.5. The acquired image is stored in the PC in the JPEG format. The two modules are The Image Processing module The Motor Control module
The Image Processing module : This module consists of the image acquisition part
through any of the modes explained in the hardware description section (this is not a part of this project and hence optional ). The JPEG image is then processed for the presence of various colors. Working
The Project entitled
Processing Based Embedded Quality Analyzer And
Controller” consists of the hardware and the software modules. as we now know that a color image comprises of varying amounts of the primary colors.
A Color Image
The Bitonal Components of the color Image
The quantity of the colors is determined and then depending on the content of the presence of the red color the apples are categorized in four categories.
An LCD is attached which shows the results of categorizing the apples.). Thus the grinder speed is controlled through this motor The PC is interfaced communication interface. Apples of grade A needs less speed of the grinder for converting into juice. The Image Processing Toolbox is used. Apples of grade D needs more speed of the grinder as compared to grade C. A ‘C’ language program is used. Apples of grade C needs more speed of the grinder as compared to grade B. Hence a supervisor sitting in his cabin can monitor the whole process. The motor has different speeds for the different categories.
Grade A (with more red content and hence more ripe ). Apples of grade B needs more speed of the grinder .
The Motor Control module : The ATMEL 89C51 is used to control the speed of the
motor according to the category. (with least red content and hence least ripe ). Grade C (with lesser red content and hence lesser ripe ) & Grade D. with the hardware module via DB 9 and using MAX 232
. Grade B (with less red content and hence less ripe ). This whole is done using MATLAB version 7 (a high-performance language for technical computing.
more red the apple.g.e. Farmers are trying their best to take care of their crop.e. and after checking the quality of apples the speed of the grinder is being controlled accordingly. There is no process with which we can check the quality of the fruits or vegetables considering their color. which can control the speed of the grinder or any other motor required for processing the quality of the fruits or vegetables.
. Apple color will specify the quality of the apple i. We are grading the product i. At the same time we are lacking in an automated technique. Thus a lot of effort is put manually to control the speed of the motor or grinder.Abstract
In India Agriculture and Horticulture is in great boom. As there is no such technique in India by which farmers may are able to check the quality of fruits or vegetables. MATLAB is used for the color analysis in image processing and C language is used for microcontroller as an embedded system. We are using the concept of image processing for color matching. better the quality. apples according to their colour for e.0. In this project an automatic technique is developed to check the quality of the apples based on color matching and controlling the speed of the motor with the help of a microcontroller to crush the apples to make apple juice. This is done with the help of image processing tool of MATLAB version 7. A lot of time is wasted in the fields for checking the quality of the crops. Thus there arises a requirement of a fully automated system by which the quality of the fruits or vegetables can easily be checked and also the speed of the process be controlled according to the quality identified. moreover it requires a lot of labour thereby increasing the whole processing time.
This LCD can be placed anywhere. hence more will be the speed of the motor. the more force required to crush it. The speed of the motor is controlled with the help of microcontroller 89C51. Apples of grade D need more speed of the grinder as compared to grade C. maybe a separate cabin for the supervisor to monitor the results.The PC is interfaced with the help of RS 232. microcontroller and relays opto-coupler is used. The harder the apple. Apples of grade B need more speed of the grinder. Relays and resistors are used for controlling the speed. The microcontroller not only maintains the speed of the motor but also varies the speed of the motor according to the quality of the apples. For providing isolations between
Apples of grade A needs less speed of the grinder for converting into juice. In this system an intelligent LCD display is used and the results are displayed on the LCD. Apples of grade C need more speed of the grinder as compared to grade B.
These detail out the representation of the Image in space coordinate form. For color matching . For developing the technique to check the quality of the fruit based on color matching and controlling the speed of the motor we use a help the color fundamentals in image processing. In the hardware description part. The color fundamentals are used to access the color content of the Apples. The types of resolution along with the bit depth are explained henceforth. acquired through a
.MATLAB is used and the hardware part includes a motor controlled by a microcontroller handled with the help of C language.1. Here we are analyzing the quality of the product with the help of image processing toolbox in MATLAB After checking the quality of the apples we control the speed of the grinder according to the quality of the apple.Introduction
This project “Image Processing Based Embedded Quality Analyzer And Controller” deals with developing an economic and safe way to analyze the fruit or vegetable quality which is based on color. Similarly more speed of the grinder is required of grade C and grade D apples. Thus. Apple of grade A being more ripe needs less speed of the grinder for converting it into juice. As the Image Acquisition is not a part of this project so it is assumed that the image Digital Camera is stored in the computer memory. and to control the speed of the grinder according to the quality of the product. The software description details out the code along with the brief description of the various commands of MATLAB version 7. Then the Image Processing Fundamentals are taken into consideration. here we have a fully automated system with the help of which farmers and the manufacturers of juice and jam making units can easily check the quality of the fruit and vegetables and also control the speed of the process according to the quality of the fruit/ vegetables.
y) is called the intensity or gray level of that image at that point. These elements are referred to as picture elements.Color & Image Processing Fundamentals
An Image may be defined as a two dimensional function. and the amplitude of f are all finite. The field of digital image processing involves processing digital images by means of digital computer Image processing is composed of a finite number of elements.y). we call the image a digital image. f (x. image elements. pels and pixels. discrete quantities. Image processing involves processing or altering an existing image in terms of pixels in a desired manner.y. and the amplitude of f at any pair of co-ordinates (x.
Resolution of digital images
. where x and y are spatial co-ordinates. each of which has a particular location and value. When x.
None of these pixel resolutions are true resolutions. But when the pixel counts are referred to as resolution.. That is. where the first number is the number of pixel columns (width) and the second is the number of pixel rows (height). the convention is to describe the pixel resolution with the set of two positive integer numbers. The spatial resolution of computer monitors is generally 72 to 100 lines per inch.
.The resolution of digital images can be described in many different ways. Temporal resolution Movie cameras and high-speed cameras can resolve events at different points in time. The time resolution used for movies is usually 15 to 30 frames per second (fps). Another popular convention is to cite resolution as the total number of pixels in the image. or even more.
Spectral resolution Color images distinguish light of different spectrum. typically given as number of mega pixels. for example as 640 by 480. but they are widely referred to as such. An image of N pixels high by M pixels wide can have any resolution less than N lines per picture height. Spatial resolution The measure of how closely lines can be resolved in an image is called
spatial resolution. corresponding to pixel resolutions of 72 to 100 ppi. they can have higher spectral resolution. or N TV lines. Pixel resolution: The term resolution is often used as a pixel count in digital imaging. Multi-spectral images resolve even finer differences of spectrum or wavelength than is needed to reproduce color. while high-speed cameras may resolve 100 to 1000 fps. not the number of pixels in an image. For practical purposes the clarity of the image is decided by its spatial resolution. Other conventions include describing pixels per length unit or pixels per area unit. such as pixels per inch or per square inch. not just the pixel resolution in pixels per inch (ppi). and it depends on properties of the system creating the image. they serve as upper bounds on image resolution. which can be calculated by multiplying pixel columns by pixel rows and dividing by one million.
.Radiometric resolution Radiometric resolution determines how finely a system can represent or distinguish differences of intensity. printing inks also produce a color gamut that is only a subset of the visible spectrum.
Also. because printing processes such as offset lithography use CMYK (cyan. range) of the visible spectrum. magenta and yellow pigments serve as filters. green and blue from white light to produce a selective gamut of spectral colors.
The Color Theory
Computer monitors emit color as RGB (red. subtracting varying degrees of red. Many printers now
. Cyan. Consequently. digital art must be converted to CMYK color for print. at least in theory. although the range is not the same for both. magenta. monitors are capable of displaying only a limited gamut (i. inked paper absorbs or reflects specific wavelengths. blue) light.
The visible spectrum. the better subtle differences of intensity or reflectivity can be represented.e. The higher the radiometric resolution. and is usually expressed as a number of levels or a number of bits. yellow. green and blue light. Whereas monitors emit light. Like monitors. black) inks. the same art displayed on a computer monitor may not match to that printed in a publication. for example 8 bits or 256 levels which is typical of computer image files. Although all colors of the visible spectrum can be produced by merging red. green.
a great deal of extra information may be contained in the color. i.prefer digital art files be supplied in the RGB color space with ICC profiles attached. the intensity is determined by the actual amount of light. Visible colors occur between about 400nm (violet) and 700nm (red) on the electromagnetic spectrum. The saturation is determined by the excitation purity. brightness or luminance is determined by the perception of the color. Blue Additive color space
Cyan. and this extra information can then be used to simplify image analysis. Grey level is a measure of intensity. Achromatic light has no color . with more light corresponding to more intense colors. Therefore. Yellow Subtractive color space
Color Image Processing
The human visual system can distinguish hundreds of thousands of different color shades and intensities. Three independent quantities are used to describe any particular color. Magenta.e. Color depends primarily on the reflectance properties of an
. in an image. A pure hue is fully saturated. e. The intensity is determined by the energy. Finally.its only attribute is quantity or intensity. Hue and saturation together determine the chromaticity for a given color. Images can then be converted to the CMYK color space by the printer using color management methods that honor profiles if present.g. this helps preserve the best possible detail and vibrancy. On the other hand. and is therefore psychological. and is therefore a physical quantity. The hue is determined by the dominant wavelength. object identification and extraction based on color. Green.
Red. and depends on the amount of white light mixed with the hue. but only around 100 shades of grey. no white light mixed in.
However. while others are absorbed.
. We see those rays that are reflected. and the nature of human visual system. we also must consider the color of the light source.object.