or wherever there is let it be own bedroom. Think of pet canary in your ." human . . lay aside and watch harm comes to let it lie open. . and seems to mingle with those more than atmospheric. with a soft wrapper on the strings —near. 'tis caressed by your hand . are saturated with the magnetism of your touch the trembling pressure of your fingers comes from the shaking of your own life-blood as it beats in the mysterious valves of the heart. vibrating back actually j^eZs the pulses of your own it heart. . The waves of sound that you generate from . See that no clot of dirt be in rosin to vex its case. 201 Take it out lovingly polish it with soft handkerchief. between your chin its and your left breast. no speck of and fret the . phere and temperature 'Tis half close to fit an atmosfor a well-cared-for " human. and be kept in good humour.! VIOLIN Be not that no silken fire . those psychic waves which travel out upon the conveying your inmost others air in a flow of magic sound self to the inmost selves of So this half-human thing must live with you and be cared for by and fare with you. just the temperatiu'e of a comfortably warm room. TREATMENT it impatient. not too near the like it must not get hot. and by-and-by draw out tone it . Play upon its gently at it first. but. in 'tis breathed on by you when you rare inspiration press it. smooth amber-coloured back. moments of and musical where trance. it in good claret.

Have not half the cathedrals in the land been 202 dis- . The vile notion that a coat of rosin does good. enabling stifling its Your striking rosin 'tis is life speak. or colourskilled repairer Never touch your ing. or spirit. he saw men with knives and mops of paint at Venice scraping away and Paul Veronese ing over with raw blue the vast old faded skies of A spick and span mania seizes at times upon re- storers of all schools.! ! ! OLD VIOLINS keep it shining wherever the varnish still shows up. delusion is a most grievous Why suffer the corrosion of the varnish with a foreign substance to remain there more than on any other part of the wood ? Rosin is for the strings. them to pores and dumb violin with oil. and may be left with advantage like a festering mass on the belly underneath the strings. as Ruskin says. and are intended to be scraped is through and worn out and replaced. Only a can venture to do that. not for the belly. have seen really good old instruments too much cleaned or daubed over ruthlessly with varnish. A relative of mine had a Spagnoletti restored to him by a cleaner. and the strings are for friction. but it death to the wood. muddy brown splash- much. and even he I will not always be wise. to the strings. but so repainted as to be worthless. and scrupulously clean elsewhere. but the belly for vibration and is never intended to wear out.

fa9ade. that loss of old varnish is a tribute paid not ungrudgingly to " the Vandal years. or suffer from any other mouldering or corrosive influence.VIOLIN figured TREATMENT like by whitewash. finding that the worm had got Guadagnini." who have spared the all. and floor of grand old Mark's at Venice have been smeared over with Salviati's modern mosaic. the sounded like itself since . whilst the walls. or at it. and the old frescoes obliterated many disfiguring stains and even now. Thus have I seen a Maggini botched and browned over so completely with bad German varnish as to leave only faint traces here and there of the original coating. varnish was completely ruined. how many old carvings have so like so . starched and bleached just much dirty linen. and before was properly dry replaced the precious instrument. which contained a proceeded to saturate his case with benzoin. never it get near damp. as rough to the touch as a nutmeg-grater. St. been replaced by modern routine - work sculpture. with the result that the old varnish was brought up in blisters all over the back. and what violin has never The worse. a clear proof to my mind that the varnish affects the tone. in these more enlightened days. is now one is crinkled mass. least that damaged varnish impairs 203 . life and been unable materially to injure the fabric of the rare old instrument. Above let thou favoured guardian of a Cremona. into his violin case. Never in the matter of varnish dare to replace what time has stolen . which . A it friend of mine.

the atmosphere it and only when has been set in vibration time — does —and that it become sensitive and sufficiently elastic to be capable of transmitting the slightest inflections of sound. when first taken out." as the idiom runs. after the atmosphere has first been quiescent for some time. that was really wanted was for the temporarily disused channels of vibration to be again filled with sound the pores —the desiccated hollows to be once more shaken up in the old way. There is. all not be rash or fidget with the bridge or sound- Warm care. the fiddle takes a little time to be " all there. stuck in the pores and must be set rolling again. without taking any notice .— OLD VIOLINS It is not at all an uncommon thing to find a violin. of temper go on for a couple of hours it you will find. of nerve currents have got the desiccated powder molecules have But. to your surprise. which has been sulky left unplayed upon for some months. rub it lightly with due its and play on . and will be ready to charm you with the delightful sensitiveness of its response. that has recovered all its own All sweetness and charm. When. speaking be heard well the whole of takes a little . The its instrument has really gone to sleep sluggish —that —some is. an electric as well as an atmospheric air and molecular state of the substances. Do post. but this is and all other vibratory a side of acoustics exti'emely 204 . like one just awakened. the fiddle up gently it . begins. again. the speaker will not is stiff. Something similar may be observed in a large hall.

that something ought to be said about the position of the sound-post. string at the expense of the it and vice versa. a little too far will tend to a loose. or tubby little quality. who will instinctively make use of indeed some laws which they do not understand. singers. and especially handlers of violins. a too near the bridge will often produce a light hard tone. neck. muffled. and you attain the utmost violin sensibility and equal sonority of which your capable. But subtle so capricious are the vibrational laws. a to the right will brighten the right left. belly. Of course it clings it is but partially to back and little whose throbs intended to blend . the sound-post should be a if little behind you look from head to if of course the left foot It you look from neck to head.VIOLIN little TREATMENT players. which is is certain to be wrongly Technically. and can only be dealt with empiri- cally by speakers. are the peculiarities and so of each violin's first nervous system. Whatever advice one gives and mischievously applied. ought also to be straight — if it is aslant—unless the surface of the ends be cut on a slope. the right foot of the bridge. though frankly I would rather not say anything. the instrument adjusting itself to what was at first an to have won its 205 . Get is exactly in the fit place. understood. and which do not yet seem to have been correctly I feel formulated. that the position which at failed to yield has good results will ultimately be found way to the heart of your violin.

The two little // . sound-post. OLD VIOLINS uncongenial treatment of learn to sympathise. If it rmist be all moved why then by means take the advice of an expert go to the doctor. must be its position. The theory 206 of course is for the feet of the bridge to grip equally at . which. and the slope and is elevation of the fingerboard. as a little more. But here again there . Granted that you have a bridge which suits your instrument (and the importance of this I have elsewhere dwelt upon). but this is of course dangerous. or any hand. better let well alone and don't attend to outside advice of experts. as the bridge is a prime factor in dealing first with the belly vibrations transmitted by the sound-post from to back. It seldom wise to encourage an amateur.. its nerves. indicate approxi- mately the position of the bridge modified according to let a violin-doctor determine the right height. to trifle but a skilful with the position of the or has fallen down. in special direc- and even and tension induced by the sound- When is this happens. a vague and subtle margin for readjustment is the im- portance of the bridge's position of course directly related to the whereabouts of the sound-post. remember. There are leaning a violins little which gain brilliancy by the bridge forward. tions of pressure post. and down comes the bridge. then consider whether 'tis worth while to move your bridge at side slits in the all. until the nerves rejoice. The same position sort of advice may be given about the of the bridge.

of course you must remember that whenever you touch the bridge you touch the elevation of the above finger-board. Yet so capricious are fiddles. fiddle- fussy. precisely the reverse takes place. Put bridge back. choosing. and you lighten the touch make it harder for the fingers lifting the strings higher from the finger-board. . which they often inlaid beautifully. inexperienced amateur. the harder ones. accentuated. Without grave cause I should advise not meddling with bridge or sound-post after they have been readjusted by a good repairer. quite right .VIOLIN all TREATMENT points the surface of the belly — flat and close. that some do not seem to like to have their bridges quite straight. and with equal pressure. and. put it forward or tilt it. generally the old masters used various brownish woods. you leave off tampering with the works. if irritable. made of ebony . if the bridge leans forward. you slacken the touch for the player by bringing the strings close down on the by finger-board . is the grip of the back part of the feet whilst the pressure of the front part if it leans is slightly lifted. there are malades imaginaires which bafHe the profession doctor will be probably more —but yOur right than you — all right. of course. This is And now a word about your finger-board. and so they have got to be humoured. the fiddle will very probably adjust itself and get Then strings . He may not have been he may not have had the time or patience to deal with your malade imaffinaire of a fiddle — for amongst fiddles as amongst people. Now. 207 Sometimes even . and backwards. discontented.

as I do personally. Strings of very ill-assorted fifths. a very easy matter. comes from the state of your board. Rosewood. and box- wood have been tried. but is channels of unequal depths. Of affect. or the restoration of an old one. unless you are a fingerwill mere blunderer. but ebony seems to be the favourite. way the tone quality as well as the intonasuffers from what so constantly eludes observation course a is —a worn finger-board. OLD VIOLINS they used ivory . in tune. thickness are also responsible for imperfect The management difficulties to of the pegs sometimes presents the novice. and can in no way except for the better. as the shock of impact will be broken by the higher level of the finger-board side of the on either In this tion sunken string. new finger-board. forcing two strings equally raised surfaces. This. the consequence that the same pressure. have worn channels in the wood. ivory. but you observe that the strings. by constantly being squeezed by the the fingers against the smoothly-arched surface of ebony. for the matter of that.. though many incline. safely It may its be said that no violin now in use has either its original finger-board or. you may perhaps have noticed that difficulty in on some violins you have a stopping fifths. any violin. to 208 . it does not get the benefit of the finger's pressure. or indeed any chords. You may not have noticed it. fails down on unfifth full to produce that relatively equal pressure necessary for producing your true the string also being sunk. original neck.

you immediately down. is and thus.VIOLIN rosewood. and make it needless for you to at force it in till it stuck and almpst refused to move all. whilst 209 all sorts of . or because you have rammed in too far in order to resist the pull of a stiing. over-ramming would there be when you pulled let it up your new string to pitch. it not smooth. you had reduced the number to one or two. is You your should be able. to nip the peghead between the forefinger. which is less TREATMENT dense. it is either because it does not fit the hole. ing to or to rub them with lead-pencil make them turn more easily. and third joint of and adjust the pitch to a nicety and in a moment but then the resistance of the screw must be so nicely balanced with the tension of the string as to allow of its moving easily when gripped. and then screwed up again. when you would find. instead of ever so many coils. which would at once lift the strain from your screw. . when your fiddle first at your chin. in contact with less the maple-head (which the rosewood). drew the stretched part tight. nor for this if. or whiten- If your peg is sticks. offers a again dense in fibre than less hard and violent contrast than does the iron ebony to the porous maple. There never should be a need in of the screw. all-essential it is thing is for the pegs to be nicely and a vile practice to rosin the pegs to make them stiffer. and keeping in its exact place It is 14 when left. pro- bably coiled round and round the pegs in a tangled twisted mess. But the fitted. a very strange thing that.

and price of here. or indeed in any other respect from the custom of the Cremona school and its successors. according to the quality of tone they are able to elicit some a smooth or rather thin patent fourth ference to the usual in pre- more roughly-coiled and thicker is G-string. OLD VIOLINS mechanical contrivances for moving violin screws have been suggested. just as she a lower bridge. that Remember. there must be fine and sympathetic adaptation of performer and to his instrument. in a you will not be disappointed. preservation.. as I have previously intimated. hints I have given with regard to the accumulation of evils round the peg. manufacture. Concerning the stringing of your violin. which will reduce the resistance because of the reduced distance between the strings and the finger-board. but. great inequality in the relative thickness of your strings . if you can''t trust your eye. the violin retains its simple . as a rule. however. beyond the to be said. preferable for orchestral playing . and primitive screw nor would any one who lays claim to a decent position in the trade dream of advising a departure in this. Some players will prefer a thick first or third string. everything connected with violins. buy your strings according to good shop. there is not very much and The quality. as in strings has already been dealt with. and even tried and adopted for guitars and double basses. which. and any gauge. strings both to the A young girl will naturally incline to thinner strings will usually prefer than a strong man.

before he goes on the platform. reliable. sure till you have put the string it on. they have suffered a change of all into " something rare and strange. of a fine violinist never reminds you of the catgut and rosin. and beware of 211 . and and if twitching the double line is seen. holding by each end. a third line appears condemning the string as often. should always firsts have a length or two of stretched and tested his case. better still. or sort of impure vibration. if one length of a string by trying another part but. false. or Sarasate we entirely lose the sense beggarly elements . in his waistcoat pocket. it is bad all in through." The rough-and-ready way setting of testing false strings by them till in vibration. as any excess may call raw undigested powder will produce a most vile screeching. Strings have every kind of vice short of downright falseness. you may . especially a soloist. In the pure disembodied tone of Joachim. get a true length out of as a rule. not always. You any need not put up with wheezy or dull. and let the string be seasoned with right up to the bridge. of what I if at all. is false. The tone Piatti. Use plenty it of rosin. top of the finger-board.VIOLIN may be fifths as TREATMENT responsible for your imperfect quite as much an old channelled finger-board. unless he can ensm-e the presence of a second reliable instrument at hand in case of a sudden breakage. or. below the be well The rosia must rubbed in before you attempt solo work. is a method You can never be quite If false. but not much. A player.

it is Certain that the smoothest string will go without warning. is loose. By tapping all round the front and the back. just where these join the ribs.OLD VIOLINS laying the blame on the violin offender. — It ^your strings. especially is difficult your string. If your flat. sometimes hang on down to a Paganini perspired frightfully. fiddle. so always carried a much so that he di'y shirt in his violin case. but it may also be due to the curve of your bridge being too the bridge. this may be due to yoirr own clumsiness. and a gentle- 212 . will and the raggedest mere thread. I have sometimes fancied that such thorough tough and seasoned strings are even improved in spite of age and infirmity. that the tone of is an old ragged string not materially impaired. the violin is if the sound-bar or the back or belly of loose. that will account for a good deal. you can easily discover by a certain jar or rattle whether and where something blocks or linings. when the string is the Of course. but true. it may be one of the Test the fiddle and you test the strings may acquit the strings. will to say exactly at what stage in the ragging advisable to change your string. or the sound-bar askew. and you may acquit the You may the sometimes experience a difficulty in playing A or D string without striking the E or G . or some- one or more of the strings having eaten too deeply into hand perspire much —and E all hands perspire rag out. It is process it is strange.

like cheese readily cut through Lastly. The violin gets accustomed to the normal it. The strings are quite as likely to break by being up and down. than if you let constantly fidgeted it alone with all its strings at their accustomed pitch. his strings were in rags.. oddly enough. not your strings. and adjusts itself to and resents being deprived of its due tension as much as an athlete would resent his dumb-bells being removed. the wearing of the threads which compose the thick strings seems less hard and tight than those of the thin chanterelle. VIOLIN man I TREATMENT his case to take out noticed that when he opened his violin for a public solo. 213 . Slacken your bow. the amateurish and falsely-assumed econoall mical habit of slackening violin it is the strings each time the replaced in its case is a delusion and a snare only worries your instrument's nervous system. strain. a is less second or third string durable after it has ragged than a first . and by the nails. and the violin is much more likely to get demoralised by the wearing action and reaction of a varying strain. or the resultant material softer is is and gets soaked and cheesy. have sometimes observed that.

AND AMATEURS I HAVE come to the conclusion. He fiddle will buy from some needy ignoramus a ^£"5 fiddle worth d&lOO for a note. On tions the other hand. or away in the dust of ages on the top of old beds and cabinets. Truly. COLLECTORS. Cremonas hung up in disused cupboards on rusty nails. if he can. the second least. people who did not play the violin used to be criminally careless about the instruments that happened to be in their possession. is an umbrella. if he can. " after long years. In bygone days. covers a the caveat emptor of the ancient Romans multitude of sins. the extreme ignorance of many persons who have violins to sell offers singular tempta- to dealers. and the but not fiddle. or — 214 . who are a class of people constitu- tionally on the make.CHAPTER XV VIOLIN DEALERS. first is a horse. He will sell a which cost him £5 for d&lOO. Even if the fiddle was ultimately stolen borrowed and not remight lie for years in damp attics." that there are three things about which your averagely honest man a has no conscience whatever is —the last.

they suppose you to be envious. thus leaving the raw wood more exposed than permeated. Nothing will shake the confidence of these simple bring out a folk in their spurious wares. and it make a favour of even showing to a dealer. Credulity has succeeded to ignorance. they will common brown German dated Maggini. with a label so recent that you wonder at the brazen fraud. Still. indeed. not Cremona varnish. Of course as to the new labels in modern type I have nothing to say. but to the eye of is the experienced dealer the varnish quite enough. there is an 215 . and for a moment a person versant with fiddles may be deceived by such a subtle and withal honest copyist as Lupot. As to the good and tolerably deceptive French copies of Strad. No one but a complete fool in fiddles could be taken in by them. their fairly con- name is legion. all to jneces " or " only an old fiddle " and. . bring gravely to supposed judges. and now any one who has any sort of shabby-looking fiddle fancies he has got a rare Cremona He will advertise it unblushingly in the halfpenny it papers. and you point out that Maggini never dated his instruments. I have before now seen such with the belly off converted into serviceable dustpans. Or they show you a Stainer rashly dated fifty years after that maker''s death (such an one was lately brought to me).! VIOLIN DEALERS turned it AND AMATEURS — it " was was thought hardly worth a serious inquiry. when all gross cases are put aside. The is varnish that chips off instead of rubbing away.

" Enthoven's Maggini." a fine violin labelled Joseph Guarnerius. tell would never the old man to his face that his Joseph was a very plausible red Landolpho copy of Joseph. "Here now owned by Mr. A few weeks afterwards the Red Knight was sold for ^300. no more. if I think they would have gone to law they could have counted on me as a witness . In the course of I my lecture. partly on the strength of it my having vouched for at the Royal Institution. Meanwhile the Jupiter of judges. and I was even weak enough to allow it to lie on the table of the Royal Institution side by side with the " Dolphin. but when I was 216 . especially when side of error. fiddles as I believed in a certain violin which he called the Red He bought it at the great sale of Gillotfs a rare Joseph Guarnerius. really Mr. remarking. well known as an acute picture Knight. on finding that he had only got hold of a Landolpho. is took up the Red Knight. on the have very little doubt that my old friend. a genuine Nicolas. Hill. the Emperor of Russia's Strad. to please my old friend.OLD VIOLINS excusable margin personal interest I is left for honest error. in short. the late dealer. a Joseph and a Jacob Stainer . the Red Knight lay by favour for one evening in company with some twenty gems of world- wide reputation. once the proI said perty of Mr. William Ebsworth had been consulted by the purchaser. Cox. Gillott. Cox. wanted his money back. who.

C.' worth perhaps ^60 but not ^300. No one doubts but what Mr. J. a great " Never Too Late but I to Mend " many very also fine fiddles. it is about scroll that I can do — for Strad never threw that nor touched with plane or chisel that back and Guarnerius— I ribs. Cox refunded the money and the buyer restored the fiddle. but should have utterly to I deny that had vouched for the genuineness of the Red Knight it or expressed any opinion whatever about it was ' a good fiddle labelled Guarnerius. South Kensington Exhibition. and was sold it value as a Camillo Camilli. Gillott. chiefly through Charles Reade of fame. Certainly I find a very dubious Strad tenor (one of Gillott's) labelled 140 in the South Kensington collection. brought home from Australia a ^really an excellent violin so-called it Peter —but was no far more a Guarnerius than a under was. Reade was like the responsible for some comparative rubbish Red Knight. his belly and his sound-holes. Mr. of steel-pen celebrity.VIOLIN DEALERS AND AMATEURS "I would cer- threatened with a subpoena. a fiddle at any given time worth what it will fetch. did obtain. 1872)." except that The upshot was that I was not subpoenaed. I replied. The most impudent fraud delusion which has ever or the most blatant notice was come under my the so-called Maggini exhibited by Mr. tainly go into the box. W. if I gi-ant all As him to this particular collector's specimen. am afraid that Mr. (110. Joyce 217 . which will probably But what is you ? After all. its Sti'ad.

J. was a Klotz neither was the Amati tenor (No. only fraud I succeeded in dislodging was a The spurious Bergonzi — also sent up by Mr. The exhibition less of 1885 at South Kensington was not one whit tant than the 1872 show. thing. are always full of character. impor- than those of 1872. Joyce which after lection of my attack on the South Kensington col- 1872 disappeared. but is it is only fair to remember that the fiddle world fiddle exhibitions all vastly indebted to these gi-and the same. and I gave in its the Pall Mall Gazette of the period history and and the names of its chief owners .— ! OLD VIOLINS It was made by Bernhardt Fendt. largely controlled The 1885 specimens were more discreetly They had the advantage by Mr. it The poor no worse than the Bernhardt Fendt which brazened out like a false claimant. the English school was remarkably well represented. a the cut of his scrolls. labelled hung fiddle as Maggini. Some mistakes are sure to be made. but it was not removed. a maker who has not received due credit for his excellent work. W. 147). nor which bore a Stainer label ever corrected. These be among the humours of your loan collections But we must be indulgent. A good which Duke and Walmsley. Hill. ever re-labelled. selected of being Besides the usual supply of leading Italian makers. was merely made a scapegoat of. There was found a capital Ford. 218 . and man quite noticeable for a yellow fiddle by Tobin.

A romantic interest must always attach fine maker on account of his early Bohemian recorded by Charles Reade in a memoir called " Jack of All Trades." Charles Reade.VIOLIN DEALERS AND AMATEURS itself to this life. 219 . Hill's interesting 1732 Strad (now Ysaye's violin). had with a cannon. who after left off 1730. and was then cut up for elephant steaks to feed the town. and Banks. Joseph Hill. very venerable —Anno 1666—the it! date of the great fire of London. came again to London and took up the which he had learned in boyhood. know sold a very poor Strad but made a very good thing out of it. who. although so late in his life. had signing his instruments. Lockey Hill. made was signed by the old man. were also well seen at South Kensington in 1885. A violin professor I the other day. as a rule. after to be demolished herself killing ever so many men. tells us how at one time he travelled through Europe with a menagerie and became famous as the keeper of a most ctever but vicious elephant called Djek. which happily spared The Stradivarius case contained Mr. A friend of mine gave ago for a supposed Strad (which was only a Lupot) at a time when =£"40 was a long price riPSOO forty years for the clever Frenchman. It was only after the loss of Djek that John Lott fiddle trade. who knew Lott intimately. There was an interesting John Lott. A huge truly serio-comic chapter might be written on the prices given for frauds. richly varnished. There was also a matchless Urquhart. which.

This was the Oxford Street The destiny of violins has ever been one full of ups 220 . he found the original bass-bar. The Betts Strad was sold to George Hart for 800 guineas years ago. time or mine." I added. Lindley. but only about as often as bargains in Raphaels. his ear as he passed three street- The timbre caught musicians — violin. and John Lott replaced heavy price fifty it with one stronger. John Hart. and said that ." On the other hand. — so Charles Reade tells us —was low and short. and ant/thing. a round sum. Rubens. I took a liberal view. picked up a violoncello in Oxford Street for a sovereign or two. Betts purchased one of the finest Stradivari in the world for 20s. — Mr. came into his shop and bought a fine Forster 'cello for 'cello. " Good gracious I gave £600 " Keep it long enough. still Bergonzis and Stainers. the great player. or Tintorets. but not what they payfor. but amateurs of pictures and fiddles are mostly wrecked on school-pictures and school-fiddles. father of George Hart.£300 would have been a long Her countenance fell. bargains in Strads and Josephs. often getting fair money's worth. and 'cello. cornet. When John Lott opened it in Vuillaume"'s The bar Strad ! ! will life- fetch that . are no doubt to be got. " in your This was some years ago. price. and quite incapable of bearing the strain of concert pitch." a OLD VIOLINS When the lady showed it me. Rembrandts. but probably not.

Hill for inspection. murdered by those Vandals who patch stray bits of wecked. as in last century. until found out to be royalties in disguise by the Chanots and Vuillaumes of the stealing of a first-class the nineteenth century. in a railway carriage when I got out to take refresh- I was not gone five minutes. for inspection it is likely to come them again and verification. vide page 96. Hardly a mark now it exists which is not known to one or other of the great dealers in Paris. but Mr. ship- like the Peter and Paul. but in that five minutes my Vuillaume had gone. a certain so-called Strad in an elaborate case. years ago I left a Vuillaume. and sold for slaves.. slaughtered Cremonas into modern fabrics. was submitted to Mr. with finely-mounted It bows. VIOLIN DEALERS and downs. One would suppose that fiddle of instrument would be next to impossible. was nothing but a common German Hill told fiddle. After the death of a well-known nobleman. whilst in possession of one of our diplomats at St. and. me he had no doubt that the original occu221 . Many ment. Yet some of the famous Spanish Court Strads have vanished no one knows where. or Berlin and whenever before changes hands. disappeared. Petersburg. literally AND AMATEURS beings. which was lifted from behind his travelling carriage. London. and another famous Strad from the Plowden Collection. to be scraped in dim churches or ancient orchestras. they have been like human kidnapped. as in the case of Spohr's. and has never since been traced. labelled Albani.

on missing. No soloist who travels should fail to in- sure his treasure. That Strad ! —to the old woman Nothing credible as is easier than the perpetration of a fraud if by a clever copyist it he chooses to attempt it. A well-known paper. before alluded to. In- may appear. Paganini was shown by Vuillaume two fiddles. Probably many such servants. will some day reappear intact. was possible. just as the recovery of the too is Hercules Famese statue. But worse than theft is mutilation.— OLD VIOLINS pant of the noble case had been stolen. and where fiddles lie unused and unvisited in and cupboards. thefts have been committed by dishonest easier Nothing could be than to substitute one fiddle for another in houses —and they are legion lofts where people do not know one fiddle from another. that possible. membra. as in the case of Tarisio's Spanish bass. but the chances are small that a mutilated instrument will ever collect its disjecta Still. but a day or two afterwards an old apple-woman picked it up in the gutter. and happened to take it to the very fiddleshop charged with the repair of the Strad. his violin Sarasate had a heavy insurance on when he went to America. The chances are that what is stolen. head was worth just 2s. one of which was his own and 222 . I might almost say from generation to generation. amateur whose Strad had been taken to pieces for repair and the pieces wrapped in bits of unfolding the fragments found the head The loss seemed irreparable. unless it be stolen deliberately to cut up.

I should recommend my readers never to leave a their violins valuable bow in their case when they send in that way. and was quite unable at the moment to decide which was which. let me say to amateurs. especially it be lying for their own and leave theirs if it is inferior in quality to the one they chance to catch up by mistake! As luck will have it. South Kensington 1872 Exhibition. both instruments at These frauds extend to bows. had a bow but it was a copy. bows in existence that The Tourte and Dodd know not Dodd or Tourte are legion. and a very good copy. In everything connected with a fiddle and a bow I say. nQt one in a thousand of you. Beware Beware ! ! Further. is fit to judge of a violin you may easily 223 . Chanofs copy of the Carlino or Kerlino 1454 viol. are not safe even in the orchestra anteroom they get "changed. his fiddle for repairs to a smart dealer who it shall be nameless here.! VIOLIN DEALERS AND AMATEURS the other a counterfeit. completely deceived me until I had the opportunity of handling leisure." It seems so simple to some people. to mistake behind. for repair. No. I lost a good Dodd myself Fine bows . a crush-hat. of a Tourte. in it. 'tis seldom a worse one that gets caught up A bow friend of mine happened to leave a and then he sent fine Tourte in his case. 14. or an umbrella happens about. when to a bow. . even with practice and opportunity. In this instance the dealer restored the original under pressure. When the case returned.

and that no doubt for practical the essential. and few are they that have Hill.'' knowledge was the case — for he was at once the most diffident and absolute of men what chance have you I will violinists Why this. He never would have written those foolish paragraphs about modern-made ence between a fiddles sounding as well as old It is all the differ- Cremonas had he played horseback and one himself . and a man may play divinely and not be a judge. first himself. the horses. as to own judgment on my . a certain instinct is required.! ! — OLD VIOLINS know what purposes is is suits you. got for a few left off " his eye out '^ looking at fiddles. Why. or distrusted his certain days. remember showing Remenyi a very fine copy of Strad which had deceived many. At the same time Charles Reade's opinion would have been even more valuable my A than it was had he played himself. but you I will be a better judge if you can play the fiddle. He walked up and down 224 . Over and above culture and wide observation and experience. if William Ebsworth weeks he from whose judgment there was no appeal. none at all go further than and declare that half the cook. You can hardly know what genuine. it. my when only friend. man who looks at another man on who has got to ride the horse may not see much difference in two finds it out but the second soon Playing the fiddle won't make you a judge. now before the public are no more judges of a genuine fiddle than man may be a judge without being able to play.

has long been abandoned. As for your ordinary amateur. was a Lupot judge by an keep for all that. shows the place where a slight chain connected the instrument to a button-screw or hook. in processions in which the singers went before and the minstrels followed after. or he will note the place of the little buttons which fasten the inner blocks. as the prac- of falling suddenly on the knees and letting the violin hang. filled up skilfully so as to be almost imperceptible. But there is one mark occasionally found Italian violins in old which I do not remember to have seen forged or imitated. the minstrel might suddenly fall on his knees 225 rg . so that at the elevation of the Host. Others will prate about Strad's wasp sting purfle running counter to the angle of that one maker never his corners. amateur happens to have an instrument with round hole in the back of his fiddle a few a inches below the nut.• VIOLIN DEALERS playing upon it AND AMATEURS It my room it with delight. That little hole. probably one of the oldest. so cunningly plugged. he will old-looking label. or declare pieces. being unaware that forgei"s old battered counterfeit type in stock. and pronounced a genuine Strad beyond a question. supposing that each maker had his favourite position for these buttons from which he never deviated. or indeed even so to much as alluded by any If the little \vriter. he may be quite sure he has got an old tice violin. made his back in two whilst another never made it otherwise.

see Oliver Wendell Holmes had the acuteness that all mere picturesque writing was valueless from a technical point of view. coming may so spontaneously from the author of the "Autocrat of the Breakfast-table." All this shows that the outside public have lore. and expected me to pronounce on the genuineness of them. 1885 : " I never knew until I read what you say of the instrument what profanation I had been guilty of to touch one. much more to write about it " and he was kind enough to add " You have given a life to the ! : fiddle such as nothing but its own music ever gave it before ! " —words which. and he thus expresses himself to me in a letter dated December 5. and the violinist Oury pointed this out to me and explained the reason of the plugged hole Scores have sent me descriptions of their fiddles. He violin." I think I pleasure. not the faintest inkling of true violin Oliver Wendell Holmes felt this when he wrote to me in 1885. be- cause theirs (in their opinion) exactly corresponds to my description of Strad or Amati in "Music and Morals. had himself written very charmingly on the and the passage is quoted with approval even by so redoubtable a critic as Mr. or are sure that they own a real Strad or Amati. I have an old Andrew Guarnerius first so plugged. George Hart in to his admirable book "The Violin" (1887).! — OLD VIOLINS without the fear of dropping his fiddle. be allowed to quote with pardonable 226 .

reason for this.VIOLIN DEALERS There is AND AMATEURS to collectors. left. but as players. as far as tone and sensibility are con- cerned. whilst the best judges have failed to detect the superiority of the old over the new. no wonder if tests expressly designed to confuse us about timbre should be equally successful. the best modern fiddles are not quite as good as the best old ones. But the question is practically settled by soloists in- variably preferring a fine old fiddle to a fine not as connoisseurs. after tell is you a few sips with your eyes shut. It is The ear is as easily conif fused as the palate. and. and will not. currently reported that sherry. No one is a real judge of the distance If. We hear repeatedly stories of Strads and Josephs being played side by side with modern test is fiddles. which I strongly about in view of somewhat much recent. and above the this other's head several times running. It is whether. dealers. from which a sound comes. puzzled then. and there must be a 227 . Let one man shut his eyes and another snap fingers his on the right. This most unsatisfactory. we can be easily when plied with such tests about the direction and the distance. and players. but even about the direction of sound. and one shall be utterly unable to tell after a few turns where the fingers are being snapped. ignorantly conducted controversy. feel a point interesting alike amateurs. you taste alternately port wine. as it seems to me. cream. the difference diffei^ence. but no one argues from this that there no The ear is not only easily confused about the quality. new one. be able to .

by incessantly and for long periods of time grinding it through every semitone of its compass. but the A spectator in the Park may see no great but she knows. looks better the beast he rides will answer to his rise to will. to the old fiddles. But the age at which the old Cremonas are bound to deteriorate has happily not yet been reached. fiddle better. the artistic finish. as it were. They will then probably deteriorate. So the hunter knows and values him above another horse which . and this is quite Age will make a good make a bad fiddle good . volume. but quite legitimately. what your Strad fiddle 228 does. and well-made modem fiddles will doubtless improve every year. rivalled. it but it won't may also be possible to prematurely age a new fiddle. A listener behind the door may not player does.OLD VIOLINS Therefore. sensibility. I will hear of no talk. The root of the matter lies here. even from the lips of a Charles Reade. It is tonal power —a something — quality. the beauty in form or colour of the old violins being largely responsible for this avowed preference. . not with heat or acids. between the pet horse ridden by the lady and the even more handsome quadruped upon which her groom follows his horse. like good wine. up to a certain point. . difference know the difier- ence between a Strad or Joseph or some other. go anywhere with him. timbre personal. and This is every occasion. ahout the varnish. which points to certain real qualities in their makers which have not since been apart from the item of age.

proportions. and model as a suite of Belgian bells cast by Severin Van Aerschodt. cast with the same proportions of tin and copper. And del players will you that for domination and downright big-battalion power. supremacy of the great makers and their best pupils ? reason is complex. . All lovers of Amati will tell you that they find in Nicolo a trembling sighing sensitiveness. not fancied. AND AMATEURS tell is a reserve of " pull out. the modern chef-d'oeuvre is. of exactly the same weight. And The when the reason for this real. : I hazard the following points 229 . The reasons of Cre- mona supremacy remain to be tackled." and you will you can you that there never be disappointed. size. Joseph Guarnerius Gesu has not his equal. still not identical in quality with the old Cremona gems. a tenderness. workmanship. and tell still leaves his finest instruments unapproachable for cabinet-playing. all precautions have been taken to imitate wood. and a tone endears delicate to the point of vanishing. so as thoroughly to deceive the eye. varnish.— VIOLIN DEALERS All violinists will force about a Strad . I was called the other day to judge a set of English bells. no doubt — so complex that. which Amati all to the women. in spite of puzzled auditors. but the sound ? ! Ye gods No silver clang and tin-kettle parody could be farther apart than were those English and Belgian bells. But to return to our fiddles.

age. . The vaunted Ainerican woods technically to satisfy the Cremona requirements. woods this. one way or another. I ? am of opinion that the old method of care- ful oil-sizing and the subsequent application of gum materially affected the tone. the column of air almost identical in cubic measure. and seasoning. Think for a saturation — moment only of what is implied in the too much or too little of the wood with — oils. density of fibre. of the wood pores and do not the commonest of modern artificers admit that the Cremona varnish. at first 2nd. Charles Reade was napping when he expressed a might some day be united to some Stradivari belly it hope that a certain Stradivari back^ mated with a new belly. provided rare planks. for worse —by the . do they not ? laugh in their sleeves ith. and the exact mode of its application. filling in. and when they speak otherwise. Admit that the proportions are exactly equal. 230 . of which he knew . No doubt the old Lombardian fail forests. spirit. then intui- born of a lifelong study of the relative density of fitted to vibrate together. but unless happened to be the belly Strad had selected for that particular back. gum of this or that quality. Selection of wood. Nothing can teach no rule or measurements for every plank varies in porousness. is as yet undis- covered . with their salt-impregnated roots. what reason is there to suppose that the result would be satisfactory Srd.OLD VIOLINS 1st. Necessarily some vibratory capacities must be affected — for better. empirical. The knowledge. tive.

or penetratingness aimed at. each man makes ? puts them together.? Truly a scratch company brought together like strangers. a sculptor will do a thing before you. or sweetness. We now have subdivision of labour one of the parts. which he cannot teach you how to do. But they were not fastened together. they had. and make sweet harmony together. bellies How can such backs accord with such How can such ribs cotton with such strange and fortuitous planks . less We have no time for failures : . in view of one another. unlimited leisure one and the same man made each part. though he place his brush. End- experiment. observation. by one and the same master-mind. in wood fibre acting upon that air column. medi- tation.! VIOLIN DEALERS about 512 to the second loose or serried . bth. and what they were good for 231 . his chisel. hut. an actor. his toga and footlights at your disposal. AND AMATEURS still remains the vibratory qualities of infinite varieties of grain — —coarse or close. which you cannot do. his music. It is may be that the secret for the production of these quite incommunicable. just as a painter. The old makers varied their models. who knew what was good for them. yet expected to accept their arbitrary assort- ment. no doubt. a singer. and some one else . had regard to the thicknesses and the subtle relations between the hard and soft woods which would produce the power or quickness of reply. and knew the interpenetrative qualities and the mutual adaptation of the sundry parts. endless comparison.

flO to dfSO violins now being made come to the give up the conscientiously by Messrs. and might not we expect Cremona results ? Why. rare and inaccessible. it is must Anyhow. But given the possibility of favourable conall ditions — time. yes. But such of Vuillaume's fiddles with heat and acids. even with when they can get really fine new ones for half the money with twice the tone a good tone. and given climate. hoped. idiotic of paying large sums for respectable names. now would be well worth while for work. and the accumulated knowledge of the past —and given a modem Nicolo. collectors even to get hold of the finest attainable specimens of new As a mere speculation it would be at least as sound an investment as laying down good vintages of port or sherry. in pro- portion as old fiddles become fore. certainly. Joseph. and the as have not been aged fine . or even Bergonzi. which — a very few years will suffice to mellow. it collectors. indifferent old fiddles. am far from saying that we are not on the road to Until lately it has not been worth while for makers like the Hills.OLD VIOLINS 6th. Strad. or at a very fair approximation. Hill. infinite experience. the Gands. and I it. interest We write these words in the players. and artificers alike —indeed. folly players will. absorption. too. or the Chanot firms to do closely for the eye aught seriously but repair or parody the old fiddles. with Cremona least conditions. and given wood galore. 232 . of dealers.

price . A certain tartness of timbre merely calls aloud for it another ten or twenty years to soften and refine into the Cremona tone. letters From time to time I get accompanied with samples from people who claim to have discovered the secret of the Cremona varnish. and that the planks now coming over 233 . A good Hill recently made. Well. are exceedingly loud in tone.VIOLIN DEALERS AND AMATEURS e. d6es not yield the required timbre.g. and withal very sensitive. do not look more gaudy than the Messie Strad. which. the aspirants to Cremona excellence are entertainingly numerous. written au grand that it serieux. and a certain German working in America. I will get a literary friend to extol him as the successor of came across a pamphlet the other day assigning Cremona rank whose to a worthy musician who makes fiddles en amateur. Rumours may reach you from America of the wonderful Californian wood. belonged to the patent syrup. before I discovered liver pill. and soap class. into a price of three figures. Here and there some enterprising maker Strad iuarius. fine as is the marking. only requires age to mellow it These new and garish-looking instruments. after all. I actually got half through this remarkable document. European experts it tell me that. violins present all the usual characteristics of instruments made in Gei'many. Meanwhile.fSO or £4D. the fine copy of the Tuscan Strad.

and higher by-and-by and if ever the genius and the conditions which obtained at Cremona. are again found. had been exposed before came The subtleties were endless. Chanot.'' No ! The fact about take modern it fiddles you. be picked up under ^20.. anno 1700. whether it was should be. Take good new by Hill. and not till then. Then think by those old of the care and study in selection Italian artificers made who frequented the exactly where it Brescian and Cremonese markets. and. to No Cremona from 1660 much though many 1760 can be got for 234 . and to it what conditions to be worked up. according to the time and individual or one-man power and skill spent upon them. in autumn. —the peculiarities of the soil. iron or salt impregnated from whence it came . with the sap out of it and exactly how long it had been cut. for. may be rash to attempt a scale of prices. then. they will rank high. may for granted fiddles what have stated. fifty the experience of the last years proves that when we have to deal with a sliding Forty years ago my father bought a rather small at Puttick & Simpson's for £4. Gand. Bernardel. is anxious inquirer. Andrea Guamerius which could not now less. will the peers and rivals of the Cremona masterpieces be seen and heard It —and paid scale. and haggled over special bits of timber. They knew it came from cut as it. . Who my I troubles their heads about such things now .OLD VIOLINS from the old forests of Herzgovina and Bosnia are far superior for fiddle-making purposes.

Forster. put up with William and Mary. and even the early Georges. and go far wrong with Pique. It is quite safe to buy Urquhart. or John). philion . Banks. owing to the rarity of real Stainers. which will have rare merits and can hardly be accounted for by any systematic classification. Queen Anne. command a better figure than the Southerners —Rome and Naples. . The following up-to-date (1898) scale of prices collector with may be a useful but rough guide to the that burns his pocket : money 235 .— VIOLIN DEALERS AND AMATEURS Of is better fiddles can be got for half that price. Furber (Henry. But all such hints are general. for stray specimens will often turn up belonging to almost any school. and near akin to Cremona. quite phenomenal. as a rule. is not valued as highly whilst. Venetian fiddles. and Pambut the once popular " Duke " days are pretty secured. just as a will figures silver man who can''t get Charles II. especially violoncellos. and must be taken for what they are worth. by comparison as he was and Albani. the easily demand has for Klotz attainable. well over. Ford. will be sure to rise the Northern fiddles will and. David. course the rise in the Strads Stainer. on the other hand. Lupot should be always no collector will and Vuillaumes that have not been cooked with acids and heat. all somewhat and generally the second and third makers are being hunted up and command good now. more increased. class last century.


237 . but most of the rest have perished . for a scroll long lingered. with an excess of ornament. next to Stradiuarius. PLATE II " De Beriot") owned by Mr Antonietti. Maggini." and it appears to have been a favourite practice there to use such carved scrolls. but which Strad had the genius to restore and perfect The corners. the Magginis rose. but De Beriot had the insight to discern his merits . This matchless antique is doubtless one of many. did more than any one man to inspire and define the ideal shape.DESCRIPTION OF PLATES PLATE I A Duiffoprugcar viol da Gamba. was little honoured in the first quarter of this century. however. and have been continuing to rise. These instruments were usually "made in Germany. and not in A Maggini violin (the The Maggini here given is every case renewed. in public estimation. or a face. owned by Mr George Donaldson. after the taste of the period. The habit of adopting a creature's head. The scroll is cut with a care and an advanced finish which reminds us of the bolder Strad period. an admirably preserved specimen of the great Brescian master. from which even the Amati at first departed. which the fine instinct of the subsequent makers of violins rejected as prejudicial to tone. and is not unknown in the work of Stradivarius. In England numerous copies of Duke that have been palmed off as original have lion heads. It is elaborately decorated on the back. it stands almost alone as a poetic specimen of the phantasy of the old viol makers. have been rubbed. oddly enough. 1700-30. and from the time he adopted him for his masterly and full-toned performances. who. otherwise it is in as perfect a condition as can be expected in so old a fiddle.

OLD VIOLINS PLATE Her late Majesty's III is Amati tenor in beautiful condition It . The instrument was used in Her late Majesty's private band by Mr Hann (1898).whosehistoryIam unable to record. lent it to the great maestro. indeed. it will be observed. PLATE V The Rode and Spanish violins and the Spanish tenor. dently knew its value. the extra decoration being considered due to the high rank of the patron. and the image of John Baptist carrying a Iamb (" Behold the Lamb of God " John i. originally made to order for some great prelate . For the loan of this instrument I am indebted to the good offices of Sir Walter Parratt. PLATE IV Paganini's Joseph Guarnerius. after hearing marvellous qualities. It is in his most powerful and massive style (the head almost brutal in its bull-dog strength). and confined it to its narrowest limits when resorted to in lieu of the usual strip of purfling. in lieu of the usual purfling. who eviis well known.wao made for Royalty or some great Prince Cardinal of the Church.. Seldom. or wrought in obedience to a special request. ! elaborately ornamented. Strad was no bigot. istic with full rich find so much colour thickly laid on to match. 36). and although we may confidently assert that he disapproved of all inlaying or decoration on the bellies or backs. Paganini left it to his native town of Genoa. director of the late Queen's private band. and. and it bears on its back a noble coat of arms hardly decipherable. are all inlaid. as drawn forth by the Magician of the Violin. do we varnish left on the back of so old a violin. We have many evidences that Strad 238 . The story of how it passed An Italian amateur. The instru- into Paganini's hands its ment has been very carefully dealt with. This is a fine and very characterspecimen of the mighty Del Gesu. he probably judged that if it did not encroach upon the vibratory surfaces much beyond a common purfle. it is was. declared that no other hand should henceforth set its chords in vibration. Like many old viols it has been somewhat reduced in size. it was comparatively harmless. It was his favourite instrument and the giant Joseph Guarnerius was well matched with the giant Nicolo Paganini. and there it may still be seen in the Town Hall. doubtless. It is likely that the RodeStrad.

Omobono. 6. 9. the eminent French conductor. long. contrasting with the ample development of the lower part. He was hiniself an expert carver. PLATES VIII AND IX These portraits of Tourte. taken outside Porto Po from the banks of the river. . The Rode model is also flatter in the back. Ilario . cut out scroll. Church of S. 13. 2. Church of S. a native of Cremona. 14. Torrazzo. Church of S. Cathedral. Agata. Church of S. and undeveloped at the lower extremity. 12. and the comparative smallness of the upper. 4. The size is brought down characteristically. Church of S. after the earlier Amati groove had almost entirely disappeared from the Cremona model. Agostino 10. 11. Lamoureux. and by them to Dr Oldham of Brighton. Notice the greater freedom of the Rode scroll. need no further comment. Domenico . and Ebsworth Hill being fully dwelt on in the text. Church of S. and PLATE VII Panoramic View of Cremona. counting from the right of the print : 1. quite in Strad's best manner. but the bellies are all flat in the approved style. light. admirably balances the whole to the eye with a certain " chic " quite a la Strad. Church of S. and could inlay with the best of them when he chose. Tower of the old prisons near the Town Hall 8. is interesting as displaying the variety exhibited in Strad's The Spanish Strad has quite an Amatis^ scroll. 8. Church of S. Luca. Names of buildings. Battisterio. the Cathedral Tower. The Strad 'cello is a good specimen of Strad's improved bass model. Church of S. Signor Sacchi. the highest in Italy. Town Hall Tower. scroll carving. 5. DESCRIPTION OF PLATES was not above pleasing the individual whims of his clients.. Vuillaume. 239 . 7. Marcellino . with its sufficiently massive and finely . gives the instrument an appearance of lightness and grace whilst the delicate and somewhat narrow head. and engraved about 1830 by Caporali. PLATE VI This plate contains profiles of the three Strads shown in Plate V. The Rode Strad was sold to Messrs Hill by M. and very restrained. has kindly identified all the above for me. Lucca . Lupot. patron of the A town. Pietro .

OLD VIOLINS PLATE X This plate of backs. It was difficult to do otherwise. particularly favourite date for forged Stradivari most are frauds. the dark eyes. This is called the cursive v. in the text. dated their instruments. which. and bows. These are all frauds. A reference. PLATE XII For a fuller list of labels. Stainer labels in two different sorts of type. almost dislocated attitudes of the man lent themselves freely to a lively and not always sympathetic or respectful penciL The portrait. a rare one. are slightly of the nature of caricatures. bellies. however. using a v instead of «. however. the wide sensitive mouth. Duke copies of Stainer. sometimes present Notice that Gasparo and Gio Paolo Maggini never this peculiarity. therefore. Landseer sketched a series. the ungainly and gaunt. 1712. are never genuine. Danton's small bust (admirably reproduced by Mrs Haweis' pencil in " My Musical Life.g.. his long hair so weird. There exist numerous dated copies of Maggini— generally recent copies De Beriot having brought the great Gio into notice. It does not. the " Collector" had better consult Mr Vidal's most valuable book referred to in our Bibliography. Buyers should also beware of labels bearing dates posterior to the death of the alleged makers. ». the name in a running type and the rest in print.. 240 . These are forgeries. however. to these facsimiles may be useful. Stradiuarius changed his labels late in life. the tall forehead. The finest representation of him is. hits the happy mean. e. I may observe firom which our seven specimens are reproduced. often very good ones. follow that all thus filled in are genuine indeed." where see my biographical study of Paganini). that a forged fiddle may often have what purports to be a genuine label. The two figures in the real labels being always filled up in ink. — and spelling Stradivari or Stradivarius. — A labels is 1721. here produced. has been fully explained PLATE XI Portraits of Paganini abound. which has much faded. last Some Stradivarius-labelled violins have all the figures of the date printed. The Maestro's features were so marked.«. I have seen Stainer's so decorated.

Plate I .




%di ^hsk^ Ce»-0 ybOM^ §5lfiJ Plate V .

jSSP^j-O^^ G>t'llHi}l feg^iT- iSta-nivk §C^a3 Plate VI .

Plate VII .

w H O H ..*^v > W H PL.«^r H O '"«e^.

-1 .H W X w < .

I I Joo Q 3 <^ -X-S' Cramer I"] 1 1^ > Cremabliere conhol t. Plate X .Ma'SSI Nic^irigti Dol/ikin Sfrad Josehh Suarnerius 1630 ' CA 21 ijr^ Core//.

Plate XI .

K/: ^-^ •^v ."^ >' .--j^Tda JL--'i?t„- Plati-: XII . ^-..*?f^ * * Jt .-'1..lf . 3i i-.^ — ^. ac Antonij Nepos Fecit ^ i{parpdaSaloJ...^j_ '':.*• ^ Jf. KIcolaus Amatus Cremonen.. Hie-i : 'tony ml Fit.»' 5S-! r T V ?r af Y KT TT^ If 'Ss' ^ Atitonius Strac!iur!riu§ Crenioncn^? Faciebat Anno t/^-rX*.nKr:?..-.^ ^ J^ -sfe^i '*. .^! J...>2^?»3 k^' wfe l.

copies may deceive the eye. We may thrill imitate. it resumes in the golden heritage of the past. sounds bewilder the ear. any more than a Phidias or a Raphael. whose incommunicable touch 16 is still felt by millions upon millions from genera- tion to generation 241 . —ever electrify those who uninformed by that secret magic which only appertains to absorbing things done for the first time. but there will never again be an Amati or a Stradivari. but we cannot reproduce of perfection — nor will that ^that emotion of eternal novelty which we experience handle their pale in contemplating and sounding the Cremona masterpieces effigies. The shades of the great melodious dead still seem to hover around me —as their echoes to Pole/' to soul." " Roll from Pole and from " Soul And grow Violins for ever and may be made hereafter. big with the future up to the itself moment when . The age It is of discovery comes but once. Hail! to the mighty dead.! POSTLUDE My task is ended. for ever.

which still circulates throughout the organisms of ten thousand orchestral Hail ! to the undying names of those who first im- prisoned (in order to set free) the passionate longings and divine aspirations of humanity — in the Soul of a Cremona ! 242 .! OLD VIOLINS Hail ! to the mystic arteries life.

Cremona London." or "Rue de Seine. 1775-93. Ferdinando. identical with the birthplace of Stainer. V. 1772. and the son made the best. about 1562. : DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS Aachner. Jean Dominique. {See Chap. third son and successor of Kicola Amati b.) . 1540. Abbati. but his name. of Worked German du Munich 1710-20. 1823-69." (See p. He worked at Modena. b.) Amati. : 71. Amati. It was signed at the back.) ric. {See Chap. he varnished yellow.) 243 . about 1560. second son of Andrea Amati b. yellow varnish. Adam. Paris. V. Giuseppe dalP. suggests a German : by Pickard. 26." Date. walder. Aldluthier. violoncellos. V. a Cremonese maker. prfes celle de Bussy. a Venetian at F^tis saw a ever existed." but it is all very shadowy. about Botzen (Tyrol) {See p. according to Forster. Wakefield. varnish bright yellow. Sebastiano. Philipp. 1800-40. 1720-44. Adams. Alberti. according to Vidal both made bows. 1649. good tenors and type. 1810-49.. . of Mantua. Leeds his labels run " Made by Thomas Absam. of Employed ese . Both worked at Mirecourt. Mathias. Andrea Amati elder son of . Scotland. maker. {See Chap. Lived at Wakefield. V. Aglio. (See Chap. bass viol which he connected with his name. V. Label " Ferdinando Alberti. an 18 . 1788-89.) Amati. in Yorkshire . fece in Milauo. . Giuseppe. 1727-1807. Andrea. seventeenth century. Thomas. A Mitten- Albani. . Frangois. Giuseppe. there 1673. Maker and great re" Fait par pairer." Aldric. son of Jean Adam. man characteristics. Paul. "Mariu Marais. . his work is almost unknown. Girolamo. Doubtful whether he Alessandro. C. 1800. b. Albakesi. 1750. Takes rank merely as a local maker at Garmouth. Made good fiddles on the Araati and Steiner models . is said to have lived at Cremona. Successor Petit- of Maubert. nella contrada delle pesce al segno della Corona. The father of the Cremona school. Aletzie. AiRETON (Airton). 174. 1526.) Amati. Milan- AV'SAM. {See Chap. Alvani. Labels Aldric. ordinary Ger- d. Edmund. 102. 9 rue Pont. nel anno 1740-60. Said to have lived in Bologna. 1621. origin. Antonio. Allard. and signed aU he sold himself. Feb.) Amati. Girolamo. — ACBVO.

pupil of Furber. Cremonese pattern . 16881720 . deep yellow varnish . 1777-89. younger brother of Andrea Amati. wholesale producers on cheapest terms . Baker. Paris . red and brown varnish. A. 1700. Pietro. A Brescian — wald . inferior to his uncle. 1825. Bachelier. Ardenois. Inferior French maker. madefewgood instru- 1731.) Amati. Artmann. : and Venice founderof the Berlin Amateur Concerts inventor of screw pegs for double-basses. Antonio d'. excellent maker . Gaspare.. maker very mediocre. transition maker. Oxford.. Pupil of John employed Morrison by . . first-rate repairer wrote on violin con. struction. under S^bastien Vuillaume 244. good maker Pupil of Clement. of Berlin. 1738. . 1716-1800 violins. Dec. Luigi. worked b.Pietro. 175082. Paul. Antoniazzi. O. h. good restorer much employed by German princes . {See Chap. pupil nish. labels bear "in CoUe. Bajoni. Padua . . Baiehof. Audinot. London. V. mediocre. 1830. Ghent. J. 1568-80. Johannes." Crem. of Gotha Amati pattern yellow var- BAGATELLA(Bagattella). aged eightyeight. 1780. 1854. 1712. London Giorgio. Padua. John. AsKEY. . Bakee. and makes excelLabels lent instruments. Existence doubt- Amelot. April 12. maker to the Prussian Court . AuBEY. : OLD VIOLINS Amati. son or Girolamo took up his business in 1875 at the age of seventeen . at Mirecourt 1842 . & Co. 1820. Pietro. fair maker. Bagatella (Bagattella). Nicola. . 184076. . Bachmann. Paris." Antonio. Nicola. cir. Bachmann. Good maker. 61feve de Vuillaume. is very industrious. 3. ments. . {See Chap. . Ambeosio. but wrote learnedly on violin construction. 1760 . An French maker in yellow varnish Lorient . Ambrogi. 1893. Audinot. yellow varnish. poor yellow varnish. AssALONE. and 'cellos often mistaken for Cremonas a viola player . Roman Amati pattern over-arched Baines. 1760-66. ful. Samuel. of Halberstadt. 1696. Weimar. an. V. Paris . Bergamo. Nestor Dominique. Mirecourt . " Petrus Ambrogi. 1596. according to the registers of Cremona Cathedral. Antony. luthier. fecit Romse. Gregorio. 1684. . Naples Gagliano school. excellent tone . Corsby cir. 1751. Chicago Exhibitor. Nea. "N. of Ernst . d. . their Stainer copies are good. 1835. Cremona small pattern . 1738 . Anciaume. Cremona Baadee. fair maker. Mitten- and Rome. Pietro. Girolamo. Bailly. 1812-29. a nephew of dealt with Aldric (who Tarisio) 1840. Milanese. Anselmo.) AuGifeRE. Antonio. Carl Ludwig. . violas. 17 Ambrosi. . Cypriano. yellow varnish. is said to have worked with him. Francis." Amati. politan.

a contemporary of Barak Norman and Nathaniel Cross long and arched pattern yellow varnish . Banks.b. son of George and Barbary Banks. Sweno.) Bergonzi. 13. 1731. 1738. Pescorino. 88. Szepessy. "John Barrett. Cremona . Benedict. BENTi. Bela. Felice. after Bergonzi. Baroux. bowmaker. London. sweet tone labelled: dilly. Franas early as Bassot. {See p. Barbanti. Wurzburg. 1820. London . (See pp. brother of Nicola. of Named . cir. Fie- brother of Tommaso. (Balestiei'i). Veronese pattern.) and is now in London copies Strad and N. but used their own trade label. Benjamin. Ballantine.) Beckmann Stockholm 1700-6.) (See pp. Cerin. second son of Benjamin Banks (172795). 1727-95. son b. Zosimo. third son of Michel Angelo. fine maker. 1830. Como bow-maker." Bergonzi. d. rough maker. 1850-56. Anselmo. Francesco. (?). 245 . Good bow-maker Naumbuig and Leipsic. Carlo. 1716-51. Bergonzi. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS Balestrieri tro. at the Harp and Crown in PickaLondon. Guadagnini school . 1742. d. of Carlo 1765. 86. 1810. 1722 . 22. Bergonzi cesco.) Barton. Benedetto. Paris.. Thomas Smith. 1771. Dresden friend of Spohr. early 1695. 1805-71. Tommaso.) Balestrieri (Balestieri). Bedler. George. but not a success. 88. brother of Pietro. luthier. Cadiz. Toulouse. (Bekman). Donate de. Fairly good Bolognese maker. 1723. 1720-80.) Bausch. b. 1840. Jan. ." experiVersailles . Benedicti. d. Excellent bow-maker. Benjamin. Michel Angelo. Good con- Sept. 132. . set up -with John Norris. (Baganzi). Joseph. . Gregorio.Matteo. inferior . Bergonzi. . contemporary of Maggini. (See p. Banks (1727-95). Barrett. (See p. Banks. 1674. 1687. sUver medallist.. (See p. James and Heary. Paris very good . . Barnia. 1840. d. Fedele. Robert. 130-132. Ludwig Christian. b. Norbert. Milanese. Bausch. the iirst of the great Bergonzi family of makers. 130-132. Scotch. Nicola. Jose. eldest son mented omitting sound-bar. John. Baud. 1760-85. Bellone. Brescia. Venetian pupil of Serafino and master of M. 1802. Paris . Pietro Antonio. 1679. 1754. Beretta. 130- temporary maker . worked at Budapest and Munich. : Bergonzi. 1850. 86. A. A maker at Corregeio. Silva Francesco. (See pp. Michel Angelo. B ARBiERi. . Belviglieri. Berg6. brown and reddish varnish earlier yellow and " Joseph label Bassot. d. fourth and sixth sons of B. 1694. . Guamerian Pupil of Barnes. known as II Milanese. Aireton. Bellosio. 1765 employed . Cremona. Banks. Carlo. 1747. Amati.

Worked Nancy about 1780-87. copied Maggini. senior. Inferior "Bernardel Philippe. Charles. 105. known as "Old John Betts. Beanzo. p. BORLON. Jan. John Edward. 1862-80.) BoRBON End of Bertet. Ernst Bernakdel Frferes. at Stamford. good repairer. . Edward good Withers. Viennese. Vuillaume. indifferent. Bertasio. Beandl. Lorenzo. 17?553 fair maker. October 1888. tern. Paris. 1660. Francois. J. d. Brescia. d. b. . B. 246 . Mirecourt and Lyons. 1686-1735. sixteenth century . senior. Budapest exhibited in London Exhibi. Florentine. Beemeistee. workmen turn out good cheap ones follows Strad . OLD VIOLINS Beenaedel. BiTTNER. Paris a few early fiddles. seventeenth century. Francesco. Bertassi. Edward. worked with Vuil- Betts iSee p. Jacques. London copyist of Strad. buried at Cripplegate Church. Brussels . Joseph R. Mirecourt. . . London (1855) gold medal. March 1823 . 17451804 . pupil of Richard Duke. . BouEGAED. maker.) (Ned). F. English 1779-1858 . 1792-1832. Learnt his trade in Mirecourt till 1843 . French maker little known. . 1816. 17-. Antwerp 1823. Giambattista. 1707. John. Auguste and Gustave Adolof Sdbastien phe. BOMBERGHI. J. 1820. inferior maker. . Gotha. like him a pupil of Richard Duke. 1856 a clever workman. also for . Nicolas. William. maker.. Venice. made chiefly for America. 1862. 1754. was BOULLANGIEB. BOEELLI. Luigi. (See b. 1730. Amsterdam maker. French. BouEDET. sons fils. 1740-80. David. Jean. 1730-47 Parma Guadagnini model. at Lyons. Leeds. Bindernagel. Antonio. Booth. and Paris fair laume and Gand and Bernardel. Nicola. BiANCHi. 1751. PupU of Guadagnini. Blanchard. worked with Francois. 132. nephew of John Betts . Modena. Cremona. maker who worked under Firm Lup6t and Gand. Amsterdam. . eighteenth century. Betts. 1764. Lincolnshire . 1800 to ISVS. Booth. then " Gand et Bernardel " Paris (1849) gold medal. Jacques. Mirecourt d. Thomas. Piadena. Paul 1865-94 his . Blaik. in Boussu. Andreas. tion. Claude. Gaspar. Berteand. BoM^. Auguste Sdbastien Philippe. BODIO. Beeton. . Karl. 1700-30. Edinburgh." . 1680-1710. b. Fair French maker. Booth. Barbaro Padua. Bruxelles about 175080. He died between 1815 and 1820. Gaspar model. Genoa. (Bourbon). 1637-68. 1755. Beandiglioni. 1820 . BOQUAY (Bocquay)." b. Piadena. very good violins. Boucher. son of W. Blaise. Paris. fairly good Amati pat- Beaglia. London. An et excellent : BoiviN. William. Ambrogio. BouMEESTEE (Baumeester).

Bartolommeo. Cremona. Cappa. head of " Klein et Cie. b. all makers. No great value . Some of also Landolti 1755. Pier Fran- cesco. b. copied Strad. Charles Malakoff. Jan. (Goffredo). 1677. Le. Silk weaver in ShoreLondon . Milan about 1716. BuCHSTADTER (Buchstetter). 1860. 1828. Had three sons. Worked with the BuoNFiGLiuoLi. Worked with Banks's sons. Camilli. . Browne. (Buseto).. Cremona in Cabroly. James. Torre Baldone . P. Gaetano. pupil of . d. at Mirecourt excellent maker . 1847. A maker in BusAS. Antoine. Brown. Gabriel David. Brown. ditch. BRUGfeRE. what he makes himself. 1752 . for orchestral use Cabroli. Norton Folgate apprenticed to his father. John. Mirecourt fiddles . make insti-uments. Toulouse about 1740-47 . BusSETO b. and Mirecourt . Bernardo. del. contemporary of Vuillaume. Thomas Kennedy chiefly a repairer of instruments. jun. : DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS b. Parma. d. Calot good (Callot). Giavetta. Giammaria Bhown. unequal in work. indifferent. 1710-50 . Nov. Florentine. 1812 to 1830. . Calyarolla. About 1753-67. copied Strad carefully and with good effect. 10. 1755. Lorenzo. London about 1788. century. In Genoa. at Mirecourt. Ratisbon. Cremonese viol-maker. excellent tone. both father and son fair workmen . said to have taught Ainati. son and piipil of James Brown. 1540-80 . 1780. 1894. Sept. his instruments nave often been cut down. fair." Rouen. London. 1786 jun. seventeenth Amatis. Paris. Mantua about 173950 . his large bass viols adapted for double-basses with four strings. BBUGt:RE. BBUGiSHE. Calcani (Calcagni). Johann. Davido. d. Burgle. Cremona flat pattern good orchestral instruments. BUDIANI. Griezbach. James. Son of above made about 100 good fiddles the family still work at Mire. b. Cah us AC. Pietro Antonio della. 1865. maker fit Cheap . contemporary of G. 44. 1730- Bketon. Cremona. (Bergamo).. Domenico. Calonardi. Franpois. copied Strad resembles . 1810. of* court. 1740. Andrea BUSSOT. Comhill. Charles Georges. 247 . 22. Vicenza. but was principally employed to make bows. copied Nicholas Caesto Amati. only labels (Caesta).. Mirecourt . Camillus (Camilus di Camila). Bologna and Bergamo fair. 1788. ceased to turned out about 900 instruments a year . fine workman tone. Giofredo 1590-1640. 1660-80. When about twenty years old. Treviso. good strong White Lion Street. brother of Charles Joseph Brugfere. Paris seventeenth century. BuTHOD. . Marco. 1830. Maggini. at son of the above . Caeste. Brubach. 1743 . Carlo. Broschi. Nov.. CamilI/IO. b.

few violins. fair . at 14 Via Borgo Spera made about 365 instruments ." Cavaloeio. 1883. 1680-1720. b. a Chanot. 1809Castellani. Francesco Cati. 1732. Lorenzo 1661-1712. not (Celionati). Paolo. fair maker. Georges. Giovanni. but good wood. often sold for Betts'. yellow varnish. Gian Ceeuti. 1769. Georges. Ren6. Giuseppe. Challonee. made about Celoniati 1500-5. 1787 . Amati pattern violins small. Verona in 1654. indifferent appearance. 1741 . March 26. Florence. 1883. Casini (Cassini). pupil of Anselmo Bellosio j A Caspan. good he made good made about 500 instruments varnish yellow. Catenae (Catenari). indifterent. Giampietro. Geneva. Good . Florence d. maker in Venice. Goodrnaker Amati pattern . Made large violoncellos fair. lute and viol maker. d. Enrico. 1828. Castellani. John. Castello. son of Pietro Castagneey (Castagneri). Jan. 248 . CASSANELti. varnished like Boquay. son of Giuseppe about 1650 . 20. the father of Benvenuto . 1732-57 . second half of the eighteenth century. who worked in Paris about 1630-62 . Fair maker chiefly repairer. 1756. Pietro. Worked in London. b. there of tlie pest. 1527 or 1528. . son of a musical instrument maker in Mirecourt. Turin ahout 1670 follower of Cappa.d. Ceeuti. Paris .) but made none. 1801 . all sorts. to the Queen . century. Ceruti. Modena about 1660 to 1700. Ciano in 1777.. d. 1780-90. Chanot. 84 good restorer of fiddles. in- Castagneey Andrea. b.. Working in Saluzzio aud in Turin about Carcassi. Caeon. Francois. Genoa about 1750-80 . Architect . Carlo. Enrico. Thomas. 10. Cremona. . 1725. d. . h. . His viols. famous for his " kits. Worked in Venice. 1860. Marc Antonio. Luigi. Venice . for John Betts. struments. Giuseppe. Pupil of Lorenzo Storioni . d. a brother of Frangois b. Paolo. Cellini. Made only a Champion. . 1775-85. Casteo. very good and sweet tone. Giovanni Battista. Champion. Carlomoedi. Florence. Maker Giam remarkable. . Antonio. much esteemed in Italy. about 1735-58 not first-rate. Jean Baptiste. son and successorof Giovanni Battista. 112. Worked iu London in the eighteenth . (Castaeneri). yellow varnish. Chanot. Versailles. had a great reputation. OLD VIOLINS Cappa. 1808. 1817." Ceein. Giachimo (Gioacchiuo) and Giuseppe. Oct. Carlo. Milan. Cassineau. Castellani. Mantua. in and Tommaso. 1787. Worked in Paris. "Joannes Franciscus Taurini. (<Seep. anno 1732. Pier Antonio. 1780-93. Cremona . fair. 1731 finished and graceful . Caetee. son of Georges Chanot. A maker from Cremona. Florence. Florence. Paris in 1783. maker of Ceeuti. Paris. Giovanni. Cellini. Francesco.

Thomas. at the " Golden Spectacles " on London Bridge. maker . Christophle. Collin -M6ziN. 1841-89 . fine but settled in London. Lonigo in 1796. Paris. .about 1815-40. 1845-89. Cole. London. a. maker and restorer." beautiful Chiocchi (Chiocci). N. collaborated sometimes with Ren- Charon. Hippolyte. Mirepupil of N. Brussels. Collier. Cherpitel. Gaetano. William. Marie Joseph Antoine Georges. Frangois. London FUippo. tone. G. Paris in 1748. excellent Chiavellati. worked with the Gands at Paris . Paris. Nicolas Augustin. Domenico. Nicolas Emile. work carefully finished . Soho.. Avignon. 1864 . Mirecourt. 1655. 1658- Cole. Mirecourt. Manchester and George Chatelain. Chevrier. Paris. Joseph. Paris. London. court . (Chapuy). Marie Joseph. and then in Brussels. about 1750-55. In Padua nineteenth century. Claudot. Clerkenwell. ault. London about 1672-90 good tenor maker. Nicolas. Augustin. CONTRERAS. better restorer. Samuel. sen. b. wood good. Charles. court . About 1777-91 . excellent maker and About CoNTRERAS. Jean Robert. Collin. 1775-85. . Lyons . Pai-is." Charles. Chappuy Manchester. about 1745-50. . good maker and repairer. good Strad and Amati copvist. James. good beginning of eighteenth century . Thomas. London. 1858. Clement. Claude Nicolas. 1838. Chibon. Joseph Paul. indifferent. 1836 settled in Bouen in 1830 in indifferent. 1843. King Street. From Mirecourt. 249 . Paris about 173276 . Jean. A living at of pupil Claudot. Mirecourt d. Cord A NO. Contreras. F. Coffe-Goguette. Worked under his father. He succeeded his father-in-laAV in 1872 . Matthew Furber. yellow varnish . Collingwood. excellent maker. . Chr:6tien. 91. 1834. 1841-93 . in Mirecourt. branded his instruments with his name. Fr. Andr^ Augustin. Strad copyist has passed . d. Jacopo Genoa about 1774. large pattern. Charles Jean Baptiste. fairly good . very Collin. Collier. Chardon. Conway. May 22. Habeneck played Clark. 1710-80. badly varnished. for Strad. probably came Paris but from Mire. Paris. 'Worked in London about 1760. indifferent. SOU of Joseph restorer. many son- Chardon. 1775. Charotte. " Augustin Claudot. son of C. Charle. Mirecourt. at " Corelli's Head " on London Bridge. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS Chanot. b. on one of his violins for years. Joseph. Vuillaume. 1730-40. pupil of Tarr Crask. Christ A. good workman. Madrid or "Granadino . in-law and pupil of Georges Chanot. good maker . in the rue des Bonnes-Enfants a good deal sought after. Theress.

De Comble. F. 1824. Mark. Ingenious amateur maker. fair CousiNEAU. OLD VIOLINS CORNELLI. Marco out when Norris died in 1818. end of the of — good workman. 1780 . Davis. C U Y P E R s. of excellent wood. 1870. Fryer. 250 . Paris about 1740. Georges. devoted to reproduction of Cremonas. nineteenth century. London (in ing. 1755-1810. b. restored violins . Paris. instruments scarce. seventeenth century . 125. 1702. Darche. 1856. Daniel. CUTHBERT. &o. 1660-80. Richard. . to be a brother Corsby of Northampton. Venice Cremona Daniel. Dehommais. Italian pattern. Decombb (not De Comble). Brescia and Venice in the seventeenth century. b. maker) maker. 1729. Maucotel worked for him. 1762. _ Dearlove. seventeenth century . Antwerp about 163666 two specimens in Antwerp Cathedral. London about 1700-51. Worked in Treviso about Davidson. 1730. George. (a C. William. beof Darche. Aix - la - A . Maker of viols and violins in London. Charles. 1821-34. Mark William. He knew little of violin-mak- Amati model. Treviso. He worked occasionally for Cross. baeses. of Brassels . Vuillaunie brother (Deshayes). John. Defresne. 1779. school. 1870. Pietro Antonio della. A 1846 sold business to Edward Withers) . Johannes. Paris. Paris. . CUCHET. 1753Georges. The and have a rich Hague about Deconet. Crass. Hay. prolific worker 1740-65 . more dealer than maker . was a pupil of N. 1776-1825. George. Davis. contemporary of . Leeds. CORSBY. CUNY. nephew and only pupil of Salomon. about Michele. Carlo. {See p. London employed by Norris and Barnes . Nathaniel. at Toumai. Worked in various places. worked till 1760 .) Crowther. maker in Aberdeen. 181220. 1742 . Manchester. lieved London . della. 1874-82. Cramond. Belgium. Nicholas. son John Kennedy. eighteenth century. Day.. In 1788 was entitled " Luthier de la reiue " made all sorts of instruments. Miremont. better restorer than CoRSBY. employed good workmen Absam. Leeds. 1828-62. sold all sorts. Salford. John. Costa. Successful Dehaye the Pai'isian amateur maker. Chapelle. Costa. Gough. he succeeded to the business. Marseilles in . David.79 . than a maker of instruments. well made. Gaspard. Cremona. Rouen. Pierre. fair. . Agostino. and always remained more of a dealer in. tone. Charles. Ambroise. Cunavlt. said to have been a pupil of Antonio Stradivari at Cremona . a Mark Dearlove. F. Dearlove. . Huntly. Northampton about chiefly Pierray Paris about 1730 made double- indifferent. Costa.

Diehl. . a brother of Nicolaus Diehl.. . Eighteenth age of 105. London . migrated to Mel(Dickinson). century. . son of Nicolaus Diehl . James. 1876. Salisbury Court. DiEHL an ori<:^nal "Made Label bears: by John Delany. ex- fair maker. Paris. Diehl (Diel). Ed- He lived in of this name. Brussels about Joseph. Jacob. sold his liddles . eighteenth century . Nicolaus. John. 1763. field . Jesse. 1752. James. Lucien. Gabriel. a son of Jacob . Caen. a prolific firm. He worked Fendt in Simon London bourne. 1848 making . and they continued the business at Rouen. good restorer . with B.) 251 . Darmstadt . On the death of Charotte he joined Jeandel in violinmaking. Mirecourt suc. Dublin in egotist. (or Diel. S6bastien. sen. Giambattista. . D. Shef- d. DiDELiN. 116. Mayence. Mirecourt and Paris b. but not very DODb. Diehl to (Diel). London. . N. Paris about 1610 . in- was a good bow- Dickeson (Dickson). work poor. DODD. 1S08 1808. d. 1808.. in Stirling. Bremen in 1834. son of James Dodd. Liberty to all the world. London. 1779. d. Lucig- in 1898 . Diehl d. DODD. whose business he suc(Diel). Debazey. . Fleet Street buried in St. Deeoux. DiEULAFAiT. black and white. Martin. Delany (Delaney). Johann. S. Claude. 1851. Diehl . Delanoe. 1814-67 . 1805. In Thomas Britton's Collection was a "good violin by Ditton. 1783-85. London and Cam- p. 1740-75 . Friedrich. 1705. in d. J. made good cheap ones. b. A viol-maker.1855. at the Deseousseat. 1881. Diehl (Diel). Son of Martin Diehl.." b. fair. jun. Lille about Paris. second son of Edward. maker. DiEHL of (Diel). 1754. bridge. Heinrich. Mayence. worked under Matthew Furber. Antoine. Mirecourt 1765-75 . good. cessor to J. Dublin. rare. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS De Lannoy. a son Johann Diehl. Also made bows. First bow-maker Devbeeux. best : Cremona models. D order to pei-petuate his memory in future ages. London about 1700. about 1750-90. Despons. ward. J. Desjaedins. "A. about 1750-80 cellent. good maker. Bride's Church. son of Nicolaus Diehl . 1836 . 1795 . Dennis. then Hamburg. from 5 to 150 francs . John. Pierre Jean. ceeded. Dickenson ferior. Edward. Signs Paris in 1720. eldest son of Edward Dodd b. {See . DiDiON. Strand. poor maker. 1873 . DODD. worked in Hamburg he published a work on Italian violin-makers. DiNi. John. apprenticed to John Crowther. DiTTON. 1760 ." Deschamps. as it was originally spelt).48. John. Stainer model. Was Nicolaus Louis. Xicolas. 1810. b. nano in 1707. Nancy. Delanoix." E L a u.

and DoPFER (Dijpfer). verge of the violin. Leghorn in 1699. Johann Joseph. Emiliani. and dealer in all . Andreas. copyist. Dimanche. Duncan. good Cre- mona Ebeeti. Alexander. . . and carried on the business at St. 1854 German pattern fair . Georgenthal. Richard. 1891. A Johann Anviolin and lute Pianzo. 1410-11. Duch]6eon. Mathurin. Bamberg. Deogmeyee. Elslee (Esler). Dec. muddy dark brown varnish. Nicolas. sound-holes smaU but well cut. 1745. violins. 1600-60. maker in Klingenthal. DONI. Both learnt from Bernhard Fendt.basses burg. DoRANT. Verona. Richard. Boheplayer and maker Duiffopeugcar cart). or Droulot. Contemporary of Boquay. about 1768 instruments well made. Jacques. London about 1750-80. . Kocco. 1762. Deouyn. Eernhard Fendt and Lett proud of his varnish an allround man. (?) Nicolaus. Mayence Tommaso. Abbeville. Good. Francesco de. in Bohemia. Engleder. Martin's Lane. 1800. DuRFEL (Diirfell). Italian maker about 1730-50. Jean Laurent. French maker . DULFENN. DoNATO. 252 . Hermann August. Ferrara. Paris. Deinda. 1514. London in 1802 Eli6ment. ^ood Du RiEZ. 1854 . third son of Employed Edward Dodd. b. in 1743. eighteenth century. 1887. 1786. say tone. Paris. Duke. studied in Brescia . . slightly arched. OLD VIOLINS DODD. Altendouble . fair tone. Franz Anton. ing in Paris in 1714. tone. Edlinger.) Duke. sons of Thomas Dodd. Munich. Mirecourt. Eglington. Glasgow. mia {See b. Thomas. . copied the Amati pattern.60 . 1700 Amati pattern. Johann Ulrich.. varnish brown. Bremen wrote a book on . Edward and Thomas. Ludwig. DoMiNiCELH (Domincelli). 3. William. G. sen. an original designer. Serafino. bass transition on viol maker . DOMINICHINO. Venice. yellow varnish. George. 1695-1715. N. Prague about 1730 . violon- Dodd. and some Stradivari Gaspard. ence. and was living in Prague 1712-15. approached p. A priest in Flormade lutes Ebeele. . (Duiffoprou- Stradivari pattern. Duncan. Mayence about 1715-30. Deouleau 1788-1800. work- Eenst. Paris DUMESNIL. Engledee. J. (Doi-ffel). Paris. DoEFFEL dreas. Rome about 1715 . 1814. son Duke. 132.) Eulby-Cl6ment. violins very arched. Paris in 1783. about 1655-60. Aberdeen. 1778 excellent. . A 1663.20 . Giacomo. fine workman . 18. of Richard sorts of instruments cellos fetch £50. . Thomas. Spitalfields. varnish of a golden colour. violins. Saxony. (-Seep. DuMiNiL. Giuseppe.

monk at Bologna. son . Guidan- Florenus tns or Florentus. inclined to German style. Feury He generally marked his name. 27. Anton. FisCER. 132. French follower of Pique . Alfonso. Fischer. his violins are still liked. brothers.Saint . thii-d son of of FlORiNi. beginning of the nineteenth century. Ferati. of Leclerc the violin . Carpi (Mo- Ferrari. (Fleury). Florence. His bows are justly celebrated. fair maker. Donald. the sound-holes small. 1836. them with EVANGKLISTI. son Febbre. 9ois. bow-maker. Jacob.) Bernhard Fendt. Johann Christian. Ex- cellent maker. Sienna in 1740. in 57 . G. fair maker. Neukirchen (Saxony). (See p. . Carlo and Giuseppe. Firth. Fabris. careful varnish. patterns best. Ferrara. 1742-50. b. Agostino. Bernhard Fendt. 1738. Cremona about 1788-89.42 . in France as Fent. Ferguson & Son. 132. and are thought to rival even those of Francois Tourte. (See p. good maker. wood and FiCKER. Martin. Martin. d. Evans. good workman. style. (Italy). 1730.. A pupil of M^dard. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS EURY. d. fourth son of 132. German model. 1820. Paris. b. 1751. Wiirzburg . pupil of William Booth. Fendt. Feret. Sienna. 1750in Eve. varnish red. Bernhard Simon. second son but good varnish. William. yellow varnish. yellow varnish. FiCHTL. an excellent Ferrari. 1812 baking his wood to age it . Jacques. best known Fendt. violoncellos are of . b. Fleury. delicate workman . 1708 . b. eighteenth century. Worked at Bologna. Venice nineteenth century. Paolo. Johann Christian. eighteenth century. there first began Nov. Fendt. 1794. 175464 poor maker. German and Italian 1780 . eighteenth century. . (Florinus). Nov. Fischer.30 . . Bernhard. Fendt. Bologna 253 . Kichard. German A FiCKBR.maker. Ferguson. 1732 . or Ferry. Zacharie. FiKER.) RaflFaele Fiorini. Cremona pattern . Cremona. brown varnish . Paris about 1750-60 . Fleuri 91 Aberdeenshire. Fran90i8. Jean FranParis. Fendt. Amsterdam in 1762. Francis. Venice about 1700 . London about dena). 1720-22 Facini. Edinburgh. Fendt. Faeinato. second son of Bei'uhard Simon. Giuseppe. About 1810-30. Serafino pattern. Luigi. Vienna. 1879. arched . work good. 1867. Milan about 176064 . Paris. 1783-85. Budrio Agostino. Benoist. Paris. Johann Gottlieb. sen. He was working at 20 rue des Lyonnais . Pietro. Vienna. Leeds. Bernhard Fendt. Franjois. at Pianoro. (See p. Falaise. 5.Jacques in 1820. Giovanni. Huntly. Carlo.) Fendt. violins small pattern. Ferrari. FiORiLLO.

eldest son of Nicola. sen. (See p. . son and pupil of John Furber. William. OLD VIOLINS about 1700-60 class. yellow varnish his violoncellos and . Florence. by the William Jean. sen. for worked Ghent. about 1675. second and third sons of Nicola John Johnson (1750-60). Giuseppe. Gabeielli. nephew of the great Gennaro . sen. Gagliano. Flo. FuEBEE. David. An Italian. 254 . Gennaro. 126. (See Gabeielli. b. 1830-40. b. Giovanni Battista. {See p. on the FUBBEB. p. d. varnish. Joseph "Le Mayeux").") Gagliano. Forster Forster p. FOESTEE. William. Bartolommeo. FuRBEE. Gaffino. work with him. rence. 1713-14 (5eep. London and Pupil of Giovanni. Feanck. Alessandro. eldest son of Alessandro . Gabeielli. (See p. Florence about 1730. sen. b. Simon Andrew. b. (Foster or Forrester). (called 1800. 1785 Gagliano.. at Naples d. about 1680. Jolin. son of William Forster (17641824).) worked Feaisee. Gagliano (Galiano). John 1801. Matthew. lived at Naples. Gagliano. third son of Matthew Furber. 1806. Paris. H. He was the best maker of this family. b..) of d.) William (" Young son of William (1739 . grandson of Alessandro. (See p. Giuseppe and Antonio. second son of Matthew Furber. 7. Ferdinando. Baptiste. brother of Nicola . . . b. Feankland. pupil of C. far from first- FoNCLAUSE. a maker in London. Mirecourt. good maker (Cremona model) and fine reLeipzig. son of William Forster (1713-1801). FuEBEE.) Gagliano. Kirkandrews. 1764-1824. 1640. Charles. 1740-70. 234. son of Giovanni. second son of Alessandro.1808). 1750-60 . FoESTEE. iu Paris. FUEBEE. Esk. Nicola Amati.) . 126. James. 1760 good violins. FOESTER. 126. Bicardo and Borneo. Cremona. son of David Furber. . Antonio. 1730. good maker . 1825. Fbyee. {See Gaetano. grandson of Nicola. altos considered best. Feebeunet. "). h 1865. FOKSTEH. Matthew. FOBCHEVILLE. Early pochette-maker. London. son Forster . Hunger. yellow (Fritzche). Florence. F O E s T E E. 126. Cristoforo. (See " Raifaele Gagliano. 1750. (See p. Henry John.) William (" Old Forster"). J. 126. good tone. Paris. 1800-30.) has gained medals of honour his sons. eldest son of William Forster. Feitsche Samuel. . la ContI .) Gagliano. and employed by Vuillaume. Leeds. 1745-83. d. 89. Cremona good maker. excellent wood. Aug. Giorgio. 1787 pairer. Nicola. 89. employed Forsters. careful maker. FuRBEE. fourth son of Nicola. first son of Matthew Furber. Antoniazzi. Antonio. FOKSTER John. b. chiefly a clever repairer. Gabeielli. 1666 .

63. grand- Garenghi. 1790. (Geiffenhof. . brother of Gand. sons of Giovanni. d. Gagliano. Nantes about Galbani. Piedmont. Piedmont. Paris. Follower of Clianot .-Thomas-du-Louvre. 1730 and was living in Rue St. Jean. b. Vuillaume. Charles Nicolas Eugene. b. Gemunder. 1892. {See p. 1757. Turin. 24. 1640. sous of Nicola. 1542. 30. Gedler. Prolific maker. Gautrot. the head of the Gand family b. made a guitar-shaped model violins much praised. d. Gand. 1868. p. d. son of Joseph Louis Germain. RafFaele and Antonio. Aug. Fussen. G. B. son of FranJ. second son of Charles Fran9ois Gand . Excellent maker and repairer. Gemunder. others very superior. August. George. 1855. 11. violins. 1820. 1734- Unequal maker of viosome cheap and poor. eldest Geisenhof hof). 1700. small value. -Honors. Feb. d. Domenico. 1745. 90. at Mirecourt. fair maker. Gand 1740. Carlo Antonio. Galbusera. B. Garani. Bavaria. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS at Naples. Germain. good varnish. Paris. 187088. 1821. . 1748. Jan. 1700 . ferior. Charles Francois. Dec. 255 .) Wiirtemberg . 1822. Gand family and B. 1814. Gavini^s (Gavani^s). Johann Anthony and Johann Benedict. June 5. there about tern nish. Mire- cesco Bertolotti. Sept. sailles. Bordeaux . Good maker. Mirecourt. Fair instruments.MicheIangelo. Germain. 1785Enrico. Gaikoud. New York. about 1870 . first an apprentice and then first workman in the workshop of Gattanani. about 1744^50. eldest son of Charles Michel Gand b. Gand. Gand. Turin. about 1750-96. Lis- Poor Gand. second son Michel Gand.) (See court .. Geroni. Italy.GeigenFranz. Gaillabd-Lajoue.63. . line repairer. lins. 1825. Galland. Versailles. 1700-5 . Fraiigois. b. b. Louis. Bologna. Gattinaki. at Paris . d. fair tone. Nicola. Fairly good. Giacomo. Joseph Louis. 6. Francesco. 1670-75. Boulogne-sur-Seine. d. Galbicellis. plain wood. . b. son of Charles Francois Gand b. . Charles Michel. fine copyist. Emile. Giuseppe. Studied at Mirecourt. Mirecourt. Galram. d. 1866. but little known now. 1857. of Charles 1858. Charles Adolphe. In- 1680 to 1720. 1677. 5. Gattinari. Joachim Joseph. about 1800-20. Gagliano pat- Gherardi. Galerzena. Ver- August GeinUnder. 1895. 1792GABANi(Garaua).. 1816 in Wurtemberg. Ostia. July 23. 1754. yellow varBrescia. 1812. bon in 1769. Florence in Florence. 1787. red varnish. Paris . 108. son of Enrico Gattinari. Piero. Guillaume. maker in Bologna about A worked with F. rue St. b. Gasparo da Sal6. Excellent maker.

GOFFEILLEE. Antonio. J. d. Leghorn. chiefly double GiLKES. Alleged fine wood. 1790-1810. (Gofriler). GiBERTiNi. Domenico. Alberto. son of Paolo Grancino. Grabensee. Berlin. Bavaria. son Grimm. Carlo. Turin. Turin. 1769. Cremona. sons of Giovanni and grandsons of Paolo Graucino. GiEANlANi. 1600-10. 1730-62. 1775-83. GiOEGi. Metz. in 1870. son of GrandFair Mirecourt. 1830-33. about 1737. 1800-45. Giovanni. Paris. Gennaro. Ludwig. divari. Pupil of Nicola Amati. A. Filippo. Francesco. 1746. . and tone. London. arched pattern vioPierre Jean. GoFFEiLLEK. Grandjon. 1787-1827. Antonio. sen. 1745. in Grey Coat Street. Venice. An amateur maker Cre- Was employed by J. son of Samuel Gilkes. Employed by Pagamni as a GiGLi.) Grancino. pupil of Antonio Stra1705. Morrison. Antonio. Scotland. George Corsby. 1730. Metz. (Se6"Villaume. Matteo. 1700. Nicolas Louis. father. 1660. GouvERNARi. GOFFKILLEE nio. Geandini. tone. Francesco and Giam Battista. jon. Grancino. Gragnani. about 1792. (5eep. in 1860. GOBETTi. GossELiN. Tothill Fields. Paolo. in 1622. about 1811-75. merit. Prolific maker. in Paris about 1814-30. Eheims. mona. Florence in but careful in work. Fussen. Gragnani. Bologna. Morton Pinkney. Gilbert. Pro- GiOEDAKO (Giordane). Cremona. Fochabers. Grandjon. Gilbert. 1690-1740. Rome. Dilsseldorf. Northamptonsbire. 1793. GiLKES. Some sen. Geronimoj sen. yellow 256 . about Milan. Grimm. Mirecourt. maker. Bough workmanship inferior wood sweet . J. WUliam. lin excellent. Julio Cesare. OLD VIOLINS Ghidini. best German makers. Worked for William Forster (17641824). A Gray. Banffshire. London. 1855. varnish . B. Stradivari pattern. VeFair maker.. Simon. Venice. Nicola Amati pattern clever maker.1665-90. Nicola. London. Pupil ofNicola Amati at Cremona. Vosges. Westminster. GlOFFRBDA. Parma.") Giuliani. Carl. 90. lific but inferior. GossET. 1650. Gragnani. GiEON. GlANOLi. repairer. son of Nicolas Louis Gilbert. son of Inferior Antonio to his Samuel. Grimm. Milan 16901730. Grancino. James. Leghom. Geegori. about 1735-40. Leghorn. yellownice. Johann. Grand -GERARD. Gragnani. Anto- Venice. One of the of Carl brown varnish. GoNNET. Francesco. Worked at Milan.. varnish. 18th century. and Samuel GUkes. 1710-60. 1730. Parma. about 1741-80. Also Paris. about 1850-55. Careless in wood Geiseri. b. Mirecourt. Greffts. GiBBS. 1731. J.

d. 1685-1728.) GUADAGNINI. Louis. at Cremona . Francesco and Giuseppe. Pietro. A Guadagnini. 7. Caterina (?). son at Turin. Turin. Antonio. maker in Paris about 1730-69 . sons of Antonio Guadagnini. b. Bologna. Milan. 51. Turin about 1750. b. Good on the Stainer GuARNKRi. at Turin. "Francesco Guadagnini. d. Eighteenth tury . of GuARNERi. 86. Piacenza (?) {See b.. b. 1655. Guadagnini. GuERRA. pupil of Antonio Stradivari at Cremona. 1747. 1883. in 1800. brother of GuadagninL Milan. GuARNERi. grandson of Carlo Guadagnini." the greatest of Cremona. 51. Grulli. Giuseppe. soon after 1738. Pietro. Piacenza. " Carlo Guadagnini. b. b. Giuseppe Guadagnini. 1736 . Giuseppe. d. Jacques Paris. G R O L L. Giuseppe. Guadagnini. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS Gkobitz. grandson of Andrea. Guadagnini. Giovanni tista. Joannes Florenus. Cre mona. neri family see p. A Spanish family. Good violins. 1881 (jiovan Battista. 1831 . double purne. a. BatLorenzo new ones on the pattern of Stradivari much admired. Francois. {See p. Guidomini. Giacomo. d. 1775-77. son of of Giambattista. Gaetano. used spirit varnish. about 1740. A GUGLIELMI. Cremona . Carlo 1835. Battista. 25. GuiLLAMi. Giobattista. 18. I? 257 .) Tyrol. GUARINI. 1803. son Gaetano. [See "Carlo Guadagnini. Pupil and successor of Fdmond Daniel Cremona. younger brother Bologna in 1752. Matthew. Claude Pierray.") (-See GuGEMMOS(Gugemos). b. works at Marseilles . 1711 at seppe Giovan Battista Guarneri. Warsaw in 1750. son Pupil lufenor. Giuseppe. of Guadagnini. and Turin about 1695-1775. b. Paul 1747-59. Grou. Bavaria. GUARNERI. April 14. about 1805. Gkosset. Grossi. Hyferes. Gu:6rin.") Guadagnini. eldest son of Andrea. Germigny. Giuseppe. 1626 at Cremona Dec. d. GuiDANTUS.) Felice. Giambattista. Gian of Bernardo. Andrea. Guadagnini. (See p. 1666. 1680-1780. there (For the Guar. Fussen. violins pattern. second son of Giambattista. GUARNERI. . repairs old instruments and makes Guadagnini. d. Meran. powerful tone. of Andrea. Joseph. cen Guadagnini. Antoine. Feb. known as "del Gesii. 1834r-88. Sept. grandson of Lorenzo. second son of Andrea. 1760. 1810. GuERSAN. Nov. Vosges. Alexandre Sauveur. 1695. 18. 1740. Pietro Giovanni. son of Giu- GuARNERi. Guadagnini. Lorenzo. 1786. one of the best French msCkers great experimentalist . GUARNERI. son of Lorenzo. Guidon. daughter of Andrea. poor maker. of the family. Gaetano. Turin. Modena. Lorenzo.") at about 1665. grandson Lorenzo. Paris. about 1698.

(or John). jun. K. Haeham. 1842-95. Worked John Hart. especially 'cellos.. Hammig. July 17. 1726. in Rudolstadt. Helmich. Pierre Joseph. Hamm. and violoncellos on the Araati pattern. Lille . Good. & Sons. Paris. HAENSEL. much violin. Firm still maker at Vienna. Jacob. Hell. 1785. and Guameri models. Haff. Vienna. eighteenth century. J. Aberdeen. Peter. honours Haedie. Johann Gottfried. Florence. Clever maker in Markneukirchen. 258 . then with S^bastien Vuillaume in Paris. nineteenth century . Good. 1730. of Cork. Maggini. full of ingenuity . London. Stainer pattern. Seven years in Mirecourt. Maker.37-90. . London. 18. ments . brother. maker. pattern in favour of Stradi- a beautiful maker. H ASSERT. Edinburgh. Matthew. beautiful wood..s. GUSETTO. 1800-15. Excellent violoncellos. Charles. Stradivari and Amati pattern red varnish. Haedie.coloured varnish good copyist. 1700Reacted against Stainer 30. Mirecourt in 1772. 1825. London. Edward. Haeeis. Leipzig. Haeeis. Gilkes . Charles Harris. amber . Rheinbach (Cologne). Eisenach. not much arched. John Thomas. Haebouk or Harbur. Pupil of Samuel instru- made few GUTERMANN. London. Nicola. . 1810 . Haee. Passau. esteemed. Great repairer and careful maker of about sixteen instruments a year. 1854. ments too much arched. Heidegger. Hungary. Joseph vari. Joseph. eldest son 1775-89. Francois.. Johann Anton. nineteenth century. HI:NOC(H6nocq). Hambergek. 1768 to about 1790. Flamersheim. reputation for experience and skill in repairing. Stainer pattern. Vienna. James. nineteenth century. eighteenth Good instruments. W. Was maker and musician to the Duke of Schonburg at Bochsburg. and Nicolas Darche at Aix-la-Chapelle. violins ivory Eisenach. Heberlein. A German who worked in Rome about edged. Henderson. D. 1773- Held. H^NOC of for Pari. Heinrioh. 1746. century good work. Haet. yellow varnish. b. violas. 1765-85. London. H. Haedangee. 1856.Jean(?George3 Bienaim^). 1863. a Heesom. Good violins. In 1865 he started his own business at 14 Rue Nationale. Hasseet. Augsburg. Continued Carl Grimm's business. London. Hel. Charles. Ferdinand. . peculiar methods of seasoning wood without tire has received much praise and many . rather harsh tone. century. Dunkeld. Haynes. Industrious A makers and exhibitors. Haedie. OLD VIOLINS GuiTON. Stradivari. London. Eccentric maker of a trumpet- work good. 1780Seldom labelled. Norway. his 1800. Pressburg. J. Instru1790. 182389. (or Hdnocq). 1805-74. Haemand. and Thomas. tenth 1748-50.

1812 at Mirecourt . inventor of a barytone fiddle (not a success) . 1699. made a many Henry. Antwerp. son of Joseph Hill. in Vienna. and Benjamin. 1857. (For Hill family see Hill. who worked for some time at Mirecourt (Vosges). In 1844 he returned prolific maker. Bavaria. William. for the worked with Chanot excellent bows... William. Feb. a good maker otherwise. d. Mataincourt. Henky. tern. made Hildebrandt. Donauworth. Henry Lockey. b. Hill. both as maker and Hoffmann. Octave. but never signed. Paris. Joseph. Hill. Wurzburg. son of 95. . about 1740-42. Horlein.. Carolus. 1794. an excelcellent maker of fine repairs business continued by Charles Bruyfere. Worked till 1772. 1870. Eugene. Jan. and was the first to study b. 1715 . Henry. Joseph. 1803-59 Baptiste prolific maker . in Marseilles. Hill. Ebsworth. 75. 1850. Jean Baptiste 1793-1858. under Peter Warasley. Carl Adam." in PiccadUly. Englisnman to go there and Walter Edgar.) b. 1871. William Ebsworth. Matthias. Jean Baptiste F^lix. They employ a large staflF of assistants in their workshops at HanwelL HiRCUTT. maker Anton. Arthur Frederick. were all makers. son of grandson of Lockey Hill . about 1720. Dresden and Weimar. 4. Court- Joseph Hill . Henry. inelegant pat- Holbom. 1725 . b. His sons. who also A worked at Mirecourt. Michael Christopher. 133. 1829Winkelhof. 1825. HoHNE. b. 1862. In Grenoble in great 1854. to Paris. 1784. John. Hill. son of Jean Henry. Paris. Worked in London about 1740-80. 1774 . son of Jean Baptiste F61ix Henry. violins and violoncellos of good tone. son of Charles Henry. 1835. Henry Lockey Hill. great reputation repairer. followed the musical profession for some years before joining his brothers in the business . shows well the transition period between viol and violin by recurrence to older types of a five-stringed violoncello. b. {See p. Jean Baptiste. Nov. violins. Henky. Cremona 259 . 1843-92. working at "Y« Harp and Hautboy. Mirecourt He was the head (Vosges). p. Later at Augsburg. 1822 . Paris. 17571831. d. 1765-1800. He was a fellow-apprentice of Banks. in Bordeaux. Hochbrucker.. inventor of pedals harp. Lockey. b. Paris. but is chiefly known as the 54. good work fine repairer. Aug. in Leipzig from about 1685 . Hamburg. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS Henry. choice maker in the style. Martin. A violin bow-maker . 133. 1860. b. Red Lion Street. Made some violins. present family of of me makers. .) London about 1600. 1817The present members of : Henry. Hofmans. June 3. Hoffmann. 1700-50 . Henry. Pupil of his father. Alfred 25. London. Leipzig. 1826eldest son of the firm are his four eldest sons William Henry.

Giacomo. Christoph Friedrich.S. Prague in 1760. 1828-94. was one round hole in the middle of the violin. 1770-1800 Joseph. Pierre Charles. H. eldest son of Jean . 1765-74. F. ted a double-bass in London in 1862. 1735-76. second son of Pierre Charles Jacquot. Turin. U. son made on a new pattern. Bohemia. Henry. J'Anson. and exhi. Christian. instru- Fontaine Maubu^. Styria in Dresden. 1730. Jacquot. Paris. great bited beautiful instruments at various Exhibitions . 1878." from 1689 to 1717. . 1629. 1794. Edward Popplewell. living in 1686. Henri.. Jais. sometimes mistaken for Nicola Amati grand pattern whalebone purning sweet tone. maker la of instruments "pour HOMOLKA. just below where the bow sets the strings in motion. Rome. HULINSKI. about Peeter." IVRONTIGNI. HuLSKAMP. Jacobs. OLD VIOLINS HOLLOWAY. Cremona pattern learned maker. but -wood rather too thick. . hibited in Paris. . G. Maker in Mittenwald. Jauch. August. excellent Leipzig . instraments were well made . at the sign of "A I'image de St. 5ee"Buthod. Lonbass viol exdon.A. HosBOEN. good workmanship. varnished brown. Paris. Jacquot. Worcester exhibi. b. medigood double . Rue St. a. much . 1718. London. HoENSTEiNEE Joseph. varnish red-brown. probablj' son of Peeter used dark red varnish of good quality. bert. John. 12. Jacot. Mirecourt . Dresden . Wougelli. Mathias. 1775 . of b. Pierre 1853-82. Metz. He was Manchester. tions iueiTectual." HussoN. 50. near the 1787. jun. HULLEE. A 260 . in 1709. Jean. 1775-90 . Amsterdam . b. prolific maker. Rue des Arcis. and on the verge of the violin period. Jean Charles.. ments. his innova- 10. Jacobs. 1720(Hornstaincr). Thomas Alfred. . 19th century. esteemed Jacquot. March Nancy had a reputation. musique du Roy. Settled in New York. HUET. Aug. Jules Victor. Jay. b. (Jacquart). Paris. .. b. HuNGEE. Martin. Kuttenberg. better than Charles. ocre. b. 1850 . Etienne Charles Aleldest son Charles Jacquot. Charles. of Charles Jacquot Instead of the ordinary soundholes. Botzen. Jacot. careful finish a learned connoisseur and successful exhibitor. HUEEL. A Jacquot 1804-80. Gratz. Nuremberg d. maker of viols in London about 1615-67 justly celebrated. tone rather harsh. his two sons worked with him. good maker. 1811-87. . Pierre. HUMEL. .basses HOENSTEINER (Homstainer). Amsterdam . 1855. Johann. Mittenwald. Shoeneck. 1690-1740. Hopkins. Learnt fro7u William Booth. . In the 1862 London Exhibition he exhibited violins Nancy. in Westphalia. Johann. HOEIL.


Was working in Milan at the same time as Antonio Maria Lavazza. . industrious and ingenious. Larche. L. excellent. in Markneukirchen. Laurent. pale red. 1847. Lagetto. Salomon. Pupil of Guersan. Berlin. Kolditz for worked . KOLBITZ. and Lafbanchini. Clever repairer. Exhibited in Munich. model large size. A. E. 1774. . Paris.58. Krupp. Jacobo Worked for Maggini. Etienne. Tried many new shapes with moderate . Hof Bavaria and Breslau. bowmaker in Paris. maker t-aken Kkamer. N. also guitars. Jean Nicolas. excellent maker. 1854. Berlin. Pierre. Carlo Ferdinando. Excellent disciple of Tourte. 1800-30. with usual result of impoverished tone. at his best often niisJoseph or Peter Guarnerius . Lambin. Antonio Milan about 1700 Stradivari pattern good var(or Lacasso). Pupil of J. eighteenth century . but work dissimilar . Pietro. Pressburg. 1856. and Briinn his violins popular in bow-maker. 1785. 1862 . 1756 . An but Paris. one of the best Ger- court. for but rising in value. Maggini pattern. £50 outside price. Landi. 1785-95. 177791 . Excellent A his fiddles with acids. Louis. Kuntzel. Pierre. Heinrich. 1743-85. France). Brussels.. Sienna. brown varnish of poor qualitv. brother of the Parisian maker. Brescia about followed the patterns 1675 of Gasparo da Salb and Maggini . Alfred bow-maker . Milan. nest makers in Dresden. KOLIKER. nish. Vienna in 1717. Lambert. Lille (Nord. son-in-law of Ebiner. Italian model. Paris. Nineteenth century. Joseph. Lafleur. One " fine and handsome " violin known. Mittenwald. Lafleur. Tours. Unequal 1740-75. son of Jacques. Jacques. Laska. OLD VIOLINS Mathias Johann. Tyrol. Santino. Lafleuk. tone excellent. maker . Makers Grandjon. 1738-1805. Lambert. Mirecourt . Joseph. Honor^. 1790. Antonio Maria. and double purfling iu ink. model. 1783-99. Leb. M. Bohemia. Joseph. Clever repairer in Ghent. 1815-55. KiJNTZEL. London. Lapr^VOTTE. Lamy. Poland. Lacroix. Saxony. He exhibited a quintet of instruments in London. early indiffe- Lautten. Larchee. Lanza (Lansa or Lausa). Vienna. Paris. . KUHLEWEIN UND TeTZNER. Lantez. Danzig. 1840-55. Not remarkable. Lapaix. Erigue. Lavazza Maria. J. Rue St. H. neat edges and work. Excellent violins on Italian success . Worked in Paris. Made good violins beautifully finished . Jean Gabriel. Landolfi. Mirecourt. Prague. Dyed . 1850-89.. rent maker. de. W. Munich. 1745-63 Prolific Italian . Paris. sen. . 1720-55. 1812-74. Mire- A Lavazza. he also made harps. . man makers 262 of his time. Joseph Ren^.

1760-80 repairer. Jean Paris. of makers who. Vienna. Nicolas. violins. Paris. b. Family worked in centuiy. Le Pileur. 1862-95. Paris in 1776 . Leduc. Vienna. one of the oldest makers there. F.. 1821.violin. and violoncellos. Jean Charles. Paris. . who for several generations worked in Paris . L'Empereur. family of makers Le Jeune.. Claude. W. 1792-1819. through four generations. Thomas Britton's collection was an " excellent tenor by Mr. then Berlin. Leoni. Edward. J. Joseph Ferdinand. 1750-80. Carlo. nineteenth a LiEBiCH. Toussaint Nicolas Germain. Treviso. Vuillaume. Pierre. . Fran9ois. bach Leblang. Leeb. of the violin period . eighteenth guitars. 1881. worked under Kliiher in Markneukirchen . 1861. Pierre. Simon. 263 . yellow varnish. Johann Nicolaus. London about . London friend of Bernhard Fendt varnished like Dodd and J. and viols . eighteenth century. Leoni. about 1768 1828 made very cheap. . Ernst. 1840 . Francesco Giovanni A family. Paris. J. An excellent maker. maker. la Neuville. not remarkable. Paris. few instruments. but good . Le Jeune. b. Lekevre (Lefebvre). good fiddles for £1 at one time a partner of J. Came from the Tyrol to b. Excellent repairer few. Mirecourt. Lott. Lewis. Not very good. 1700. Paris. 1783- Le LiisvEE. Parma in 1816. eighteenth century. Andrea. violins in Paris . Oct. N. LIEBICH. Guillaume Martin. LlEDOLF. Paris. eighteenth Lenk. Lembock. pattern . succeeded by his Le Jeune. Le Jeune. J. Bohemia. Louis. Lefebvre (Lefebre). James. nerius Gabriel Budapest cher in Vienna . Lecuyee. 175055. Carl. worked with Fis- much copied Guar. seventeenth century. he was the father of century. fair maker. . in 1822. 1752-1813. Baptiste. bei Lecomte (or Fouquet-Lecomte). 1775-1800. finally settled at Frankfort . B. 1814-92. Lewis " and a " good" bass. best Italian patterns. Leclerc. Le Jeune. Ernst. L]£t6. Bres- Baptiste. 83. SchonEger. 17961876 . Vienna . LiGNOLl. Jean Made harps and makes LiEBiCH. Paris. lau. B. 178389. esteemed. Brespattern. some of their instruments have been adapted for tenors. Ernst. An English Lilly. Johann Gottfried. nephew. good maker and Antoine. Breslau. Stradivari and Guarneri pattern . Lentz (Lenz). Paris. Florence. son. LiNAROLO (LineroUi). yellow and red varnish in Legros de French century . Paris. 1735-70 Amati . 1647 . seventeenth century on the verge . A Frenchman who worked in Amsterdam. Italian 1830-84. LiEBiCH. Paris. 27. eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 1750. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS Le Blanc. 89. 1775Pierre. rare maker. . violins lau. His eighteenth century .

Giuseppe. 1700. Pietro and Giovanni. Paris.60. hurdy-gurdys and . Maechetti.'F. instruments are rare Stradivari and Guarneri pat- with their own names. rona about 1690-1700. Ve- Good L O T 2. LoTT. Pattern of Grancino . 1777. 180020. Antonio. brown var- LOLIO. Hans. LiPPOLD. Fair nish. 1780. Louis. Tavo brothers working in Milan about 1760 to 1800 they made . John Frederick. he A made excellent bows. where he died at a great age. Piacenza. violins . Mantegazza LoTT. 1775- (or Mantegatia). Maeconcini. . Bavaria. Longman and Brodebip. Nicolas. Jean. (iSeep. in Mirecourt . Gaspare. 1730 . Giambattista. Rome. good workmanship . Enrico. Johann Georg. Giovanni. Mann. Naples. George Frederick.sized tenors. LoLY. 1760. of Utrecht. and labelled dealers Naples. of A pupil . George Frederick. An Geronimo amateur maker Venice in Giovanni Antonio. . 1771. 1720-50. eighteenth century. son G. 1878. Neukirchen. MacGeoege. Luigi. Maggini (Magino Gio Paolo. Omobono Stradivari. Nicolas. Paris . Good violoncellos and . Venice." for the sum of £72. who employed Jay or Benjamin Banks. nineteenth century. Eome. Geneva. Maldonnee. 1760 LuPOT. eight- eenth century. brother of Pierre Louvet. LuGLONi. Maeino. 1627. 1730-40. LOTT. Worked up 264 to 1805. Parma. or Maglino). Pupil of Storioni Ferrara. Francois. 1853. Turin. very good sometimes. son of Laurent high model beautiful maplewood back and sides varnish golden yellow. 1841 unequal maker. Pressburg. Good violins. Lup6t. G. . "five violins enclosed in their case. reminds of Maggini. In 1559 he is said to have sold to a musician sent bj. Dublin. Edinburgh. many good Mantovani. Antwerp. (Ludge). 1830-40. Saxony. Maeconcini. Good Made bad LuDiCi Pietro. 18001868. LuPO. 1740-95. His terns. tone. Fussen. OLD VIOLINS LiPPKTA. Bernardino. not of much value . (See p.) Ferrara and Bolo(. Maffeotto. of altos. made large .. The greatest (See p. Maeco. maker . but good maker. Macintosh. 18th cent. eighteenth century. violin bowmaker in Paris . the town Pietro. J. Bologna. Giambattista. Maechi. Lup6t. 1800. Pupil of Thomas Peny. Giuseppe. violins in Conegliano in 1709. of the family.) Maeatti. 1640 to 1700. but rough . LORENZINI. purfling double. Maeiani. Jacopo. apprenticed to Jacques Lafleur . Lott. . LOUVET. yellow varnish . 219. 106. Theodor. Cremona in 1696. fiddles. Pesaro. pale red varnish. Antonio. 32.) Maiee. Giuseppe. Maecelli.

265 . blackish Mast. about 1670-95. but tone not good. Emile. Milan. b. Stainer pattern . Charles Adolphe. 1720-50. Has made 2380 violins . Mirecourt. better than his father. Mellini. and Maussiell (orMansiedl). his instruments are small.) (See A Medard. Mette. 1807-60. the wood not varnish ugly brown . about 1730-60. Lyons Meriotte. Germigny. MEDARD. sandro. Charles. work good. but soon adopted violin-making as a profession. 1820-58. Mayr (Maier). M^DARD. Antonio. a Spanish maker. A maker of lutes. London. Martin. London in 1677 lute and viol-maker on verge of . Stainer pattern . an amateur. 1745-50. Apprenticed in Mirecourt. Richard. Mayson. Francois. Apprenticed at Mirecourt . Vosges. Leghorn. 1646. His instruments are excellent. Hermitage Bridge. family of makers . Meloni. but Amsterdam . work poor. Made on the under Gand went to London excellent tone. S^bastien. 1753-71. 1770-80. Paris. chiefly repairers. lived at 1790-95. yellow- brown varnish manship. Jean Laurent. Jules. Vuillaume . . . Paris. Italy. Charles. in Paris. Menx^gand. John. Francesco. Wapping. still there in 1820 . A maker in Manchester who be^an as Messeguer. Mi^DARD. worked repairer. who Melling. Maucotel. 1690-1720. went to Paris worked under J.. excellent copyist of . son Jean Laurent Mast. brother of Charles Adolphe Maucotel. the violin. Salzburg. . about 174080. Charles. went to Paris and well made varnish. Nuremberg. Mast. 1885. Mirecourt. His instruments are . (Mezzadie). Andreas Ferdinand. Maucotel. 1750. Mirecourt . Followed the Amati pattern . Martin. Studied Rambaux . tone bad. 1842-98. but have not maintained their place . M^DARD. Josephus Laurent. 1800. London about 1750-60. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS Marquis de Lair. London. A maker in Mezadri the South of France. 1768. His violins and his mechanical pegs for violins Joseph. Rheinis. 187. AlesFerrara. Marshall. Martin. Nicolas. Is said to have made the small violin ca which Mozart learnt to play. very good. Francois. Violins and violoncellos of Stradivari pattern Meares. with not very noteworthy. of violins . B. Jean. 1621. Merlin. Walter H. Henn. but good tone. fine copyist of Stradivari's " Messiah " period gold medalist. Mirecourt . . Meiberi. Guastalla. MEDARD.. good work- Stradivari. good . returned to Turin consummate Mennesson. p. Stradivari pattern . Leonhardt. violoncellos at first the vogue. he followed the high Stainer model instruments were well made. Nancy. Giovanni. brother of Charles. Antoine.

1510-50 . MoRONA. S^bastien." 1786. Cherpitel. On verge still made Mikemont. then with Bernardel Morrison. MoDESSiER. MONGENOT. E. F. eighteenth century. MicHEi. Paris in 1810. 1857. New York. returned to France . and worked first with Lafleur. His instruments a large pattern . untill852. MiGGl:. b. MiCHAUD. sign of " Jacques PieiTe. Continued Cherpitel's business. A A celebrated maker in Venice about 1720-50. MORELLA. pattern. on the verge of tlie violin . Morglato. 1810. inferior MEZADEi(Mezzadie).S. Paris about 1788. Otto. 1887. Mirecourt (Vosges). Paris. MiLHET. Vuillaume. Miller. Paris about 1780-95. 1690-1735. Made lutes and other instruments in Brescia . has lasted into the violin epoch on account of his viols having been cut down for violas. Antonio. Jean Henri. Ludovic rebecs. Miller. divari pattern. Hamburg. He made a large violins tone. Bayonne. St. Scotland. b. five-stringed viols MOLINAEI. but failed to their grace . Edward. Paris. cellos 1771.. many rather common fan. A maker at Milan about 170020 his altos were of small . Pelegrino (or Perefrino) di Zanetto. Pontorson (Manche) . Andrew's. MiLANi. Venice. 266 . MoEKS.when he left France for America. MiALFl. good. . Francesco. number of instruments. son of anetto de Michelis. MiLLE. 1760-1830. Mirecourt. . Istria (Istrien) in 1731. in 1844 to Paris. (Montani or Montaldi). school. MoiTESSiEE. He and made MiEE. Worked in Brussels for N. Miremont. MoHR. (See p. Georges. who has taken out a great many patents for inventions. Joseph). 1820. remarkable. London. 1893. 1672-1703. excellent tone . June MONTADE Coblenz made 80 violins and 14 violoncellos . MoLDONNER. a fine tenor known. Domenico.A. Mirecourt. Mirecourt. Joannes. Claude Augustin. Poor maker .OLD VIOLINS Amati rival tone. son of Sebastian Miremont. Francesco. A. School of Lorenzo Guadagnini. Paris. 1763. Matteo. 87. MOTTENHAVER. John. violins. 1756-98. at the A la M^lodie. good tone. 1780-90. Louis. 1827. MoiNBL. A Spanish maker about 1769 nothing . viols in 1743. Fussen. Bavaria. fairly about 1740-60. U. Stra. (or of violin . 1780 to 1825. London. Aix-la-Chapelle. excellent wood. d. Pupil or imitator of Omobono Stradivari .Philipp. made chiefly violon- MouGENOT. 1520. Antonio. maker A MiNOZZi. of lutes. MoNTAGNANA. Bologna. 1650. 1750. Cremona. MiCHELOT. nephew of N. Gregorio. 1843-98. and viols. Milan Rouen. did job work for the trade. MiRAUCOURT. and settled in New York . small pocket-violin is known. Charles.) MoNTRON.

John. settled in Berlin. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS and succeeded " hands. Marco. NiGGELL. in Paris. 1739. very cheap and good money's worth . 1777-89. transition maker of Vuillauine. tor orchestra. d. Namy. 1816. 1738. partnership with Robert Barnes in 1765. viols A maker Fussen. 1723. 1796-1864. Babak. but good violins of his still about. not much Piacenza. Nicolas. Giuseppe. London March 10.000 and violins. Isaac. NOEBOEN. 1758. I'atn^ (known as "deaf Nicolas"). Simpertus. closeljjr copied from beautiful speci- mens Nadotti. finishes himself list. . in fashion now. Bartolommeo. 1712. Pietro Valentino. J. Newton.. clever workman Mirecourt and large employer. instruments a year . 1757-1833. of Cremona . Isaac.. 267 . 1688. tranviols to only a few violins. Obbo. some confusion about his date. but these were always varnished by the latter. suitable . Paris. Ludwig. ordinary work. large pattern. 1818 pupil of Thomas Smith went into . Italy. 1743-66. NovEESi. Pupil and successor of his father. Neunee." but . Paris. son of Didier 1755-1807. seventeenth centuiy. . Oct. Giuseppe. also a clever Nicolas. . Paris . d. tine restorer. eccentric maker . Mirecourt . 1730-60. in Venice at the same time . and used for violins made by neither. can do better quality NOKRIS. of viols and violins. worked for Salomon's widow Naylor. but used a dingy yellow varnish. 1778- Neemel. fiat pattern. Loudon. accomplished maker sends out from his firm 20. (See p. near Leeds. worked at Headingly. Paris. Giuseppe Odani. maker of violins. Nicolas. . Nezot. loud tone . all Working the instruments used in the until 1675. Paris. eighteenth century. sition violins maker from . NOEMAN. Francois Nicolas Nicolas. Founder (was known simply as Verona in 1684. Novello. 92. Jean Theodore. Made 5. 125. London about 1775-1825. B. Mittenwald (Bavaria). Mathieu. brother of Marco Antonio Novello. some yellow or red varnish. 1760-70. when he chooses. Joseph. b. careful choice of wood. M. Obici (Obue). after his death his stamp and his father's sold off with stock. Venice. Didier. who worked for some time in London worked for J. NOVELLO. He made fairly good instruments. "Nicolas"). Nicolas. Morello. John. Odoardi. Ascoli. Grandson of Mathias Neuner. Naples. Sometimes made violins and violoncellos for Betts. Naples.) b. A pupil of Richard Duke . Marco Antonio. Mirecourt. Florence. 1840. good proportions . good work. uses plans and gold medal- him private orchestra of Napoleon I. His instruments of ordinary workmanship. Cosimo. a brother of Pietro Valentino Novello . 1740. b.

slightly arched yellow varnish. Pierre. W. but true violoncello pattern. Ludbass. OLD VIOLINS self1675-1740 died at 28 taught . Pabewet. Otto. Jena . and many First- Otto.son of Johann Fade wet. Italy.. A Padewet. in . Jena maker d. Otto. made tenors . F. 1529. Johann. Otto. Jena. third son of J. Pacherele. son of Ludwig Otto. St. a viola. made a great many Cologne. 1887. b. 1862. Halle repairs old instruments. and double- in 1773 . 1821. then still there (1898) . fellowapprentice of J. b. in 1779 . Otto. They were all well made. to the Mecklenberg-Schwerin Court. laume at Mirecourt worked at Genoa. an original genius about two hundred violins much valued when can be . good maker. good about 1874. followed Guersan . Jean. Magdeburg. makers. Ongaro. Nice . 1789. second son of J. but made excellent violins and violoncellos. Ohbkrg. 1844. Michel. His five sons all became violin Gotlia . B. Otto. 1883. 1859-84. Otto. Pacherele. 1801. He exhibited three violins. d. Stockholm burg. Oelandelli. Oetega. Otto. . maker. . Ostler. Stock- prizeman.. A. 1803. b. Otto. Johann. 1725-46 pupil of Claude Pierray. A. . in Cologne. and 'cellos. A. A London. large Stradivari pattern . son of Carl August Otto b. fifth son of J. 1851-95. 1840 maker and reMadrid. Petersburg. From Aix . wigslust. Georg August Gottfried. Codogno. but moved to Carlsruhe. took Stradivari for his model. Aug. 1871. Transition maker. pairer. and violoncellos. 1872. 1730. Johann. 1857. all of good workmanship. Pupil of his father in Ludwigslust. 1860-65 . Jena . nish too thick. OuvEARD. and were moderately priced. a yellow varnish. Otto b. Weimar . Peters. then went to Hanover. 1796.. fairly good . Otto. 1792 . 1783. has chiefly viols. Pupil of Franz Anton Ernst at . 1764. Louis. . A. July 15. 238 violins. Battista. Chicago and Melbourne. Louis. 23. . violins. maker of cithers and vioBrescia about lins (?) in 1562. Berlin. Gotha d. son of Georg August Gottfried Otto li. Mirecourt .. 1844. Turin . Leipzig. Otto. 1865-66. 1830. Carl Christian. violoueello. settled in Weimar maker to the Court. Gio. Heinrich Wilhelm. Ignazio. Venice. Breslau. started at Basle. Cologne. b. though continued to make viols. a clever repairer. St. Oneda. Andreas. holm. Hermann. Jacob August. Otto. eighteenth century. C. var- Otto. 268 . and with Pressenda. careful in selection of wood . Paolo. eldest son of J. working in Marseilles in 1785. . Carl August. Pacquet. Ludwipslust . and Jena fine repairer. altos. excellent work . fourth son of J. worked also in Halle. Vuil- Paris Amsterdam and Berlin. St. in A maker . A. Ludwig. Petersburg. found. 1805-84.

DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS Carlsruhe. Moureale. varnish. Pageot (Pajeot). Berlin. 30. 124. "Working in Venice in eighteenth century. 1800-63. 1700. sons of Jean Baptiste Paquotte. Assisted by two 'workmen. In his workshops bows. Gian Battista. Claude. Parker. Pardi. but firm chiefly . Jan. Paris. Very good bows. and violoncellos) a year. Riechers till 1874. Died in great poverty good workman violoncellos . 1735-85 . vari Paquotte. Nephew quotte 88. maker of repaired. Vincenzo (known "old Panormo"). possibly a pupil of Urquhart or Pamphilon. using oil varnish of reddish-yellow or Began at sixteen worked in England.) Pandolfi.are often sold under other names . 1747. violas. Palma. Paquotte. good Pagani. Red varnish. to 14s. (See p. about 1680-90. Vienna about 1790. fine guitars and a few good fiddles. court. 25. London. Italian excellent instrupattern . golden . Antonio. Edward. and Paris pernaps with Bergonzi in Cremona excellent maker. Paris. . S^bastien Paone of the best Paris of of makers the day. A maker in London. Sicily . A very clever workman. Daniel. on the Stradivari pattern. a red-yellow a grandson of Vincenzo colour. Stradidon. S^bastien. 1857. d. there tney succeeded in July 1888. 1775. b. Panormo. Panormo. as much Parth Nov. Jean Baptiste. Henri and Placide. also guitars. Paris. tone clear and powerful. In 1830 he founded the business in Paris. instruments 1793 valued at five guineas each about 1805 they realised as . 269 . 1722. . Mire- Pamphilon. . good maker. ments.. b. George Lewis. Paris. . Cremona. George. Lon- makes ments forty to fifty instru(violins. as fifteen. Simon Pageot. Panormo. under Ang. Lifege. 1813. Paolo. Aug. Ireland. Venice. Probably a grandson of Vincenzo Panormo. 1791. Hanover. powerful tone. Edward. 1849. Lueca. on London Bridge. clear yellow varnisn . Antonio. d. about 8000 dozens of bows were turned out at prices varying from 6d. Mirecourt 24. (or Perth). 1788. 1710. Bastiano. 174085. London. Panormo he worked both in London and in Ireland. Paganoni.brown colour repairer. eldest son Vincenzo Panormo. . Paraldic. London. He made largely for the trade . Antonio. of Joseph. Andreas Nicolas. About excellent. Pardini. 1700-20 . Frferes. either a son 1816 was joined by hisnephew. . second son of Vincenzo Panormo. wood excellent. Bome. 1860- Paquotte. he 1734. his instruments . Paris a few violins excellent in tone. A . Panzani (Pansani). Panormo. good yellow-brown varnish. In spirit Panormo. a village near Palermo. Palate. 1760. or . son of Louis pattern . to whose business F^lix. . no viola or violoncello of his known. 1864.

jeune. Vuillaume. Gagliano pattern. Patzelt. Warminster . 1580-1610. ff P. PedkAZZI. 1767-1827. . Peaece. He marked his bows "P. d. Nov. Wilkinson violins. Brescia about 1700-30 . tliey made good Peesoit. Mirecourt . poor tone . but then started a business of his own. Weyberg in 1801. 13. Maker of excellent in Paris. Dominican friar . 1820. work poor. 1780-1800. . B. (or Nicolas. If so. Jan. he was the earliest English maker of beth. which has "J. instruments well made yellow-brown varnish. ." engraved on the tail-pin supposed to be the initials of the maker. George. but tone good and the varnish fine. folJowed the Amati instead of the Maggini pattern . — . 1856. Gian Gaetano. 16. S. Edward. brother of Peccate." bows Michael. judging from two labels in a bass-viol of seven strings. 1823-41. 1770. Pazzini. William. Fra Pietro. working in Bologna in 1784. now price quadrupled. and Dominique succeeded to his business at 18 Rue d'Angivilliers . Brescia. Domenico and Gaetano. Vuillaume work is inferior to that of his brother. varnish Drown. 1794 . and worked with him until 1837 . Perey. Brothers working in London. 1889.. Charles. 1775-90 . ticed to J. ranks next to Frangois Tourte as a bow-maker . in Loudon Hamburg. E. 1810. instruments ugly. 1630-70. Peccate. Peaece. b. Worked in Cremona Pfab. OLD VIOLINS Pasta. violins similar to those of Maggini. A maker in He was Dublin. Pekault. son of Johann Gottlob Pfretzschner. Peccate. also made bows worked tor J. Dominique . Thomas. In the workshop of S. Forster as errand-boy. PfiEON Paris. returned to Mirecourt . Florence. Pezzaedi. and became an excellent workniau. taught violin . James and Thomas. Cremona. in partnership with William .. d. in Paris." Petz. Bavaria. appointed maker to the Duchess of Orleans . A Pemberton. there. thefirstruns: "Dieses A Instrument ist gemacht. Johann Gottlob. Pfeetzschnee. Dominique. According to label a pupil of Maggini instruments are not common. Fussen. London. not good. It has been suggested that a Pemberton was the maker of the instrument Pfeetzschnee. Vuillaume at Paris. sometimes sold as Maggini. 270 Neukirchen. anno 1801. 1660 . the four-stringed violin. 1775-77. In 1826 was appren1874. Carl Friedrich. 1856. Pearce. and the date of the year (1578) in which it was made. anno 1627. at first sold for 16s. B. Petees. A. Pfeetzschnee. to the Earl_ Eresented by Queen Elizaeicester of Vienna.making. Maker of bows in Paris." the second is " Arranschirt von Michael Peters in Weyberg. B. a maker Perou). Johann Ferdinand. no great merit. He made for J. London. then Fran9ois Lupot died.

Paris. Raffaele A cesco. excellent maker.. Two brothers who worked 1770-1800. A contemporary of Boquay (or Pierret). France. proportions correct. Genoa in 1778 commonplace. dark _. Genoa. Peessenda. PizzuEMUS (Pozzurnus). 1748. 1835 at Naples good maker. PoiEOS. French maker. 1800-20. many rise instruments. 1875-89. and good repairer of instruments. in 1822. not much arched. doublebass used in the Cathedral of A Antwerp is dated 1647. 95. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS PiCHOL. food violins. Paris in 1777. Paris. Pique. Postiglione. Stradivari pattern. Charenton St. 271 . arched. Paris latter part of the seven- and his son. mona . 1822. Was working in Paris in 1740. the son of a strolling fiddler. every year in Went to Powell. var- Peeston. wood good. Francesco. 1860. pupil Mougenot. Luca de. beautifully finished workmanship. Royal and Thomas. POLLUSCA (PoUusha). maker in (or Pilet). David. Charles. Paris. Louis. Claude. good Plumeeel. Peeter. Grenoble. Claude. b. PiEBRABD. 17801820. Platnee. learnt there to make the varnish for which his violins wereafterwardsnoted. York.brown varnish of excellent quality. Gorizia in . Noel. Turin. Was teenth value. . Agostino de. afterwards made for the trade . nients nish. red. Eloph. varnish thick. F. 1712. d. century. A maker of excellent violins. instruarched dark var. William Forster work neat and good. 1785- nish golden-red. PiROT. Louis. Angers. 17901820 capricious maker. good making under Lorenzo Storioni . PoiESON. POLEON. Bohemia. Maurice. Plani. rather fair . there. PiTET colour. Francis. PlLOSiO. scroll well cut . made which value. employed by William Forster. and good tone. PoLis. Plane. 1751. arched A Swiss . went to Crethere studied violin- Plack (Plach). Schcenbock. violins. near Mirecourt. 1854. first an amateur. working in Rome in 1747 workmanship . Andrea. . Ciemona in PiEEEAY 30. Paris. Firmo. but started his own business in 1883 wrote " Traits delutherie" of of . Pons. work. violins large size. Brussels . out scrolls ratherroughly finished. 1758 at Korei. C&ar. and . . no great Pressenda. Michele. PiLLEMENT. he Rome in 1751. 1760. Giovanni Frand. 1740-80. Plumeeel. varnish. PiCiNO. in London. with red-brown varnish. Padua. Vincenzo. work not good. sound-holes well cut. the soundholes well cut . Italian pattern ellies slightly arched. 1890. 1760-1810 . Paris. 1824 . backs hardly at all . 1777. red-brown or pale yellow i POSTACCHINI. Glasgow. W. worked in Paris about 1700PiETE (PiCTE). Francois Louis b. Antonio. John.

eldest son Jean Matliurin Remy. Hippolyte. at Darney in the Vosges d. 1667. similar to the Gagliano family. Nuremberg. Rance. . Realli. Sebastian. Breslau. Went to Caen . 71 . a little pocketviolin. . a French maker . Munich pupil of Andreas . in the Tyrol. Rauch. and worked under Thibout. Franz. oil varnish. violins Stainer tone excellent altos. 1790 red varnish. Mannheim. great repairer and adapter of old instruments by cutting down. violoncellos. Raut. Bretagne. Parma. . of Stainer good fiddles. no great Rambaux. good work . 18th century. Claude Victor. .. 1813. b. Giovanni (called "Zuano"). maker to was dated 1682 the King. Paris. Ramfpler. two brothers. Rauch. Nella (or Delia). Raffaelle. Engleder. RASURA. 1854. Loudon Rayman. work rough Brussels. b. 18th century . Remy. . his work same as father's .Vincenzo. Hamburg. Mantua. Paris. about 1680-85. Paris. Brunswick. Johann Gottfried. Jacqiies. varnish red . . Charles. brother of Johann Gottfried. Regnaut (Renault). Paris from 1775-89. Rau. 1720-50 . nish of poor quality. pupil . 1670. 1824-27 then to Paris. Thomas. Italian Paris and London pattern wood artificially aged. 1840." who worked . brother of Johann Conrad. ijut settled in London about 1620-48. of and Ranch . 1786. d. good violins used their own models . Rawlins. Remy. at Mirecourt. son of Matliurin Fran9ois Remy b. Ranta. Absam Remy. d. Venice. . not remarkable. 1730-60 . Jules Hippolyte. Lugo. exhibited at Munich in 1854 a violin of good though rather coarse tone. . Brescia. 1775-89. Brescia. F. 1725 . Mentioned in 1680 as being " one of the most clever of the honourable luthiers of Paris. . Reich EL. Paris. Rauch. second son of Jean Matliurin Remy . 1806- in 1779. and double- Prieur. 1876. Jacob. Razenzo. and Leitmeritz in Bohemia violins arched. Rechiardini. Claude Paris. Jean Mathurin. 1690.90. Jean. red-brown var.90. varnish . Johann Conrad. OLD VIOLINS PrevSt (or Prevost). about pattern of Guarneri in till Rennes Racceris. of 1835-70 in Paris no great merit. with one of whom he is said to have been in partiiership. Neukirchen in 1779. 1834 . where he worked with Gand . pattern of Maggini . brown merit. Wiirzburg. . 1665-85 . Pietro. with silver purfiing. Carole. Amati pattern. . P. Barcelona. Remy. Munich used his own invented varnish made . QuiNOT. J.. his instruments have the sides ornamented with inscriptions Rautmann. Edme Jean. 272 . 1733. Jacques. 1770. 1660. tone sound. Jacob. Reichel. Cosmo Battista.

Paris. . Milau. Forster pattern.. ROMARINI. and violoncellos. Paolo. Joseph Joachim 1775-91. nuova . i8 273 . excellent instruments on the Stradivari and Guarneri patterns . Andr^. . Benedetto GiofFredo. time Stradivari pattern varnish poor quality. worked at Pressenda. Cithers of his are known dated 1779. Bremen. a violin is described as made on a good pattern. Paris.1822. Gflod work. Rook. one is Giuseppe for Antonio. made RiESS. A lins. Amsterdam. Nicolas. Marius.. W. curves of the upper and lower bouts almost returning to the ancient violHe published in shape. Chatelain. 1868: "Etudes et observations sur la lutherie Pieter. violinist. Richards. 1729. 1705-35 he made violins. 1890. Bausch at Leipzig. S^bastien. RiNALDi. h. Breslau. London. Pupil of Pressenda. RoscHEE. Berlin. ROL. May 7. Bologna. Paris. Reynaud. Turin. "Aux maker. 1795. Montpellier. made some violins of no great value. Marseilles. much arched ancienue et moderne. Renault. Andrea. font et vendent louent. Renisto. C. DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS Bemy. 1650. d. thick varnish. pupil of Carlo Bergonzi. living in the Rue St Honor^ from 1776 till his death. Gian Battista b. Riechees. . Leopold. Richelme. at the si^n of amateurs " . colour basses. achfetent et raccommodent toutes sortes d'instru- A RrvoLTA. 1775-1805. RoGERi. excellent double- Renault. 1749. a. then moved to Berlin in 1872. 1836. and 1804 . guillotined. 1753. d. Advt. H. 1820. fair maker. about 1777-1830. Turin. Hanover. whose work he copied closely. 1857. Pietro. Stainer pattern. part of Cremona. Fran9ois." etc. Fiesso in 1740 good. 18th century. violas. Mathurin . VerolaBrescia. but too much arched varnish almost black in . RoiSMANN. Roger. under NicoloAmati. at the special request of the RosiERO. worked with F. at b. fairly good vio- Mirecourt . Romano. about 1000 violins and over 200 violoncellos were made in his workshop. Stiadivariwas a fellow-pupil of his. 1680. 1754-66 . ROPIQUET. Cremona. He settled in Pans. Lodovico. aboat 1740-60. with yellow varnish of fair quality. early tury. Resle. Joseph. ROCCA. London. 1835-55.Giacomo. ments de musique. Was Rocco. Johann. Cremona. yellow-brown Renaudin. he was an orchestral player. Paris varnish. G. . French maker. Tarascon. 1735-40. good violoncellos. : " Renault et Chatelain." RicoLAZZi. 18th century. ROMBOUTS. Cremona. luthiers. bright but . 1810-30. Antonio. Bamberg. 1871. 16th century. good work. -Marseilles . Pavia. . pupil of L. 18th cen- Rosio. Paris. first a 1893. 1786.

Francesco. (Ru"ieii). and are on a similar pattern tu 1769). var- RuGGEKi nish yellow-brown poor. loud tone. RUPPERT. "II fait et vend toutes . fine repairer and great connoisseur. in 1686. Antonio. Paris about 1830instruments well made. Johann Heiurich. Johann and Both about at Darmstadt at Augsburg. Pesaro Roth. 1730-35 . j the work Cremona about RUGGEKI Giacomo and Giovanni BatBoth working in tista. Paris. rough work . 1755-65. (Rugieri)." Saint -Paul. 1720. S9avoir .. RovETTA. son of Francesco Ruggeri. Pietro sortes d'instruments de musique. Cremona about 1700-30. good vamisli yelworkmanship low. His vio- that year Namy is mentioned as working for the widowed Madame ^lonion. tlie former and the latter Sacquin. . without linings. family of makers in Cremona. Sacchini. Francesco Ruggeri (Rugieri). RozE. Rota. basses et contrebasses. 274 . varnish is red-brown. . Guarneri went to Paris. Antoine. Bergamo. 1800-10 . for the same reason probably. Vincenzo. later he settled in Ruggeri. OLD VIOLINS Rota. Guido. . J. work rough . Orleans. Was the first of a . 1668-1720. Giovanni. very often confused with Rogeri of Brescia. le Pdre. Sabattino. {See p. Giacinto. Gianbattista. violons de sa fafon et de toutes sortes d'auteurs alto-violas. Brussels. Giuseppe Antonio. Brescia. corner blocks. He also used "il Per" on his labels. 1700-25 . where his widow ing the carried on the firm. B. 1825 his work similar to thatof Preasenda. Pierre. Christian. is also said to have worked in Salino. brown. 1675. RUGGEBI Brescia about 1700-25. Sajot. especially the double basses followed the Stradivari pattern. ' 50. and violoncellos of a flat model. Erfurt about 1720. last member of this family to make violins. in (Rugieri). He was sonin-law and successor of Louis his advertisement Guersan says. Rome in 1760 very arched varnish bad. viz. Cre- mona. Jean Baptiste Deshayes. Salle.. Paris. Paris about 1825-53. He made few violins. Salomon. Cremona. 1747-70 (?) violins . Turiu. Rheims. beautiful copies of . 60 . to distinguish his work from that of the Rogeri of Brescia. and dark lins.. employNamy. altos. but they show good work. 1840-70. or purfling . 1740. about 1765-90.) RUGGERI son of b. He made many altos and violoncellos . dr. for in Rue de TArbre-sec (about He died before 1772. instruments with flat backs . 1693. Paris Saint-Paul. were brown varnish. varnish yellow. violons de Crenione. Cremona. ROTTENBEOUCK. RUGGEKI (Rugieri). He made a few . pattern of Amati red-brown varnish. .

; ; ;

those of Louis Guersan, his

contemporary they yellow-brown varnish



maker some good violoncellos and bass viols. Salzaed, F. Paris. Sanoni, Giovanni Battista.





instruments, following the Stradivari or Guarneri del Gesh patterns ; tone clear and strong ; the work carefully done ; reddish oil varnish. SCAKAMPELLA, Paolo ; b. Sept. 25, 1803, Brescia ; d. April 7, 1870. carpenter by trade,



much arched
Venice, 1830.

but made


violins, vio-

good work.

loncellos, guitars,

and mando-



Sante. Pesaro, 1670. Sante, Giuseppe. Rome,

Paolo Scarampella.

Stefano, son of Brescia, settled in Mantua

Giovanni. Naples, 1700-30 copied Amati ; small pattern ; well made ; varnish poor. Santo Serafino ; b. at Udine

Sax TO,

made mauy good
wald, 1753.




SCHEINLEIN, Johann Michael, son and pupil of
Friedrich Scheinlein ; 1761, Langenfeld; large Stainer pattern, but avoided the archmg; full and pleasant tone ; but wood not being thick enough, so not durable.


in Venice {See p. 90.)


Sanzo Santino (Santo SenMilan, 18th century

good resembles Graucino. Saraceni, Domeuico. Florence, 17th century.

Saraillac, Francois.


Scheinlein, Matthaus Friedrich, Langenfeld in 1710, Franken (Franconia) d.

Sassako. Fine Italian maker rarely met with ; yellow varnish

beautiful free tone.

Sauniee, Edmond. 1754-80, Bordeaux and Paris. "Was a pupil of Lambert of Nancy, the "Parpenter," but did

but taking great interest in violin-making, began by repairing old instruments and finished by making new ones much arched ; dark brown varnish ; work careful.
there, 1771.

A violinist,


superior work. Giuseppe.





(Sawicki), Nicolaus

ScHLiCK, Leipzig. Schmidt. Cassel, 1817

Poland ; d. 1850 Vienna ; good. SCARAM'PELLA, Giuseppe, son of Paolo Scarampella ; 18381792, settled in

Brescia, Paris, Florrestored the viola and the famous violoncello of Stra^livari kept in the Istituto Musicale of Florence, and in 1884 succeeded Castellani as keeper of the collection of instruments there; makes





; Stradivari pattern, but edges are larger and purfling not so close to the sides ; spirit varnish ; wood of bad quality. SCHMIED. Vienna, 18th century.

Neukirchen in



Erfurt, 18th

fairly good. Georg, son of







than his father, and left some good violins ; Italian pattern good repairer. SCHOKN, Johann Paul; 16801716, Innsbriick ; made excellent violins much arched good varnish. SCHUNEMANN, Otto. German appointed Director of the School of Violin-Making at

Segher, Girolamo ; b. 1646. Was a pupil of Nicola Amati, and was working under him,

Seni, Francesco.

Florence in

1634 Serasati, Domenico.



SICILIANO (Ciciliano), Antonio. Venice about 1600. A tenor and a bass viola da gamba in
the Modena Museum, Vienna. SiCiLiANO, Gioacchino, son of




Ratisbon, Peter. school ; good. Gebrtider. Brothers
fiddles, 75s.,

who make cheap

good tone, at Markneukir-

Antonio Siciliano, Venice about 1680. SiLVESTRE, Hippolyte ; 1808, (MeSaint-Nicolas-du-Port

SCHUSTEK, Michael.

Also connected with the business in Markneukirchen, Saxony, Schwartz, Bernard. French








pupil of Blaise at Mirecoui-t, then of J. B. Vuillaume at

maker who

burg, 1795-1822;

settled at Strastwo sons,

both makers.

SiLVESTRE, Pierre, brother of Hippolyte ; b. Aug. 9, 1801,
at Sommerviller, near Nancy d. 1859, Lyons. Was also a pupil of Blaise at Mirecourt, then went to Paris; worked withLupot; excellent violins; made about 350 instruments, bearing his label: "Pierre 186 ." Silvestre 4 Lyon, When working with his brother, the label used was :

Schwartz, Georges Fr^d^ric;

and Th^ophile

; Strasburg, sons of Bernard Schwartz. Pupils of their father, and at his death suc-

Guillaume, 1787

ceeded to his business, which became "Frferes Schwartz." Th^ophile was chiefly concerned



making, Georges gave his time to making bows ; he gained a well-merited reputation. His bows are generally marked near the nut with " Scliwartz, Strasbourg'."





vestre fratres fecerunt





son of Th^ophile Guillaume Schwartz b. Sept. 3, 1821. In 1852 he succeeded
to the business in Strasburg at 2 Place Saint - Thomas ; chieily repairer. Schweizer, Johann Baptist. Budapest, 1798-1875; pupil of Geisenhof in Vienna his violins not arched; work neat.

Simon. Salzburg, 1722. Simon, Claude. Paris, 1783-88. Simon, P. b. 1808, Mirecourt. Went to Paris in 1838, where he worked for some months under D. Peccate then to J. B. Vuillaume ; made most
; ;

excellent bows, and generally marked them with " Simon,
Paris," near the nut.

SiMONiN, Charles.

Mirecourt. apprenticed to J. B. Vuillaume at Paris, and became one of his most able





workmen. In 1841 he settled in Geneva, then went to Toulouse

SxoECK, Marc.

Brussels, 1744.

SiMOUTRE, Nicolas.
a maker.

excellent maker. 1788, Mirecourt ; d. 1870, at Metz. His son, Nicolas Eugene, was also

Clever repairer. SoccHi, Vincenzo.


SocQUET, Louis.

Paris, 1750-

Not good.

1834-89, a pnpil


SiMOUTEE, Nicolas Eugene, son
of Nicolas Simoutre.

1752-1810. SOMEE, Nicolas. Paris, 1725-50.






German maker,
1834, Mitviolins and

then of Darcne ill 1852 at Paris ; then of Ch. Roth in 1856 at Strashurg
of his father,

18th century.

Spbengek, Anton.


worked in Strasburg, Mulhau.<;en, Basle, and Paris ; a
on his art. Simpson, James, and Son. Were musical instrument makers in London in 1794, SiRJEAN. Maker of bows in
prolific wi-iter


on the Stradivari oil and Guameri patterns

Paris, 1818.

SiTT, A.

divari pattern, with age.

Prague, 1854. Strawhich improve

Slaghmeclen, Jan Baptist van The der. Antwerp, 1672.
varnish a pale Drown. Smith, Thomas. London, 1740Pupil and successor of 90.

varnish of good quality. Stadelmann (Statelmann), Daniel Achatius. 1680-1744, Vienna, who showed great ability in imitating the Stainer pattern ; he used thin varnish of a deep amber colour the work is well finished. Stadelmanx (Statelmann), Johann Joseph, son of Daniel A. Stadelmann ; good copyist

of Stainer, 1764.

Wamsley ; fine violoncellos; Stainer pattern; rising in price. John Norria was a pupil of his. Label : " Made

Stadl, Michael Vienna in 1770. Stainek, Andreas.
ing in


Was work1660

Absam about

made few

by Thos. Smith at the harp and hautboy in Pickadilly. London, 1756;" similar labels were used until 1766. Smith, William. Hedon, Yorkshire, in 1786.

Stainer, Jacob, son of Mai-tin Stainer and Sabina Grafinger.
{See p. 93.)

Stainer, Marcus, brother and pupil of Jacob Stainer he worked in Laufen, Austria. Stanza, Giuseppe, b. 1663 in

Pavia, Giuseppe. pupil of Nicola slightlyAmati. Violins arched; varnish is a rich yellow colour ; instruments made by Girolamo, son of Nicola Amati, have often been attributed to Sneider. Snoeck (Schnoeck), E^idius.



Amati patBrussels, 1731. tern ; dark reddish varnish.

Venice. Pupil of Nicola Amati at Cremona. Statlee, Anderl. Genoa, 1714. Pupil of Girolamo, son of Nicola Amati. Steiningee, Fran9ois. Paris, 1827. Excellent maker. Steininoer, Jacob. Frankfort, Nicholas Diehl was a 1775. pupil of his. Stirbat (Stirrat), David. Edinbargh, 1810-15 ; good.




Storioki, Lorenzo. 1751-80, Cremona. Worked at 3 Contrada Coltellai ; he was one of the latest, if not the last
of the celebrated makers of Cremona, and his instruments, though of great merit, show signs of decadence in the art. {See p. 88.)

Tassini, Bartolommeo. Venice, 1754 followed Testore. Taylor, 1750, London; supposed pupil of Panornio good instruments, principally

double-basses, ana clever at repairing old ones.
(Tecchler), David ; 1666-1743., {See p. 102.) Tedesco (Todesco), Le(«)oldo,


Stoss, Bernard and Martin. Fussen, Bavaria ; worked in Vienna ; fair makers. Stoss, Franz. Fussen, Bavaria,

1625 - 58


Stradivari and
{See p. 61.)


Teoditi Rome, 17th century. Ternyanini, Pietro. Modena,

pupil of Nicola ; in Cremona, 1653-54. (Teoditti), Giovanni.

Antonio, son of Alessandro

Anna MoronL

Testator, "II Vecchio." Milan, 1520; reputed transition maker
from viol to violin. Testore, Carlo Antonio, eldest
son of Carlo Giuseppe Testore. Milan, 1735-65 ; followed the Guarneri model violoncellos and tenors very good; varnish golden-yellow. Testore, Carlo Giuseppe; b. at

Stradivari, Francesco, son of 1671Antonio Stradivari.

Stradivari, Omobono, son


1679-1742. Berlin (Staube). about 1770-75. Few known, but good ; excellent repairer. Steaus, Joseph. Neustadt, 1745-50. 1750. Strnad, Caspar. He


settled in Prague and worked there, 1781-95 ; good maker. Hallein in Steobl, Johann.

18th century. 1811-53, Bristol repairer, Hudderstield. Sulot, Nicolas. Dijon, 1825-40. Eccentric maker.

Stuege, H.

Novarra settled at Milan about 1687, and worked there till about 1720 pupil of Giovanni Grancino, for whose work his instruments are often mistaken; best workman in this family, but made few instruments. When the well-known Lindley "Gran;





Cuneo, 1714-35


Tachinardi. Cremona, 1690. Tadolini. Modena, 19th century.

Carlo Antonio. Milan, 1725-30. Taniqardi (Taningard) Georgio. Rome, 1735. Taee, William. Manchester,




made some



cino " violoncello was repaired il^ 1884, the removal of the Cremona label exposed the original label in good preservation, as follows: "Carlo Giuseppe Testore allievo di Gio. Grancino in Contrada Larga di Milano, 1690." double-bass of his was ^ayed on by the celebrated Bottesini at concerts ; it had a splendid tone. Label " Carlo Giuseppe Testore in Contrada larga di Milano al segno dell aquila, 1700." He had two sons. Carlo Antonio and






Paolo Antouio, both violin makers. Testore, Giovanni, son of Carol
a. v.




1887, 35,000

instruments had been


by this firm. He was awarded
1873; Santiago, 1875 ; prize medal, Philadelphia, 1876; and gold medal,




Testore, Paolo Antonio, second son of Carlo Giuseppe Testore and the last maker of this name. Th^riot, J. B. Paris, 1783. Thibout, Aira6 Justin. 180862,


of honour,

London, 1885.

He was made

of Gabriel

Thibqut, Albert, son AdSlphe Thibout.

1839-65, Paris ; succeeded his uncle, Gabriel Eugene, as "luthier de rOp6ra," and was succeeded in his turn by the brothers Gaud. Thibout, Gabriel Adoljphe, son of Jacques Pierre Thibout, 1804 ; Paris, 1858 ; not as good as his father. Thibout, Gabriel Eugene, son of Jacques Pierre Thiloout. 1825 at Paris ; succeeded his brother, Gabriel Adolphe, as " luthier de I'Op^ra" in Paris
1861, Boulogne-sur-Mer. Thibout, Jacques Pierre. 1777First worked at 1856, Caen.

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, April 10, 1877, and Officer, Jan. 15, 1892. Thin, Mathias and Georg. Vienna, 18th century ; good. Thir, Johann Georg. Vienna,

Thomassin. Worked under Clement at Paris, 1825-45;


(Thomson), Robert. London, at the sign of the "Bass- Violin," in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1749-64 Stainer pattern. He was succeeded







who worked about

Thorowgood, Henry,

Caen, then under Koliker at Paris ; fine maker ; excellent tone ;- workmanship rivals best Cremona style ; varnish red on amber ground. Advt. " Nouveau proc^d^ approuv^ Thibout, lupar I'lnstitut. thier du roi, rue Bameau, no. 8, k Paris, 1825." Thibouville - Lamy, J^rdme. little before 1867 he became sole proprietor of the various factories at Mirecourt ; he gradually substituted mech:

don 18th century. Label " Made and sold by Henry Thorowgood at the Violin and Guitar under the North Piazza of the Royal Exchange, 17

Thumhardt, Munich




Straubing in the 18th century ; German style, Tielke, Joachim. One of a family of makers. Hamburg, 1539-1701. He was celebrated for the lutes, theorbos,
guitars, and especially the viols of all kinds which he made, of very fine tone, ornamented with the richest and most varied inlaid work ; one violin of his is also mentioned.


anical for manual labour, and while increasing the number of instruments made, at the

»ame time reduced their price, so that at last he was able to exhibit at Vienna in 1873 his famous violins at 4s., 8s., and

TiLLEY, Thomas.



(Thiphanon), Jean

Pans, 1775-1800.




Bologna, Carlo. 18th century. ToBiN, Kichard. London, 17901840; pupil of Perry, Dublin; worked for John Betts ; followed the Stradivari or Guarneri patterns ; good maker. son of his was also a



Maker and

repairer of violins


Rome, 1680


Maggini pat-


TOULY, Jean.
: '

maker. TODINI, Michele, 1625. Lived in Rome made a few violins. TOLBECQUB, Auguste, son of Augusta Josepn Tolbecque 1830-51, Paris. He was a

Nancy, 1730-47. Label Fait par moy Jean Touly k Nancy, 1747."

TouETE, Franfois ("le jeune");
Paris ; d. there, April 1835. a younger brother of Xaver Tourte. {See p. 163.) ToUETE, le Pfere. Settled in Paris about 1740. TOUETB, Xaver (I'aln^), eldest son of Tourte pfere.
b. 1747,


violoncellist ; also worked at violin - making under Ram-

baux in Paris made a small number of new instruments
; ;

extremely clever at restoring
old ones.

Teapani, RaflFaele. Naples, 1810 workmanship is good



of Felice.

large patterns, with prominent edges and heavy

17th century.

ToNONi, Carlo, son

First worked, 1698-1739, Bologna ; settled in Venice. His instruments vary; they are generally of a large pattern, not so highly arched as those of his brother Giovanni ; varnish similar to that of Santo Seraiino; yellow-brown colour.

the scroll Brescian ; type ; varnish thick and of a red-brown colour. Tb:6villot, Claude. Mirecourt,

Teinelli, Giovanni, Italian. Teunco. Cremona, 1660.

Teuska, Simon Joseph, 17341809, Raudnitz, Bohemia. Entered Strahow Monastery,


monogram near
the tailpiece.

often branded his the button of

Dec. Jan.



1758, taking the vows, 1761. Became pro-


Bologna, 1670-90. He worked with his son Giovanni ; their violoncellos have a great repuFelice.

tation in Italy.

TonOni, Giovanni, son of Felice. Worked in Bologna till about 1705 few instruments of his are to be found. Rome, TOPPANI, Angelo de. His instruments 1720 - 40.

as a musician and composer, and then began to construct instruments, making violins, altos, violas d'amore, and bass-viols. Tubes, James. maker of excellent bows, Wardour


Street, London. TtJENEE, William. London in 1650; splendid wood. Label: " William Turner, at ye hand

and crown in gravelle lane

are rarely seen, are similar to those of Techier, but more varnish goldenarched ; yellow ; sound-holes are cut





Verona, 1625.

Instruments are similar to those of Andrea Amati. Nicolas Renault was a pupil of his. (See p. 187.)



; ;









1790 ; work is German in character brown varnish. Ungarini, Autonio. Fabriano,

which had a fine tone, and was awarded the medal of honour. Horlein was a
pupil of his.

Uequhart, Thomas.

A maker

Venzi, Andrea. Florence, 1636.

London about 1650-80 he was probably a Scotchman. His work resembles that of Jacob Raymau, mth whom he may have worked, and
shows great merit. His violins are of two sizes, some on a small, others on a large
pattern, very arched, the corners not very prominent, the purfling narrow and jplaced the oil close to the edge varnish, of a yellowish-brown or sometimes red colour, is of excellent quality, and is similar to Italian vamish ; the tone is clear and silvery. His violins and violas are rare, and no violoncello of his has been seen. Urquhart is sure to rise in value, and some of his work is splendid in finish.

Verbruggbn,' Theodor. Is knoyrn as one of the makers in Antwerp in 1641 by a
double-bass which he made for use in the Cathedral.

Verini, Andrea.





" In Label Padova Francesco Verle."
sur-Oise in 1781. Pierre Andrd. about 1720-50 ; good pattern Italian.

Vermesch, le Pfere. Beaumont-



Veteini, Battista. Brescia about 1629 ; small pattern ; wood is excellent ; good yellow vamish. Vettee, Jeane Christophe.
Strasburg in 1744.





(Vaillot or Vaillaut), Paris, 1736-83; Francois.

good * workmanship ; vamish




died about 1877 double-basses.

made good

Vallee. Marseilles, 1683. Vandelli, Giovanni. Modena,

Vibeet, J. B. Paris, 1775. ViBEECHT, Gysbert. Amsterdam, 1700-10. ViLLAUME ET GlEON. In a violin of fairly good workmanship was the printed label: "Villaume et Giron, Troyes, 170—." Do not ViMERCATi, Pietro. confound with Gaspar, a




788-89. Guadaguini pattern and varnish. He branded his name on his instruments. Label " Luthier, rue des VieuxAugustins, prfes de I'^gout de la rue Montmartre, Paris."

maker in lute-maker. Brescia in the 17th century



thought to have been a 01 Carlo Tononi in Venice ; instruments arched

Maggini pattern. ViNACCiA, Antonio. The head of a family of makers; worked
in Naples, 1766-74; pattern of Gagliano. Two sons, Gennaro and Gaetano, were also makers, but chiefly of mandolines.

Varotti, Giovanni.


Varquain. Palis, 1742. Damm Vauchel, Joseph.
about 1840.




Wiirzburg in 1749. VoEL. for ten years at Paris. at Paris. March son. Giovanni. Martin. 1872. 1875. ViOKiLLO. 1834. Vuillaume. Label " Johann Georg Vo^ler. Worked with Jean Baptiste. 1867 and 1878 Tourte pattern. d. B. ." Vuillaume. OLD VIOLINS ViNACCiA. k Paris " . 1800-71. Brabant. but ViR. 1802. VlTOE. gold ViNCENZl. the only prize given to bow-making. h. Luigi.. VOIRIN. Mirecourt. His work is similar to that bass-viol. 1798. son Gaetano. 1775. VOGT. fine •workmanship. instruments. to this was added. 1650. Wolfgang . 1876. Claude Vuillaume. he went to Paris in 1855. 1840. A back inlaid in ivory. werp Exhibition were awarded He branded a gold medal. Mercury. 17. VoiGT. Florence. 1806-81. Giovanni. He is Mirecourt. Mayence. 1780. eldest son of Claude Vuillaume. Silesia. A his workmanship shows wonderful finish and elegance. Mirecourt. Nicolas Francois. but his work shows no sign of it. instru- ments much liked. 110. on those bows exhibited at " Exposition. the of Tielke. Paris made fair instruments. Mire- His S^bastien. He was awarded a silver medal at the Paris Exhibition in 1878. Johan Georg. (See p. followed Stainer pat- followed the made the head of^ his bow less square . 1740. 1726. Mirecourt. Mirecourt. VOGLER. VivoLi. he obtaiued as " collaborateur " a at Jean Baptiste. 1726. 1878. instruments similar in appearance to those of Ma^gini . Vuillaume. 1885. Ferrara. . Feb. Jean Baptiste. A maker in Mirecourt is Vogler. VOGBL. Vuillaume. second son of Vuillaume. 1833. 17 . 1700 d. Good said to have been a pupil of Stradivari. N. Jeau b. Bresa. large pattern . Paris. Paris. Lauten iiiid Geigenmacher in Wiirzburg. Fran9ois Nicolas. . his instruments follow the Stradivari more than the German pattern . Venus. in the Speigel-Gasse. Vuillaume . his elder brother. and some of his bows exhibited after his death at the Ant- Vitus de angelis.) Vuillaume. He worked with his brother. maker in Brescia de." His son was the celebrated Abb6 Georg Joseph : fourth son of Claude Vuil- laume court. his bows with " F. and was exhibited at the South Kensington Museum. 1772. Bologna. having Apollo. 1878. . London. E. Nuremberg . — was also a maker. general workmanship good. third son of Claude Vuillaume. was dated Hamburg. and Diana represented. tern. Carpi and silver medallist. Pasquale. Claude Francois. Hamburg. Claude . Voirin. . the first member known of this famUy of violin-makers. Paris. 1609. 1807. Hieronimo di. and for fifteen years made bows for J. in 1740 . d. Nicolas. b. 1642. After working at Mirecourt. of in "mention honourable" at the 1867 Paris Exhibition. Vienna. and 282 .

Saxony." Weisz (Weiss). Wenger. Havre. sterdam.GustavAdolph. Nuremberg. a viola d'amore "Joann labelled: and the sides. Salzburg. putation. sometimes too thin . 1875. London known by his printed label. He wrote an excellent practical treatiseon violin-making. 1867 silver medals -. or Weaveb. Belgium. Jacob. Wenger. but in his attempts to obtain an Italian quality of tone he thinned the wood too much. Brescian model . 1682. Bronze and Paris. his death. fine copyist of Stradi- VuiLLAUME. Ghent. His violoncellos with thicker wood have a fine tone. Only known by his label "George : Wightman. Jean. Joseph. "All sorts of musical instruments made and sold by Saml. Padua. Several of his violins have double purfling. London about 1715-51. and generally have red varnish. Cornelius. Hendrick. Waltek. 18th century. having in his possession the machine for cutting bows which J. the varnish red colour. had invented shortly WETTENENGEL. Paris. known. 1828. especially in the case of the basses. Ghent. 17751800." plane-tree wood is fre- quently xised for the back Weickeet. He had at one time a great reespecially for violoncellos. and are branded with his initials inside. Am- before .' 1761. Wagnbh. He last maker of this family. He London. S^bastien. Wagnek. Samuel. wood carefully chosen. imitated Stainer . 1750-60. Benedict. Weymann. Hendrick. was the Blasius Weigert Lauten und Geigenmacher in Linz. about 1750^80. 1721. but walnut. good quality. Wood Street. B. Salzburg. so have his doublebasses . Johann Blasius. lime-tree. v. WiLLEMS. Paris. bows on the same pattern as Jean Baptiste Vuillaume. Linz. copied the Stainer pattern very closely. : DICTIONARY OF VIOLIN MAKERS waa a vari. Fussen. George. 1800." WiLLEMS. some time after the previous Hendrick already mentioned. 1868. the outline and the beautiful finish could almost be mistaken for Italian work. b. and also made a few imitations of Stradivari instruments. the latter are rare. and continued to make 1835 . 1770. Weigert. Neukirchen. A maker Estwan- of lutes and violins in gen in 1769. Weaver on London Bridge. labelled " Heyndrick Willems tot 283 . 1622. the neck ends in a lion's head. Nearly all his instruments have beautiful wood for the belly. son of Claude Frangois Vuillaume d. An alto of large pattern has remarkably tine wood used for the belly. He made a violoncello or bass with five strings. Leopold. Halle. Wamsley. Gregor Ferdinand. 1733-61. the corners are prominent and squared at the end . but the varnish is too dry. 1650-1700. making the tone sound hollow. Constance. A maker in his WiGHTMAN. Widhalm (Withalm). Waldanee. Peter.. 1721 .

ceeded to William business at 31 He sucDavis's Zanoli. 18th cent. on the Stradivari and Guar- ZiVERGEE (Zwerger). Label: Matthias. dark varnish . in Half-Moon Alley. 22. poor varnish. instruments. WiLLEE. 1656. ZiMBELMANN. WOENUM. Label Wise. Christopher. Antonio. Giuseppe. also a violin and violoncello maker. Withers. Georg. London. Giacomo. Commenced busi- Zanti. without Bishops-Gate. Filippo. Augsburg. fair finish. London. WiLLEMS. makes about twelve instruments per year. good quality . Zanoli. Prague. small pattern. Padua.Pietro. made of carefully selected pine. OLD VIOLINS Ghendt. used lime-wood and finely . the back of walnut. Giambattista. 1634. Daniel. 1742-1815. 284 . 1756-1822. Lodi and Mantua. Treviso. A music-seller 1639. 1717." violin." makes good Modena. "Made by Vienna . amber colour. Zanfi. Mittenwald. much arched. Italian style. Coventry Street. Ghent. Verona. Witting. careful " Christopher work. Both Charles Maucotel Zanotti. Jooris. b. 18th centuiy. Stradivari pattern . using good oil varnish. London. Edward. dated 1743. August 1634. The first mention of him is in .figured maple . Mantua. 1750. Wise. Oct. 1656 . German . Daniel Wright Zach. 1634-71. London. 1770. Florence. about 1775 nis instruments are well made . Alessandro. in Holborn. in December 1846. style. 1745. Piacenza. 1730 rough work . 1740. Lonnot : Weight. 163065 a comet-player.. yellow varnish. and the sides (very exceptional) of maple. 1661. don. ZENATTO. Pupil of his father and John Lott. WoETE. Giacomo. Anton. Transition maker of viols and violins in London. goodwood. in 1856. Zanotti. Johann. Mitten wald. ness at 31 Coventry Street. eldest son of Edward Withers. 1734. Edward. in Glasshouse Street. had the belly A neri patterns. andBoullan^ierworked under him at one time. Robert." Withers. 1844. dark varnish.

Hamilton's " Catechism for the Violin. Appendix. " Practice and Theory of the ViolonTreatise on the London. Hamilton. Fleming. " Theory and Practice of the Violin. contains Preface by John Bishop. A. The preceding from Miss list largely adopted Stainer's elaborate Music Primer. J. Vidal. Preservation. 8vo. Paganini. " Treatise on the Construction. 1848. Schott & Co. I could George Hart. and Fetis. Divisions of Strings. but I when I owe almost everything am bound to state specially. 1811." Includes a sketch of the history of the vioUn. book at all. 1883. JoussE. Harmonic System. Hill & Sons' assistance and counsel. Heronnot have written this of makers has been Mr. 1833. Cocks & Co. J. &c. John. 1815. Jacob Augustus. R. " Biographical Notice of Nicolo Fetis. FRAN901S Joseph. Otto." London. 1811. " Violin Makers." London. and the works of Allen. that without Messrs. and Repairs of the Violin. 1822." London: cello" (printed for Author)." London." published by Novello. Also "A Longmans. Macdonald. Fifteenth Edition. &c. 285 . ENGLISH.BIBLIOGRAPHY It is very difficult to define my obligations to pre- vious writers and advisers to them .

Pitman. Joseph. Italy "The Violin and its German Origin. Cocks. and Porstee. H." (1879). 1878. fifth edition. London." Aberdeen.A." jun." U.d. 1876. "A Lost Art Revived.A. R. Goulburn." London. Large 8vo. Enlarged by John Bishop. George. " A Few Words on the Violin. " Violins and Violin-makers. 1881. Broadhouse. Peter. Pitman Fourth : Edinburgh." W. R. ScHEBEK. George.. (1879). Thomas." John G. F. " The Violin. Bentley. n. Reade. PuRDY. " Remarks on the Construction and Materials employed in the Manufacture of the Violin. J." Manufacture in London. "The History of the Violin. & Lucas. W. " Facts about Fiddles. R. Adze. Cocks. Pearce.S. 8vo pamphlet. 1873. U. of Cheltenham. n. GoFFEiE. Bellowes. F^Tis. Davidson." Dublin. 1837. " The Construction of the Violin. Reeves. Large 8vo pamphet. 1836.S. Smith. FEAN901S Joseph. "Musical Notes. William. Small octavo. R. Philadelphia. Dr. 1871." Large 8vo. "How to Choose a Violin. Charles. (1877). Smith." H. " The Violin. Longmans. Charles. Large 8vo. 8vo pamphlet. "Notice of Anthony Stradivari. London. Sandys. Colbum. the Author." including "Violinists" and "The Violin and its Histoi'y. John. Addison. Gloucester. 1864. Small octavo. n. London." 8vo. 1850. Simon Andrew. 1864. 1866.. Porter. P.d. Reeves. W. "The Violin." Printed for Paine.OLD VIOLINS DuBOUEG. Roblee & Co. John." London. edition. Willet. Mackintosh. 1858. 286 ." Andr6 & Co. 1877. " A Treatise on the Violin. Edmund. G. 1869. Syracuse.d.

Edward. George." "The Tuscan. K. Hart. Zannetti. Chatto & Windus. 1882." Milan." London. 1881. London. "De Fidiculis Opusculum" II. 1880. Giuseppe. Viole. 1786. Published by the Author. Gasparo. Reade. 1882. Largo post 4to and small 8vo. 1883." (translated).BIBLIOGRAPHY Nicholson. Heron-Allen. "Opuscula Pidicularum." (2) Novello. New York. Aspese K dell' Accademia. George. 1880. Tartini. Lewis." London. Regole per la Costruzione de' Violini. Hill & Sons. to Signora "IlScolaro. Charles. 287 . 1771. Large folio." Chanot. "The Violin and its Music. Dulan & Schott. 1645. Printed by H. Hart." London. its Famous Makers." London. George Gemiinder's "Progress in and New Model New Astoria. London. " Designs and Plans for the Construction of Violin." Padova. (3) " Gio." London. 1875. London. George. Heron-Allen. Gemunder. "The Violin. Paolo Maggini. Large 8vo pamphlet. " Researches into the Early History of the Violin Family. Dulan & Schott. Georges. 1881." London. " Markneukirchen Arts and Crafts Book " Violin-making. Violoncelli. etVioloni. 1883. 1882. A ' ' Letter from the late Signor Tartini Maddalena Lombardini. ITALIAN. Bremner. Heron-Allen. Mitchell & Hughes. Edward. Chanot. Engel." Ewer & Co. Burney. Bagatella. Antonio. Carl. 1884. " Hodges v. J. Mitchell & Hughes. translated by Dr. " Jack of all Trades. (1) "The Messier. Mitchell & Hughes. and Arrangement of th& Model Violin.

" Defense de la basse de Viole centre Entreprises du Violon at les pretensions du Violon- Jacquot.OLD VIOLINS Pancaldi. Musurgiana No. Large 8vo. 288 . Paris. L'Abbe. 1878. Valdrighi." Paris. " Rapport fait a I'Acad^mie des Beaux Arts 3 Avril 1819. 9. chez I'AuUur et Millet." Small 8vo." Regli. Francesco. 1766. Large 8vo di Violini. 1872. 4to. Leblanc. Henri). a. Terrasson. Carlo. Luigi Francesco. dalla Noce. Weis- senbruch. "LaChelonomie. 1893." 16mo. les celle. Rousseau. 1845." Paris. Paris. Jean." 8vo. 1873." Brussels. 1863." Modena. Large 8vo. "Music in Lorraine." Cremona. 1687. Ballard. 8vo. 1740. Lombardini. Turin. 1823. "Classica Fabbricazione RiNALDi. Vincenzi e Nep." Paris. Fischbacher. 1806." " Sur la Vielle. Second edition. "Tablature id^ale du Violon. 8vo. Toschi. " Storia del Violino in Piemonte. Rinaldi. " Liuteria Modenese antica 8 moderna. T. 1881. Chanot. FRANgois. Benedetto-Gioffredo. Mortier. G. "Cenni sulla celebre scuola Cremonese Tipografia degli stromenti ad arco." Turin. "Trait6 de la Viole. Paris. Paolo. " Progresso Ifcaliano nella Costruzione Tipografia Maddalena. 1741. " Strumenti ad arco Rinforzati. Jean Marie. Large 8vo pamphlet FRENCH. Amsterdam. del Violino operate da pamphlet. Antonio Gibertini da Parma. Leclair. P. 8vo. Gaspard Duiffoprugcar et les Luthiei'S lyonnais du xvi® Siecle. 1819. SiBiRE. CoNTANGER (Le Dr. Ch. A. Hubert. Enrico Dalmazzo. Palermo." Modena.

" Luthomonographie Historique et Raisonnte. 1876: J. et Maiqne. Jules. Academie des Bibliophiles. luxe. [Youssoupow. F^lix. Grivel. "Aux Amateurs du Violon. Claye. 1869. Large 8vo pamphlet. 8vo. J. " Des Cordes du Violon. " Les Instruments k Archet. 1856. E. 1834. FouRGEAUD. J. C. Edition de 3 vols. 1880. 12mo. 1883. "Arch6ologie du Violon. AUier." Paris. Desmarais. C. A. Bonfantini. Eoret. N. n. Paris. 12mo. Leclerc. Gallay." Plassiard." Juanst. " Le Luthier de Cremone. leur Histoire sur le ConSuivi d'un Catalogue g^n6rale tinent Europ^en.BIBLIOGRAPHY Savart. SimoWre." Nouvelle edition Paris." Paris. J. " M^moire sur la Construction des Instruments a Cordes et k Archet. 8vo. les Joueurs d'Instruments. Danet. les Faiseurs. 1836. " Vernis des Anciens Luthiers. Antoine. "Manuel du Luthier. du Parfait Luthier de I'Abb^ Sibire. Roret. Ch. Gallay. 1856. Maugin. Maugin.. Pugel. " Nouveau Manuel Complet du Luthier. F." Paris. Dulan & Co.d. Large 8vo. (1819). Lille. Bale. FRAN901S." Paris." Grenoble. 1869. Dentu et Sapia. 1867. Jules.. "Les Violons de Dalayrac. A. ito." Orn^ de planches de la Musique de Chambre. Victor. CopPEE. ViDAL. Large 8vo pamphlet. Roret. Prince]. W." London. Cyprien. " Les Luthiers Italiens. 289 ." G." Frankfort s/m." Paris. 1876. 8vo. Alexandre. gravies h I'eau forte par Frederic Hillemacher. " Les Instruments k Archet k I'Exposition Universelle de 1867.

" Die Violine. OiTO. Cohen. Johann Fkibdrich.'s weil Violinbogenmachers zu Markneukirchen. RiTTEE. "Die Violina" Neuberg a/d. NicoLAUS Louis. "Die Violine im XVII. 1835.. Zrechter. (1806). Wasielewski. Gustav Adolph. M. Decker. Jahrhundert. 1877." " Theoretisch-praktisches Handbuch des Leipzig. 1874. "Eine Charakteristik der Italienischen Geigenbauer. L. 1866. G. Hyacinth. F Kiinste und Handwerke. B. "Neuer Schauplatz der Wettengel. Leipzig. Bachmann. Rbichaedt. W. 4to." "Ueber den Bau der Kuhnel." Leipzig. 1776. Antonio. Wettengel. Voigt." " Die Geigenmacher der Alten Hamburg. F." Mitten wald. 1865. 1869. Aug. Berlin " TJeber die Pflichten des und Leipzig. 1876 Cremona. Ilmenda. 200 . J. Voigt. 1864." Bonn. Baqatella. "Die Viola Alta. Riohter.d. 1828. " Chronik des Marktes. "G. " Die Meistor der Geigenbaukunst in Italien und Tyrol. " Weimar. DiEHL. Carl Merzeburger. Abele. Merzeburger." Hamburg. Schubert. Gustav Adolph. 8vo." 8vo. G. A." Leipzig. Niederheitmann. J. 1876. Joseph Wilhelm von." J. Small 8vo. Violine. Hermann. Friedrich. Cranz.OLD VIOLINS GERMAN. Weiss." Heidelberg. B. Ripien-Violinisten. A. Basse. F. 1876. Baadek. Italienischen Schule. G. F. 1877. n. Geigenbaues.

105 " False " strings. 189 Gasparo da. 94 Cross. the family of. 173 influence. 7 Control of violin. 109. 12 of violin.'s court. secret 227. Bernard. I. 130 Elector fiddles by Stainer. 42 200 German of. 9 Fingerboard. 44 Gillott's. strings. discovery 173 Ci'emona influence.makers. 121 Charles Reade. see Chap. bow-maker. Francois Tourte. 133 Bisexual violin nature. 233 Artdt's Strad. 83 snpremacy. 207 " Fitish" of old makers. Completeness Convalescent fiddles. XV. XI. see Chap. 122 Band. influence on music. old maker. Bows. Mr. 22 Boquay. Paris dealer. collection. their ttdtlles. . 75 74 Duiffoprugcar. Charles II. 44. 124 see Chap. 132 Fiddles and umbrellas. 47 Americans. 97 English makerti. see Chap. 89 Gand. . 217 Children. 223 Fiddle judges. 43. 68 Collecting mania. French maker. 166 " Dolphin. 230 .. 53 291 .INDEX Albani. French maker. 217 Giuseppe or Joseph Guarnerins. 12 his viol da Gamba. French maker. English maker. VII. English maker. 30 Genesis of violin. English maker. Aireton. their opinions. Baying fiddles. English maker. their wood. 126-127. 26 Foster. 174 Dealers. 225 Amati. VI. 224 Fiddles. 198 Cremona city. English maker. Amateurs. 94 Charles II. 19 Duke. 121 Banks. 220 Fiddle frauds. fiddles. Cracked Germany." a celebrated Strad.'s. 132 . 233 of. 109. Barak Norman. great violinist. 156 Fendt. 180. Dodd. 133. 235 Carlo Bergonzi. tee Cremona gems. Balzar. violins in. 125 Chap. the. VIII. &c. see Chap. Gerouimo Amati.Salo. 214 Fiddle flukes. France. 189 Betts. 158 fiddle . new and old. gems. 164 Gagliano. bow-maker. 103 Aldric. 125 Bernadel.

87 Mutes or sordini to deaden sounds. French maker. Lup6t. English. Nicolo Aniati. 170 Over-restoration. 224 Restoration. 73 Guadagnini. 158 Paganini. 7. Italian. 124 Klotz family. 179. the best of the family. 161 Personal fascination in violin- Maggini. New fiddles. 25 Scale of prices. English maker. INDEX Godiug's.. 188 Medard. 168188 at. a letter. treatment and use of. 188 Rosin. 1B4197 Mittenwald violin manufacture. early home of violin manufacture. 106. 227. Mittenwald maker. 32-40 Mantegazza. 182 Pamphilon. 237 "Pucelle. John. 101. Reiter." a celebrated Strad. collection. 105 Pique. 124 Peccate. early Tvrol maker. 60 Menegand. Mirecourt maker. 219 Luigi Tarisio. XIIL Reade. rediscoverer of Cremonas. early home of violin manufacture. 1872 Paduan 1885. 187 see Chap. 226 Horses. secret of it. 228 292 . French. 192 Maucotel. Venetian maker. 189 Salo. maker of guitars and fiddles. 186 Montagnana. 180 Neglect 118 of English makers. 203 53 Kennedys. 77 Mirecourt. 105 Jay. 90 Manufacture of strings process. English maker. 176-174 Parker. 170. 186. see Barak Norman. 178 Golden Strad period. John. Oliver Wendell. 236 Secret of old violins. 51 Guild of Markneukirchen. see Lup6t. 30 Savart's experiments. see "Master. 216 124 Lott. makers. 181 .. 159 Haet. French. 86 Guaineri family. 215 William Ebsworth. Mr. 155 playing. Oliver Wendell Holmes. 233 Ignorance and neglect. 124 Jean and Nicolas Medard. the violinist. 203 Revarder. Paris. 9-56. 218 ." a great Strad violin. 133 Holmes. 191 strings. French maker. Jaques. French maker. early violin centre. violinist. Venetian maker. 169 Pernambuco wood for bows. 108 Prelude and postlude. 193 "Master" Eeiter. 187 Jose^ih or Giuseppe Guarnerius. Vuillaume and Tarisio XIV. early Brescian maker. English maker. 78 Markneukirchen. fiddles and umbrellas." Remenyi. Landolpho. 47 Norman. 226 Ouri. the and En<. dealer. see Chap.'lish. 202 Rugerius. see Charles Reade. 11 Pieray. 214 Neglect of violins. Italian maker. 21S Nicolas Lupdt. 188 " Messie. Italian maker. Hill. 124 Panormo.

Lamy. 119 Vision (if Stradivari. Kensington. 79 Vuillanme. see Chap.XIV. XIV. Violin treatment. English maker. English. 125 English maker. I. 231 Ukquhakt. IX. Miss. I. see Chap. 227 XIV. . see Chap. Viols. see Chap. see Luigi. X. Story of the Markneukirchen Guild. Varnish. violin. 102 Thibouville . 77 String gauge. and Techier. Violin constitution. see Chap. The Signatukb op Antonius Stradivabi. bow-maker." 189 Strailivarius. see Chap. . Violin rise. Violin dealing and collecting. X v. VI. II. 169 " Tuscan. 179. 110. Chap. Takisio. violins. see Chap. 124 see Chap. 69 Kensington Collections. Strange finds. 164 Violin progress. bow-maker. Stainer. French maker. see Chap. 154 Strings. see Chap. 194-197 Subdivision of labour a cause of decline. 168 Walmesley. V. I. 189 Tourte. Tubbs.INDEX Sound Soutli see qualities of old and new Treatment of violin. Stainer." the celebrated Strad. German school. see Chap. "Violin Manual.


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