2.

7 GRAMMAR

2.7.1 English grammar

2.7.1.1

Adjectives Order of adjectives Attributive adjectives precede the nouns they modify. When several attributives are present, the one on which one places the most emphasis goes closest to the noun. Example: Look at this beautiful little girl. Here are some rules: Adjectives of colour, origin, material and function are usually placed in that order and directly before the noun they modify. Example: Black Spanish leather walking boots. Adjectives expressing judgments precede any others present. Example: I have a huge red suitcase. 'First,' 'last' and 'next' usually precede any other adjectives present (e.g., numbers). Example: The monthly payments are high during the first two years only. That was the first American space capsule. Note. Commas are used between adjectives of equal importance when they complement one another. Example: A long, difficult exercise. It's a nice, well-equipped, four-room apartment. Placing the adjective The qualifying adjective is always invariable. Example: beautiful dresses, they are crazy The attributive adjective is placed before the noun. Example: a red apple, very interesting movies, beautiful dresses Compound adjectives The second part of a compound adjective, which is the more important part and is modified by the first, may be: an adjective. Example: You're very self-confident. I fell in the water, and it was ice-cold! a present participle. Example: This movie's heartbreaking. a past participle. Example: Do you want some home-made cake? You go to a restaurant for a welldeserved dinner. We need a hand-held vacuum. a noun + -ed. Example: Your husband is a bad-tempered man. Note. Compound adjectives ending in -ed are primarily used as attributes when they have a concrete meaning. Otherwise they are predicates. Example: She's a long-legged girl. She's a fair-haired girl. What an old-fashioned lady! He's very green-fingered. Many compound adjectives fit none of the cases described above. Example: I bought some second-hand books. . I want an 18-month loan. The interest is on a four-year basis. Adjectives ending in -ing The gerund (verb with -ing ending) can be used as an adjective. It generally has an active meaning.

Example: That was a disappointing day. This view is really exhilarating. These selfsticking stamps don't stick! Possessive adjectives Singular Plural 1st person my our 2nd person your your 3rd person masculine his their feminine her their neuter its their The possessive adjective precedes a noun phrase. It never agrees with the noun that follows. Example: I like my suit - I like my suits. She's visiting our house - She's visiting our houses. 2.7.1.2 Adverbs

Adverbs of time Some of the main adverbs of frequency and imprecise time are: 'always', 'never', ' sometimes', 'often', 'no longer', 'soon', 'already, 'still', 'usually', 'ever', and 'not . . . anymore. The adverb is placed: immediately before the verb (before the main verb when an auxiliary is present); Example: She often drinks alcohol at night. We sometimes watch videos. I never talk about the weather! How many passengers usually ride with you? It will soon be July 4th. after 'to be' in any simple tense, except when 'to be' is at the end of a sentence or in the imperative; Example: We are usually on time. I'm still very tired. It sometimes is! Always be on time. before a modal auxiliary and, less often, before auxiliary "be" or "have"; Example: I still can stay here for a while. They already have gone their way. at the end of a sentence. Example: It will be July 4th soon. They have gone already. How many passengers ride with you usually? Are you going to drive it often? Never and always are often put before the auxiliary, to emphasize a point. Example: You never can manage this. I always have to wash up. The adverb 'that' 'That,' in addition to being used as a demonstrative, can also be used as an adverb. When used as an adverb it goes before an adjective or other adverb. Example: Was the fog that thick? I had no idea I was that far in the red. Are you that afraid? This adverb is not to be confused with the demonstrative 'that.' Relative adverbs The Relative Adverb µWhen¶ replaces a complement of time. Example: The day when he arrived, his family wasn't there. Where replaces a complement of place. Example: We live in a place where the sun shines very often. (The reason) why replaces an adverbial phrase of cause. Example: I don't know why he's so angry. (The reason) µwhy¶ replaces a complement of cause. Example: I don't know why he's so angry. 2.7.1.3 Alphabet Aa as in 'ant' Bb as in 'book' Cc as in 'computer' Dd as in 'dog'

Ee as in 'egg' Ff as in 'frog' Gg as in 'ghost' Hh as in 'house' Ii as in 'insect' Jj as in 'jeans' Kk as in 'kitchen' Ll as in 'light' Mm as in 'monster' Nn as in 'number' Oo as in 'office' Pp as in 'pig' Qq as in 'question' Rr as in 'rat' Ss as in 'son' Tt as in 'tie' Uu as in 'uncle' Vv as in 'vegetable' Ww as in 'watch' Xx as in 'xylophone' Yy as in 'yacht' Zz as in 'zebra' 2.7.1.4 Articles

Definite and indefinite articles The definite article µThe¶ is the definite article in the singular and plural. Example: The cat is in the house. The cats are in the house. The indefinite article µA¶ is the indefinite article in the singular. In the plural, there is no article. Example: There is a cat in our garden. There are cats in our garden. The difference between 'a' and 'an' The indefinite article takes two forms. 'A' is used before words that begin (phonetically) with consonants. Example: I'm a man. Are you a grandfather? That's a nice color! Note. Y, U and O at the beginning of certain words are pronounced as consonants. The article 'a' is used in such cases. Example: I bought a yacht. You can download a one-megabyte file. I study at a university for foreigners. 'An' is used before words beginning (phonetically) with vowels. Example: I have an apartment. It's an expensive shop. I have an uncle. Note. Before certain words beginning with silent h, the article 'an' is used. Example: An hour. An honest man. The use and omission of 'the' The article µthe¶ is used before plural nouns or uncountable nouns when the noun is determined, its meaning is defined by the context. Example: The cities in Europe are all very different. The coffee you gave me is really good. µThe¶ is not used: in generalizations with plural nouns or uncountable nouns. Example: I don't like towns. (plural noun) I prefer tea to coffee. (uncountable) µThe¶ is not used before a plural or an uncountable noun with the meaning of 'a certain amount of.'

Example: I have to buy butter and jelly. (uncountable) There are cities I don't like. (plural noun) µThe¶ is not used before names of meals when they have a general sense. Example: The breakfast I had yesterday was very good. (particular sense) Breakfast is ready. (general sense) Negation of the indefinite article The negative form of the indefinite article is expressed using: 'not . . . a' in front of singular countable nouns; Example: I haven't got a pen. He hasn't got a permanent address yet. 'not . . . any' in front of plural countable nouns and all uncountable nouns. Example: There aren't any buses here. It doesn't require any equipment. Note. 'Not . . . any' can be replaced by 'no,' in which case a verb in the affirmative is used. Example: I have no idea. You have no means of breaking the contract during the first two years. The article and geographical names A - In front of the singular name of a country (or a continent or region), no article is used. Example: France, Great Britain, Spain, Germany, Japan, America, Wales. Exceptions: the Sahara, the United Kingdom ('kingdom' is a common noun in origin), the Congo, the Tyrol, the South Pole... B - In front of a plural name of a country, an article is always used. Example: the United States, the British Isles, the West Indies, the Philippines (the Philippine Islands). Note. The United States is often considered to be singular. This noun, in fact, takes an article because the word 'state' is a common noun. Note. Countries that take a plural name are collective nouns and are often followed by a verb in the singular. Example: The United States is a federation of several states. Note. Abbreviations of countries' names (or of continents and regions) are preceded by the definite article (the U.K., the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., the E.U.) C - Names of bodies of water and seas are preceded by an article. Note. Other geographical names don't have an article, except if they are preceded by 'of' or if they are in the plural. (Cape Cod, theGreat Lakes) D - The names of streets, squares, monuments and parks are not, in general, preceded by an article, except if they contain the preposition 'of,' or, in certain cases, if it refers to foreign names. Example: Carnaby Street, Fifth Avenue, Hyde Park, Westminster Abbey, the Tower of London, the Statue of Liberty, the Champs-Elysées Note. the White House, the Kremlin... 2.7.1.5 Cardinal numbers

Invariable cardinal numbers µDozen¶, µhundred¶, µthousand¶ and µmillion¶ are invariable when they are multiplied by a precise number or preceded by µseveral¶ or µa few¶. Example: I bought two dozen eggs. There were several thousand people at the concert. His purchase volume is around $2 million. These numbers become plural when they are followed by of. Example: The system allows millions of people to send each other messages.

2.7.1.6

Capital letters

Names of countries: capital letters Names of countries are capitalized. Example: He's a friend from France. They live in Spain. It's very nice in the United States at this time of the year. Nationalities: capital letters All nationalities take capital letters, whether they are used as nouns or as adjectives. Example: There are lots of Americans in Paris. I'm half French, half Italian. I've just taken a job in an English company. 2.7.1.7 Comparative/Comparision

Regular comparatives Comparative superiority is expressed in two ways. Adjective + '-er than' is used with short adjectives (i.e., those containing one or ² when they end with '-er,' '-ow,' '-le' and 'y' ² two syllables). In such cases '-y' becomes '-i.' Example: John's taller than Peter. Is it easier than downhill skiing? Note. '-r' is added to adjectives ending in '-e.' Example: He's nicer than you. New York is larger than life! Final consonants of adjectives that end in one vowel + one consonant are doubled in the comparative. Example: Their house is bigger than ours. 'Than' + noun or noun phrase (or clause) is at times omitted. Example: When will it get warmer? 'More' + adjective (+ 'than') is used with long adjectives. Example: My sister is more intelligent than my brother. You know it is more beneficial on a long-term basis. Comparative inferiority is expressed by 'less' + adjective (+ 'than'). Example: This model is less expensive than the later one. Note. Comparative adverbs are formed like comparative adjectives. All adverbs ending in '-y' are preceded by 'more.' Example: She runs faster than you. He drives more slowly nowadays. 'More' and 'less' can precede nouns and noun phrases. Example: I would like more details. A bank guarantee affords less protection. Comparing equals The expression 'as . . . as' is used to compare two (or two groups of) persons or things which have the same characteristics. It is formed as follows: 'as' + an adjective or adverb + 'as' Example: My brother is as tall as my dad. You speak French as well as I do. As much as - As many as In expressions of comparative equality, 'as much . . . as' is used with singular (uncountable) and 'as many . . . as' with plural (countable) nouns. Example: I bought as much chocolate as I could. There aren't as many parks in Paris as in London. Note. The corresponding negative forms are 'not as much . . . as' and 'not as many . . . as.' Example: I don't have as much luck as you. I didn't see as many films/movies as you did. 'As much as' or 'as many as' may be used without a noun. In such a case, the comparative refers either to the entire preceding clause or to an implied or previously stated noun. Example: I hate almond paste as much as I love ginger. Do you want more candies? You didn't have as many as I did. It's twice as much as the rent. (= It's twice as much money as the rent.)

'As much . . . as,' 'as many . . . as,' 'as much as' and 'as many as' may be preceded by quantifying adverbs. Example: Today there are three times as many people in the streets as yesterday. I worked twice as much as usual. 'As much . . . as possible' and 'as many . . . as possible' are used as superlatives. Example: We need as much help as possible. I invited as many friends as possible. The same . . . as The expression 'the same . . . as' expresses comparison. It is formed as follows: the same + noun or noun phrase + as + noun or noun phrase Example: His shirt is the same color as my dress. 'the same' + noun or noun phrase + 'as' + dependent clause Example: That is the same lamp as the one I bought. With personal pronouns, 'the same . . . as' is used as follows. In everyday language: 'the same' + noun or noun phrase + 'as' + personal object pronoun Example: I live in the same house as her. Less often, in a very polite style of language: 'the same' + noun or noun phrase + 'as' + personal subject pronoun Example: I live in the same house as she. Note. 'The same (as)' is another common form. Example: Friday is going to be the same as today. It's always the same. It's the same in America. Reinforcing the comparative To intensify comparatives of superiority, 'much', 'far', 'rather', 'even', 'no', 'any' are used. Example: He'll feel much better after a good night's sleep. I want a skirt rather longer than hers. I think I'll mess these nets up even more! He's no cleverer than his brother. To intensify comparative of equality, quite, 'not nearly' and numeric adverbs are used. Example: She's quite as nice as her sister. Their house is not nearly as pleasant as ours. France is twice as large as Britain. To intensify superlatives, 'very', 'by far', and 'far and away' are used. Example: Have you heard the very latest news? You're by far the best. She's far and away the most beautiful girl. Irregular comparatives Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative forms. The most common examples follow. Adjective or adverb Irregular comparative good better bad worse far farther/further much/many more little less The more . . . the more The expression the + comparative + clause + the + comparative + clause is used in the following manner: Example: The younger you are, the easier it is to learn a language. The more I learn, the more I know, the more I know, the more I forget, the more I forget, the less I know. Sometimes, the verb to be, or even the entire clause (when it normally contains the verb 'to be') is left out. Example: The nicer the weather (is), the happier I am. The sooner the better (it is). A use of the comparative The comparative is sometimes used where there is an idea of opposition between two elements. Example: The younger generation. (as opposed to 'the older generation') The upper classes. (as opposed to 'the lower classes') Sooner or later.

2.7.1.8

Compound nouns

Construction of compound nouns The compound noun is made up of a principal noun preceded by one or several nouns or a noun or noun phrase that has the same function as an adjective. Example: an alarm clock, a bedroom, the London-New York flight The first element is always in the singular, even if it has a plural sense, except if it exists only in the plural form or if there is risk of ambiguity. Example: ski boots, a clothes shop, a goods-train (risk of ambiguity if 'good' was in the singular) Most compound nouns are written as two (or several) separated words. Some of them are written with a dash/hyphen, others as a single word. Example: a great-grandfather, housework Note. The same compound noun can sometimes be written as two words, with a dash/hyphen or as a single word. Example: ice-cream, ice cream. Use of compound nouns The first element of the compound noun is used to determine the second. Different meanings exist between the terms of a compound noun: ownership, composition, purpose, aim... Example: the castle dungeon, a pearl necklace, a jewel box, a tennis racket Note. A compound noun cannot express the idea of a cause or a group, or refer to the contents of a container. Example: a cry of joy, a group of tourists, a cup of tea 2.7.1.9 Demonstratives

Demonstratives A - Form The demonstratives 'this' and 'that' may be used as adjectives or as pronouns. Their singular and plural forms are as follows. Singular Plural this these that those B - Use 'This' implies/expresses proximity/closeness in space or time. Example: I think we met this morning. This is a pencil sharpener. Are these the Houses of Parliament? These muffins look good 'That' implies distance in space or time. Example: Can you see that peninsula just off the shore? I'm looking forward to that. That evening, you are invited to a cocktail party. 2.7.1.10 Exclamations Exclamations with 'what a' In an exclamatory clause, 'what a / an' precedes a singular countable noun which may or may not be preceded by an adjective. Example: What a beautiful fortress! What an old house! What a question! Note. Before plural countable nouns and before uncountable nouns, 'what' is used without 'a / an.' Example: What colourful/colorful flowers! What nice weather! 2.7.1.11 Negations

The negative form

A negative sentence is formed by adding not (or n't in the shortened form) to an auxiliary (have, be, do, must, can...). to 'be' and 'have' when they are used as main verbs. Example: I am at work. I am not (I'm not) at work. You are my best friend. You aren't (or you're not) my best friend. He has enough money. He has not (hasn't) enough money. When the positive sentence does not have an auxiliary, the auxiliary µdo¶ is used in the negative form. Example: We like mountains. We do not (don't) like mountains. You live in France. You do not (don't) live in France. Not . . . either A negative clause must never contain more than one negation. That's why µeither¶ is used instead of µneither¶ in a clause already containing a negation. 'Either' is always placed at the end of the clause. Example: We won't need the sleeping bags either. I don't like spinach. I don't like it either. 2.7.1.12 Questions

Question-tags Question tags are the little questions (auxiliary + subject pronoun) that are placed at the end of a sentence. Usually, an affirmative sentence is followed by a negative question-tag and a negative sentence by a positive question-tag. Example: You're British, aren't you? You're American, aren't you? We can't go this way, can we? She won't take the plane, will she? Note. When there is no auxiliary in the first part of the sentence, µdo¶ is used in the tag. Example: He lives in Wales, doesn't he? Direct and indirect questions In a direct question, the auxiliary (or the stative verb 'to be') precedes the subject. Example: Are you listening to me? Are you really that tired? Will you go home at noon? But what can I do? When the sentence does not have an auxiliary, the auxiliary µdo¶ is used. Example: Do you speak English? Do you have that passport? An indirect question contains the following: a main clause with a verb like 'to ask,' 'to wonder' or 'to discuss'; a dependent clause introduced by an interrogative word ('where,' 'when,' 'why,' 'how,' 'who,' 'which,' 'what' or 'whose') or by a subordinating conjunction ('if' or 'whether'). The verb of the dependent clause is placed after the subject, as in noninterrogative sentences. Example: The waiter asks you what you would like to drink. We discussed what kind of present we could offer her. You call to find out if the weather is going to be all right. Interrogative words The interrogative words introduce questions which cannot be answered with yes or no. The main interrogatives are: µwho¶, µwhat¶, µwhen¶, µwhere¶, µwhy¶, µwhose¶, µhow¶, µwhich¶. They are always placed at the beginning of the sentence. Example: When do you want to go? Whose bag is it? Which car will you take? Questions without interrogative pronouns Questions without interrogative pronouns can be asked in the following ways. 'To be' + subject Example: Are you a beautiful woman? Future or conditional modal or auxiliary + subject + verb Example: Can you count? Will you be all right? Would that suit you? µDo' + subject + verb Example: Do you have a house? Did you understand what I said? µHave¶ + subject + got

Example: Have you got your bikini? Note. µHave¶ got is only used in the present. In the preterite, µdid¶ is used and in the future µwill¶. Example: Did you have good friends as a child? Will you have time tomorrow to do it? Questions in the past A question, whether closed or open (i.e., introduced by an interrogative pronoun), is formed by placing the verb before the subject as is illustrated by the following cases was / were + subject + complement Example: Were you insured? You're back from Japan. How was it? was / were + subject + verb with -ing ending Example: Were you talking to these girls? What were you doing in the garden/yard? A modal or the auxiliary 'would' + subject + 'have' + past participle Example: What could we have done? Would you have invited her? 'Did' + subject + verb Example: Did you drive back in the snow? What did your mother say? What did you have in mind? 'Have' + subject + past participle Example: What have you done? Have we caught a shark? Have you seen this person before? How long have we been skiing? Note. When the subject is an interrogative pronoun, the verb is placed directly after it. Example: Who came to the party? What went wrong? 2.7.1.13 Short answers

Tags - Short answers A tag is a short answer composed of a personal pronoun followed by an auxiliary. Tags usually begin with 'yes' or 'no.' To answer yes or no to a question, a tag that reuses the auxiliary of the question (or be or have as a main verb) is used. Example: Does it have a dishwasher? Yes, it does. Are you French? Yes, I am. Does he play soccer? Yes, he does. Tags may also express contradictions. Example: I'm lazy. - You're not (aren't). She's smiling. - She isn't (is not). Note. When 'to do' or 'to have' is the main verb, the auxiliary 'do' is used. Example: Do you do your homework regularly? Yes, I do. Do they do larger sizes? - No, they don't. : Do you have long hair? - No, I don't. 2.7.1.14 Expressing advice

'Should' and 'ought to' To give advice, the auxiliary 'should' or 'ought to' + an infinitive is used. 'Ought to' suggests an external or moral constraint. Example: You should always have an umbrella and a raincoat with you! You ought to apologise to her! Note. 'Shouldn't' is the usual form in negations. Example: You shouldn't drive too fast! 2.7.1.15 Expressing criticisms Might µµMight¶ is used as well for criticisms. Example: You might have asked the technician. He knows a lot.

2.7.1.16

Expressing duration

How long 'How long' is used with all tenses to ask questions about duration. Example: How long are you planning to stay? How long does it have to cook? How long have we been skiing? Similar questions may be asked using 'how long' + the expression 'it takes (someone)' in all tenses, or using 'how long' + 'it' + conjugated 'be.' Example: How long did it take you to do this? How long will it take before I get the money? How long will it be before we get there? How long has it been since he left? 2.7.1.17 Expressing goal/objectives

Use of 'so' to express a goal µSo¶ can introduce a clause indicating a goal. Example: I'm saving a lot of money so I can travel in the summer. She gave him time so he could work properly. Note. If µso¶ is preceded by a comma, the dependent clause expresses a consequence. Example: I'm saving a lot of money, so I can travel next summer. So that + may / can Objectives are expressed using 'so that' followed by: a present simple Example: He'll take a taxi so that he arrives on time. 'may / might' or 'can / could' (mainly in speech) Example: He told her about my trip to New York so that she could help me with my itinerary. 'will / would' Example: I wrote it in my diary so that I wouldn't forget. µshould¶ when expressing a restraint or hindrance. Example: She explained the situation to him in detail so that he shouldn't worry. We'll take the taxi so that we should be on time. Note: 'In order that' (more rare and formal than 'so that') may also express objectives. Example: I'll do the laundry today in order that I may (or can) go out to dinner tomorrow. Note: 'To be', 'to seem', and 'to appear' (all of which can indicate impressions) may also be followed by 'like' and 'as if'. Example: What was the dinner like? She seems as if she's going to get very mad. 2.7.1.18 Expressing obligation/absence of necessity

Must - Have (got) to The auxiliaries µmust¶ and µhave (got) to¶ express a need or an obligation. A - Construction of µmust¶ The auxiliary µmust¶ is conjugated in the same way for all persons: it does not take an -s in the 3rd person singular. µMust¶ is followed by the infinitive without µto¶. µMust¶ is only used in the simple present. Example: You must wash your hands before eating. Note. With µmust¶, questions and negations are formed without 'do.' Example: Must we bring sleeping bags? You mustn't open the door to anyone. B - Use of µmust¶

µMust¶ expresses an obligation. Example: I must talk to you. µMustn't¶ is used to express the forbidding/banning of something. Example: She mustn't leave the door open. A - Construction of µhave (got) to¶ The auxiliary µhave (got) to¶ is followed by the infinitive. Example: I have to go to the dentist's. µHave¶ is conjugated as follows: I have, you haven he/she/it has, we have, you have, they have Note. Questions and negations are formed with µdo¶. Example: Do you have to go this way? I don't have to listen to your stupid advice. B - Use of µhave (got) to¶ The auxiliary µhave (got) to¶ is used when the obligation comes from the exterior. Example: You have to be at the airport at one o'clock. (The speaker remembers that this is the rule.) but You must be at the airport by one o'clock. (The speaker emphasizes the fact so that the listener doesn't forget.) In the future and the preterite, µhave (got) to¶ is used instead of µmust¶. Example: Future I'll (will) have to be patient. Example: Preterite They had to wait. Absence of necessity To express absence of necessity, the following forms are used: 'Needn't' + infinitive without 'to' expresses the speaker's opinion, usually in the present. Example: You needn't bring your bike, it's not that far. 'Don't/doesn't need to' + infinitive without 'to' may be used in all tenses. This form is more neutral. Example: You don't need to bring your bike, they'll lend you one. I didn't need to come. 'Don't/doesn't have to' + infinitive without 'to' may be used in all tenses and can imply the speaker's opinion or not. Example: We don't have to date-stamp tickets in England. You don't have to go to any trouble. I won't have to have X-rays, will I? 2.7.1.19 Expressing permission

May µMay¶ is used as well when asking for (and giving) permission with politeness. Example: May I borrow your pen? To let Permisson is expressed using 'let' + object + infinitive without 'to¶.' Example: They let their child do what he wants. Note. A sentence formed with µlet¶ to express permission cannot be used in the passive. The expression 'to be allowed to' is therefore used. Example: You're not allowed to enter this room. The infinitive without 'to' may be implied. Example: She would like to go to India but her parents won't let her. 'Let' can also be used as an imperative auxiliary. Example: Let her do what she likes. Let me just deal with this lady first. 2.7.1.20 The possessive Expressing possession

A - Construction An -'s is added to singular nouns (even those ending with an -s) and to nouns in the plural without -s. Example: John's birthday, My boss's secretary, Children's feelings An apostrophe (-') is added to plural nouns ending with an -s. Example: The horses' stables Note. The second noun (that follows 's) loses its article. B - Use The possessive case is used in general with names of living things, countries, groups and institutions. Example: Iris's job, The Ministry's officials, Britain's economy, Washington's economy More uses of the possessive The possessive '-'s,' is not only used with names of living people, groups, institutions and countries, but also with nouns concerning dates (with days of the week and adverbs such as 'today', 'yesterday' or 'year'), a length of time or a distance. Example: dates Sunday's weather, tomorrow's flight, next year's budget durations three weeks' vacation, four weeks¶holiday distances a hundred miles' drive The indefinite possessive The expression 'a' + person or thing possessed + 'of' + possessor + 's¶ is used to express the possessive case when the object is indefinite. Example: She's a colleague of my brother's. The similar expression 'a' + person or thing possessed + 'of' + possessive pronoun is used with possessive pronouns. Example: Peter is a nice cousin of mine. This same construction is possible with the negative article 'no'. Example: He is no friend of mine. The possessive: a plural use When reference is made to a number of things, possessed individually by a number of possessors, the things go in the plural despite the fact that each possessor only has one thing. Example: People's hats are blown away by the wind. The children's bedrooms are upstairs. This man is fixing the employees' computers. The women are dancing with their husbands. Expressing possession To have and to have got express an idea of possession. A - Form In the indicative present, µto have got¶ can be conjugated in two forms: a non-contracted form and a contracted form. µGot¶ does not change form. Note. To have got is used less often in the preterite, and does not exist in other tenses. Non-contracted/ Contracted Form: I have got / I've got, you have got / you've got, he/she/it has got / he's/she's/it's got, we have got / we've got, you have got / you've got, they have got / they've got B - Use In the present indicative, µto have got¶ is often used in spoken language as the equivalent of µto have¶. In the negative form, µto have got¶ and µto hav¶e are constructed differently: haven't got and don't have. Example: I have got my glasses. I haven't got my mask and flippers. I hope we have everything. She doesn't have any children.

The elliptic genitive In the elliptic genitive case, a noun is not mentioned again if its repetition is not essential to the clarity of the sentence. Example: My son is bigger than Karen's (son). Bill's party was as fun as Fred's (party). 2.7.1.21 Expressing possibility May - Might The modal auxiliaries µmay¶ and µmight µare used , among other things, to express a possibility. A - Construction may/might + infinitive without µto¶ when talking about the present or the future. may/might + be + -ing when talking about the present or the future. may/might + have + past participle when talking about the past. The negative is formed as follows: may + not / might + not Example: That may not be true. They might not know about this. In the interrogative form, µto be likely to¶, µis there a possibility¶ and µdo you think¶ are used instead of might and may. Example: Are they likely to be back soon? Is there a possibility he'll go? Do you think you might be able to do it? B - Use µMay¶ expresses a possibility more certain than µmight¶. Example: Strong possibility She may be late because she has a lot to do. Be quiet! He may be sleeping. Example: Large uncertainty I might come tonight, but I'm not sure. I haven't got a towel. John might have taken several. Note. Might is often used in the place of µmay¶: in everyday speech (except that might expresses a doubt greater than may). in indirect style when the sentence is in the past (to keep with the sequence of the tenses). Example: He said he might come tomorrow. µMight¶ is used as well for criticisms or suggestions. Example: You might (as well) take your coat. It's cold outside. You might have asked the technician. He knows a lot. 2.7.1.22 Expressing preference

Expression of preference Two related expressions are used to speak of preference. 'Would prefer' precedes a nominal group, a gerund, or an infinitive. Would can be contracted to 'd. Example: We would prefer one payment. Would you prefer staying at home? I'd prefer to talk to someone else. Note: In sentences containing 'would prefer', negations are placed before the main verb (an infinitive). Example: I'd prefer not to meet him. 'Would rather' is used mainly in spoken language. It is followed by an infinitive without 'to' when only one subject is present (i.e., the verb takes the same subject as does 'would rather'), or by a past subjunctive if there are two. Example: Would you rather be in a compartment? We'd rather he went now. Note: When only one subject is present, negations precede the infinitive. When there are two subjects, negations are applied to the conjugated verb. Example: She'd rather not stay alone. I'd rather we didn't invite him. Would rather 'would rather' precede infinitives without 'to' and may refer to the present or the future.

µWould rather' conveys preference. Example: Would you rather stay inside or go for a walk? I'd rather go for a swim. Its negative is 'would rather not.' Example: I'd rather not go. 2.7.1.23 Expressing probability

Should - Ought to µShould¶ and µought to¶ express, among other things, probability. µShould¶ and µought to¶ are followed by an infinitive and have, in general, a present meaning. µShould¶ is used when talking about wished for or probable events. Example: The train should arrive very soon. Note. The negative form of µshould¶ is µshouldn't¶. Example: We shouldn't be very late. µOught¶ to is used when it is understood that the opposite would be surprising. Example: He is intelligent. He ought to pass the exam. Note. The negative form of µought to¶ is µoughtn't to¶ (or didn't ought to), but it is rarely used. Example: They oughtn't to drive on the main road. Strong probability with 'must' µMust¶ can be used to express a strong probability, something which is almost certain. Example: You must be Mr Land. The dispenser must be out of order. Note. The negative form of µmust¶ is µcannot¶, when it expresses a strong probability. Example: He can't be ill. The UK market can't fall given the current slowdown in the economy. µMust,¶ in this sense, is not used in the future tense, where to be sure + infinitive is preferred. Example: It's sure to be cold tomorrow. In the past tense, must + have + past participle is used. Example: Somebody must have picked my pocket in town yesterday. µMust¶ can be followed by µbe¶, µhave¶ or by verbs taking a predicate or expressing thought processes. µMust¶ can be followed by a continuous form. Example: He must be wondering where I am. 2.7.1.24 Expressing regrets

'Should' and 'ought to' 'Should' or 'ought to' + 'have' + a past participle is used to express a regret. Example: We should have gone to the mountains. Wish When expressing regret in the perspective of a past action, the past perfect subjunctive is used in the dependent clause: subject + wish + subject + verb in past perfect Example: I wish I had paid attention. 2.7.1.25 Expressing reproach

'Should' and 'ought to' 'Should' or 'ought to' + 'have' + a past participle is used to express a reproach. Example: They ought to have invited her.

2.7.1.26

Expressing similarity

Similarity: 'like' and 'as' The preposition µlike¶ introduces a noun or noun phrase or a pronoun. Example: Like most students, I love pizzas. I wish I had a garden like that. The conjunction µas¶ introduces a clause. Example: Some women felt as I did about it. Note. µAs¶ is also used in front of a noun indicating a title, or role. Example: He worked as a taxi driver. I am the company's manager and am therefore acting as legal representative. 2.7.1.27 Expressing suggestions/order

Had better 'Had better' precede infinitives without 'to' and may refer to the present or the future. 'Had better' ('-'d better,' contracted) expresses a firm suggestion or an order. Example: You had better tell her the bad news. You'd better accept it for your career's sake. The negative of 'had better' is as follows: had better + not + infinitive. Example: You'd better not forget my birthday. Note. 'Had' (or '-'d') is often omitted, particularly in speech. Example: You better not shout. Might µMight¶ is used as well for suggestions. Example: You might (as well) take your coat. It's cold outside. Shall The auxiliary 'shall' is rarer in American than in British English; its meaning is most often conveyed, in speech as well as in writing, by the future auxiliary 'will.' Nevertheless, many speakers use 'shall' in first-person questions that ask opinions or imply suggestions. Example: Shall we go? What shall we do about them? Shall we say Wednesday? Shall I help you? Suggestions with 'should' µShould¶ is used in polite speech after verbs or expressions which convey an idea of suggesting, ordering or needing, such as: to suggest - to insist to determine - to order - to be anxious that it is necessary that - it is important that... Example: I suggest you should leave him. He ordered that the man should be released. It is important that they should win. Note. In spoken language, should is left out. Example: I suggest he (should) settle it straightaway. 2.7.1.28 Expressing wish/desire

Wish µWish¶ is used to express a wish: when talking about an event in the present, the past subjunctive is used in the dependent clause: subject + wish + subject + past subjunctive Example: I wish I were rich. I wish she were spending the day with us. She wishes she could be free. Note. In everyday speech, the preterite is used. Example: I wish I was rich.

to express a wish concerning the future, subject + wish + subject + would may be used when it concerns a wish related to an external situation. Example: I wish they wouldn't make such a noise. Note. If the wish is not related to an external situation, subject + hope + subject + will is used. Example: I hope I'll see you again. Would like The conditional 'would like' may express a wish or desire. 'Would like' is contracted '-'d like.' 'Would like' precedes an infinitive or a noun or noun phrase. Example: I would like more details. I would like some sliced bread. I'd like to make a call to New York. I'd like to go to the movies. In the interrogative form, the expression µwould you like¶ has the same meaning as 'do you want' but is a more polite form. Example: What kind of gas would you like? Would you like to have a drink? Would you like to wait for your flight in this lounge? 2.7.1.29 The impersonal structure

The impersonal structure An impersonal structure, used to talk about people in general, is constructed as follows: A - The passive form without the agent. This is only possible if the active sentence contains a direct object. Example: The castle was built in 1478. (Active sentence: Somebody built the castle in 1478.) We are expected at 7 o'clock. (Active sentence: Someone expects us at 7 o'clock.) B - The personal pronouns we, you, they. µWe¶ when the speaker is included in the group of people in question. Example: We drive on the left side of the road. (In this case, the speaker is British.) µYou¶ when the listener is included in the group of people in question, but the speaker, in general, isn't. Example: You drink a lot of tea in Britain. (In this case, the listener is British.) µThey¶ when neither the speaker nor listener are included in the group of people in question. Example: They are very friendly in Ireland. C ± µPeople¶ (plural meaning), µsomebody¶ / µsomeone¶ (singular meaning). Example: People think he's funny. Someone's on the phone for you. D - The indefinite pronoun µone¶ in proverbs or other expressions of that type. Example: One never knows. (More familiar: You never know.) E ± µThere is¶ + noun with a verbal meaning Example: There is a ring at the door. 2.7.1.30 Passive

Construction of the passive The passive exists in every tense. The passive voice is formed as follows: Be (conjugated) + past participle 'By' is used to introduce the person or the object that does the action. Example: A worm is being eaten by the bird. (Active sentence: The bird is eating a worm.) The church was built in 1654. (Active sentence: People built the church in 1654.) My brother is punished by the teacher. (Active sentence: The teacher punishes my brother.) Get + past participle

'Get' is used to express: - the passage from one state of being to another. Example: They'll get married in two months. ± - an idea of some effort being undertaken. Example: Be careful, or you'll get yourself punished. We'll try to get invited. Use of the passive The passive is used to describe an event happening to the subject. The passive verb can be followed by an agent introduced by 'by'. This is, in fact, the subject of the active sentence. Example: The thief was caught by the police. (Active sentence: The police caught the thief.) Some verbs in the passive are never followed by an agent, such as to be born and to be left (in the sense of 'to remain'). Note. The subject of the passive sentence is in general the direct object in the active sentence. Example: Passive sentence: The painting was signed by Dalí. (Active sentence: Dalí signed the painting.) However, the indirect object of an active sentence can also become the subject in the passive. Example: Passive sentence: She was told the truth. (Active sentence: Somebody told her the truth.) The agent introduced by 'by' can be an indirect interrogative (or exclamatory) clause. Example: I'm amazed by how clever you are. 2.7.1.31 Phrasal verb particles

Phrasal verb particles The main phrasal verb particles are: Away distance: to go away disappearance: to melt away, to sweep away an energetic action: to talk away, to cry away Back backward movement: to fall back, to stand back return to the point of departure: to bring back, to go back retort, revenge: to answer back, to shout back, to hit back reserved attitude: to hold back Down downward movement: to go down act of writing: to take down, to write down reduction, decrease: to turn down In inward movement: to get in inside (without movement): to be in visit: to drop in Off averting: to put off departure: to go off, to take off interruption: to switch off , to turn off, completion: to finish off On contact: to try on movement: come on continuation: to go on

start: to switch on, to turn on Out outward movement: to go out, to move out outside (without movement): to eat out extension: to spread out, to stretch out distribution: to give out clarification, externalization: to find out, to yell out exhaustion: to run out of suddenness: to break out Over passage (from one person to another, from one country to another): to pass over turning or tipping action: to turn over repetition: to say over action done with care: to think over Up upward movement: to climb up enhanced intensity: to speak up completion: to drink up, to eat up continuation of a path: to go further up 2.7.1.32 Plural/Singular

The plural In general, the plural is formed by adding an -s to the end of the noun. Example: a book - books ; a house - houses Nouns that end with an -s, -sh, -ch and -x, as well as certain other nouns that end with an -o, have a plural ending of -es. Example: bus - buses ; box - boxes ; dish ± dishes ; beach ± beaches ; tomato - tomatoes Nouns that end with a -y have a plural ending of -ies. Example: family - families Some nouns have irregular plural endings. The main ones are: man - men ; woman women ; foot - feet ; child ± children Nouns without singular forms Some plural nouns have no singular forms. These include the following. certain nouns referring to objects composed of two symmetrical parts, e.g. 'jeans,' 'shorts,' 'pajamas,' 'pants,' or 'scissors' Note. When used as countable nouns, such nouns are preceded by 'a pair of.' Example: My pants are too short. She bought two pairs of scissors. certain collective nouns, e.g. 'clothes,' 'goods,' 'people,' 'cattle,' or 'poultry' Example: People are very friendly here. Note. At times, 'people' is the plural form of 'person.' 'Head of cattle,' in which 'head' is invariable, is the singular of 'cattle.' The rare 'article of clothing' is the singular of 'clothes.' Example: There were ten people at the party. They have ten head of cattle. ' savings,' 'riches' and 'remains' Example: She used her savings to invest in a start-up. Singular nouns in '-s' Some nouns end in '-s' in the singular. The uncountable noun 'news' is always singular. Example: The news is great. (singular use, plural meaning) This is an interesting piece of news. (singular use, singular meaning) 'Means' may be singular or plural.

Example: Tramways/Subways are an excellent means of transport in cities. (singular use, singular meaning) Use whatever means are necessary. (plural use, plural meaning) 2.7.1.33 Prepositions

Prepositions of place An adverbial phrase of place is always preceded by a preposition of place. The principal prepositions of place are: µat¶ µin¶ µnear¶ µon¶ µunder¶ µbetween¶ µbehind¶ µopposite¶ µacross¶ µin front ofµ Example: My mom is at home. My sister is in her room. I'm standing near the window. The adverbial phrase of place is always preceded by a preposition of place. Prepositions of time 'At' is used with the hours and indicates a precise instant. Example: I always get up at seven. The supermatket/store opens at noon. 'In' is used with the months, seasons, and years. Example: My birthday's in August. In the summer, it's nice. I was born in 1975. 'In' may also express a duration. Example: He finished his work in two days. It's going to close in ten minutes. I haven't seen him in years. 'On' introduces specific dates and days of the week. Example: My birthday's on September 24th. You'll have to arrive on a Saturday. I go to the cinema/movies on Saturdays. Note. 'On' can be omitted in such cases. Example: I'm leaving (on) Tuesday. Final prepositions In certain clauses a preposition may be placed after the verb: in a clause introduced by an interrogative pronoun, and in an indirect clause. Example: What kind of music do you like to listen to? What ad are you talking about? I never know where the wind is coming from. In relative clauses (whose relative pronouns, in such cases, are usually omitted) Example: I don't like the girl she's talking to. ('who(m)' is omitted) We've forgotten the discount we talked about. ('which' is omitted) In infinitive clauses Example: She has nothing to complain about. elliptical questions. In such cases, the prepositions go after the interrogative pronouns. Example: Yesterday I went to the opera. Who with? Note. In an elliptical question expressing surprise or indignation, the preposition precedes the interrogative pronoun. Example: I just came back from Brazil. From where? Note. Final prepositions are very common in writing and dominant in speech. Nevertheless, many Americans still follow a traditional rule according to which no sentence must ever end with a preposition. Following this rule entails placing prepositions before their objects. Example: He is the one to whom I addressed my complaint. With what money are you planning to buy the car? Omission of certain prepositions In American English, certain prepositions (on, in, at...) can be omitted.

Example: She arrived Thursday (= on Thursday). We usually go hiking Sundays (= on Sundays). He often gets up nights (= in the night). I won't be home (at home) till 7 o'clock. The prepositions 'in' and 'at' µAt¶ is used: before the number of a house. Example: The British Prime Minister lives at 10, Downing Street. John lives at 7498, 85th Street. when it concerns a precise and fixed place. Example: at the station, at one's office, at the doctor's, at the chemist's, at the door, at his desk. before certain nouns: Example: at home, at school, at work, at university. µIn¶ is used: before the name of a street or a region. Example: My friend lives in Chestnut Street. During the holidays I'll go to Hartford, Connecticut, in New England. before certain nouns. Example: in bed, in the hospital, in the sun, in the shade, in the rain. Before the names of buildings, work or meeting places, the following rules apply: µat¶ is used when referring to the activity rather than the place itself, or when the place is used for a meeting. Example: I'll see you at the restaurant. He's working at The Farmers' Bank. µIn¶ is used in all other cases. Example: We ate in a beautiful restaurant. There are many employees in The Farmers' Bank. With names of towns: A - µIn¶ is used before the name: of a city or large town. Example: He works in London/Chicago. of small towns (or a small villages) or which has significance for the speaker. Example: I spent a year in Guildford, near Woking. I spent a year in Tampa, near Orlando. We had lunch in Stratford-upon-Avon, where Shakespeare was born. We had lunch in Boston, where Benjamin Franklin was born. B - µAt¶ is used before the names of: small villages, small towns, cities and large towns that have no importance for the speaker. Example: We spent the night at East Horsley We spent the night at Ocala. We stopped at London before going to Glasgow. We stopped at Newark before going to Toronto. 2.7.1.34 Probability

Should - Ought to 'Should' and 'ought to' often express probability. Both forms introduce infinitives and, usually, refer to the present. 'Should' describes events that are desirable or probable. Example: The train should arrive very soon. Note. The negative of 'should' is 'shouldn't.' Example: They shouldn't be hard to find. 'Ought to' implies an expectation or assumption. Example: He is intelligent. He ought to pass the exam. Note. Use of 'ought not (to),' the negative of 'ought to,' is exceedingly rare. Example: They ought not to drive on the main road. The distinction between 'should' (the more common of the two) and 'ought to' is often ignored. Strong probability using 'must' 'Must' may express strong probability or near certainty.

Example: You must be Mr. Land. Your car must be worn out! Note. When 'must' is used to express strong probability, its negative form is 'cannot.' Example: He can't be ill. That can't be easy. 'Must' in this sense has no future: 'probably' or, alternatively, subject + 'to be sure' + a clause referring to the future is used instead. In the present perfect, 'must' + 'have' + past participle is used. Example: I will probably go to bed. I'm sure I'll come back. Somebody must have picked my pocket in town yesterday. ' Be,' 'have,' verbs introducing predicates or describing mental operations, and, generally, progressive forms may follow 'must.' Example: He must be wondering where I am. 2.7.1.35 Pronouns

Object pronouns A - Form Singular/Plural 1st person me/us Singular/Plural 2nd person you/you Singular/Plural 3rd person him/them (masculine) ; her/them (feminine) ; it/them (neuter) B - Use They are used as direct or indirect complements to the object, or after prepositions. They are always placed after the verb. When a verb is followed by a particle, the object pronoun is always put between the verb and the particle. Example: She's looking at me. We'll pick you up at eight. I'll give them the papers. Possessive pronouns A - Form Singular/Plural 1st person mine/ours Singular/Plural 2nd person yours/yours Singular/Plural 3rd person his/theirs (masculine) ; hers/theirs (feminine) ; its/theirs (neuter) B - Use The possessive pronoun replaces a noun or noun phrase. It is never preceded by a determiner. It doesn't vary in function with the nominal group that it replaces. Example: This skirt is mine (my skirt). These skirts are mine (my skirts). In the third person singular, the possessive pronoun agrees with the gender and number of the possessor. Example: This is Edward's hat - This is his. I like her shoes - I like hers. Reflexive pronouns A - Form Singular/Plural 1st person: myself/ourselves Singular/Plural 2nd person: yourself/yourselves Singular/Plural 3rd person: himself/themselves (masculine) ; herself/themselves (feminine) ; itself/themselves (neuter) B - Use Reflexive pronouns are used: when the subject and the object of a sentence are the same Example: They hurt themselves. Now, tell me about yourself! to emphasize a person or thing in particular. In such a case, the reflexive pronoun is not the object of the verb. Example: I can manage myself. Relative pronouns

The Relative Pronouns µWho¶ is the relative subject pronoun (singular and plural) that refers to a person. Example: I like people who are honest. µThat¶ and µwhich¶ are the relative subject pronouns and direct and indirect objects (singular and plural). µThat¶ is restrictive, while µwhich¶ is not. Example: She's reading a book that makes her laugh. The shoes, which I bought yesterday, hurt my feet. µWhom¶ is the relative indirect object pronoun (singular and plural) that refers to an animate antecedent. Example: The boy whom you met is my cousin. Here is the woman whom you were looking at. Note. µWhom¶ is often replaced by µwho¶. µWhose¶ and of µwhich¶ replace a noun phrase which complements a noun. µWhose¶ refers to an animate or inanimate antecedent. Example: The girl whose dad is a scientist is very clever. (Animate antecedent.) Her room is the one whose door is locked. (Inanimate antecedent.) µOf which¶ refers to an inanimate antecedent. Example: She's in the room the door of which is locked. µWhat¶ and µwhich¶ are the relative subject and object pronouns (direct and indirect) that announce or continue previous clauses. Example: I don't understand what you're saying. Darkness is what I'm afraid of. He said he's lazy, which is true. She'll give a party, which I'm excited about. Subject pronouns Singular/Plural 1st person I/we Singular/Plural 2nd person you/you Singular/Plural 3rd person he (masculine), she (feminine), it (neuter)/ they Use of the pronoun 'one' The pronoun 'one' (or 'ones' in the plural) is used after an adjective to replace: a countable noun already expressed. Example: I bought a red shirt and a blue one. She saw some beautiful homes and some ugly ones too. a noun that hasn't been expressed. Example: That's a nice one. The sensible ones have done their homework. 'One' is sometimes omitted in a question expressing a choice (with which one), in literary language, or, in a general sense, after a superlative. Example: Which one will you take, the blue one or the yellow one? Spanish bulls are more fiery than Mexican ones. (D.H. Lawrence). Your suit is the most beautiful one. Note. 'One' is not used to replace: a noun indicating a person or a generalization. Example: A blond woman and a dark-haired woman. (instead of 'a dark-haired one') American cars are often bigger than French cars. (instead of 'French ones') an uncountable noun (after an adjective). Example: Italian coffee is stronger than American coffee. 2.7.1.36 Quantity

A little - A bit 'A little' is used with uncountable nouns to designate a small quantity. It may also replace nouns to avoid repetition. Example: We wanted a little fresh air. Do you want some coffee? A little, please. 'A little' is also an adverb of degree used before adjectives and after verbs. Example: We're a little busy today. This tooth aches a little. 'A bit' is often used instead of a µlittle¶ in spoken language.

Example: It's a bit bright but it looks nice. Note: 'A bit' is followed by 'of' before nominal groups and pronouns. Example: I have a bit of work to do. Do you want some cake? I still have a bit of it. Few - A few - Many The indefinite adjectives (or pronouns) µfew¶, µa few¶ and µmany¶ express a notion of quantity and are used before a countable plural noun. µFew¶ is used to stress a very small quantity. Example: He has few friends. µA few¶ is used to stress a small quantity, but contrary to few, it is only a simple statement. When µa few¶ is used with µthe¶, µthese¶ or µthose¶, the indefinite article ³a´ disappears. Example: He has a few friends abroad. The few people I met have gone. µMany¶ is used when describing a large quantity. It is usually used in a negative sentence. Example: There aren't many companies in that area. Note. Often, in the affirmative form, µmany¶ is replaced by µa lot of¶ (or lots of) or µplenty of¶. Example: She has lots of friends. When the noun is understood, the indefinite adjectives become indefinite pronouns. Example: These students are working hard and many (students) are quite clever. Little - A little - Much The indefinite adjectives (or pronouns) µlittle¶, µa little¶ and µmuch¶ express a notion of quantity and are used before an uncountable singular noun. µLittle¶ is used to stress a very small quantity. Example: There is very little juice left. µA little¶ is used when describing a small quantity, but contrary to µlittle¶, it is only a simple statement. Example: There is a little juice in the fridge, if you want. µMuch´ is used when describing a large quantity. It is usually used in a negative sentence. Example: There isn't much juice left. Note. Often, in the affirmative form, µmuch¶ is replaced by µa lot of¶ or µplenty of¶ or µa great deal of¶. Example: There's a lot of tea in China. When the noun is understood, the indefinite adjectives become indefinite pronouns. Example: There is little (juice) left. How much - How many 'How much' and 'how many' are interrogative quantifiers. 'How much' is used before a singular noun and how many before a plural noun. Example: How much sauce do you want? How many bedrooms are there? How many friends have you got? The nouns and noun phrases may be implied. In such cases, 'how much' and 'how many' are pronouns. Example: How much (money) is it? How many (books) do you have? Some - Any The article 'some' is used in front of a countable plural or uncountable noun or noun phrase to express an undetermined/unspecified quantity. Example: Some children were playing outside. I've got a busy day tomorrow and I must get some sleep. The pronoun 'some' replaces a countable plural or uncountable noun or noun phrase. Example: If you like milk, I have some. If you like yoghurts, there are some in the fridge. Where are the sponges? We have to buy some.

The article or the pronoun 'any' replaces the article or the pronoun 'some' in an interrogative or negative clause. Example: Do you have any children? No, we don't have any. Are there any cross-country trails here? No, there aren't any. 'Some,' 'any': singular or plural? When 'some,' 'any,' 'none,' 'all' and 'most' refer to a singular noun, the verb is singular. When they refer to a plural noun, the verb is plural. Example: Some of the meal was really good. Some of the books are quite funny. None of the presentation seems interesting. None of the stories seem interesting. 2.7.1.37 Superlatives

Regular superlatives The superlative of superiority takes the following forms. With short adjectives, 'the' or a possessive + adjective + '-est' is used. (Short adjectives are those having one or ² if the adjective ends in '-er,' '-ow,' '-le,' or '-y' ² two syllables. Final '-y' is replaced by '-i' before '-est.') Example: She would choose the cheapest possible car. I was the lousiest golfer on the course. Note. '-st' is the ending for adjectives ending in '-e.' Example: We have the latest camping equipment. When an adjective ends in one vowel + one consonant, the consonant is doubled. Example: This is the biggest skyscraper in the world. With long adjectives, 'the most' + adjective is used. Example: These guys are the most intelligent I've ever met. It will soon be July 4th, the most popular American holiday. The superlative of inferiority is formed using 'the least' + adjective. Example: She's the least outgoing of my friends. This restaurant is the least expensive in town. Note. Superlatives are followed by 'in' before singular nouns describing places, and by 'of' or 'in' in other cases. Example: It's the highest mountain in the world. He's the kindest of my friends. She's the oldest member of the family. She's the richest woman in the family. 'The' + a comparative is the superlative form when only two elements are compared. Example: This painting is the prettier of the two. She is the more intelligent of the two sisters. Irregular superlatives Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular superlative forms. The most common examples follow. Adjective or adverb Irregular superlative µgood¶, µthe best¶, µbad¶, µthe worst¶, µfar¶, µthe farthest¶,¶the furthest¶, µmuch¶, µmany¶, µthe most¶, µlittle¶, µthe least¶ Absolute superlative The absolute superlative of superiority may be formed in the following ways: ' very' + adjective µmuch¶ + past participle Example: You've been very helpful. The children are very excited tonight. Computers are much used nowadays. However, lots of past participles are used as adjectives and are therefore preceded by µvery¶. With 'most', 'so' or with adverbs ending in -ly Example: The setting under the dome is most effective. Your parents are so nice with me. I'm awfully sorry. with a superlative ending in -est + 'of' Example: They were the oldest of friends.

To express the absolute superlative of inferiority, 'not very', 'far from', and 'less than' are used. Example: I can see you're not very happy today. Her joke was far from funny. The noise is less than reassuring. 2.7.1.38 The address

Addresses in Great Britain When writing an address, the name of the person or the company is followed by the number and the name of the street, the town, the post code and the country. Example: London Engineering Systems 7 Sisters Avenue London SW15 9EJ Great Britain In clauses, µat¶ is used in front of the number of a house and µin¶ before the name of a street or town. Example: He lives at number 32. The shop's in Oxford Street. Note. When the name of the street follows the number, the preposition µin¶ is not used. Example: He lives at number 32, Oxford Street. Addresses in the USA An American address includes ² in order ² the name of a person or business; a street number and name (sometimes followed by an apartment number); and a city, state (usually abbreviated), and ZIP (postal) code. ('USA' should follow on correspondence of foreign origin.) Example: Jane McFadden 6020 Franconia Road Pittsburgh, PA 15238 USA Auralog Inc. 3344 East Camelback #107 Phoenix, AZ 85018 USA Note. When addresses are included in sentences, commas replace line breaks. Example: Write to me at 25 Canute Drive, Richmond, VA 23234. In clauses, 'at' precedes house numbers, 'on' precedes streets, and 'in' precedes cities and states. Example: He lives at number 32. The shop's on State Street. She works in Philadelphia. Note. When a house number precedes a street name, 'on' is not used. Example: He lives at number 32, State Street. 2.7.1.39 The age

Expressing age Age is expressed: µto be¶ + number + µyears old¶. Example: I'm nineteen years old. My dog's two years old. Note. When talking about a person, µyears¶ old is often left out. Example: I'm nineteen.

2.7.1.40

The currency

British money The currency of Great Britain is the pound, the penny being one hundredth of a pound. The plural of penny is pence. Example: £4 = four pounds £4.50 = four pounds fifty 25 p = twenty-five pence Note. £ is placed in front of the figure and p is placed after the figure. American money The United States' primary monetary unit is the dollar. A cent is a hundredth of a dollar. Example: $4 = four dollars $1 million = one million dollars $4.50 = four dollars and fifty cents (or four fifty) $.25 = twenty-five dollars Note. $ precedes the number to which it refers, ¢ follows the number to which it refers. American coins have various names. 1¢ = a penny 5¢ = a nickel 10¢ = a dime 25¢ = a quarter 50¢ = a half dollar Note. A number of countries besides the United States have monetary units called dollars. To distinguish among these various currencies, it is useful to speak of 'US dollars' (or 'American dollars'), 'Canadian dollars,' 'Australian dollars,' etc. 2.7.1.41 The date

The date Dates are written as cardinal numbers and pronounced as ordinal numbers. Days and months are capitalized. There are different ways of writing the date. Example: Monday 5th May 1996 Monday, May 5, 1996 Sunday, 22nd August 1999 Saturday June 3rd In a clause, µon¶ precedes the date. Example: I'll meet Mrs Beckett on Friday 16th. When the day of the week precedes the day of the month, a definite article introduces the latter (which is expressed as an ordinal). Example: Friday the 16th (or 'Friday 16') (written) = Friday the sixteenth (oral) In speech, the day of the month and month can be expressed using definite article + day (as an ordinal) + 'of' + month. Example: 10th June: the tenth of June In writing, the month - whether spelled out or expressed as a number - usually precedes the day. Example: January 1, 2000 ; 6/25/89 Years are read in sets of two numbers; the second set is read hundred for -00 and O + the number for the series -01 to -09. Example: 1999: nineteen ninety-nine 1900: nineteen hundred 1909: nineteen-o-nine Exception is made, however, for any year whose third digit is '0': '-00' is pronounced 'hundred,' and '-01' through '-09' are pronounced 'O' + digit. Decades are expressed using 'the' + multiple of ten. Example: I like the fashion of the sixties.

2.7.1.42

The nationality

Nouns and adjectives of nationality English nouns and adjectives of nationality can be divided into the following four categories: in certain cases, only an adjective exists. To form the noun form, another noun, which designates some category of person, is added. In such a case, the collective noun is formed using 'the' + adjective. Example: I'm English. Yesterday, I met an English woman. The English are fond of tea. in other cases, the singular noun and the adjective are identical. The collective is expressed using 'the' + the plural noun form. Example: I married a Norwegian. The Norwegians are used to the cold. sometimes, the singular noun differs from the adjective and the collective noun form is 'the' + the plural noun. Example: A Spaniard is coming tonight. The Spanish government. The Spaniards have lunch at 2 p.m. finally, sometimes the noun, adjective and collective forms are all identical. Example: I bought some Portuguese wine. The Portuguese are a warm people. Note: Adjectives of nationality are capitalized. Many nationality adjectives are identical to the nouns designating the corresponding languages. Example: He speaks French, Russian and Chinese. Nationalities: capital letters Nationalities, whether used as nouns or as adjectives, are capitalized. Example: You'll meet lots of Americans here. I'm half French, half Italian. Note. Languages are also capitalized. Example: I don't speak English very well. 2.7.1.43 The percentage

Expressing percentages Percentages are expressed using number + % or µpercent¶. Example: We've reduced the size by about 20% (percent). Note. With half, percent is a one word noun and is preceded by the indefinite article. Example: The winning margin was less than half a percent. When used as adjectives, percentages precede the nouns they modify. Example: We'll have to pay a 40% deposit. It's 100% coverage. 2.7.1.44 The Time

Time A question beginning with 'what time' is used to ask the time of day. Example: What time is it? What time do you get up? Here are the different ways of telling the time: The time + 'o'clock' indicates an exact hour. Example: It's six o'clock. Note. 'O'clock' is only used for times exactly on the hour and is often unstated but understood. To express a half-hour in spoken (and, less often, written) language, the preceding hour + '-thirty' is used. Example: The clock says eight-thirty. The clock says 8:30. (written) To express a quarter-hour in spoken (and, less often, written) language, '(a) quarter after' + the preceding hour, or the preceding hour + '-fifteen,' is used.

Example: It's a quarter after two. It's two-fifteen. It's 2:15. (written) To express a time forty-five minutes after the hour, in spoken (and, less often, written) language, '(a) quarter to' + the following hour, or the preceding hour + '(-)forty-five,' is used. Example: He'll be there at quarter to five. He'll be there at 4:45. (written) We'll meet at three forty-five. We'll meet at 3:45. (written) Note. American speakers and, less often, writers sometimes use the British expressions 'half past' and '(a) quarter past.' Example: The clock says half past eight. She's coming at a quarter past two. In many parts of the United States, '(a) quarter of' is used²most often in spoken language²in place of '(a) quarter to.' Example: It's a quarter of four. To express times between the hour and the half-hour, in spoken (and, less often, written) language, the minutes + 'after' + the preceding hour, or the preceding hour + the minutes, is used. Example: The passengers will disembark at around ten after two. It's one-twenty. Note. The British 'past' is sometimes used instead of 'after' in the United States. Example: It's ten past three. To express times between the half-hour and the hour, in spoken (and, less often, written) language, the minutes + 'to' (or 'of') + the following hour, or the preceding hour + the minutes, is used. Example: I'll stay until five to eight. She came at five of eight. The plane leaves at seven fifty-five. Note. The United States uses a twelve-hour clock. To clarify the time of day, 'a.m.' ('ante meridiem' ['before noon']) or 'p.m.' ('post meridiem' ['after noon']) may be added. At times these abbreviations are replaced by 'in the morning,' 'in the afternoon,' 'in the evening,' 'this morning,' 'this afternoon,' or 'tonight.' Example: The figures are due at 1:30 p.m. She works from ten in the morning to six in the evening. Let's meet at three in the afternoon. I'll call you at seven tonight. Hour - Time - O'clock µHour¶ is used to express a specific duration. Example: Shall we meet at the harbour in an hour? I have to be at the theater in a half hour! µTime¶ is used to indicate an unspecified duration. Example: We won't have time to see him. Take your time. µTime¶ also refers to the time indicated by the clock. µTime¶ is used especially in asking the time. Example: What time is it? Is it time to go? µO'clock¶ expresses the exact time of day and is often left out. Example: It's six (o'clock). I'd like to watch the nine o'clock news. 2.7.1.45 The different meanings of µall´

Different meanings of 'all' 'All' is used as a determiner. µAll¶ precedes and modifies uncountable or plural countable nouns. When it designates all of something limited, the noun follows 'the' or a demonstrative or possessive adjective. Example: The cat drank all the milk. Make sure you take all your pills! Note: When 'all' expresses a general meaning, no article precedes the noun. Example: All children like sweets. The Internet has spread to all sectors of the population. 'All' may also be used in two ways with personal pronouns: personal pronoun + 'all', or 'all of' + personal pronoun.

Example: Have you read these books? I've read them all. or I've read all of them. When 'all' is used with a subject pronoun, it may occupy various positions in the sentence. It is placed either before a simple verb, or after a modal, an auxiliary, or 'to be'. Example: The girls all left early. We will all have some tomato juice. They're all ready to go. Note: In a short answer, 'all' is placed before the auxiliary, the modal or 'to be'. Example: Do you like this film? We all do. 'All' may be used as an object pronoun. Example: That's all we have. That's all we need. Note: The whole expression is actually µall that¶, but 'that' is left out

2.7.1.46

The different meanings of µquite´

Different meanings of 'quite' µQuite¶ is used to express incontestable facts. Example: You're quite right. I'm afraid that's quite out of the question. µQuite¶ is also used with adjectives expressing a personal opinion. In such cases it has a slightly restrictive meaning. Example: He's quite good at tennis. Your guaranteed delivery date option seems quite expensive to me. µQuite¶ is used on its own to express approval. Example: That was a good meal. Yes, quite. µQuite a few¶ is used with a plural noun to express a large quantity. Example: I have quite a few letters for you. 2.7.1.47 The different meanings of µrather´

Different meanings of 'rather' µRather¶ is in general placed in front of the word whose meaning it modifies. µRathe¶ can be used with adjectives with negative connotations. Example: After a rather stressful day, I go back home for a well-earned rest. µRather¶ can also be used with adjectives with positive connotations. Example: She's rather clever. µRather¶ can be used with a noun or noun phrase or a verb. Before a noun or noun phrase, µrather¶ can either precede or follow the indefinite article. Example: That's a rather good idea. It's rather a strange family. I rather like this town. Note. Rather . . . than may be used to express a comparison. Example: I'd rather eat now than wait for her. 2.7.1.48 The different meanings of µsince´

Different meanings of 'since' µSince¶ is used as a preposition in front of a date, hour, or moment when an action has begun. Example: I've known her since 1994. A lot of progress has been made since the days of MS-DOS. Note: The verb is in the simple present perfect to express continuity up to the present or in the simple past perfect to express continuity up until a moment in the past. Example: He's been ill since Monday. We had to leave the town where I had lived since my childhood.

The conjunction 'since' introduces a subordinate clause. The verb of the subordinate clause is in the preterite if the action is finished, or in the present perfect if the action is ongoing. Example: We haven't called him since we arrived. Since I've been here, I haven't had the time or the money to buy much. µSince¶ is also used as an adverb, in which case it goes at the end of the clause. Example: He lost his job four months ago and he's been unemployed since. µSince¶ can be followed by µthen¶. Example: Since then, the Internet has spread to all sectors of the population. 'Since' may also be used as a conjunction to introduce expressions of causality in all tenses. Example: Since it's raining, we won't go to the seaside. 2.7.1.49 The place of µenough¶

The place of 'enough' The adverb 'enough' is placed: after adjectives and adverbs Example: I'm not tall enough. This is clean enough.You drive fast enough. before nouns and noun phrases Example: But there aren't enough pillows! I haven't got enough red plates. after verbs, including past participles. Example: Do you sleep enough? One pound is enough. I've eaten enough. 2.7.1.50 The place of µeven¶

The place of 'even' The adverb 'even' expresses the unexpected or paradoxical nature of fact and precedes the word it modifies. µEven¶ can be used in front of a noun or noun phrase, a pronoun, a verb or between the auxiliary and the main verb. Example: Even my sister will be there. Even you can come. He's so kind he even did the cooking. I've even invited John. 'Even' can also be used before a comparative. Example: It's even better than a car. 'Not even' even is placed just after the verb or before a noun. Example: I don't even know you. Not even a genius could solve this problem. 2.7.1.51 The use of µboth¶

Use of 'both' 'Both' is used in the following ways and refers to exactly two elements: as an adjective Example: Both children are sleeping. Both versions are identical. as a pronoun Example: Are you writing or listening? I'm doing both. 'Both of' + personal pronoun is used as a quantifier. Example: Hands up! Both of you! 2.7.1.52 The use of µelse¶

Use of 'else' 'Else' is used after the compounds of 'some,' 'any,' 'no,' and 'every.'

Example: You should ask someone else. I've nothing else to tell you. Is there anything else you'd like? Note. µElse¶ can be used with the possessive ending. Example: I took somebody else's coat. Else is also used after µmuch¶, µlittle¶ and the interrogative pronouns µwhat¶, µwho¶ and µwhere¶. Example: There was little else to be said. What else could I do? Note. 'Somewhere else' and 'elsewhere' are synonymous. Or µelse¶ is often used as a linking adverb in the sense of 'otherwise'. Example: Write back, or else I won't write to you again. 2.7.1.53 The use of µso¶

Uses of 'so' 'So' + adjective or adverb is used to express an exclamation. Example: Why is this taking so long? Don't be so sensitive! Gliding is so majestic and free! Note. 'So' can be followed by a 'that' clause, in which 'that' may be left out. Example: He was driving so fast that he went through a red light. 'So' placed at the beginning of a clause is used as an adverb. Example: So you found a job? It's 100% coverage, so it is particularly attractive. 'So' can replace a clause in an elliptical sentence or in tags. Example: We thank you for flying with us and hope you'll do so again. He's late, so am I. I don't think so. Note. Use of 'so' is impossible in certain negative elliptical clauses. In such cases, 'not' is used and goes after the verb. Example: Do you think he's going to come? I hope not. 2.7.1.54 µTo be¶

The verb 'to be' To be is both: a stative verb, an auxiliary In the present indicative it is conjugated as follows. I am, you are, he/she/it is, we are, you are, they are Contraction of 'to be' A - Construction In the present indicative, the verb 'to be' can be conjugated in two ways: Noncontracted/Contracted form: I am/I'm, you are/you're, he/she/it is /he's/she's/it's, we are/we're, you are/you're, they are/they're B - Use The non-contracted form is commonly used to emphasize 'to be' and to ask questions. Example: Yes, I am old. My hair is very dark brown. Are these your glasses? Yes, they are. I'm as old as you are. The contracted form is used when 'to be' is not emphasized, and is more common with pronouns than with nouns. Example: Of course, I'm a man! She's with our son and daughter. You're not old, are you? Note. 'To be' has no contracted form in the preterite. 2.7.1.55 µTo have¶

The verb 'to have'

A - Construction To have is both an auxiliary and an ordinary verb, and is conjugated in the present indicative as follows: I have, you have, he/she/it has, we have, you have, they have B - Use The verb to have expressing possession is often followed by got (past participle of to get) in everyday speech. The auxiliary have disappears completely sometimes, which results in: I got, he got... Example: You've got (or you got) a nice sweater. In the interrogative and negative forms, to have (got) is conjugated with the auxiliary do, as with an ordinary verb. In these two forms, got is never used. Example: Do you have a car? How many children do you have? Did you have a good time? Yes, we did. She doesn't have any pets. I didn't have my credit card with me. Note. The questions introduced by the interrogative pronoun 'who' are formed without 'do', but short answers and emphatic structures are formed with 'do'. Example: 'Who has some paper?' 'I do.' They do have nice daughters. Expressions with 'to have' In certain expressions, 'to have' has precise meanings and is conjugated with the auxiliary 'do'. The most common ones are 'to have a bath', 'to have lunch', 'to have a rest', and 'to have a look'. Example: Did you have a bath last night? We'll have lunch in a typical London/New Orleans restaurant. These expressions can take progressive and imperative forms. Example: They're having a rest on the terrace. Let's have a look at the models first. 2.7.1.56 Verbs

Verbs expressing a wish to act Certain verbs expressing the will to act can be followed by infinitives and gerunds. 'To intend' and 'to propose' may be used with both infinitives and gerunds. Example: He intends to settle in New York. He intends settling in New York. 'To try' is followed by an infinitive when it describes an effort and by a gerund when it describes an experiment, a trying out. Example: I'm trying to do this exercise. I wouldn't try gliding or rafting. 'To consent' and 'to agree' are used with an infinitive if both verbs in the sentence have the same subject or with 'to' + gerund if the two verbs have two different subjects. Example: She agreed to see the manager. He consented to her coming with us. Note: 'To consent' and 'to agree' can be followed by 'to' + noun. Example: Do you agree to our conditions? I consent to the terms of the contract. Verbs expressing impressions and feelings Verbs expressing impressions and feelings ('to look', 'to sound', 'to smell', 'to taste', 'to feel') may be followed by: the preposition 'like' Example: He looks like his father. It sounds like you're angry. It smells like smoke. It feels like velvet. This cake tastes just like the one I had yesterday. 'as if / as though' Example: You look as if you didn't (or don't) understand me. It sounds as if you weren't (or aren't) listening to me. It smelt as if she had burnt something. These potatoes taste as if I added too much salt. I felt as if I were (or was) going to fall asleep. an adjective Example: He looks happy. This ice cream tastes very good. It feels funny to write with my left hand. I felt so sick! Verbs: reactions and preferences

Some verbs express thought reactions and preferences. They are followed only by the gerund (-ing). Other verbs, according to the meaning of the sentence, are followed by the gerund or the infinitive. A - A few verbs are followed only by the gerund: µto enjoy¶, µto mind¶, µto resent¶, µto object to¶, µto miss¶ and µcannot stand¶. Example: They enjoy dancing very much. Would you mind holding my jacket for a second? B - Some verbs are followed by the gerund or the infinitive: µto like¶, µto love¶, µto dislike¶, µto hate¶, µto prefer¶, µto loathe¶ and µcannot bear¶. They are followed by the gerund (-ing) when they express usual reactions or unchanging tastes. Example: I love traveling. She dislikes watching television. They are followed by the infinitive when they express reactions to precise actions. Example: I prefer to stay and leave tomorrow. Verbs expressing stages of an action Some verbs express the idea of beginning, continuation or end of an action and are only followed by the gerund (formed by adding -ing). The main ones are: to stop, to finish, to go on, to keep (on)... Example: Stop shouting! She's finished eating. They kept on spending money. To begin, to start, to continue and to cease are followed by either a gerund (-ing) or an infinitive. Example: I continued to play golf until late at night. I continued playing golf until late at night. To begin and to start are followed by the infinitive to emphasize an action, and by the gerund (-ing) to emphasize the notion of the beginning or continuation of an action Example: It started to snow. She starts working at 7 o'clock, which is early. Verbs introducing a second action Many verbs expressing an invitation to act are followed by 'to' + infinitive. These include 'to ask', 'to invite', 'to encourage', 'to dissuade', 'to lead', 'to advise', 'to warn', 'to tell', 'to order', etc. Example: My mum asked me to do the shopping. I'm invited to go to dinner with him. That would lead you to come back early. The boss told me to proofread a new document. Verbs with reflexive or reciprocal meaning Certain verbs used alone (without a reflexive or reciprocal pronoun) have a reflexive meaning ('to wash,' 'to dress,' 'to hide') or a reciprocal meaning ('to meet,' 'to fight,' 'to unite'). Example: I have to wash and dress quickly this morning. I couldn't find you. Did you hide behind the door? Where shall we meet? Verbs without a continuous form: Some verbs are generally used in the simple form. These include: the verbs of involuntary perception: to hear, to see. the verbs expressing beliefs, preferences, feelings, appearances... For example: to be (the most common), to believe, to feel, to know, to like, to love, to mean, to prefer, to think, to understand, to want, to realise, to have (got) and have (got) to. Example: She wants chocolate. I think you're right about that. Note. When they are used in the continuous form, some of these verbs change their meanings. Verbs without continuous form: exceptions

Some verbs that normally take the simple form can be used in the continuous form in certain cases. When the verb µto think¶ is used in the continuous form, it has a different meaning with respect to the simple form. Example (continuous form): I'm thinking of my friend who's taking an exam. We're thinking of going to the cinema tonight. Example (simple form): What do you think of this movie? The verbs of perception are used in the continuous form when they express a voluntary action. Example: To see if he has a fever, the mother is feeling the child's head. The verb to want is often used in the continuous form in the present perfect. Example: I've been wanting to take dance lessons for ages. The verb to like is used in the continuous form in everyday language: How are you liking... ? with the meaning: 'Are you enjoying... ?' Example: How are you liking your stay? The verb µto have¶ can be used in the continuous form in the expression to have something done (in the passive), and in expressions such as µto have dinner¶. Example: They're having a chimney built. My friend's having dinner in a nice restaurant tonight. The verb µto be¶ can be used in the continuous form either as an auxiliary in the passive voice or followed by an object to insist on the fact that it refers to the present moment. Example: The building is being renovated. Usually you're quite serious, but right now you're being crazy! Verbs without continuous forms: exceptions: Certain verbs which do not normally take the continuous form may do so nonetheless: Verbs of perception such as 'to see', 'to hear', 'to feel', 'to smell', 'to taste' when they express voluntary actions. Example: We definitely won't be seeing dunes or geysers! The doctor was feeling his pulse. Stative verbs expressing notions of belief, preference, feeling or an intellectual activity such as 'to think' (to reflect) different from 'to think' (have an opinion), the latter never being used in the continuous form. Example: What are you thinking of? What do you think of it? 'To go' and 'to come' + infinitive When the verbs µto go¶ and µto come¶ are followed by the infinitive, they are not preceded by µto¶ and the coordinating conjunction and can be omitted. Example: Go (and) get the mail. Come (and) eat with us. To write The verb µto write¶ can be followed by: 'to' + indirect object, and generally referring to a person. Example: I'm writing to my parents. a direct object. Example: I was writing a love letter. I write her every week. 2.7.1.57 Sequence of tenses

Sequence of tenses The sequence of tenses applies: in indirect speech. When the verb of the main clause is a verb expressing opinion or a declaration (to think, to say, to tell...) in the simple present or in the preterite, the verb of the dependent clause is conjugated as follows: Main Dependent present present or future or present perfect preterite preterite or conditional or past perfect Example: Main Dependent Dependent-clause tense

He says it doesn't matter. present He said it didn't matter. preterite I think that it will be fun. future We thought it would rain. conditional I know you've tried. present perfect I knew you had tried. past perfect with dependent clauses introduced by that or a relative pronoun. When the main clause is in the preterite or in the conditional, the verb of the dependent clause is usually in the preterite. Example: We were the ones who did it. It was on Saturday that it happened to him. Note. When that is used in indirect speech, the dependent-clause verb follows the sequence of tenses of indirect speech (it does not necessarily have to be in the preterite). Sequence of tenses with 'if' In sentences containing subordinate clauses expressing conditions (i.e., introduced by 'if', 'suppose','unless', etc.), the sequence of tenses is as follows: 'if' + present future Example: If you go to the beach, I'll come with you. 'if' + preterite present conditional Example: If you went to the beach, I would come with you. 'if' + past perfect past conditional Example: If you had gone to the beach, I would have come. 2.7.1.58 Irregular verbs

Irregular verbs: Reminder. The preterite and the past participle of regular verbs are formed by adding -ed or -d to the verb in the infinitive. Verbs that end in -y have the preterite and past participle ending -ied if y comes after a consonant. Verbs ending in a stressed consonant preceded by a vowel double this final consonant. However, some irregular verbs do not follow any precise rule. You must therefore learn them by heart. Here is the list of the main irregular verbs. PAST PARTICIPLE arisen been beaten become begun bent bet bound bitten bled blown broken brought built burnt burst bought

INFINITIVE To arise To be To beat To become To begin To bend To bet To bind To bite To bleed To blow To break To bring To build To burn To burst To buy

PRETERITE arose was / were beat became began bent bet bound bit bled blew broke brought built burnt burst bought

To cast cast To catch caught To choose chose To cling clung To come came To cost cost To creep crept To cut cut To deal dealt To dig dug To do did To draw drew To dream dreamt To drink drank To drive drove To eat ate To fall fell To feed fed To feel felt To fight fought To find found To fly flew To forbid forbad(e) To forget forgot To forgive forgave To freeze froze To get got To give gave To go went To grind ground To grow grew To hang hung To have had To hear heard To hide hid To hit hit To hold held To hurt hurt To keep kept To kneel knelt To know knew To lay laid To lead led To learn learnt To leave left To lend lent To let let To lie* lay To lie down: Do not confuse with To lie To light lit To lose lost

cast caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone ground grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led learnt left lent let lain lied lit lost

To make To mean To meet To pay To put To read To ride To ring To rise To run To say To see To seek To sell To send To set To sew To shake To shine To shoot To show To shrink To shut To sing To sink To sit To sleep To slide To smell To speak To spell To spend To spill To spin To spit To split To spread To spring To stand To steal To stick To sting To stink To strike To swear To sweep To swim To swing To take To teach To tear To tell

made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid smelt spoke spelt spent spilt spun spat split spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank struck swore swept swam swung took taught tore told

made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set sewn shaken shone shot shown / showed shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid smelt spoken spelt spent spilt spun spat split spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk struck sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told

To think To throw To undergo To understand To wake To wear To weave To weep To win To wind To withdraw To write 2.7.1.59

thought threw underwent understood (up) wore wove wept won wound withdrew wrote

thought thrown undergone understood woke worn woven wept won wound withdrawn written

The simple present

The simple present and the present continuous The simple present is used to talk about facts more or less permanent and regular actions or events. The present continuous is used to describe an action actually taking place at the moment at the moment of speaking. Example: Simple present She works every day from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Example: Present continuous I'm working on the computer right now. The simple present A - Construction The verb to be conjugated in the simple present always takes an -s in the third person singular. For all other persons it is identical to the infinitive. Example: to work I work we work you work you work he / she / it works they work B - Use The simple present is used: especially to talk of events more or less permanent and for regular actions. Example: We often play tennis. for narrations in the simple present, to describe an instantaneous and precise action (for example in reports). Example: A policeman knocks at a door and tells a woman... Note. In the third person singular: after -s, -ss, -sh, -ch and -x, is added -es. Example: she passes, he catches... verbs ending in -y take -ies (except when the 'y' is preceded by a vowel). Example: to try = he tries but to play = he plays Simple present with 'when' / 'while' The verbs of dependent clauses of time introduced by the conjunctions of time (after, as soon as, as long as, as much as, before, once, until, when, whenever, wherever, while...) are always in the present tense when the verb of the main clause is in the future. Example: They'll eat as soon as they arrive. Before we leave, we'll help with the cleaning. When I come back, I'll ring you. 2.7.1.60 The present continuous

The simple present and the present continuous

The simple present is used to talk about facts more or less permanent and regular actions or events. The present continuous is used to describe an action actually taking place at the moment at the moment of speaking. Example: Simple present She works every day from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Example: Present continuous I'm working on the computer right now. The present continuous A - Construction In the affirmative form, the present continuous is formed as follows: be (conjugated) + infinitive without 'to' + -ing Example: I'm (I am) washing my hair. In the negative form, the following is used: be + not + infinitive without 'to' +-ing Example: I know you aren't (are not) working. In the interrogative form, the auxiliary is put before the subject. Example: What are you doing? B - Use The present continuous is used to describe an action that is actually taking place. Example: I think he's sleeping in his bedroom. I don't want to go out. It's raining. She's not crying, she's laughing. 2.7.1.61 The present perfect simple

Construction of the present perfect simple The present perfect simple is formed as follows: have (conjugated) + past participle Example: As I've seen this play before, I don't want to see it again. He's always been very kind. Use of the present perfect simple The present perfect simple always expresses a link between the past and the present. One uses the present perfect simple to express: a consequence/an impact in the present of a state or an action in the past. Example: Example: I've forgotten to post this letter. Could you remind me to do it? The shop has been closed for weeks. I have to go shopping elsewhere. a state or an action that has begun in the past and continues until the present. Example: I've never smoked. He's always won until now. He's been very helpful recently. a state or an action, of a definite beginning and end, that has begun in the past and that continues into the present. In that case, 'since,' 'for,' 'how long' or 'since when' are used. Example: I haven't slept since Tuesday! She's been pregnant for two months. Note. When since (sense of time) is followed by a clause, the verb of the clause is in the preterite. a state or an action that has just been accomplished. Example: I've just finished an excellent book. Note. The simple present perfect is never used with expressions describing a moment in the past such as 'ago' or 'yesterday'. The preterite is used instead. Expressions with the simple present perfect To refer to a period of time that is not yet over ('today', 'this week', 'this year', etc.) or ends at present, ('already', 'lately', 'in the last two months', 'all my life', 'so far', etc.), a verb in the present perfect is used. Example: He's been in a bad mood all day. This is the first time I've met Jenny. I haven't heard about it so far. Note. In questions of this type, µso far¶ is sometimes left out: How many times have you met?

2.7.1.62

The present perfect continuous

Construction of present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous is formed as follows: have (conjugated) + been + -ing Example: She's (has) been reading a book for two hours. I've (have) been living in Ireland for five years. Use of present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous is used especially when talking about events or actions: that begin in the past and continue in the present. Example: They've been living together for a long time. I've been working in this company for three months and I find it interesting. that have just finished. Example: We are very tired because we've been working for hours. 2.7.1.63 The present subjunctive

The present subjunctive A - Construction The form of the present subjunctive corresponds to the infinitive form without to. Example: I suggest that you try this beer. He ordered I be there at ten o'clock. B - Use The present subjunctive is used in formal speech to express: an order (after 'to order,' 'to command,' 'the order'...) a suggestion (after 'to suggest,' 'to insist,' 'to ask,' 'the suggestion'... ) a necessity (after 'it is necessary that,' 'it is imperative that,' 'it is important that'... ) and sometimes after 'on the condition (that).' Example: The judge gave the order he not be penalized. The lawyer asks the session be closed. It is imperative that you participate in this project. 2.7.1.64 The present conditional

Construction of the present conditional The present conditional is formed with: would + infinitive without to Would is invariable. It is shortened to 'd. Example: It would be more difficult if you explained it this way. I'd like to go on holiday. In the negative form, µwould¶ and µnot¶ are shortened to wouldn't. Example: We wouldn't go sailing in such weather conditions. Use of the present conditional The present conditional is used: in a main clause, where the dependent clause (which is sometimes left out) is introduced by if + preterite and expresses a condition or a supposition/ assumption. Example: If I had time, I'd (would) do many things. What would you do if it rained? - I'd stay in. to express the idea of future in the past. Example: I thought she wouldn't come. to offer, ask for or state something with politeness. Example: Would you like a drink? I'd (would) like to go swimming. We should say he didn't fit the job. 2.7.1.65 Future

The future A - Construction Will ('ll in the shortened form) is followed by a verb in the infinitive. It is invariable. Example: Tomorrow he will (he'll) play. In the negative form, will not is shortened to won't. Example: It's too cold outside, they won't go out. The interrogative form is formed as with the other auxiliaries: will is placed before the subject. Example: Will you help me, please? B - Use The future is expressed with the auxiliary 'will'. 'Will' also expresses the tendency of an event to take place on a repeated basis. In that case, repetitive temporal adverbs are used (often, sometimes, always... ) with 'will'. Example: I will often have to take the train. The near future: 'be' + '-ing' verb The present continuous ('be' + '-ing' verb) can be used to express the near future when talking about planned or expected events. Example: We're having friends over for dinner. Where are you going? Note. In such a case, the date is often explicit. Example: They're coming tonight. This form can also imply a strongly felt intention or desire. µNot¶ can be stressed in negative sentences of this type. Example: I'm not seeing anybody today. Future with 'be' + infinitive Be + complete infinitive expresses an idea of the future. The auxiliary 'be' is only used in the present and in the preterite for: a planned or agreed action. Example: We're to see them tomorrow. Note. In the past tense, was / were + past infinitive emphasises the fact that what was agreed on was not done and was / were + infinitive expresses a past project or a predestined event. Example: They were to have picked us up. I was to become a priest. He was to die at the age of thirty. An action which should be done, especially in interrogative clauses. Example: What's to be done? an imposed action, a strict order. The negative form expressing a ban is more common than the affirmative form. Example: You're not to read this letter. be + passive infinitive is used to express instructions and directions for use. Example: The syrup is to be taken twice a day. 2.7.1.66 The past perfect

Past perfect A - Construction The past perfect is formed as follows: had + past participle Example: She met someone she had already seen before. When we opened the door, we realized a thief had stolen the TV. B - Use The past perfect expresses: an action completed before a given moment in the past. Example: When they arrived, we had already finished eating. She told me she had tried to reach me. I had never seen this movie before then. a state or an event beginning in the past and continuing until some later time in the past

Example: They had been friends for ten years when he left. Note. In the case of an action, the continuous form of the past perfect is used. Example: How long had you been waiting for me when I called you yesterday? a recent action or state, in which case 'just' is used with the simple past perfect Example: I had just finished writing a letter when you knocked at the door. Note. The continuous form also expresses a recent event. Example: You could tell he had been sleeping. in order to respect the sequence of tenses in indirect style: the past perfect is used in a dependent clause to report speech that, in the direct style, was in the preterite or in the present perfect. Example: She told me she had won. (Direct style: she won.) They said they had been walking all day long. (Direct style: they have been walking all day long.) 2.7.1.67 The past subjonctive

The past subjunctive A - Formation The past subjunctive of all verbs except 'to be' is identical to the indicative. The verb 'to be' is conjugated as 'were' in all persons. In speech, 'was' is often used in the first and third persons singular (e.g. 'I was', 'he was'). B - Use The past subjunctive follows 'if', 'if only', 'as though / as if', 'even if' (as a hypothesis), 'wish', 'suppose', 'imagine', other expressions of desire, appearance, and hypothesis; and, at times, 'unless'. Example: If I were (or I was) you, I would tell him the truth. I suppose you were not at the bus station, then. She left even though she seemed to be happy. 2.7.1.68 The past perfect subjonctive

The past perfect subjunctive with 'if' The past perfect subjunctive may be used after µif¶ when referring to the past. Example: If I had known, I would have come. If I had had the money, I could have gone on holiday. 2.7.1.69 The preterite

To be' and 'to have': preterite In the preterite, 'to be' is conjugated as follows: I was, you were, he/she/it was, we were, you were, they were Example: It was probably a forum on environmental issues. We were lucky to get these seats. In the preterite, 'to have' is conjugated as follows: I had, you had, he/she/it had, we had, you had, hey had Example: We had a very good meal. The American pension funds had a major effect on prices. Construction of the preterite The preterite of regular verbs is constructed by adding -ed or -d to the verb in the infinitive. Example: Yesterday I watched a movie. The preterite of verbs that end with -y is formed with an -ied ending where µy¶ comes after a consonant. Example: The baby cried a lot last night.

Verbs ending in a stressed consonant preceded by a vowel double this final consonant. Example: to stop => stopped The construction of irregular verbs in the preterite does not have a precise rule, they must therefore be learned by heart. Example: When did (to do) you first meet him? I first met (to meet) him yesterday. I went (to go) to Spain 15 years ago. Use of the preterite The preterite is used when: talking about actions or events which are completely finished and have no link to the present. Example: We spent three years in Switzerland. talking about a specific action in the past. With expressions describing moments in the past such as µyesterday¶, µlast month¶, µago¶ etc..., the preterite is necessary. Example: They married two years ago. He died in 1964. talking about past habits. Example: My grandfather worked on a farm.

Use of the preterite with 'just,' 'yet' and 'already' One often uses the preterite instead of the present perfect, particularly with just, yet and already. Example: I just finished my paper. Did she meet him yet? She already saw the video. It's 11 o'clock and you slept in. 2.7.1.70 The preterite continuous

The preterite continuous A - Construction The preterite continuous is formed using 'were' or 'was' (preterite of 'to be') + '-ing'. B - Use The preterite continuous expresses an action taking place in the past. Example: When he arrived, I was cooking. What were you doing up so late at night? 2.7.1.71 The conditional perfect

Conditional perfect A - Construction The conditional perfect is formed as follows: would + have + past participle Example: I would have been on time if the bus hadn't been late. They wouldn't have come anyway. B- Use The conditional perfect is used in a main clause in which the dependent clause is introduced by if + past perfect to express a condition or an assumption. Example: If you had listened to me, you wouldn't have failed. If I had been you, I would have done the same. The simple conditional perfect with 'should' When the conditional perfect is formed with should (should + have + past participle), it expresses: a regret or a reproach Example: I should have got up earlier. I wouldn't be late now. You should have listened to me. You're in a strange situation now. an (unfulfilled) expectation or assumption regarding the past Example: You should have received my e-mail, I sent it half an hour ago.

2.7.1.72

Imperative

The affirmative imperative In the second persons of the singular and the plural, the affirmative imperative has the same form as the infinitive without 'to.' Example: Take a seat. Follow me, please. In the first persons of the singular and the plural, as well as in the third persons of the singular and the plural, the affirmative imperative is formed as follows: let + personal pronoun complement + infinitive without 'to' / let + noun or noun phrase + infinitive without 'to' Example: Let me check in the dictionary. Let Mark sit here. Let's (let us) go to the beach. Let them do what they want! Let the party begin! The negative imperative In the second persons of the singular and the plural, the negative imperative is constructed as follows: do not (or don't) + infinitive without 'to' Example: Don't touch that. Don't be silly! In polite speech, in the first person of the plural, the negative imperative is formed as follows: let us (or let's) + not + infinitive without 'to' Example: Let's not argue. In everyday speech, in the first and third persons, the negative imperative is formed as follows: do not (or don't) + let + object pronoun + infinitive without 'to' do not (or don't) + let + noun or noun phrase + infinitive without 'to' Example: Don't let me fall asleep. Don't let the children do what they want!

2.7.1.73

Various

Also - As well - Too The synonyms 'also,' 'as well' and 'too' have the same meaning but occupy different places in the clause. 'Also' is placed before a simple verb, before the main verb in a compound tense, after 'to be' used as a stative verb, or at the end of a clause. Example: He also plays rugby. My lawyer had also raised that point. There is also a basement downstairs. I have one also. 'As well' ends a sentence. Example: These two want some chocolate mousse as well! 'Too' usually ends a clause. It is at times placed after its referent for emphasis; in these rare cases, commas set off 'too.' Example: All the other restaurants are full too. John, too, was impressed with the demonstration. I, too, have been to Australia! At last - At least You must not confuse at last and at least. 'At last' means 'finally' and 'at least' means 'in any case,' 'at the lowest estimate' 'at the minimum'. µAt last' may precede a clause, follow an auxiliary, or end a sentence. Example: At last you have stopped that noise. We can at last relax. She's arrived at last. We've arrived at last. 'At least' may precede a clause, a noun or noun phrase, or follow a clause, auxiliary, or main verb. Example: At least your illness isn't serious, otherwise you would be in the hospital. And don't forget to rest for at least three days. You can at least tidy your bedroom. This must cost at least 20 dollars/pounds. Each other - One another The plural and invariable reciprocal pronouns 'each other' and 'one another' are, in practice, interchangeable. Nevertheless, in theory, 'each other' follows subjects made up of only two elements, and 'one another' refers to those composed of more than two elements. Example: Forrest and Nancy love each other. Members of the family may turn to one another for support. 'Each other' and 'one another' are inseparable expressions when they are used with prepositions. Example: I put the suppliers in competition against each other. The children are sitting opposite one another. 'Each other' and 'one another' can be used in the possessive. Example: They took each other's hands. We often meet at one another's places. Either . . . or - Neither . . . nor To indicate a choice between two elements, 'either . . . or' is used with an adjective, noun or noun phrase, verb or clause.

Example: She's either English or American. I want either fruit juice or coffee. In the summer, I either go to Prague or stay at home. To express a choice between two elements in the negative form, µneither . . . nor¶ is used with an adjective, noun or noun phrase or verb. Example: I neither read French, nor write it. He met neither John nor his wife. She's neither nice nor nasty. Even though - Even if 'Even though' and 'even if' have similar but distinct meanings. µEven though¶ introduces a dependent clause of concession, which highlights an opposition in relation to a real fact. It may be replaced by µalthough¶. Example: Even though (or although) you're my friend, I can't trust you. Even though (or although) she tried her best, she fell twice. 'Even if' introduces an apparent contradiction of some hypothesis. In such sentences, the conditional is used in the main clause and the past subjunctive in the dependent clause introduced by µeven if¶. Example: Even if you were my friend, I wouldn't trust you. Ever - Never 'Ever,' is used in questions in the simple present and simple present perfect tenses. It is placed between the auxiliary and the main verb. Example: Do you ever play tennis? Have you ever tried going on the Internet? Note. In a non-interrogative clause, 'Sometimes' is used. Example: I sometimes go swimming. 'Ever' can be used in affirmative clauses where 'if' or a superlative is present. Example: She's the nicest girl I've ever met. Visit the Eiffel Tower if you ever go to Paris. µNever¶ has a negative meaning but is only used with verbs in the affirmative form. Example: I never drink and drive. I almost never subcontract. Accordingly, 'ever' is used instead of 'never' in clauses already containing negations. Example: No one ever comes to visit me. Nothing's ever perfect. Everybody - Somebody - Nobody 'Everybody', 'somebody', and 'nobody' are followed by singular verbs. But they are taken up by a plural personal pronoun or a plural possessive adjective. Example: Everybody was enjoying themselves. Somebody has to go shopping, don't they? Nobody really knows, do they? µEverybody¶ (synonym of everyone) is the combination of µevery¶ and µbody¶. Example: Everybody thinks he's clever. In the negative form, µeverybody¶ becomes µnobody¶ (synonym of no one). This pronoun is followed by a verb in the positive form. Example: Nobody is home. For - Since ± Ago A ± µFor¶ and µsince¶ are used after a main clause in the present perfect. µFor¶ + expression of length of time µFor¶ is always followed by a noun or noun phrase. Example: I've lived in Southampton/Detroit for five years. He's been studying in Oxford/Stanford University for two years. µSince¶ + point of departure (precise moment) µSince¶ introduces a noun or noun phrase, or a dependent clause indicating a point of departure (e.g. a date). When µsince¶ is followed by a dependent clause, the verb of the clause is, according to the context, either in the preterite, or the present perfect. Example: I've been learning English since I was eleven years old. I haven't talked to her since I've been back. She's been playing the violin since 1987. They've been playing chess since this morning.

B ± µAgo¶ is preceded by a noun or noun phrase describing a length of time. The verb of the sentence is in the preterite. Example: The couple met two years ago. He arrived three hours ago. For how long - Since when A - 'For': 'how long... (for)' 'For' introduces a noun or noun phrase indicating an expression of length of time. Example: We've been traveling for almost a month now. Statements containing 'for' answer questions containing 'how long... (for)'. Example: How long have you been traveling for? How long have you been waiting? B - 'Since': 'since when' 'Since' introduces a noun or noun phrase or a dependent clause indicating a specified time in the past. Example: It has been snowing since Monday. Statements containing 'since' answer questions containing 'since when'. Example: Since when has it been snowing? For the sake of - On behalf of The nouns 'sake' and 'behalf' are used after possessive '-'s,' with 'of,' and with possessive adjectives. 'Sake' appears in the following expressions. 'for' + noun or noun phrase + '-'s sake' 'for' + possessive adjective + 'sake' 'for the sake of' + noun, noun phrase, or '-ing' verb Example: You'd better accept it for your career's sake. For Pete's sake, stop it now! You should do it for her sake. He changed jobs for the sake of his marriage. They're complaining for the sake of complaining. 'Behalf' appears in the following expressions. 'in' or 'on' + noun or noun phrase + '-'s behalf' 'in' or 'on' + possessive adjective + 'behalf' 'in' or 'on' + 'behalf of' + noun or noun phrase Example: I came on her mother's behalf. He'll speak in my behalf. I would like to thank you on behalf of everyone. Here - There 'Here' designates the speaker's or writer's location. Example: It's written here. I've already been here for half an hour. 'There' designates a location away from the person who is speaking. Example: I came from there. Cosmetics are down there on your right. Holiday - Holidays The singular holiday is used in the expressions to be on holiday and to go on holiday. Example: I'm on holiday next week. I'm going on holiday with my friends. Note. Holiday can be preceded by the indefinite article in the sense of day off and in the expression 'Have a nice holiday!'. Example: We have a holiday on Tuesday. The plural holidays is used with the preposition during and when talking about school holidays. Example: It rained a lot during the holidays. The summer holidays have come, at last. Home - House 'Home' indicates a person's place of residence, or the place where one feels 'at home'. Example: I'm glad to see my home again. You get back home for a well-earned rest. Do you have a cat at home? 'House' indicates a physical structure, a building used as a residence. Example: Do you have a house or an apartment? My house was broken into yesterday. Note. 'Home' is used when movement is described. In sentences not involving movement, either 'at home' or 'home' ('at' being, in this case, implied) may be used. 'At' is omitted in negations. Example: It's time to go home. Tonight I'm staying (at) home. I won't be home tomorrow

It's time to - It's time for 'It's time' may be used in either of the two following ways: before a clause beginning with 'to' Example: It's time to go to bed. It's time to go on vacation. before 'for' + a noun or noun phrase Example: It's time for the concert. It's time for the meeting. 'Kind of' followed by a noun 'Kind of' + noun may be used with or without an indefinite article. However µKind of¶ + a/an + noun has a more general, vaguer meaning. Example: What kind of a man is he? What kind of aircraft are we flying in? Last - Later - Latter The adjective 'last' indicates a time before the moment of speech or writing. Example: I met your manager at last week's fair. Remember, we had no snow last year. Note. 'Last' is used as a temporal adverb. Example: When he last came, he was ill. 'The last' refers to the last thing on a list. Example: I bought the last dress they had. I didn't get the last number! See Mr. Warcock in the last office on your right. µLater¶ is an adverb of time in a comparison. 'Later' is followed by 'than' + clause unless its reference point is the moment of speech or writing (in which case 'than' + clause may be omitted). Example: You arrived later than expected. Could you please call back later? 'The latter' is used as a pronoun to refer to the last of two people or things already mentioned. Example: I can come by car or by train. I think I'll take the latter. Next - The next 'Next' + expression of time (e.g. a day of the week, 'week,' 'month,' 'year,' 'term,' or 'time') is used without any article and indicates a moment in the future. Example: Next Friday I'm on vacation. We'll go to a club next year. Next time, give yourself an hour or more to get to the airport. 'The next' is followed by the same terms but with the definite article to indicate a moment in the future in relation to another moment mentioned in the text which is either in the future tense, or in the past tense. Example: I'll spend the first week in Paris and the next two weeks in Rome. She said she was leaving the next day. 'The next' can also indicate a period that is beginning or about to begin at the moment of speech or writing. Example: The next school year is going to be easy. (School begins tomorrow.) Can you put me on the next flight? Note. 'The next few days' is a common expression. Example: You'll get your checkbook in the mail within the next few days. Nothing ever A negative clause contains only one negation. With the adverb µnever¶, the verb is in the affirmative form. In a clause which already contains a negation such as µnothing¶, µever¶ is used. Example: I can never get an arrow onto the target. Nothing ever works in this kitchen. Note. µHardly ever¶ is used in the same way, hardly being a restrictive term. Example: I hardly ever visit him. 'One' replacing a noun To avoid repeating a count noun, the pronoun µone¶ is used. Its plural is ones. Example: Look at these shirts! I have one like that. (= I have a shirt like that.) Which socks do you prefer? The black and white ones. (= The black and white socks.) Expressions with 'one's way'

Expressions containing µone's way¶ may be used with verbs of movement. Example: Passengers should make their way to the car deck. I keep losing my way in this town. Note. To express a difficult movement, more descriptive verbs + µone's way¶ are used, such as µto elbow one's way¶. Example: He elbowed his way through the crowd. The expression µone's way¶ may be used in a figurative sense after verbs other than verbs of movement, such as µto work one's way up¶. Example: She has worked her way up. Piece of µPiece of¶ precedes singular uncount nouns. These nouns refer to objects, activities, and notions and cannot be used with numbers. µPiece of¶ allows them to be preceded by a definite or indefinite article, a demonstrative or a number and provides them with a plural form. Uncount nouns preceded by piece of are: collective nouns. Example: I bought a piece of furniture. Can you give me that piece of cloth? abstract nouns. Example: He asked for a good piece of advice. He gave me two pieces of information. Note. µPiece of¶ can also precede names of materials or food. In this context it has a literal meaning. Example: It's on this piece of paper. Have the last piece of bread. Quite - Quite a few 'Quite' limits adjectives that express personal opinions. Example: He's quite good at tennis. Your guaranteed delivery date option seems quite expensive to me. 'Quite a few' modifies plural nouns to indicate large quantities. Example: I have quite a few letters for you. Still - Yet 'Still' indicates continuity or a link with the past. Example: Is it still open? I'm still hesitating. 'Still . . . not' indicates continuity in some negation or absence. 'Still' precedes an auxiliary and 'not' follows it. Example: She still doesn't know. 'Yet' implies that the action or state described may still occur in the future. Example: He has yet to learn. 'Not . . . yet' refers to an event that has not occurred in the past but is likely to occur in the future. 'Not' follows an auxiliary and 'yet' ends a clause. Example: I haven't thought about it yet. She hasn't had any car accidents yet. Note. 'Yet' may be used with µnever´ and 'nobody.' Example: I've never been to China yet. Nobody has arrived yet. There is - There are The expression 'there is' (singular) becomes 'there are' in the plural. Example: There is a hole in your pocket. There are many nice flowers in that garden. In the interrogative form, 'there¶ is put after the verb. Example: Is there a problem? Are there lots of children at the playground? In the negative form, 'there is' becomes 'there isn't' (there is not) and 'there are' becomes 'there aren't' (there are not). Example: There isn't any milk left. There aren't many mistakes in your paper. Till - Until 'Until' and 'till' have the same meaning, but µtill¶ is more commonly used in spoken language: in front of an adverbial phrase of time. In this case, 'till' and 'until' act as prepositions. Example: I'll be in the office till six. You might want to wait until next week. When they introduce clauses 'till' and 'until' act as conjunctions. Example: Wait till I come back from the airport. Do not get off until the train is at a complete stop.

'Not . . . till' and 'not . . . until' are used as prepositions or conjunctions to indicate that the action will not take place before the date mentioned. Example: I won't see him till Monday. I can't say until I check with the carrier. Too - Too much 'Too' precedes adjectives and adverbs. Example: My tea's too strong. He runs too fast. 'Too much' precedes uncountable (singular) nouns; 'Too many' precedes plural countable nouns. Example: Too much sun is bad for you. She has too many friends. Note. When 'too much' modifies a verb, it follows the verb. Example: He drank too much. To be interested in µTo be interested in¶ can be used with: a noun or noun phrase or pronoun. Example: Would you be interested in another loan? I was interested in your lightweight mobile/cell phone. He's interested in you. a gerund (verb with -ing ending). Example: I don't think we're interested in paying much more. To be left - To have left 'To be left' and 'to have left' express the same idea of 'remaining' but are used in different ways. µTo be left¶ is a passive form: subject + be + left Example: The weather was bad. Few people were left on the streets. µTo have (got) left¶ is an active form with a direct object. 'Left' therefore goes at the end of the clause. Subject + have (got) + direct object + left Example: Do you have any tea? I only have coffee left. Do you have any rooms left? To be likely The expression µto be likely¶ allows the speaker express the high probability of the event it describes / the degree of likelihood of a fact. µTo be likely¶ is used with the infinitive to express a present or future action. Example: This meeting's likely to bore me. It's likely to be food poisoning. Note. To be likely also exists in the preterite and the conditional. Example: She was likely to appreciate the gift. It's the kind of challenge he'd be likely to take on. µTo be likely¶ is followed by a past infinitive to express an opinion about a previous action. Example: He's likely to have forgotten our appointment. Note. The related impersonal expressions 'it's likely (that)' and 'it seems likely (that)' are also common. Example: It's likely that it will rain. Do you think that she's going to win? It seems likely. 'Unlikely' is the opposite of 'likely.' Example: He is unlikely to come. It's unlikely that it will snow. 'To be liable to do' has the same meaning as 'to be likely to do.' Example: It's liable to be a long wait. To look forward to 'To look forward to' can be used with: a noun Example: I'm looking forward to the holidays/vacation. a gerund (verb ending in '-ing') Example: We're looking forward to seeing you. To make sb do sth - To have sth done The pattern 'to have or make + direct object + infinitive without to' means 'to cause someone to do something'. This pattern has an active meaning.

Example: I had him service my car. He made me laugh so much! She had her daughter tidy her room. The pattern 'to have + direct object + past participle' means 'to cause something to be done'. This pattern has a passive meaning. Example: He had his car repaired. She had her tooth pulled out by her dentist. Note. In this sense, to have is conjugated with the auxiliary do. Example: Did you have your coat cleaned? To lie (lied) - To lie (lay) Do not confuse the verbs: µto lie¶ which is conjugated as a regular verb: it takes -ed in the preterite and in the past participle. Example: Aren't you lying? He lied about his age. I've never lied. and µto lie¶ which is an irregular verb: its preterite is lay and its past participle is lain. Example: The cat's lying on the floor. He lay on his side. Having lain on the bed, she felt better. Note. The past participle lain is seldom used. To remember - To remind Past actions may be recalled using 'to remember' + gerund (verb with -ing ending) or 'to remember' + nominal group. The thing being remembered is the direct object of to remember. Example: He remembered locking the door. I remember my first day at work. 'To remember' + infinitive evokes a future action someone must not forget to do. Example: Remember to post the letter. The direct object of µto remind¶ is the person that has to be reminded of something. Two constructions are possible: to remind + object + of + noun / to remind + object + infinitive Example: He reminded her of her promise. Remind me to phone him. Note: 'To remind' may be followed by relative clauses introduced by 'that'. Example: May I remind you that we're playing tennis tomorrow? The expression 'used to' The expression µused to¶ is used when talking about past habits that no longer apply in the present. It is used as follows: subject + used to + infinitive Example: I used to play with my neighbour when I was younger. With questions, did (preterite of 'do') + use to is used. Example: Where did you use to go shopping before you came here? With negations, didn't + use to is used. Example: In the past I didn't use to work as much as now. Which - What 'What' and 'which' may introduce non-interrogative clauses. In such a case: 'what,' which has no antecedent, introduces a relative clause which may be subject or object to the sentence's main verb. Example: What worries me is how he'll get here. 'which' relates to an antecedent which may be a noun, noun phrase, or clause. Example: She often smiles, which is nice. You're inspecting the downtown branch, which has higher operating costs than the others. In an interrogative clause: 'what' is used generally to convey a choice between or among things. Example: What books do you prefer? What kind of services do you want? What time do they open? 'which' conveys a choice between or among a limited number of possibilities. µWhich¶ is used before nouns referring to both objects and people. Example: Which friend did you invite? Which of these shirts is yours? Which airline did you choose? Note. 'Which' is sometimes followed by 'one.' Example: Which one do you prefer? Within - Within . . . of The preposition 'within' is used as a spatial preposition. Example: Her office is within the sales department. µWithin¶ is also used as a temporal preposition.

Example: I'll finish within the next two weeks. Can you deliver within 48 hours? 'Within . . . of' expresses the distance between two points in space, or the period between two points in time. Example: Our house is within two miles of the station. The deadlines are within a day of expiry. When used with a gerund, 'within . . . of' expresses a period of time immediately preceding the completion of an action. Example: Within ten minutes of my arriving, the phone rang. Yet - Not yet A ± µYet¶ is used in questions when talking about an event that is waiting to happen. It is generally put at the end of the clause. Example: Have you met him yet? Note. This question is answered as follows: Yes, we have. Yes, we've met before. - Yes, we've already met him. B ± µNot yet¶ In the negative form, not (. . .) yet is used. Example: We haven't started watching the video yet, you can join us. Note. With 'nobody,' 'not' is avoided. Example: Nobody has arrived yet.

Emphatic 'do' Simple affirmative clauses may include the modal auxiliary 'do' to express emphasis. 'Do' may serve any of the following purposes: insistence on the speaker's or writer's point of view; confirmation of what precedes Example: She does look pretty. He said it would rain and it did rain. You did get the contract I sent you, didn't you? Note: The main verb is sometimes omitted. Example: I was sure I would fail and I did. to contradict the speaker. Example: He didn't come to the party yesterday. He did come but he didn't stay long. to convince the speaker (It is then used as an imperative). Example: I can't do it! It's too difficult! Do try again. Note: In speech, the auxiliary "do" is stressed. Anaphoric 'to' In order to avoid repetition, an infinitive can be replaced by the particle 'to' (in such cases called an anaphoric 'to') in one of the following forms. auxiliary 'used to,' 'ought to' or 'have to' Example: You don't eat as much as you used to. You don't behave as you ought to. I don't want to go. You'll have to. an ordinary verb + an infinitive Example: I hope he'll get through his exam; he deserves to. an infinitive clause Example: Would you like him to call you back? Yes, I'd like him to. Note. When serving as a passive auxiliary, 'to be' cannot be replaced by 'to.' Example: You'll be punished as you deserve to be. You're not listening. You ought to be. Uncountable nouns which may take 'a' Uncountable nouns are usually not preceded by an indefinite article (e.g., 'a'). There are however exceptions; these include 'pity', 'shame', 'disgrace', 'relief', 'hurry', 'waste', 'mess', 'fuss', and 'shambles'. Example: What a pity! This is such a waste of time! He's in a big hurry. Words ending in 'ever' The suffix '-ever' is added to some relative pronouns and interrogatives and may express one of two things: absence of restriction Example: Can I withdraw money whenever I like? Choose whichever book you like.

the idea of possibility in concessive clauses; words ending in '-ever' are in this case used with the auxiliary 'may', as in the structure 'however' + adjective or adverb Example: Whatever you may think, it was a mistake to trust him. However clever he may be, he can still do stupid things. Can - Could - Be able to The auxiliary can, in the infinitive form, is µto be able to¶. Example: It's great to be able to speak many languages. The future of the auxiliary can is µwill be able to¶. Example: Don't worry. I'll (will) be able to pick you up. The preterite of the auxiliary can is µcould¶. Example: He could be very kind sometimes. I couldn't hear anything because of the music. Can: perception and knowledge A - Construction The modal auxiliary 'can' is conjugated in the same way for all persons. It doesn't take an -s in the 3rd person singular. 'Can' is followed by the infinitive without 'to'. Example: He can see me. B - Use The auxiliary 'can' has several meanings. It expresses: involuntary perceptions and operations of the mind. It is sometimes used before the verbs: to hear, to see, to feel, to understand... Example: Don't speak so loud. She can hear you. I cannot (can't) understand why you're nervous. intellectual ability and knowledge. 'Can' may thus be replaced by µto know how to¶. Example: I can swim. = I know how to swim. She can read. = She knows how to read. Can and verbs of perception The verbs of perception ('to see,' 'to hear,' 'to feel,' 'to understand'... ) can be used with or without the auxiliary µcan¶. The auxiliary µdo¶ is used in questions and in the negative form. Example: I can see a nice bird over there. Do you hear a strange noise? I don't feel the cold. Can: ability and likelihood The auxiliary 'can' is used not only to express perception and the notion of knowledge, but also ability 'Can' may also be replaced with µto be able to¶. Example: As he has big muscles, he can carry heavy bags. (As he has big muscles, he is able to carry heavy bags.) likelihood Example: It can become really humid during the summer in the Amazon. Will - To be going to µWill¶ expresses an idea in the future but also a willingness (or refusal in the negative form) and the likelihood of an event happening repeatedly. Example: Will you help me, please? I will often have to take the train. µWill¶ rather than µto be going to¶ is used with verbs that describe a thought process such as to think, to know, to remember... Example: This is too hard. I won't remember it. µTo be going to¶, followed by the infinitive, expresses a notion of forseeable future, an intention or a conviction. The notions of intention and immediate future are expressed more clearly by µto be going to¶ than by µwill¶. Example: I'm at the station. Are you going to pick me up? Will you pick me up at the station next Tuesday? µTo be going to¶ is used to express a conviction while µwill¶ only expresses a prediction or statement. Example: There are lots of clouds. I'm afraid it's going to rain today. (Speaker's conviction) On Sunday it will rain on the south coast. (Weather forecast)

''Will' and 'shall'' The future auxiliaries and modals µwill¶ and µshall¶ express different ideas. A ± µWill¶ µWill¶ is used to express: the simple future. Example: She will start working tomorrow. an idea of willingness, of choice (offer, asking for help) or agreement, in questions in the 2nd person singular and plural and in affirmations in the 1st person singular and plural. Example: We will make an effort to be as quiet as possible. Will you have some juice? Thanks, I will. Will you do this for me? Yes, I will. a refusal or a negative promise in negative sentences for every person. Example: I won't take his advice seriously. She won't go out tonight. She's too tired. We won't forget it next time. µWill ha¶s other less common uses. It expresses: near certainty in the present. Example: Ask her. She will know. an idea of frequency. Example: When the cat's away, the mice will play. B ± µShall¶ µShall¶ is used: to ask for an opinion, some advice or to offer something, or in questions in the 1st person singular and plural. Example: Shall I take you back home? in a ceremonious style, for formal promises or orders from the speaker, in the 2nd and 3rd persons singular and plural. Example: They shall be rewarded for their work. (I promise they will be rewarded for their work.) You shall do your homework now. (I want you to do your homework now.) to express a prohibition in the negative form. Example: You shall not interrupt me. She shan't go with you to the nightclub. She's too young. in the place of µwill¶, in very formal language, in the 1st person. Example: We shall (or will) be there by 10 o'clock. in the place of µwill¶ in the 1st person of the singular and plural at the beginning of questions to which one can only answer yes or no. Example: Shall we leave tomorrow? Near certainty in the past 'Must have' + past participle expresses near certainty about a fact in the past. Example: It must have slipped his mind. The office staff must have forgotten to put them on the consignment note. 'Must have' + past participle is used above all in the affirmative form. In the negative form, 'cannot have' + past participle is used. Example: He can't have done that intentionally. 'To get' + adjective 'To get' + adjective is used to express the transition from one state to another. Example: Let's go before we get all wet. It'll take months before I get familiar with all this! Put some sunscreen on, or you'll get sunburned. 'To get' + comparative adjective is used to express a change of degree. Example: When will it get warmer? Every day I get more and more tired. To hope + dependent clause After 'To hope', either the future, or the simple present may be used to express a future. However, the present simple is the most commonly used. Example: She hopes he'll come. I hope my card won't get swallowed up this time! He hopes the traffic's all right. I hope the water's deep enough! Use of the past participle as an adjective A - Construction

Certain past participles may be used as adjectives. The past participle of regular verbs is formed by adding -ed or -d to the infinitive. Example: enjoyed (to enjoy) created (to create) designed (to design) liked (to like) The construction of the past participle of irregular verbs does not have a definite rule. Example: come (to come) made (to make) taken (to take) gone (to go) B - Use Past participles used as adjectives usually have passive meanings. Example: I will fix the broken cup. The cooked meal is waiting for you. Your soiled clothes are in the launday. Expressions followed by the gerund The following expressions are followed by the gerund (verb with -ing ending): to be worth Example: It's worth trying, you know! It¶s no use Example: It's no use waiting here. It¶s no good Example: It's no good staying outside. There¶s no Example: There's no knowing what he thinks about it. Verbs + infinitive clauses The infinitive clause is used after verbs expressing an order, a wish, a ban, a preference, a desire which the subject imposes on an object: verb + noun / complement pronoun + infinitive The following verbs are normally active when they introduce infinitive clauses: 'to want,' 'to like,' 'to love,' 'to wish,' 'to get,' and 'to cause.' Example: He wants John to rent a replacement vehicle. When would you like your car to be ready? What caused him to change his mind? The following verbs may be active or passive when they introduce infinitive clauses: 'to intend,' 'to mean,' 'to force,' 'to compel,' 'to order,' 'to forbid,' and 'to expect.' Example: He ordered her child to do her homework. He was ordered to pay at once. Note. µNot¶ is placed in front of the infinitive. Example: He expects you not to say anything. Infinitive clause The infinitive clause is a direct object used with verbs expressing a strong relationship between the subject of the main clause and the subject of the infinitive clause. 'To ask,' 'to expect,' and 'to want' are examples of verbs that may introduce infinitive clauses. If the subject of the infinitive clause is a pronoun, it is placed as an object pronoun of the main-clause verb. Example: I'll ask my secretary to fax you. Do you expect him to pay more? Note. In an infinitive clause, any expression of negation is placed in front of the infinitive. Example: He advised me not to wait. 'For' precedes infinitive clauses expressing goals. Example: I've brought this book for you to read. 'For' may also precede objective infinitive clauses that do not express goals. Example: I'm waiting for the rain to stop. Note. 'For' + gerund ('-ing' verb) introduces infinitive clauses expressing cause. Example: He was punished for forgetting his homework. When 'that' may be left out The relative pronoun 'that' is often omitted in subordinate/dependent clauses. Example: The book he gave me makes me fall asleep. (or The book that he gave me makes me fall asleep.) The CD-ROM I told you about is really fun. (or The CD-ROM that I told you about is really fun.) Dependent clauses with 'that'

A dependent clause introduced by µthat¶ can be used after verbs expressing knowledge, perception, opinion, agreement, declaration, confession, supposition, remembrance, forgetting, hope, surprise, and fear 'That' is often omitted. Example: I think (that) Puccini's great. They're saying (that) the sea's going to be very rough for three days. Note. Such dependent clauses can be elliptical. Example: I don't like dogs. I know you don't. Certain verbs imply the use of µshould¶ in the dependent that-clause. These are verbs which express an assumption, offer or request, or an order in formal language. Example: He insists that she should come. After verbs such as 'to tell', 'to remind', 'to inform', the dependent clause is preceded by an object. Example: He told me that she was ill. Note. When the verb in such a case is 'to explain,' 'to' precedes the indirect object. Example: I explained to them that it would be a good idea to go to Spain on holiday. When - While + present The verbs of dependent clauses of time introduced by conjunctions of time (µafter¶, µas soon as¶, µas long as¶, µas much as¶, µbefore¶, µonce¶, µuntil¶, µwhen¶, µwhenever¶, µwherever¶, µwhile¶...) are always in the simple present when the verb of the main clause is in the future. Example: They'll eat as soon as they arrive. Before we leave, we'll help with the cleaning. When I come back, I'll call you. Always + present continuous µAlways¶, which is normally used with the simple present, is used with the present continuous to express a repeated action which has an effect on the speaker. Example: We're always running, aren't we? µAlways¶ is also used with the present continuous to talk about unexpected events. Example: I'm always meeting interesting people at concerts. Means with 'by' + gerund The notion of means can be expressed by: µby¶ + gerund Example: How did she gain so much weight? (She gained weight) by eating a lot of sweets. How did he get that position? (He got that position) by working hard. µby¶ + means of + noun Example: How are you going to increase the sales figures? (I'm going to increase the sales figures) by means of a huge advertising campaign. Note. µBy¶ may also be used with noun of means of transport: by bus, by train, by plane / by air, by car. Example: How did you manage to go there? - By bus. How + adjective or adverb A great deal of open questions (to which one can't answer either yes or no) are formed as follows: how + adjective or adverb + verb (or auxiliary) + subject Example: How tall are you? How high is Mount Everest? How often do you go to the cinema? Note. In indirect questions, the verb is put after the subject: how + adjective or adverb + subject + verb or auxiliary. Example: I wonder how far city/town hall is. I am told For certain expressions, the simple present is used instead of the present perfect, as in: 'I am told' (= 'I understand') instead of 'I've been told 'I forget' (= 'I can't remember') instead of 'I've forgotten' 'I hear' instead of 'I've heard' Example: I am told (I've been told) that you are in charge of the sales department. What time is the match tonight? I forget (I've forgotten) to lock the door. phone numbers in the USA American telephone numbers are ten digits long.

Example: (805) 569-9102 The area code (i.e., the number's first three digits) refers to (part of) a state; the following three digits refer to (part of) a municipality or metropolitan area. The international prefix for the USA, Canada, and most Caribbean nations is 1.

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