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llissue NllJmnoor 72, - Febl. '11961 - Page 05

If. 'th~ MtJsU~ ~ ra~JIy (lrd 'kiln M:de(;)Jlm t:uJJd 'thl~ee, 'm.eu~,two of "them, cj,~\:ite p:rO'ba,'~,], hwnGcen.t bg,v~ b.e~D,
J

seifl"tev.ced, 'to ]ife ,~mffi):]:'i~$O:tlmen:t (lrn jl1lS,t that ,8,cg~:llJ!.P~ tlon) 'tihen eertain q(H~s~iol1.i.~h~,v~' to' be an$l$(H~~d,. '\'by~ j]nB '"leek ~fteJ!' the flI"e~'ibil]n;J;b~:nH 0£ hi;s '~u)t1~re in Q~.U~e:tlS-i 'Yiliel"e, there no ~~,]ice at the :nleeting wkI!J:,e )bl1co] rn was nlU :Jrd'el'~d'~'

,1l~QUnEf on a (h."~S'~lr in 'the hll)lJ!$~,iS1!lJ bgbnti.at:~ng Mua.. c I elt11ms tJ~a.t )'b"d~Qhln, ~ ad 'bJ1.u'necl!. (1;o,VN :I:~S,Ol\~LIl :hom:e ~m ,j~,~$ ~ :~7l~ Hcr~y' ~tunt'~ b ' '? Wby did one oj tijc clr:,lIfe:nillalll,ts 1lIl'Ct'h,e mu rifteil;" trial

'N'e:w YO(l:k Bllt~rD. the

l;Vh~

w(t!'e-

die men '~"fbo 'f'oUowe~ ~f~l'oolrn, tQ t'be
'1'1 i'g'iltt

,;i~ld tltil!d 'to g~'in MCf!5~ to hi s l"oum? Wl1Q l;.v;~~ t'~,r!! ~It ~,ght-l:i,p,ped", v~a,k;i nned man, with. ,t'}\~ f'el·,~~tyesU ,,~·hl)m II'~lc.QhIll, ltl~n.t]'Ii~d as hali'ing t :fo]~ow,eJclj hhn from Una.OJl to lWl'ew Y,cu;'k ~nd ",.hG, 'fiw Us!!! deseriptiml of one' o:f' tlii@ tis~:a$'iru;, 1

b~fo.l"iZ: th~ a;$$aifSs~ina ticn,

on

'~Efor~ ,the assass
')lUI.,t

"ras ~1'~l(!!oJm

elaims, beeause 'the: n'ew~itmt~ B"u/l'eau~ knew t~Je, erA ID']~llnec;lluis mIU J!.'d,e'r a:nd rlid:ttt '~vn;~:g;t idm assaSlSin",' ;9,ted m1 l?,r'eneh 50,n'? 'tV":hy' 'W~iS ,M:1i~lcohJ;!J, ~0,i:s'!lY~~d :hl. Ga~l"'~ th~ d~y b~fof'~~ he ",vag ~r d,e'~ ~V\~,\.a sea thing del1l1nei~Uon 0:1. t'ffiu::,Am,er-, ,Ica,n (~O'f~]tu,m.ent: to the, Sunlllll.it Coc]1[le'renee 0.1' ,Alrican, ll:t"'ime :Dl'~nis:teva:,s? .

batli'~aJ tl~()!.m ~~ter.ilifg' FrA'Ii1,oe: .a week i:m!l)~ t~:on~as 1fJ!I1eN'ort:hl African dip:1~""

'V~ra2tr'W,~~, L£ol1 Am~G'~'~,Ma~~olm~~·,~w Enl.l.a'nti :I'@N '~"e~e]1taH\ft:Ji fe.r~tll!d ~,tF;fI!'i'i,gl,ed 't.oi d!Fl!:8. in h~:s Bos,to:n th hote], :~'OQm,,h()it~'l'S 8,fb~l:" he h,a.£],'t;o](l ,a '~%d)~n,c :eleti:~~r he m
'had, ~\Tlrlenfe

a,dMn· his g'unf1:) ~bs(!ilve his t~YO C'o~l[ief,eli1~a:ft"tf5;~ ~n.d the'll, claim he ~a:nd "tlllree other men had '[b ee-- pa~'d.for .. n th~ tnurcller .~)y,8, ttd ed IUi.l"b·' w 'l!.'''~~S '~OIt s 1{u.$U'1li!'~? W[lY'!, 1JJurd!~t ClQ~S-e,71u~m~ntllUCi\)1, d11~ 't~'!e JHsb'.iet At'h}rne,y' :~~iOlt :follow 'Up "this d,~ten,dtl11ltj~admi~s;i:a]1lt"Niat, ']:n 'E!ill'U,el-' ,defense, (PlB'.s:t;Of;l ~:ng tb~ .rd.I~)]fUlY' t:l'l~ Pl1:~la$h~l':had been 'touc~ed on? ~lhv did t'he, N~l" York PriUil;;~: D~~partrrne~t 111,tjmi= d~.te '~:i:Gne\5s'~s~u,dJ is t]ppir~5S ~vid~n~~' to' :fi:t t~.eh: (1$\m ve~'~i'Q;tl'QoI tke' mu n1,'~'1'1' ' ~rllY :hav~ ~~',r~ral f' M~.1eQ]m.cls,luxtl"gu8ri~j,in ,p~~o :~~$[on ol'hl~iG;'l(:i'l"t;"l!,ll11l: hd(iI[~m~,ti~rJ1 'Ul!@ MlntMl"if :fled 0\11 Ui.e co~:n,tty! b'a$., Re·!!illben Fr8]lH~is" 1\1':::lloolmls :s.re~·ebirY'~ib:ee;l'l ,arrested '[by t]-re FJ8J and h,'eid. '[ncQgTIlilm,liJjlca(\o1' W:h;:r does Maleobn's. 'widow, )()::'$" B,etty SHudJft:'l"Z, ,~,d:d ,that. h~r i1u~lnlJ~tl 'i.fj{n~'" j,t '1V,as, 'the, At~'ier:i~JJn m '~Q,wel' str'li(:tU.l'~ th~'t was ;aftelf' b is, UbI'? " \Vhf ,€Hd :Mar]ct)]l:ml£ bi:ms,elf' 'lieU Ale~' H;~l~ t'~e tl~f 'befO-:h'e Ute ,assas~dnat]l[)n tlm at he nQ lo:n,g-er' be]ie,~d, it W~Sl tb~' MusUm~ '\\\"ho 'w~r·e; plan®.]tlg h:ils d.ea·t:hiJ but
U

no

of

my

fl~I!oO'm,r:.~h ~·-itJiI:i' 'Ie•••• fi'IilI"\.;o:r'~' ,", ,..,- . "",'I;,~~,IL~ ,uJ,i.':;,I!:>. .... , •

:Ma~Do]m" 1:

·tJ:lQ,t

"'the vihitie P OW1I! 1" :~t!'iLiet;Ulre :kined

,8, :t)ltlib :shou'ting

'"'h;I) 'W,~~ 'the ~~·my'Sb2r~;'y man" a;rrQ~~ ou ~iMI@; 'th.e ban roem atb'e(l' tbe shodti-ng' as hel w~s being be~:ten, 'by

And, why' does ~farco~ m"'s s]a:te:[!~ M'I'lS,. Ella C~o'~H~s!, d,e.cli!u.e :fla\t~y t!fla;~ ~iI"tn~ A 'm,urdeNd my' bh'oth~r"? or

~'~J.I~ ~hot Maico.lm, I" Wlly d'id 'he~rli~a]}p£~!n" 1.1'0. sIgb~ '~m.rttltedi8;tely a.fte~'
iut£! cus~fidy '-' and

'[:u~tl'lg''mktl..u

w'ny' ~~

'he

not: beeml

i.de;n:tifi~d,
W~O'

,a'tif.i~~al1Jti why, .af\be':rfn(itia~ :pi,ess too d:rO:~'IU~llOllJ]'t {.'if a;]ght '?'
V'I'"~!iV _ }f. ~II~ i!
~~"'I vu
.lIiLt!i~l.l_U~ Jj,'!ir.

w~~e,tbe 'two men

01'

bG~,rrl

'fnJ'm .s:i'fi1ee?

~:VOilf~dc¢dl I~u:r~ngth~:~$$ai~g[n-

re~O(["ts~

:~lave tfiey
'V'V -,

t'~,.rn, '~J1;'~:n''I.,+ ~;i:;1 ' r...J........ Jj~_:lJ, ~Uv, ....m'1b'.I~"I'8" y.,f' D.l'li~ olm li\rn, '' ~ ~~'b jIIi .. al.... Jllliv y~ ~ !l.},~i.I.ljel .... r~ :l1lOme~ iC] a ~iman ·h, a PQlio!!, uJll:iform~~ pla~t a gaU,o<J'i, 01 d

(;.f "vho l~ea]]y IdU.ed 1Ir{,a.i.'co:i'm", Theil' 'SQ]u "om, ,,,,HI, slb.red. ne,w 'J:i,g'h't en ~tt ~lIf~\'~'l' whieh, a'~ Eb~;ilty Mag~ ... · zdne q,U!lJtes one 10:£ M~]eo~.~s,foUoW~l"S:, Ma~e$ ,J'atl\eS 'i3,ond, 'look J ik~ a au ]L'sery l;'}']:ym'£!t.'1 It i~In M'a'l~ohn.~';~ br.i e'it bl·nU;jI:nt snd iil:n~g !Ltis~led Ufe tlta-ft thifl ,~Ull$f\!ilverSJo t his ~lea.t;h.,~,"m he f'Q'ill,la,d. ' Th<l'aloolm ,L'itt[,e. ,\l~\E!J;S born ]1i'i, Oma:'ha ,Nebp,a,s~:k;a qn '~r~]l '1'9\" 1'91,25~, the :so;~ ,~f t,l'jj~ ltevr, Earl :LitU~ ,~n itin,-, ..
t:lll:o'b]i;!'m,
,jj t

AU

these 'll)]luest~o(J;]Sand :m,pr@ ]a~ 3i't,the root ,Ill£" ti:1!e

e1t~n,t Bapti:;.t minlcs:tey who p::r~achoo the Ba~~,-to-Aft'iJ.ca, gospel o~ M'~:~,cu.s' Garv~W'., ].r,~lGolm, ~~s, 'N~8;ned f'rom bh:th P0:n the 'biUer m]lk of the ,~pf"~s.e:d ,~ud ,':U!i!in_,.,
~~I

ltGrit~d,. H'i~,m.. er, :ti 'Weest lnd.i,~fn~ ot\1.. ,¥mm '~·Ol·lfl 'the 'f~8~JU.t of' h,e];!:m,()tbel",s :rape, b,y a vil"aJbe'~J~lfntet· ;~;nd)f'~lcplm was ~ hHl!g~ifu'efs"ri,Y' '~O h~l~e. 'th,e ,u'dGvil,j® ~,]ood~j' '~:a\'tg'alVie :hlm, lds l]1~lIit oomJJe:::xb):n an.d 1"Mty h~iF~ A t the ~g~ of 4~, ~ ft~ hj;~ f'amily 'M,ovei[], 'W L~,U1s1nr~ :Ml~hj,g~'n;thei~' h~us~ wa:i OU rned, ,t:o t'be .groundby' ,8:[I9'i,Q b 01' Ku Kl1Lt~r K I:sJJl:s:m.en. Wllen, Malcolm, W'~:S six h~.s, fatUl:tl",3 ha.tt~te;.aJ botlj1 'Wfl$ f'ouil!i~l uD(im tb@ taUS a ~i'tD;;e~t~~'~'"M~~l00'lm ,a:],~, w;at,Sj tt~n@v,ed. his f~,th¢:~i h4ild 'belren kined by 'th.e Kla:m
i

o,r

,and, (hn'll,ped on, tltte t~'aclk;~,

CRjl!~o:tua:ti~g bi~ fa'tbe~~sdea th i.~ 'his ,A.ut.O~io9',1~h.y" :Ma],eo,]rn WF.ot;.e tha t ,~ilt 'has .8Jways beefiL my 'b~Uef 't.h:~t :ID:,1~tgO, '1fJVill, illiel b¥ ~·:[o~Lence., '~a,',~~d,Oil'1i~, 'that :I ~j;tlil! ,~o I ,illl 'be ,~epar,~d..~'J At 15 '~Eal()o]m d~(!ipp~d out of schoo] ,~nd. tr~v,e]elr! 'by bus bJ Bosrton to Uve 'wit]], hlis OMI~,t ~b~'b2r" E4tQ"

F:i lr"1ll,t lta, E,09lton ~l,d In1lel:''in N fEW York ]:g,e gp,R'\fi'[cf,C,'heti t~ t'b~ ~oo.t ~(i"L·:s~li.ood wOl~']dat the N"eocro h'ipste:r.'~ :He dr~'I1][ }1*fli,~]f, 'took ~p ~l~'ugti nd m~;.ut~·~he g:h~ttn ~ a,e:ene 'vi't~l the 1!llli.m~ihe !:i,t.atmli' ~yU1b~[: a 'white '1]lfis,tre8~~
,;Il,h"'" tiim'" ,1Il~:~ '!II'n;n,.,;'L."d .JlllJ~IjQ '~.."I-... '.i!.~ ... n.. 'IL.,",,", .." .... "'' ',~,;o'i"I" 1>..~..", JlG~t:i, I~' ~ Ii:;! '~'" I -~~fIu.£1I.~': ~!IlI1 J[a,!II~ 'Ik~~m..lIt_lJJ_llG= habit '\1,\'$ e..Q~.ting htm. $~.o ;3; (laYi! ,a;n.d to ~uPl?Q.I't it 'lle 0j'd 't'ir'l!l!m'I't~!I!'I!Ii, and, I'ii...,.... ii;!,~, :-., 'Ii:'Io' ... ....... ]-, ,'.. 'loA .,.!!:~,~ _ I.H __ ~J__. ,c~, ,L" u""_,,,!I' _~ __ 1t"!Il!i~,,",~ a: ,It"l ifI' ~ Pp~'Tt- ~d H"i':lr["- nan....
'IE(I''!lf .DiII_.iii. -= ~~l ,oJ!; !;I. ,I!~

i!liJ!Iltr.Y!!l 'u.~ N~tT'O; :tnanikin :Sh,ta,. n;(ft ligitiw,t-,stiolled l@n~U(gJh " 11'

fo'l" ,eJ1tte(l"g~neies,. ;r{~a, ~l.'ei,S'ltl;.3,M o~l'l)ring

W'O'Il,

mm, t:he

f.lll",lIary· 19a'7
TH~ IR!~IST ,ARCJ··IM:IPR,OJEnT

5

http://WWW~9p.ic/trealist

· The REALIIST [I~sue Nuwnber '13, - !Feb\".~961 - Page 06
~M ~: 1hl~I!;!lI1Iltre~e ~ fo!.!.m:iiel~ ht1~:lIwww.l!;!p.tt:l~le\lidr:i1tl13.

sobdqu@f;

,of. nBi g' B.~d~I\~ and hi th~ Haorl!!I!l]j]; Jru,e: ·~v.ilJS .a '~nE::s,tb~,frls JJ!'lol iitJ.er.,

'~v,firUme'1l'Jl,gle lot j

in.

N'i~liiti3\1' he '~~lumute,tl HdQ\~'ntow'~I~Ji' ll'~C~;:~1,g np \\fe,~.~,fh.fwwthl: msn ,a~d ·t'P'Q:m_~ ~L11(1b~~!!:·.i·~lg ~ t~.'em tCi N'~gI:~' Itr~!lrt~t~ tes, NlJI l~C:!:v¢l!'S iO"l of t'b~ l'/h j;'te '~(j!r·]d· WH$. ;;1: ::;b'~~1t~l"b) hi:m ~ 'Kl',~ft-lri!bb[r(~r \O~...~.S his Baed",· ,eitkel"1 guld ing b im. t~ r'Ou.gh ,th.iE 'twisted envl 100HS of the Ca.ucas:i3Jl mh1!O"
\V'hl!l1 i'lIaJeobn ~(lu]d ne k~ngeJ" s ~lpiport '11J:sh~,'bjt by pbl1!:pLi]g he traveled to Bcston 'with his ,"~rhlfue gJlflt'r~~~1,'clJ. a:lld ol'g',!umj2l,ed ~\ bL1;:l>,g:l.8l!'fY,m~.g. Aif~.l· ;a, f,e:'!.';'· ~Il~~:fj.tabl.'e :m.onths be: 'was, a rres ted ,fu:rd In :1~4G he was ,$e:t:1J.'~encedJ to w~Y'I!]ll,t's ilUrpfds~J[1l11€nt fO:l' armed l:.'o.blu±!il'Y·. j":Big lli.(edJ~! ftele:blTiJ,'te.d his, ,21st lJ[l'thd,ay '! 11L the t<]:t~, :pd~O'n ~(tC~~nd{t~oo",vu,

.A:meT,~t!8;' at~Q'.geymla1lli :£'or eom,pla~@n't v,rhit:¢$ :a,~_uJ 'many bou 'rg~~i's, J:.;re;groes, but ,8. sy:m~Q] of' :ff€e~lom ,a~:d lu.clep€millHiIlCe to tile ghf~tto N ~\gro~~,. }l~l~o~,m RaM. 'whf.i..t

·the:y :h~d 'thQilrgtrt :fOl' yeIU'$~ and ~v,~n UjiQS(i: '~UJJ1~eiHlyto

~e~e~t(he fJilt'l,·~tall!l ic~,~, ~ di~cipl in,~ (Lit. 'Ute M'[lS:lh~.!li. tludll.'ed '\{i'rzii'l'iol~.slt a't 'hea'rin,g 1rVhhe-y get i't. , B l'ut 'MaJeolm.Js very S:l~~W-3$held '~he seeds of 'rds

Or-Il~1'MilleolMJ$

'J;j odyw~s

,eag~d

]0 Ul'~ human

,~QQ;

at

Ch~,l:'les~:@\\'-rl":B~':r~d (J/!l.gf~~t~,e~sj he. bega,n ,to 1re~ul l'a:venol~u~ly hb '~\he p(l-irsou libu ~~y" He read the d let ion~,ry t'lhl~O'I(]JghJ srL1,11'io]u,g; wl1tita '~It,llar,cll"i,!',::]wk/'~f,t\lp:y.i.['1.~ the 'w,O'[ds ,dlo~rnon ~C,l',aP5'uf '~l!i,peat a:n,l[] studying tbelll tllr'Oil1g;h t...he lrm,g In.",~.sGn 11ights. W1M~m reIa'tive-s tokl hi m, ~r.~ $'tr.1}nrre ne.~¥ ll''eHg:io:rn a pr~~choo b::t a. bb~el~]Ji1'{li;phee :i Jm Chi{;ago 'he wrota for .~,~,f(llrmatio:!~ ,al~~ 'i.\',n3~Gr~Qlll~lJ~y ,~tl'H~WG1!'eG] the HOD~ b:y EUj.a,lm Mlld'D8,]]]Ufil:1Cl" M~$~e11gf2:r. ~:E An~lh ~nd, Sh~~hef(l oi '~he Los't~li'!O]Jn~] N~Uo:n. olf Islam in tthe ltVit(~erl]~~ oi t:l1~ 'United ~Jti!.'~~$ .. J.H~ ~m;·,~·{!!'lllPw;]en(l~ with :amU~~h]fl~ bammln~d !l'$!'emed up a, ne.\y '\~rvJ',ld f 0' ~~.IJ(..'tJiI'm a ~v'('lIrld ~J'lhm-;e blar(!'k men '; w~n(;ed in d'igui'ty", ).n.'lO''lL1.d.of' th-eh~ S:k:il'il~thel:!,' h~lil,'~thlelii! h~1"ltage" eschew m.ll.[g UIJ,e '[)hy~]cal a,n.~l :m.enb i. :pl!i,i.:;lolm$ ,g.:f ·the· w'h ae blu~~l!~n~d devils. CoJnJ'~)"~ioll1 followed T~vel:'>!i:~i.ctn~ :~nn wbeWi 'h~' 'ie·it d J(~,d~~'i li:r] 1953 'he w,~~ ,a fan.ane 'l\J!u hn, sl ~jDhrRsd" Irad tHedl iJ11L CJ1u[lrlesto'\!i.'M.

bo['n. El~]~lhl~b.l ha nnu~d WI~c$ qui ek to l.-eet'-g".n]Z'e tJile_ nativa
M:dto]m X
W~J5

:M.n:UiU:I1l~,:' . Malcolm was also d isilluaioned by facts he: (1'[se{n,,"'eNd ,~'b~)ut ,E~.]j lI.(llh:ii~l1tr~i1d"ff p€r$oJTh~J '~lf~. He learned ~\h a fl'JOID '))!l~e~}wi:ty ,~ui'~ lJl~OJ\lght by t'lr~O -of lEI ij~ h~!illfo-~mel' ~ecn!!bil'les ~lld the t~st:1nl{iil!a,y'~f. dj~'f:tl~hall:ted :rt~'!mslims; 'jfl~Olru G~tlea\g-o lr.O$ig;~1e 41'2 tlm ~t the: :M!!sseWl~~rJ 0'1' ,Allah hard ,3, h~;,rerHl,of 7 ,.w1v·i2~,. 'by ""~f:fuLO'm. be had fathe~e.d ],0 chi lid reno M\alc:-@'h:fJ.~'S whcle ·~i~b~1';CC' since l~a.v] I'!:f l;Dl'"DSo.n. 'had 'b~.~r;l 'b~sed, O:iI1. h is 1U.n:~,~g,g,i bel iirl hn:'·the :dh7in tty of ~g 'EHja~h. M'uba'mm)~l,t :No.'w 'the rock: of his fa all \;~as
l)Gt~tub[lit:i1.e<1',s I" ,
,~J
'I!

d,oil!NH'f'aU in 'th~ M!ov~njJ,'~t!!'tM~ny M:rlsJi.:m. affici:alsi, :[ncll1e] iug: th,ose: fIlemhleJ:s ,of EUj ah~s, f:a:mj'~y 'lD Ul@. ~Ine Qf $'IU:~e~~~ill1i1,i~~ M,gi'ltl~:lm\s' g.l~O""in~ p0'l,Vei' a;nd. bi'i,ed, 1.;~d to put a bF'~ke Oltit it. 'EV\en th~ M,e~~en\{rer ,of' A llah seems to ha w',tgr'Own 'wGl'Jded t'~... lf~le~lt1:1ta pu.'b]i~ t :ima~ 'w'01j,[~l 'l!ve~'rh~ any f~eli~1tJJI~ h~ own, $ A ~d bY' 196-3 l\of,a'~,~o,lm hlm~elf W~tlS 'h-eg~nni ~g te 'hav,e dou ~b ,~~o~tt,he :M'Ovement. fIe w.a~ s;rill ~ lo~,~J :f'oU.,~W'.el~of ~]~:jI~,h,!, ln~t: his :a'[p\v e-R I"tll nee s ~.t (mU!~g!!1S tru'QillJJghout th~ e:oliintry -had. 'bt··eiUghtbim imto c]O$Q];' ~Olf~-ot"tet l-vith the Ch,H R.ig·hts, '1llJ.fnl.emt:n't!, and h~ \l,il':.f~ d'iil5hneb~~:l '2Ii,b(Jut the Mus'U:m ~'Q]i'c,y' ott ~b~1Ldi~:g'a,'I.{H~1 f~'Qm, it. !:~ th'O'iIJg:h:t ]lr:i:vatelr I "that. w;e should have aw!end·ed or l'e]axeG, our ,g>el1le:.ral ncm.,,"e:l'lga\g~m)BIJr'fu po]jc~', M ~:~J~o'[m '~J~,ter' ~'t'gte ill his A:~do'bio'D:ni'p:~i!i.' "If ~~"dd be llill!('3,J.,a inGr~~~htf:t]y in th~ l\F~gr'O'c~mml1!niIJ1i~:!>il ; ~Tho~e :M~n~~Jms t kiU~ toUg~j 'bMJ'~~hey Jle"ll'rn" dQ ~'l'iyth:il!\~, 'Llnless semej

...

lnhm r€'tIJ~~ ,~,n~l l~·~C]eJ:,shi.~~ ~bilrttr of la[s, l1m'li! di:,s;dpm ~u1,d ~p[mQ,il1It€l~ :.l[~lll;Q'h~l. 111inis t,(f:c;;' of M ut'i.i:l'fi ].\l~~qrl'~
i

"# 7 -

E~]jah $eut ]r~lco~ ~l

hl Jli1r]:e~t1,. , M,em~er.::; h i,p ,a,ndj :Z~il1tlS:kYFDCkflf~1!d tl ndC:1:' lds, dei ltecti.o.~,.
~c:rfiS~ t},u~

to.

lEm:jrahi~ wintm' 11,ome' 'in ~nd, 't'oh1 h'i m ~v,~tythinghe lTI.iiLd ,beard. TEte M~sseiJ1g'er d,¢'njed :not'h [ug. B,n'li, :be e.'N.p1ai'noo.
I:)ho~ni :(:~ A 1"i zO]ii,a
l\1:aJeoIm j he

m~um'llHn,g 'hls, eyes., [ll, d~l;n"Gr:atron~, ~l!~~:ei!V' to

'e:r91~~
'W~S

.

co!lJUKh:y',l~~V.iIf iJlg '

11I1~(r]-,

bilil,l1I.d, '1nnsq~~iesa.ncl fa IJ.uldhllg n~"W,"on~m;" l'-'I is Q:r~L'to.rk'3J g,@n['~"~ '!iiV~n thou$j;and~ [kf De'W ,(!~:tliil,,'e:ad~.s· f'm~ fh.e '~h;~:s,..., l1ll1lS. By the late :t 9.5~rs M~d~,]m had b~H):(lme' the P"',Ut]
••. 1! t- ."E'] J] ad, ,{I ~
&_.1 (1],

~t'

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lI:51:mllt~JkLs ' e8ucs.

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,9;ppe~ red 0:111. c:e'!lU1JU.~SS. 'fV' ,~nitl l'"ad ~tJ s]j_t)W~ ~nd ,\,~~:s. (H~ot~d,'~gu ~~rbr in jtbe pl',e:ss_,., MmUO'~;s olE \-\1bi toe A mell'icfLf:i.~ Hste:n@d ro, 'hi s blt~er' .(lk~'J'n'.ln,e~a:tiJ0iI:l5 !i)f' 'W l~ite 5Qc'i.ety' ,a,md wri the,Gl hlgU Ut= tj fI ~~d rnasQ~bi~l'['[ a'S ca~;]] 'lileW fitrQk@ 0:£ &1$ 'Il'@l'ha] whi,p ,~l,e~c~n.d~]a; 'M) t'lrn:~~,:t· ~Q]]~'Cltiv'e ~1Jt:k', ooJm
;slot O-~ 'th~ leVe1~ll'1!g ,iI1!~\'\rB." Ut~111l '\-\~,~~,ctkm~ii:1J b aec~&s. to, '{~heJ.n®1SS mecli.a as a ]'t.~&i~'~~S lc'e<aH2:h ~ng' .mi]~:i)CJillS o,t ,O'f :b]thet·~'O mU:BcepH've Negr,o es. By t~te .efLI:,ly' 1.960"s,l[alcohn X '\\\.ns a\- :toouseh,o]d Wfll~d

In 1951e tihe .Mus]j m~ bij r~t .ill'~t) PU bl i:'C ~U~ri.'ti.Q~l a~ :ll, l"es~d t !(Jrf iJ,~1 'Van~:roe.~ TV doe:~lmenta,F,y ~ T: ~~e- It~~8 ike Tl~'lilt lI_.~tePt"Qd·l1.CefJ. OveJ:'nl~~t! the ~Ul&S mooia" 'w],i~llJ un t'he'l1i 'had i_g.. nored, ~t:heg;J."ilJU]_J!, ~er~mM.e.~ Ul~(Uy' f'~r usUrn 'ma:ted~ I.l'~'As th~ 1il!'iI:~,t ,artllC~ll;tte ;~~o]n~:s;m(.ln for tlrt@. m@v~ ment (E]'ij~ h~I'as ,a,ch'rtn~1f, ~:ntl"f'e-ctli!ud ~pe-alt¢~') M~l-,
~c

]l1'op.J:iJ~ey, and of' f8~b'[tlla] 'f;bhlg'S, '~' he wld.M'~lcGdln g~ th~y' l'ind~~d he:side 1,115s,wimmi.Jl!g ]}Clot ~~ ou l'~OOlgn i~~ Y ""'i'L ""'t' "'l~ "",it ,"''I1.:j , '-'_'i"ii"'\""piL,;<E;;(!o'i!~ ~,~,[~, D'-.~~- "'I 'ji'i:i'-i4,,,,,,.,. 11' "'~,I.mI;:S ;;a. il. I"J\.~ !!.~~]~, is!t',!I, .... n!;>IUJ". , '_ 0,1' "''le' '~l1' UIi:i'U ?~U read ::Tlbou:t ~.QW' DJa.,'[d, woil:: :aa:lot'hel' :m~LI1~s'wife~ rm, 'tba't [li1}:v'i!~.• YO~J :n:'a.d ,aJJont .NCI'~,hJw'}\o ~o.t. drllnk ~thlff~ m,Q, 'YOll 'read a,bo.n~ Lo,t... 'wllo w~nt ann, ]~oid U1) 'wjth h'[:;5 Q~H d,juQgib;tcu·,s.., I 'm,av~ t\], fulfiU ft]~ o:f' '~hi;}sri,
,~'~" ".\y,j',
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'~Y',~I~~ve ~,hv~:y'$ b~!tl ~iji~ g~~d, Q'n(hrr$~ncli.ng! Q:f h:a ~
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only fOUO-WllITI,g :his re'~]gious

de~;ti]il,y,

;lot

lj~

ftenk~ the p,el.·[~e:t ~utr~ :fill

M,alco'~ Ln~l/1f't ba,~ t.o most 'l'lbites 01.
~I~.

:frol' ~ b·,"~·'n.·dn time u:t'e

h@ '~1iraSjlJ;~'t ,~,

Ka~eG~ nl, {'IJrrh!t:,cli,b~~ ~l~ New York! t'~~, ~"tm"d had q,t~ie;~UygOIIJ@ out ir-01mt P'bo¢.nix '~o l\'llt!;rdbn M,~~q.,.~,~ ac:i'O~ th¢ ~olrntiW'~' jjlWatr.lli :Malc(.i]m. l]j~ ea:n't b~ 'b'ij:~t.,;· ,~d_."j ~bl~leo~N 'was froze:iI1 O~J~of. Uu@' M:l:i~Um nlew~~a,er~ ,Jrf_uR~Q1.nl1t<t(£ 8';E:l~k$;f and '!niHil 01~gj~t 'p:t'i:v.y· ~ 1 t'b~ i:nnerr c::o![unClil~ ~f tb~- Mu.$1:ill\ le~de.t:s.bi~. But ]E] ij.an b~d:ed 11 time, 'waj.ting fair tll.'e, p:rQpitio~u So 'mom.el'~:~,b~ f'9l~MaUy i.s eX{!lOm~u~tnijcat'e 'Jfu im. He 'finaUy Sie]Z!ed on s,ome:I"ema:dvs; ~_']l:a ~Qlm hQ,Q m~dl@. F'igll,"taf~~' the a.ss:st;sina'UoIll. 'of ]
,Pl.il,fg:$ i.de~.tl{e'I"I'l'icdy"

El'ij'aJl;s ex:p]anii.H.on. d,~d 1itUe ,to ,a:sst[la,:fe M;liJoolm~f.li dot~bts,~~l1d U"~:~ M~~~,@ng~:l' Qf ,Al~a,h r@aUz;ed 't,ha;t l:iJ:i~ ','l1'llng ·'it1ir:;ei,p,1e w~ llO ]~n:g'C':t" to'b'd]]y h)'~f,al B,y' 'Ule tjmoEt

• 1~.I!nnJrs,.l'~ .

M'alQ~:1 h~d ~i:kene~ 'th'iitl' ,~~~a~si'nati,o];l'tl) t1:H'~ m'~i',dJer' In of 111ledgal' Evel~8 ,i:uld. Pa.tsdce :L'I;a,m.'~lm'ba ~nrd po~:nted, out" The~Ie aU'st

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[IissueNll!mnber7a, - lFebh, '11961- Page 0:7

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na~;t ~'b3:.fue ']:n.

3 ~ 'vihlte men 'had m.ot ,s~p'ped wUl the ·ki]J.-· l!etter to 'l[a'ia, !j:d~, a,t. ·the Ma:I Hm. :~1f·ogq.i]>e he '~f~~'@d ing o:l de:(e]lsel~&ss,b[:a'ck lleo,pl~"; Iha,te~,a]lo'w!!d to s.pN~'lJd lri~ nii!:litl' 'V ie'\¥~~i ~;t : : 'unc\ecketill~, fin:L'!Jn~ 'b,nd sJtrl~(j'k do,w:t!lthis Co(lluJ],try is c"n']et '\~T~'l;'tl~,:tgb.()!ll~rl 'b~fLTeb~n t'be MusHill 'w'@ddJ~,I :~ii1'Ve my' f met,. ~ia.lkI!ij to\!. ~ndJ ,e",~,en.leat,en with ~eopEe '\Vfl,O in. of s'ta'tl!"ii'~' It 'WaJ1!~ Ma/k!'(i~m ela.imedJ. a ease o~ ;j;jthe
chickens

J\_l]:st~e~ .EtiJ.'] Wal'i~~!Iil,ln, his e!l~]ogy :m..,t l[{1@1¥m'ed;y'i~ tl]lU!li"'~· :a.1, '~jIl!1't :E:~ alb. used :[~ as· :3, :pl~ere:x.t,to ~if$IJSll~r.l.d"!'M~]:eo]m ij iql:' 9l[) CbIJ'il as ~(l ni,s;h~'r'of' the Hal'lem, :M:~~n~·~H~, '~va~
~~~O

'~lloUiS~:nclsOi!

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CIjIi]l[lng'

hiiJim.e to :a:~oost."" litUe hom:Uy '~Y,3S nQ ;str'Q'l!lr~r Utet':R
Am~l;"if~~][$\'(n~~ !Sayjng'i fIDt~ludhtg

'C.~ief'

'w·ha.t

few '~f,ee'k~. ]~t~~t;,,tb~ I$iti,~p'~~si,i))~~was ~x:t~d~d
~.; n' ..... lv
~IJt1 .If .'

'p1"lol1,],bited from mak:[ng' -a,]!l,1 p'ubli~ ~t~,tem'~nb." A
·~(}W'lotaJly

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ne '~Jac@left :f:'or h1m, in, 'the :MllQ :iUm. :m~vem,ent j ,S8,
old., wUh

Mulco]m

j

di;8;i~]'!ll:$lio1n.~d,1'~®] [zBciI. tl:le'rew,as;

Amil~l'~eft11\"0'[1 Id :~'ul'vebeen oona:[d,@:r,ed '\,~'hibi 'Ib;~t tbe ~ ~'f~hneja;ttitude ,v.~u) 'remQvE<nJ]:l~C)m t:h'ei l~ :nlbu~s, b~ the: f 1l;'eUgioITi of l:ii]am. Ina ve J~er,;r,~r'b@"f,oire &~e.m~'5:inC&J·e. and ~1~1~ br.othel:hoa.dJ P~''a,ctlc~dby .;Thi~ C{b]OF~, tmfj,«tthc,[c:! h:l'~~ ~~ e,ethre of. theh' ~oTOJ"" ~ • IDfl.a(.':~ll.h0.u.lJ"heFe in '~he H:01y . la:~d elm,8.:blles- :m,e to lira ,1I',e gl,' eli1i\'tem.' Sl~M.tl]~lil ]U:9,l gh'w ini to what 'lS h~'ppell~jng A,w@ricJ!l between blmc~ ~nd, m:n wl1i.ite" I~Tia:e' .Amerle8fm. Negro n~'jl1el" Cain be bl~]11~dl'fot' 1ds,
l'lle,bJ

to ~up[)(n~t~:hi:i1!5 hame and cal' thie: PaH!I!s~1io~of the M'~s]imS[r 1Iifaleoltn ne[w,et·t}le']es~ w,aS' det:erm]ne~ to fig'ht en, On l!d'arc~[ [2 1.964. he c~Ued a prn~s eQ:~d,~J.o,enee ~nd, annou need tll~ 'f~n'1;rcuil,UO'n of Il 'n'~:wmw~ent, 't1t~ M'ij$'"
j

~N'!:a:r~ no f:rMJ~€'Yof ]u,la, QWIl'j! ~wif,e, ~~uil.d. '{\hl"i@e ~l1J:ldp!n

J]m

(T'l~r;e~ mQJi][~~$ 19.t-e1' '~,~, it)~ganh~e(i, am,othe:F'~ b\l~ii).,;1de[' g:l~l1P, th~ Otg'in'i-3a"t~on - of ,Afro_.. Amefii'k~an 'U'n'i t::t~ & 5e~'lid;,n~ II 0 itl.C~Uy,..oI',~~n't€;~. aU'~tn.t ~
:M:O§'UIt!~1 ~.Jl1C~

in leeal civiJ...!rightfl 3i~tian :~nthe Sout~' fi)JJd. ehi~l\':hel~~ " j:Le SJI;idj; "heeauae le;lver.JY' caln!p~]gn fO:l' a,!@ulfi.c 'Q;J~:Jiil?!etiveB, ean '~nly h~i:gh~.en t~hc .po:1 [t[ctJ,\l e~n$C;i~)iU~Ul''3S~ of' ·the
''lii.'r .~

fa ;1lJjifn@:unc;~ng'the M'ui5.Hm M'O$j~.I!.li(!'j lI~d~ohn refi~ctoo h1;)w l·,;uU~aJly hi$, tdt'as had. alte.r.ed oth\oE';;' ')n:ia break with tbe N!UJdnn3., j1~] ;~l'm pr-ep.a,~~ to OOOpe.l·,a:re

open tiD 't.lll~ Pi\:rt-1C'~:Pi!-~lifin Ne:gl'o~s ~Hk'e'~,)
'h.. -. ~ ,

'I~ . d 'I'" • OJ,. ,re lIK'lOUS. all: - noni"'re~lg'lOIL-l;S
.f}

1

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Ma,lcGEm lmlM,d. In;,()\k@ll.·the c'hJ~ins of N!ij ~~im s;epa:ra:;Usm ,~nd,was hcnded on ,l coo f~@: ()1 poli'~icp,'~..acft;[v.i:$Rl. .A:lte(r 'te~ ,y~ar~ ~:SJ Elijah :ht~~a~:TI]~d'~,m,Q"uUlp:~Bce'iI' 'he! 'waS a,'t :L3:at.-. his QW~ m~u~.
N:n Apl':i'I,r. lo;i,,;i l1iJ:~co].
• '~~'11 cI2

n~,!I;,[\Qes., .

-

..

,. • ..

,iii'

-

as l',a!ais:m ]~,~ds AmAr;i.'~1 U:PJ the S,l1'l~i.c].e p,Ftth~~ :ill: tl.'3I' 'beUeve.. iTc;m't ~h~ e-xperieittl.Cles tha E '][ h3:\~~ ~ad wi t'h , U~e[[l~ Uu~t, U:le' wbJite.B, of t'h.e Y9Uf.I,ger ge:~l~l"a'H(Wi~in th~ ,eoHeg'ell, ,~uH;l IlIlive:ir::r[U:e~" l~rn] see>tbe h~nd\~'~'~'Un,g Q:R thi@.wall ~and m~:ny of them, 'lJ,'lri]] bllI'~ to 't'h,~ iS~]'l"[tu~l J~th of' tru th~{tJ]e dJ!j\I~y 'W tIlf ld't 'nJ!' A~i~.rl:c~~ wanl t~1 off th~. dis.a$it~r (bil,'t l!'~,t';~sm m;u'~iIt. m~vit~b[:y le~!cll to .• , '. in M·.~d~;Qbn, ,a~:pea,r.e~ ap~ll"_ehe'J:'tshll\e'th!fi't. h is folloWGl'S, migl r t J]ot llm,lclleIDst8:~.d l r~!s. :n,ev,.r a Uihttl@ tl) W hj~~. ~~y DULY be sh<:.u::'k;ed by th,e-S'~ 'l-!foll·ds ~oMi:ng f~o-m O!.l!l. me," he C'tlJ;Dcb.dl'!d. ""But ,~ UllS 'pnt:rt~m!~g~t '"fh:it 1: h~v,e seen ,a,)1J.rJ, e:~P~l~!€fiiC!id fOl~oed mice ,to 1';g=a/~"rtwnge 'ha's maeh 'my thou,gh't~:~~,'tteJ("n~ Pf'ev,l,o'l,JJs,b'hoeM, and fio tm's: Ia.;J~a;~~am~ ,o:f' my 'p.'re-v~~},~1.:r; C!Ond!li1Si[f~s, Tbts was, n~t to!l> d im~ult,'(lii: me. Despite Ttny :firm eQJl~:ieU(llllsp I j ~ :~la:ve ;atwtJ.\f~ b!~n, ar !it1;1Ul 'who tries to f~c~: fa~ts'J' a~~d to ~~~ep~'t}l~ u;,t®;1 of Uf'e ,~;S; ne~:v e.;,'{p~:r]€~H~@'S i.ty' ~~cl :n!~'w kDow];ed~ 'L~f.irfo]'d$ Hi. ill h;tt\!e' ah:!.ji~1!~H~ k~pt ,~n ~pe'rn m~nd!

00' 'the

anim.oslti~~i='"-"he

fSt

~Qll~e:i!'Jiu;s1 i"ll!cJ8iITI of the AniI.el'[e:t~'n wliljh:s.

only ];eaictj:~,~to 4:00

j7-eiU"S ,E;'L!t

t

..

or

rna-d,e a '~nlrim~lg@, to, Mee.c~. To bJ~ £nu:'Pt[se~\ he ·W;1;ts. g'!'·,!:lle-ten ,ill (he 'Bo,b" (W~Y'
mf.I,J01J.' 'l\\r()it~u.lJI:~~gl1l~e1l'
,., ,enitt!!r.'ta:runel1ili..::II 'I~ .~y. T~'"

all!: 8

8:md intrQ(lueed,

n,UIIR'

1I!i'I'

,lIl"'@lSQ,

l-

Ara\blc name P.1'eR:(·@d. by t~:e! ·bOu.(Ji~·a ~:r.1H:ajj?" ry ,awar.ded ~npn~~1ilm_s'~\D' M@G~1.)" It 'l,',r:(S flijg~dfmant th~].t
(hl~,
·the

w'hic:~l lS uelcessa l!'Yto tb,~, 1e.'Xj'bn~ty that ~.t]Sitgo:h,a:.nd in, '~)~ull,d ith e:ve''[!'y f\olI;:·ifin. ~ ~n't-e]] ,g-en t ,~e:JjlL'chf'el' h·llth.,I!' w I The 'L~:tter 'W'$lS sEgned. ~jll:I.=llajj M~lUr E~-Shaba~z'n'
tl\l\Q

HiS: '!$~"ie:ri¢'J'f~~: in ]l(C(:_,il one M;,11~Q~~ 'f¥~u]d, .nev.eT for,get. .H~ls, ~ol1tail!t wUn >Q'tlter M,os]~m, ·pUg.r.ims eJvmpJe:t~lY' iclTI:a'nge'd :his 'vi-e:w-s O)1jj :rac\i${m., ~~d. the" p~$i.. bI~ity (!Jill! b];a'ck~w.hlre,~fathe:~ho~d!., [~ ,fIJ, '~o:n:~j:p9's~iiOOIia.te

and S~lldj, gov@'1"fIlil'l'lGiI!I:t

to, l~$Ild]:t\g T,'Slam.[~ 'l''elig,ilG::nls
i()rme~~]s;.

a;ut'h'Old.'til:s

'\f.~~

(;:h~1f:'ig~~ of tho-u lW:bt ,ilnd. aUitug~ h\ :8oc@:mpanied, by :lL, e]l~lJjge of name" 111"3J le:o,]:b'~ L]tt]~J le(KIDlv~(l;ted ,to .rgl~.iU1'[ ~eilmind the 'bsJ'~:s 01 Ch3,'rles;bown. :s'hl\te prison, eniH~rgedl\rjjljlco\lm X fa . D;~~~e'b;tioE. jll!s.t ~S' de~p (iice~ ['r@d in tlJe $n~l"~d, :sh~~~tli of M'eool~ 'A.n~b:~:,o~.tgbti:wtb E 1,·.'Hajj :Ma]ik El-$ih,ab~H. ' ~~I'n t:h~ HQ]Y W Ql'lid!t~ l~~]~ohill ]~.'trMi \'jf~O't~ ill h~'$ AUM b£..o Y~¥iP},il~\ ~f:aw;ay flr'OM AM~1·~t.al,':s ];-'a~e plfob1J€im'j

lIutoohnJ',s life,

'lllHljor

WfJ,l:"e

was, tlta fil's:t '&,i.;mr})F,! I e:v,er h~iI be-el.',fj,b].e to th ink cih,~al"]Y a~~ut the: hfu:rre di'il:s]ons m' "~'''l~li.te~eo:ple iw AMle'[']'C~'J ' and 'ho\-y' tlfi!(ir u'tti:tu.d~ nod. theEI" m.oti"IJes 1''S'tated to,
tt:r!l,d, ,;ln~~f;:N !!8l-~o-eSf' In mY" 3,'9
'iI..,

s~om:l b-e,fore ·th~ Cl'.!:i Wit::6'.f .aU ra~d,fe~t HR!e ~ ~~mplette: -. .... -' .,., n \ilJLum_an. lje.ll1l:J!!;",

Hulr 'Oi,tr IOf M~c~a.h~d b~e1ti,the 1irn,'t ti.-m~ ] :h,~,d~,~~:r'

y!Ui,I'~

~1lL 'Ulis l~al"tliJlj t'b~i

MalQohn d:ilidn't, soften in :Ija, iJPPO.siti~iH to ,,,,,,'hi~e' :~\aJdsm,. B,~d,:f':rOliE!, tha,t mome-lUtt 10'.1'1 he :l'NYf(!r- [~:ilfl[]J t~L I~lr,a;w :a d.i:stincti:on :b~t'l£e~tIJ. the I~VU C(rrtffflitwd b" 'whites an~ th~ inherent, ~vB. of ,311 whit~, ShO\~,t]y 'be~"Tn tbe~Pa:stJI ye$, I .ha'v~ ml;l~de sw',ee'llii1'il,~ irll.di'Ct-, melnts of aU w bite :1~etJrpie,. I 'ne\'1',el' 'I.~?J]] he guBt.v 'lDll 'thJlt
fO'l~~:

'w~,{b~'(ll:thhe

'l\·l~ote:'

~g~i'h1=aa, ;[ :~nGw

110W

oi:J-1'"ibis

1;01" feU" of' a;om.e

IiJ'Y i;J;n ,emd.erJy· 'N:4ll'g!r>01 wlh!l Idf:ove ~ 'l!J~d~r th.e :i!I~e@I, lhnr~t
O'!n!e 'W:Bi8 O'\Ylljed, C(!IoP

'~ic'kL~tiDg him~~'

,j~Th-~ t~:o.e ms;]:JI,m h~~ ,snO'wn m~ tka t n blnJiakeil;: in... d]!eiome:nt 01 aU 'w:bl'be :f!,e~I~I]eISr 3:5 Wi"ong as 'll!ib~D ... ll~ '1..1' 'rr • d'~ .. - b'~ "... " .' ~ "" 'Wh llliM :nral'li!e ,'-lIJ.a:nl'lJe,t In· lc.tment$ ag:ll[El!3Jt ,_~ac~., : ~ ~
f

smc@l"@" thJl'rC stO<me trul:r lJ[·otlileit'l1Y' to,\vlll"d, a bla,ok man,

truly

tiliat

~O'Rl,e

m·,e.

white'

pea~lle W·,e:
'~e~ng'

ea:pa,b]e of

,F.'lJruG rry 1'967
THE IR!I~AUS,TARC!HIVE PROJIiCT

http://www,,9P~ tcllraal ist

The AB\UST [Issue NllJm~r 13, - !Feb",'1967 - Page 08
!Sie!l~

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Ul!t~ "-~·dne.se' ~l1!d Cuban, A.mb~ss.adDr...s1 l~rh,O) boU!i beld s;t:;l'Le d.b'ner.-s. hI ids, honor, Fro·. 'GhliUUl he de'w o.l'JJ. to MQI"oCco and A]g-e.s:ia", r.etuflillin.g tQ tThJ,~ U.S.,
OR

'1ft '" - 'th 'i!' A .. 'L.t. .. .:. ~. ~3D.'", -' ,-.'iJ!llel".I!CRn l~ JllJi]_lte1.nwt, 'W·ri.o.' ~ ,~:sa, r~teiS &. '-bU'iIO> Iloj i.t:~lj the Am'i2(l'ie:;m pel it leal, ~conom['e and. soeial dntospI/, "P,6 Uw.t ,~, w')-na t[e~llJy nourtshes a l"'~c]s'l;psy'chalogy IW, ]...... "'1"'.0 "'-h"'IO.m. 'filii'" n I:< 'Ii"' .. l~'ifjJco~,mtl.'~s n.ew a'tti1t~Lr(b~,\:v'as m.o~, oli1J'ly mQre hJj,I;'UII,n1e" it w'as j.nffirmibdy more sophl~i;]eate.d., Apart from the mora] ,~l1d .religiollls a,srpectt:i, Qf the problem, Ma]f\o~m b~d come ~ Jlaoogll]_j~@ tba\t '~':aG:i:$~ was an inheren,t oom~(bneu.'t e,f 'the: ,,,,,o\:me;l'ica:n :sysb~DJJ. Il:lstM,d of i1ll~:atte.r'ing 'bJs slm1t at ,a]] wbj'b;$j Maloo]m, bega,1!l totrain hie ~rght$ ,~qlLll-l~e~yn the :poliUe~J a:nd e~lj)'m,olDjc admlllo ]Sb'H,'tion of the U.SL Ahno$t t!!iub1imL]n~j]y" his ];losftion. WRIS b~j II go rad](l\9,'~]2ied and ke was ii~nlj,'inr.!IIlg' ]ef~. A t the end 101 Apill'i~ 1954 JWaJcoa.n left Me~ and jjb~,w GIl to a" EOUl" ,of severa] Afl'i¢~n ,co~n't·r.ies. Once again he W"aJS aston i~hed at the warm,th of hls :!Ifecep .. t.. lo-:ra. He was S',m~~~ted a~, ,th~ iovblg am·haSlS9ido.·l' of 3rt Afi"l,eJ!;ican.~]a.lCk l1la'tion~ jp.irai;sem i'IDl thJQl lU"eSs" 'feted, by ~'1~ 1 ."'. ..I. '" • . .• u1!Jh,rOma~ ,3.llu. pl'].me IIlU1JU;i t e1"'5 In NlgeI'ia~,CabiDet mi'laiste'1:'8 v;i~d f'Oli' 'his ,a;ttention. In Ghana, :fic;:, '~1£fa~l:'oo~iv~dby tbren ..P.resident : Nkl'tJm8]~r 'l~vhiJ,;u:"i,",lnged :fot ldm to, addr~ss ·a ],010.'& sesa.iOOil of th.e 'Gbflil!l ai.a~ .PaJf'Uanu~ut-t'he iiJj'stAnn~de~n~ to be' so' honored, WbUe, in AeCl',a he 'Establ i~hQ:d f~7]~nd]y ,eem ..
.U.IL .1.,.. Y. ~'I;i .1:1.~a , ., ~j

SNCG, 'W~lQwem-9. a, tour of AfI! lea a,t the a~me Um,~ ~~ Malco.lm~,,a"tbes.t. to the ,dle,ep iU"~pre-sSlou lle 'h]:Rde th'l~ou,gho'M. t his tl~~vels:
QrIJ

Iolin L~\iIi1'is a,U't.AiD'OllUi,h:J Har.,ri.s
j·mP-t1,'cil:. 'W'(,)8

0'

'i~M'a]!lo~m::s

try he wa~, knQ~'ll~ ,ilin{l s.erv~d, as tlle
c-a;t@lgo'l'~~ing

fllil_st

fantastic .. 11'1 e'';;l,et''Y

COUll"

otbelt Afl·G!-Ame¥-i.cams and their poUtica~

:DUli'li c.~'iter.ia.. f>OiJ!"

V,~~WS,.';f

J

j

'W,a;sldngtoll. was deepl]Y aJfrrme d, by Malcnlm~'s Af:l'i-, e~m aethi'[t~t~. .Hia. bj,tiJlll~r ~ll u~,ebtt;i.'O:u nf~ U·~S. Qo,y'" ,eiJ."i~unell't, b1BiCti v it¥ on clvn rhthts.!! cOll~]ed to h1.~, gr6iW~ ing a,l;hu:;ks an "'Ama'iea,in imperisJisH'itl' wef.e Bwrjng up anti-U, S.. sen'ti:llluzm:t tb'l'oughou;t Aft-[ea. A, ]ortl.g as M:alcolm, had 'b~]l :B\ MtlSilm he l-V,as no Unr"e~'t to. th,e., po'\yeii;~is tl'llilZ~nre;, t1le MusUmlili, ~ad. ,d.e .. 've[oped a du!oo.r~;c 0'£ viO:I,e~c~jbut they' did nothing. In 'faetJ f,.:d,el·al intslllgenee aJ:~nleies, pl'iv~,te]J appre,v~d of' the I!rus] i.m5 hecausa tbey recruited tlu:~.tt~~JldB of the ;most'.ili ttltd~ Neglroes and . .ali ver~d. th<ei~'ang,er into E[ij:al~ 'M'uhammad eon s.titll:ted, ~~s m,1;q.ch ,a, ,c'h~,d]ellgeto 'Ule sta tllS ,quo as FatI'H~r 'D ivine .. The M'~$]bns, under

harmless channels.

.

t~C't ""Uk
')!J[ay

8~

119 64..

.If M.ecca had

eiv~i,c,p.l~lvattl ,and, ,goVie.I"Om€:ntal agmf!.ies, and iliLd iviti-the m,o,j~e' ,l~~,dical Aill"i,can states. u~ls were ·l\oe.enly· intere.stetJ in w'b;at Malcolm X was saying a lb:ro.ad, .and. l1'Gil"e speeL~]at]Dg upcn ih;e .An id e~ began ttl! e,vQl ve in M~]eo]m:,:!!!'mh~d,--\the Ijea \vold,mlr ,say, and p03~.i~11y do,-, 'when he I'~tln·lI1I.,~do Ame:t:'''''' t 01 bl'inl',l'lllg' the JLm€f[ie;~~ r.ae1a~ pifo,w,e:m bef~re.. the :ic~. In llp~ t~\'te N~" Y ol"k" ]I l'@c@iv,!)!d a 'teleph.one c~an U.·N., lE'."d~1.· tbe H:Ji,1~;a.J!1, n~:ght!; :pl"o.vis~Qft o:f' 'the, Chai'll''''' t~r.. If Soutl1 Africa could he ,arraigned beforet'he W(u']d, ItUM a C]O$e friel11d w]m he had bee.11 aske~ to a:sk lf bodll ,\11;' JlY not u'U~11.8. ? , :m,e ,if 1 '~tiolddJ com'!, -to New Y'o:r.k ,City OR an 9.J,PPOtlnted. .l~~leohlll'il. knew t~~,epIau) OOit]]d ·rI.oO·t ,~uQcoo~l wit~out daJ:!l' to. 'iuei2t '\vjlb [al 'V,e;[",Y ,high g.Q"fer.nme-;n.t Qilclal] the iSUPPQr-11: 'the ]J'LaeIU91dent, Af'rlCRlll stat9s~ a:n~. in. of WllO Was i ntell"Es,'ted in ~laIclO]m X, -be snmm'e:r :0£ 1964 '"h€l' ,ma,a€!; arturtheit, more ,€:,xtellded dI d.i{]J, tIl' lio.WD to' 'the: e:ity., My. iJ?i,snd .alcC'om,panied t~diP'to .AfL·ica., s'~en~Ung \ve~ 18 tOij~in.1 'th.'e OI)nt]m.~'n·t ID.e to the iomC~~ of' :aJ lalyg,e private f9ul1dat[on wen tLlnd 'COIn rel",r:i.ng ~rltll Afl.'],Can :~~de:r.;s.,. kncl\1n f~' U~s. i8!Ctl.'\li.ties ~uu:! dOIn:Ij,t]ons ] ~ the civ.il... r'iglrts a,l"ea... [ :m.,eJt. 1:ibe fo.lltl1dtJl,U0n;'s p-l\·~id.enrt, and he On lrd:s.tou 1" l'.t[a,lcol.m v]si ted lIlE101;JIt-~, Kilwa,i~ Lebanon, ,~ntr.oal,u~d me: ,to the J'ustjas' De.ptll"tn1Jtnt Giv.ll Rig;hb. S,]Jda~'l, U,g(ftHl~~ :Ethi.opia", :Ken;yf!J.} T,anzania~, Z;:nu,z 1·1:"" i'b N;hrrn'i::;l~ Gh,aTJ,a., Liberia- GUiIiJ8aJ~ and Algeria. I{~ lte'~~d, SeeUma head" BUI'ke :M~~~han., lf~l·r:dudl was, chie:Oy ~n'til!l.~·"'i['itlIid'i' ]'n- "kif I'lII ...... 1hm 'V.I'", .e ...."'"'M' ..... w.:n ....;I,'].... ]1''''':'f ~IV hA,lv' • ~ll100essfld ,a1JJl,(Hemo~s, ith p].""le,~idea't ,~las~et 'o:f 'Egypt, w ~JLU~.~L']j _.",.... Pi"esh'l!l2nt 'TQrur,~ of G'td:ne-,a, Pl'i~Sb:l~llt 'Ez.i~)d·w,e tU Nl~ 'his el\f.e~u~i,r~ b:'O!LIve]in,g ~hlce iris B]ac'k'llu~l[m o.,1l)ste:!If" had been :!p~[d fori n geria, Pl~~iri.d~ntNye['el~e '~Jf'Tan2~Jli~j! P',riUle loiiFr[ster JOliIl0 l{i~n;y.a'ttaof Kenya :Pdme: :~fh:ri;d~r MUten Obote On .A lJlg"tlS't 13" 1964;, ,vhHe ')ib: lcobn w,as in C.ah:o to (rl' Ug:anti a :f.i OU ,P~~esldent Nln·uItn~.ll ,o:f (i·llana. ,reijiij st t:~ ,.iil oj t~,e SiU nl~i,t Confe.:re]1l,ce o.i .Afrkall e (Ghal'lJfl. '!;~tas }~ahf,(d~:jBI most ,ferv'e'n't ally; and 'Nk.~1!f"· P,li me l~j-tl istel'iS for lds U.,N·,. mo.ve.. :Nt., S,. X~;nd]G.!t re ... ' man E)'n'Lli'l(J:sted~jm with a '~etteilr of' oO'mm]~~rOJilJ to.l ~:(lif.'te~, from Vilac:lShi:ngto~ t.o. lhe, N'ecIU 1'(Yf.'k, Titn.€~ t':ba:"t:: ,3. 'rl'ange uJ_:lo,n his r,Btu rn 'for the r.n~rchas€t a:nd blista'["·T'be ,!St:ab~ De1pal·tl'l"eut and the ~J~,$tice Depa'l~tm.ent ia:tiou 0;[' .90 IlJlil cleal; 1~~a.C'tf.K~· in Are~~a-.) 'ha ve tJe.g-un ~to,t.a:k,@; u ill.te'['est in MaJco]m's ca;mpaign N,o. nU~Efl· :~,o~j,=A.f'riciiIJu had eVei[: teen, [So. hDl1o.:l'ed to ,e.a~vine~l-'Afri~~ulJ :s.t:a tes to 1'ai.s~ t]iL~! qll~~t[on ,0f' a·it:'i,d" trusted by U'H:!! ,..i!\.I1L'i'Ctil'D states,. Ae-cordimg -to m.e'l"~ perS@QUUrol of .Am,eri.ca'fil :NE!gl'(le8 at, th~ United Na'",

atti'~Lul'~s, his ",'j:"l;·jJ~a)]: tour "~\~H!l e.q,w.a;]]y ffimpo(liantto lis p ~Jitic.. l del \e.lo~ment. He had ~h1fjji,'~S:stressed 'the ~ '~J~eoe~si"Y fOI" Neg\l~~es to 'identify ,c1.dturaUy an'ci histor.ieally" '!,¥ith. tlu~j oI·Igina.[ bomela~u:l" bll!alt hla d,is'~1!J..' r s sion with J'tiltiean l~adel~a. had cope'n.e.~ up, t'ne pl]s.sib~]itf'

a lJ.,1 ing [:t]d

implU~t o.n. Mahmlm~rS1 ra,ejal

But it 'WM qui-oo, ~no,t:h.er 'th'[nl' 'for 1\!iiiI;]ooThm X to "ti'3,:vel acrose Ai'l"lcBI ralvHnizil1,g :pub]j,~ .senti'mon;t ;3_,ga.(i]mat \V:3JfI\binR'lID.n~ a,nd m~ne·m.. ~ri~g to bring ttl ~ Ame~'kan ]:',ac'i·;d qU!2Sit~QH Def,ore the U'~N'''J Q. :mol\!''e whieh, ]f sUcG~ssfijr, cOl!J1:hl PPOV, \Vash[ngto~'~ most huhiLi lia tinS' P,letpaf:tfL-nrla. 'ravE!([tSa'f of tll~ C(Jhl lV::iI.I"., T:mt;e
GGVell.'DmIJHl1i;

Roberts.,

and bad as' mueb ilfilft~HllJlGe '~ f01'"el,p 'pGlliQ1 as, Or.al O

bis aaseeiatas,

'beH,an keeping

e 10i~~

tabs

011

ll;·ll,oolm, and

A]~x Halley'" wbo co]]~bo~ra t!ed lll'itb JI«lc{)lm on his JJ:u-t~,l)Wgra;phy~, l'epo:r't~ thai ~

of blJ'lltdb]l~ COcO})el:a t"ion betw'e.eu

A.mel"ical1

N',egl";'o

.and.

··'~~:n Was'bingtO'JI)~ DJ~~",and. Ne,lv Y'crk, Ci't1r~,power.:ful

,,,bat

sara

p

~.

!'G\1Io ~~,

·G-.

I

[.L'_~B·

!yyj

_

~~

l~

II

~"li:iIi;E!",

,~~\Ii

l~

..... '1;

1['_llilij ~!p'

IV

r_

be-ca·m.ethe ~rne bl:aek Am.e:r',it-lln wit'l~; 'lv-hom -man:y 'hi"gh stab~; oliei ~~~. from black Afl"lc.., 'I~Oil1'iil eo.:m:ll.umi.ca:te.. . , ~ Thirh"' t\VO Afrlearn :nat:ilfi1i1iS 1"I,romj18ea 'ml ~u.1f!I,n~1r.t. J\lI;llco1[ln's, resolution to the! 'Unn~dNiiJ,tiom;, COliU}e'lI'liIJll\1 '[uunan f'jght~ ,for 'blac-k ~ri'Cans . ';
... ~.I!

L;'llJ.u~ellce R,enry,. ',,,ho

l-CUE!lV'

M,a~eobn

WQnl

;r,~Ma~co'lm t~ons~~ . "
,j'l ,lLoi",t,-I'

fame a VB Uable. h~i'i~ ~,n]y recently. Aft.er stlOCd:yimg' it,. omciaJ~, s:ai!dl fha't ,if Ma,~.,eolru suac~edJ{tIdl in ,eollvincbUl ,ju,~t o-n~ Af'l~ican .gov'EH"l1D'.Umt to bring up th~ ,cba-r.g'e

1':a,1oo]m'a, g;;,]}a.~e, ·m~:m,'O(ra'fJ.,dum 00, th!e headls of stale. a'& t,he Gai!E'c cQ\llI00l'fil,c'e: ~·e,qures.fi:rig 'their SlJ].:Dp,on be-

8
I

lite laillil'

~p.:llwww .. rp..cireaJist et
111=l~ [Rl~LS,T ARGl=lnJe PR.o.lE:Ci

The R8\UST

'zan~ 01:njjl~ enUre ~::iI~efO!.mtll at: h~p:tIwww.!!;!p .. ifre.aU~itI13. k

[Iissue Numnoor 73, • Febh, '11967• Page 09

aft the. U.n ited. N a·t:i.nllS.~fhe Uniwil States ~Olrerlilment ~rQtJ'id he 'i~oed wl:th a touchy' 'iPfo"l:~]em~ Ii'~Thl@ Ul1litedl "Sb:tG's! officiais R,el~' be:lieve't 'WQu]d, :f:hui and Qrt~!e:r eoll.1Jnt~',iLe:i!i 'liV~1H)S!e} dOlnestic ~;Q~!ic]eshave be .. OOlIii'e '~:lehating issues ,at 'the Unilted! N;IllUO'n~. Tbe ]UQ~j' (amci~l~ ~;fJ::YiMuuId he) ()[ s;e'lL'vie~ to cJ,·ltics, fiYf' th~ lJn.i~d ' S't~,b~s~, '(i!}Jimmul1is:t ~U'idJ']i1Qr.t-i(;i'O'n'lmullli.srtt. and '~!ilnh',lb~]te br;) tE~ei Uf'lael·m.i,:nhl,g of ULe p osUiion 'the Un"it~d Stflrtea, has 9c.~sertj!d IO'!L~ it.se:Jf as th,e leilu:l~r of t1~e W~Sit :in, tile adv~ea("y'of bIJUID-a!~,iIi], rigla:t3 .. >!J~lna :1!@tbI[" ;f.~~,ml 1''0 to ,fa. fri,end, ll]'a']c.o~:m 'w~ote~ C~d '1 hUVG gatil@(I'h ~evel'~l 'P![~Oil1ltsefi, ~ooS;IlP:[J~.lIl·t, j'D, [QIj:"j'ilgi;~'lg I(U~r plig:h.t ~l~foh"'e tlU31 UN tb:is yoelI",,~' .' .. .' ~!{),m~'i,ah~ei-:~ tuo ~r ,con,e~ed tht 'p~ibil[ty b tba',t )I'tdco]:m, miglllt; :h~~fl~ ,s~~~e(;d,;e~L ,. ~ ,. ~! AlthoiUl'h th,e 8t~:a'te De:~ft.i·tmentJ,s, :ilillt~11'e8® '~n. M~~?lic:olm is ac'llv',[tiea hill Af'J:iem. Is o'b'\l'iQ~~~,r that @:if U!Je J~~. t[ce De[~a];;tment is shrouded in d[~e~ittiQn" M'~loolm, is reg a\nleG1 ~s an im,pltl!.c~,b10le:aue!;' \V,]'~h d~~l) reets in, tha N~t~Q [\ll bm~tge~l 'c'~~~~¢~. . . [1!t!a~cwbll X] has eon. 6d;ed. in. f1t1eud~ 1r.h~t he 'bas been under e~n$ta:U:lt ·s;tm,'i· 've'lU=;:nl(:~@ Ne\w YG:dt:: 'by' "the 'F~d~FHl Btlte..~.tl o~f bIDV~ '1]], 'Hg,aHd:m ,~uu"(l by ,th~ In'h~]]i,g.eI1ICe~secUo:n 01 the New Y,'oll'k P~U~e nep,8,rtmen"t., ,. . }~
l

·_,unl:st. M told, "h,im tll~:t w'Jia~t he js~idl ,only 'pm'nv€Jd how'

Utt!e be uhd~n~t~od ~bout me" :I t~]d, hi m "~~ tn'e, at
thinrt

:It&!lf '.in the ssme

c-atega(i'Y

as

8QUJtb Af'l',]~a",

:Hu:nga:ry

BIE:e'k h[~' f;al!." the trUl:th!

I.t.ld

the FBI, fb~ CIA! er
KIlU t,y o,:f,! ",las

~I'w'~~

,IM"e

~u'].y;b~dY' elss ~OlilJ,d ev,~,,· bei'f:l;g ope~ni~'mi:n~led.,I >~Hlild I \1i7:3JSc

tryi AS' W, ,!;y~'~:gla= (),bieeti'V,~IJr~evel'yth]ng' !llDJ i.ts O!"'~Il nu~]~j't. ~,~~jd, :I wll"a't l' was aga~ims;t was, Btrai[...;j,~u:;:kii!teGlJUlJinking'j aTIld .stn~J~ j'~~k'~l'~d ieti.it!3 •" i!5Q~ l\1J'aJeobn Wii,f~ ,hI] U~d :$t[I·p:r.t~.e~l 'to :f1n11 'Ula t he was; ty iO']lowB¢l not O(f,iJ]y ,fn ,au]errica but ~l] A:fd.ca, ~& '\'!,~e'~~j but h@ ~OOR got 'ltsed. t~ his shadows. •~I tJs, likiE!: stating' in ,a J::GOm, fil]] of :spi~@I[' \",,@hsj~J1' hB told, 'h,]~ t\~,if'e Betty U]JQ;l'l :r,etul',Ringhome. nlf a man is awa~~e'Q"l t:~e web~, It's visi:bJle in ,tl:l~t one 1~!;;'(Hl1~i:f' ,YlOillgo ~ !all~th~lr: {.'{Jtilntxy J''O'U 9,uPP!Qse ,~1i; ;ti]~.s~ tha't :it"'S n'Oit 't.ber~, bu:t jf" ,yom lo@k d,oa.eiy' ]:V'~ ,~tU] br[ng spiun arou nd ~IOU." Ihq;t 'Uu~fe is ev~d~nt:Je,th~;t tb,~:'CIA did nat ]imi,jt its,

.a:r:u:f lw~s

th'~ (JfA. .lIe even lOt,

'p:lrl~UC:1:dal":I¥ olhl\',ficr~$ ~1'Iid ~brna~d{m,Bone, , ~ ~ Thm (KrU~' fi~aUy !'tJt 'iii~nd~ my skiiEl when I 'fouiRd I e~,ijJnl'rr'tseem .... ·

0'11 s:p~~ik lii,g t~t'ln~ wit1, Olle of B hi iili tails,. }f,81,cohu '!·~tmt'!l! ]n, b IS A 'lQ~~ fJrwg~'Q,1iI~ytbat,: ,u1'hl''Olllg'bou't mj\' h,'~"pl' !II was j]f' course ,~;w~re t~u~'t: I wa~ 'IJ n.de[:" O()llstaufi; surVe~n~Ii(l~., One] age:n~ was a [

Th:r-o~~,g'f~JOllitAt,l'tf'li :Ma]co]im W,3,cSfO'~['9'~e~ elosely- by

e'~,t "a meal in t.lue ]lot~l 'w$tfi0ut S'eeLng ~]m, s;om.eareund wf)J,tc'ni'tlr: ID~i' 'Yo.'111 W{U,J1dJ hav~ thoiu'Er]]fl; ] ~,,~~ eRn DHIi n~~ ,~w: a~me'body. J j'~st ,rot llP f~~~m, bre~kfas,t '00Iil! 'rn,'rEYtl'Jlh1g' ~nd: Uljt wa,lliw~d,(D'.leF' ft:io 'wll,el,~e}n~ ,,'as 'I8,~d ] tl),]d, lTh~l :I knew he w~s {G]]aW' iIn,cg )TJ;~, ~nd if 11~ '~la,~l,bul lenaw' ,anyt!l1t]n;g~ 'iOO '\¥by d irl.~,'t 'b'e ,ais'k un~, 1,'][' was 'c b:;. 'l[!['lt,lt hin, 'ten i:t~, ;;Iin'ti~A:~neFi:eifUiJJ" 'l!:Ll!l;,.' Am@rlf;[!J'f:i~ s~d[UQU3~, ~'~b''Ver~i'V,e, a;nd lll'ohab]y Oam,·
W]le.lore
j11j;

t~

] '9 64 M®:]GQ,]m WilS, h~ C~h~o 'tD address tn'e, .Afrlea;n is;u:mmjt CO]lJ,f'e~:euc:a. In hls memorandum ,tQ tl~;~ GO'll:fel~le'rHl:e :h!e 'viQI,en't]y a!tt~~koo 'W~s:hing~on:l's c1Qfnes,.. tire ~Vild f'oreiJf.ll 'rnJ;Q'U~y,.BTl! t~r'm@a ~b~ tTJ~.. GQ1l}~rr:ll:m:elnt.'~, ~$]}Oins~l ,of civ~l ;f.irht~ '[eJli9;lr~aJim ~l~m)thh:.,gbut 'tridta, of 'the QeTlltrrf,y'l_s ]e~dm.lWg' n.eo~eo,]oni.a~j~;~ pO~~i·'it. f.!Jnd tlrg,ed t~l!E!!a,sse:mb'J,ed. del,eg,a tes to irl"tng' thJ~ U. S .. b~f:Ql'e th~: ba:r o~f ~~Oirld p"WI:bHc' !Q'llhl~On at· the U'.:N. 'the AQ4~L'~()'a;~E~'ba~~.y ~n. C:-dt·,o ,e)lfg~gOO ,in d,<E:]:,i!c~ be 'beMnd~='the~sCtfn~s li.ego~i.a.Mu~!l!! to have Mal.~o~~m,],~~,:li.T~d fl"(J\IJ:IJadd:riIM,sing tJlI,e (ktnile!([~enee, b~'~ its etil'o:ds 'weJ!!~ ~o:[,dly ,snubb~~d by '~'O.ththe E.gyp~j,a~ GO'Y~l:"1Jimlen:t 3;nd thoe <C~nf,e(l~n~e 'Q:r'gi~lli ~@I["~., 'W,a;shiJ.lgoou~~ ,elff~~;t-s,to, s ~]mCie ,M'3]oo]m t]'~,en ~p~ea't to hs've :pM~ed ,f.[~Onl ':the di:p]Qmat1~,tQ t~e int:e~,U~I]!ce; , ,;;L'];i~;rratu!"Their .effo(l~t:s, 'Ca-m,e' closer to ,5:UC'Cel5iS. ~l.~l~ <calm ~lmoo:j! did iiI,ot; U've to ;d,e:li:ver' hIs SllBeJ~El. W,n,e,u, ,M'i~d4b]m :fjl'St ,~~~,rj'\l\~d C&iro liL~, 'l"ifllS g:a.v,~'U '~n a0eo:mm;@~a;U(!ins mboard the ]s,if~jl a ~,~p:I,~~,dl~]!J,tpl~~~~w,~ y~cht 1i.l00 l"ed, 001 the INH]e. Tbe Isis, hal·b~lr~'8d!'~f)'eetl~m, ,tigb;b3:1'5'~1 f't"O'm aU the ]1,()n.-Ube[~~,ted,aJ.'eas @f A.fid,C.'1);-= AngC!]a~ Moz:,uliibi:q_~:e~ ~lo~ltl~ ,;Afric;I;!;,. Rbo,d@s,~,a. \lVh(~m th~ ;yac]:d;, beca;m,e 'O've:~~cr(i'w~ed~ ,M'~l~:hn mO'~ea f)(rt ,a':n;d 't:Qok ,a l"oO;w al1: the NIle ~rUm([i,!, wh ;,ch he $:h~,~'ed, "With, ,MH~ijn Ite!Wt':.r:" a, :La\VY'~I:!' nd civH l:lgh,ts ~c~j:V'iat a 1'1"0. 'Dl@b:olt. On. ,J!ll~ 23\, 1 ~'l)4~,the ~~1\'" bef~;re lt~ "vas, to deli.'v'el:" 1118 spee~h to th~ S~~m~,t C(n~,fe(r~nc@!,:Ma]c'Q]m d iruoo :in the Hllool1ls 'm~in l~sb,l:n::iilnt, Bhort'ly ~fte~' d:i~:Ju:l~:r, Male'O,]m eoUa,piiiilEN:l: In, his bat:e'i l~Qa{m~ a;u1!er,in,g" 'iE'l'Q'm, ~ev.et~ ~\bd,Qmiilal pai~s. Be was, :r.hl.$hetlJ to o1t. hO;S'~\it"at I'm :3Jf:l. :hll~rv~e'W 'wIt.h th~ a:nUur:r,. MUtun, Bel1n'Y :re-pOl"t@d t'hat !'!n:e W~~I'I:~'~Ji,\jo~ cliled if' lin:s' '~1,~~lh~~t ,~b]~, ])~e!l to g~e ito' tl'H~' hQspi'&f:lJ ~l'l a hurry" 'H~i~ is t~m,f:l(:'h "'r.~-$ p:ll1m;ped 01at,l' ,el~~ued. Oit]t 't;'h,ormlghly, a:n,~ t;ha,t sa;ve,d hiM. B (ft, ~:~ Ma]c(li1:m, .saId a,IwI''l'"l',8:11jSj' he would, ha'!,!le! di@.d if "lte bad not got i.nu:rJ;~d i~t~~ tI~jjl t.m,en;ti,J~ ,An~iY:id$ (;j,f t'h~ sto:m~~h p~rm:pillg (n~clo~~H!d, '~'tWJ::le ,~ ~nbstance',/.t. .Its lIlature: w~s' und]s~le\B~dJ but food, po~igo.n,, ~ng 1tra5 l'ilil!ed. Ollt., M;8'i.'001m 'w·as lI~~,pi:~8Jj~ecl fel" ,3. da:~f'al~d·a~ffin~,U;f ,a;gabaest hi~ doctQrj~ ad vkE!' la,~ I:fianaged 'b'Ui~t ta appWll" at, 't;nl!e S,ufi'lil~lt C'onf~r'el1!C~ an(] give. hi:~ s~.eeeb. ,Be llfas shallV' for ~eve([',al a,a;y-s ~rft~r'tV'iM.'~d. A~ ha; July"
1
j,
h

n~Uvitl~~ t:o' su:rve[lI1anee.

]lb'e!ratel~' pOJS'o:ned,.e.:'~ :Ma]~Qlm 'b']ed ''W' :fInd th~ ,,~~i ,\~o bwd ~~rV",~d Wl'n burt 'he; had, d,isa:ppeii1ll'ed., t~t
j

O~!I'd£Illg' to H'e!tll'\f~

,n!areo]m 1)elite"red '~~'otmegne l];Ld de-,

!"De~r:~, we

f,mrpt

'fio'! illll'i't(:, the :l1!ecMaar_j wihite: ~i,~.ra:W~~

i:n.¢~d'~nt with He!llr;~rj ~I!ailfl(;l1m, sM~essed >!l~tbe! flJct, tJUl W CIA m~n '~~r.e ,aTh[ a:l'U'Ilitl1d :~,h~l f
,11;11 (i]sclls,')h:lg:'

the:

"b,ruary

19.7

http':llwww,,9P~ ie/tractl ist
THE IR..I~AUST ARC,HIVE: IPROJIiCT

'The REA.LIlS'T·[Iiss.ueNIlJ~ber 73, -!Feb", '1967 - Page '10
!Se'!In-::ll011:this !;!1!1I1re i~e ib!.ma at: ht~p:l/www,e.p"teir,ieaU:iI"j731

:il~ Oa~::l1)}"~, '~atilI' told 'H,eru'Y 'tha't ,u,\iVasbinrton llad ,fi ~,0t to do with i.t,'~ -

IJilJ.an intel"\i!'~ew with tb~i;$ author, :Mrs, 1m3 ColUns 1"\[~1iloo;lm~ sis;ter, 'J!.'epo.l"l7Jl~d tlll,at Malool:m lQbJ. her of the. PQi~onj ~g illcld~];lt 0]1, ~i)8 reb;nrn fl'!0m At,dea, f.!,ll'e 'bJ,ld~~ th~t he. f'e1:t Ullt tll~ CIA 'v,a~ de!il:l:iwb" fle$pOns,-.oJ ible. f()!t' i.t.. Afte.r 'tliHl't 'he 'was, \o'er)' i!;fIJ'rellll. f8!e.~ en
t

another eeeasien t]Iel.·e' was an, ,affaIr g.'v,en :i.~ his honor '~fJJ ,'dd [s Abba ba ~ and ~n obael~;vlng t:he waiter he gOt a ,lleel'Y :f~@UJiilg and 'reiu!Sl@d 'the food" He never had any

In

Ins speeeh won tumultuous ,a1P,plaIliB~ Ma,]co.]. ll'e.-p]ied ~ and Sh"H·tb~ ,aftel'1l\'ards., the Mlegate~, ,i1,dop't~' a :r'e9.01u~
'\~I~,.}fM 'Q,ti!~~

.l'H:~: had 'by-passed ,auQth~l1":lfa:ir$'~ll'~ng..'~ ~I:~dco'l ;oisQlIl1i:ilg bt C~i~o.[ was. 8 fanu re 1'e ntOl"i2 m~~

T~l"'Oof~ eeurse, but itiltf than

'b;i!

nl,w,~y~ felt ~ure e;mne:~~w that

1

A~d Anuu'~c~ can t 11ut those riee far'me.;t·,~ ba,c.k,w'bel~e they want t.heHi.. Som.ebody~s, wi3Jki:ng up.[J!~ 'M'aJeo~m. adopted an iIlc;~eas.ingl, p.ir[~-ChiDese posi Uon QIL :h~t€tnatlona.1 qu.'e8'Uona. In. a ~phQn.e mt.~ vilew' beh\1',een Ma.~c!dm '111LO:I1!~OD ,and ,Afr:~AID8I'iei:n s.t~dlen'b in l?,al',~s. QJl F,ebrl;t~n·.Y 9" :mtif~5 he WU~,as'ked aJ~o.l/lt 'tb0 r~e.eJlil't exph,t~:roll @i CbWs's 'first :a.'tQ~ ~'b. ~41. think 'it,~sone of' the ,g,realest thi'q~Qa:t b3.S;!(fVU'
'iI:appm@d.

I0Jf 'U~.~ag:enb ilf ''''t'lL.. • .' '~l'Q:e! i:flllmel':i\j! pei!l~~nb,W,W!n~ a. r.i:le up Rg'a.in-s.t aU tn,e, bighl.y-:m,ti!c·kani~ed weapou of lva~'f'anl'@!-j'et$~ l1a;pabE.. batUl:sbim.s1 ever-ytlflrng els@i.

~ ., 'mm. J'm!p'el"UI. ]'
l

.' ~ " halil\e he.,ell succes9fU~

is, doil'ur in. SOil:] h ViQtna:m is erhnt hta1~[u :~~ told a 'n~.eeUng o.f the ':MUi.ta~'t LabGr FOJ'Ui:m in '1:96-4"00 '~4But the opp:r~ed peop[Je of South Vjttn~m
"'~\V:h~:1; Amel"iea

L" ,,],tu.e.

'm

figbt.ing

&1

~

tlon oOl'ldtlllll1ing UJ3.. raelal poUe~es, :No for'Mal stand, 'taken 011 b1"ing.i:nr 'the 'qJu,es;t~olTh. ~efo:re the U:niwd,

'''''~s

MaJeo]. receive~ PJ~i:varte :pledges of S1lJipI)OIrt :fO'l" the plan fl.'O. ,s:~v~tai ria Ul!)tJS'. Upon 1115 rtetlU'O to 'UU! UmS. 11al,cQLm~wP'PedJ up ~ds erro~:''t,s to ba ii, '~]D,e U; S,. bdi~I'f. ~he V,N,- bu:t b,e: 'ftruDo;iI, liUI ~,nl).l\XJ'4·t fo:r 'th~: move ~mo:mtg rh~Cis;tabUs.1led, civil 1;i!g]lI'ls gil"OUI~~. m.t ,vaH toe '!'.Fadit:.aJ1i1''''' WI{) "anti ..Anlerican" 10.[' thei:t· taste, Y,a1oolm. was also. IrHUl1pel',~d in. Indld:ill'l,g a stl'O'ug. 0rg,wul'i?,;[I,tion of 'll~:;j OoWI'I 'b¥ his ~epl[~ taUon as a 11mrac]st.,'~ Hi0 '\l'l'"[tJf?a in bi~ A~1.~tQ·r~cWfJ'1o.ap/J.Y." N'atim:l:s,
b11tt

th,~ ma.j<l1.~ tilrou~[1e,s; tha't 1 was ba,v]ug in building the o1'gsnh:aUoJru t:h'at I w,anted==-;alD all-blaek O~~,:u~j~~tUm:l l,',lw~{! ultjmlte ('l,bjoot~"t, W~'IS belp Cl~ef:l.,te to a sf]lci,el~f .il], whieh th:ele C!t)'!Ldd ,exis:t htul<E.~~t. w'~ljt~'1b]ack ~ro.thgr hood-:wa:s tbat niIiY lead ie.r pub\Uc im~,~~,~. ,old, sc-ca lled '~:B1~)ckl\1fIU!s]'imJ imagl!, li:;'l!pt blocking me", ~~ 'W4,t~ tlr'~·:~ng gradua]ly r@shtJJpet.ha t ~mp.ge,. I I to

,·0ne 0'£

'have bee-n ~n the h,ands lof' th~ EllUf'Opeans-they ha:v,e ~e'I~~jsed a, monopoly 'ov:er' the Illudear ·weapo:u or ever the abflil'ty'w prodYlce nu~ear weapons .. Bu~ fl(ilrW' the OI~d.Jlesel ~lliiEiLVeevrened ft., " ,~~ ~"~S,1J'~ f,aI' as I .am [cQ;ntCe:r~ed~, i'I; was a 'ftf7' good as. t'hw]]gcs; an~ 1: do hO"~e 'they wiUb@ a.bJle to build bigger c.nts. B,nd b@t.tel' ones e.v_.y ,day-bec.a08eJ tn.e Qu1y Lane' guage., t~lat Amel"itla u~d;~rataEJd8 '~a "he ma.ngnag:e ,of :pOl\f1et and a d;;lc!ik in.atio.n bas 'to' ,[b@ in a po.5~'tion Wi talk Q1;"' siP~3k the language thtlt. these Imperialists, uaderAfter 11 A'frlean. 'tri.ps, M,a'~colm rne.n:ned more sud [9 mOife: ~.o.' s()daUsm as an ru,tet[~n.'tjve 'to, the: Am.er1~am eeenemle syste.; ,,"'hi,en. he heliev,ed fQsi?e.r,ed ~lId iu8ti[:lWtlo.;Ila~j'ied It,aeism~ :Dl]J~ing:i~ds, tn:vel'5 he discusSced, soej.aU!m 'v."ith. Mal'~~xi~ts Zanzil:la\r,:J Gu,blea:~ GJliiana in and AIS'e:r~a.. !trod t;J'!J!l. D10I"'e than. one ceeaslon had a 'fru~t= 'f'Ld idoological ,di.sc,ussio:n with El'lle'S'to ,the [G'il<~va ra (Dllllio:g '~~~, U. N ~ ·missjou h'i. :D,cemibgl"~, l~U; Ok,' d ,s.ot ,ii, ·w.ai~m m~iSsa\I,e,Q[ gre@thiS' aM IU,·ptu;-E to :Matoo.,lm on bebalf of' ~Fwde.] Castfo,) In May,,, lliN5:4f wllU:m, asked] \vbat poU.t],cal ~,y.st@'m be
'Bt~~ujL !,'

B@cause: ~p 'u:mtiW now the: nuclear

~evices

had been, bu"t a,t th~ 3:b1:me ,ti me th~ true brptherhQodl. I: la,ad ~een in th~ H'o,ly W o.r:Td 'bad, hwilll[QncedJ me m, l'€pr:ogn'i'~e th:art ange~~ ca:.,. bUnd buman 'V:i;&]Cfn~u :l\J~~co]m W~3 :~,etit ~:ii9.eo..u~~gEd hy the l~eJJlJ'~ ]lJe em.. l cO'Ill,nter.'eJiI. iUs t:rRve.]s 111 Afri.(l:3. had. widene.JI hjs l;)oHtjca~: Jrorizons· and lu~ was nlov"ing nlp~d]y to the 'hdt~ ~li'@n to ~bG 'IPQ"i.~t of e:s;taibU~bl~'ng 'Workin,g eOl1t~etg "lith 'th~ Tl~oitstyUe Soe~~list Wor:k!e~rs P,al"ty~
'lb.' u[Sl

ir,.ub[~c, e-s1P,e~ialJv Nregl'Oes~' ] was no :~e:9slu~gry tban

"as 'tl;ying to ' urn a, corner, into a new' r,eg,at,dj by the

I

Qf' GuinaJ"

b~' t.Ji.· '" n ,,'til, IL]C s;a'!J;'ent,ents l' ]ne[~e9S.ln.gIY ~alll:e [~[l~esu!! rn stoll .[\0 t'h.e view' 'that domu'!!stie e:lqJloibti.on. .oj' .AiW;I,er.i.~an N e.gr,~;e~'wns, :P~'Jrt ~ul!d ]JaI'OO~ o:f' Amedeam hnperlaJ.l].sJ1is/~ \.Jto.:dd~'\1ri~~ ch'ive.to, e~.ntfgl t'b!~ 'J)OOl' eil'li PI~@'" dO:1U i~JUl tly 11Q.U-W bite. 1taUQn:s., w:r ' ~s, sY.'5t~m ]S ,m~t onbf l"uHng' UtI in Am,el',~C~j it is tll.i!ling th~ world, "h'e: ~aid in ~n int~n!'jrelv w]tb the, y., ~/nfJ SiJciaLid m~t ga'~&.lc s"h(l(J;"Uy befol'e bi s de.¥l.th. ,A't ,at pub]i,e ll'n~eU:l1Jg]]1, .Deb'Oit h~ dl;l:t]al~e;:d that,; is. s>iJdi3"ty 'l!:;i ~QrgJtQ,n~tlpl"'im,a rj ~'Y by t1~e l",a,.cjst~, and ses:r~g'atj!OJ~,i.~'t~ who al~e ~n Wasl:dng·toJJ" lJ..3., ,111 I
jl'

MaJeohtJ, ~~id:: ..<iiIdonJt k~o,v'., But rm, 6e~[ble:~ A;s w,a:s !l!ifa,~e:d ~n~UQ'r" e of' tl1~ r~,oun,tr.Les, that, ,a:re ,e~erginS' today' il'1ODl und,;~r t'h'e ~'h.aeklesl of oo]oniathnn at',e' tUl"n:ing tOWlal. ,soebJ,. ·',"1 ~csm,:I drQJl' ~.L t'II:;.J·,·..:'i!;o "tl '$, a.n. ·aee.lu,en[I!,.,£. '"' iI\~~im,'ru
fO'l" A,DlJeld,ca"

des,ired.

an

lj'N~

tlta't W'(i:,:re 4201~Di:al PQw,el'S \:ver.e ,e:a.piUiUs;t 'CQ~Jm.tt·[@'SJ.. alnd ,the l.as~ 'bu~l\"l'allik 0,£ C'3'ra1i: taUsm b}:d~" :[s. A,mi!n·~ca]J and ~t's ~mposs.jb]@ lEo:ta white .a oi-.... ~ 'ib ',1' '. to. ' pe:It'SOB t'olii!!ay 'WI 'l!., '11' J,dliJ!Jeve ,~n C3i,pl~al]Sm,wlt~:io.'ut J3.Cl$m. And if ,[011 und A person without r8[cis:m ,and yuu. }llap~ p~trl to re.t th~'t per$ifJR inttn CCuirvel'sa'uo'D ~nd 'they ba va a phii,oo't1Jipb;y that make.s you luilfe t'h,e,.y flon!\ 'biav@ I',a'cism hl tiudl' ouHo.ok~ uJSu.al~ythey"];~,e is'ocia1isbl, O(l.~ ,their
U

~\jMoo~tof:' tl1l,e." ~1J;u~trj~s

pO$iUm~~ o iE'

I~QW'EU~,A~!(I]

from '\~l,iRs'~jll'gton;, .D.C. th,ey

0.:1 bru!'t~..i.019lJ)Jf~&sJ()JiIJ agaimst d;u·k..skil11 B@d peo'p{e: in South ,;;1,J;l!d','Ql"t'h Vle:b!.a.~ Ol" llIll ,.he Co~go!or in C ulia or ,any other pl~,ce bll t~.is en ~'th'\\.h~~ the~f al'e trymg to ~p[]oit ~'ind ~~pl"eSSm e That i~ a, society W~flt3e gove~rJ]Dent d·o~ft't he;z;itab~[ '~O exel:'ei~e lite sa U'le
fOlL"lIDS

his

~Q'~,]e ove)" t'M 'l10:d.d. aU ~1Iilfl'lco]m be!~~me !.UI1lluc'Ol'Ill~\l'l~mi.!i]ng Op~g'I'IJeJfl't Qd! file ,~·,al·n Vi~tDam lJf.j.Jjg b.efo,~eMar tin Lutltm: l(;il~g,~e.ll~d j Solon Hlmn
idnl"l4;d51~jll)1t!d
~
JI

j n:frnictthe 'Most brlJbd

fo:

'DiL

(!if :pyrrffishment ,a;~d Opp\l.~~.s ..,

:mou;tb

[100:\

thre [f),llWbj ect
"'

'b@!Il!iln,H~~ the" systelu of ,eap1ta[ism, :need,$ some b]ooGIJto S'lli!,cl:r, Capru,taU.sm 1ilse~ to be :~ ike an re3g1e~ 'llut 'n,O\1rT ltj;g mo.:~·e ] i.ke, a, V111tturt, It. used to be Stl~0118" 'enol'( gil 't(ll go . ,alll(l ~mek,~~ybo{IDyis blood 'w:lil,etbe~!" UUlY 'l~~r'e 1rtro[llg ~r' DQt.,. lllJlrt no,,,, i:t has b(!:C()m~: 'm'ore. [tQ"\lt~'l~dl]Yi Uk~ the

,olitical 'p]~n~soJl\h;y is $ocitli~iSm..'~ J uSut a few 'weeks. mfG.l~ h~~ dea t~h M'a]e\Q]m, ~pre'sSled bis O'~ipo,Sjtion WI Cil~i taUsm in 'Ute ,st1~i;lilg~5t t,eil~ms ]:le :~,ad yet [~m,]o:"d. in. [aD E'Iltervi@Wlv$th ~ so.4!'i;dlst mag<azine he' cl~e~al"ed t: Ula ~'It is impClf3s;[ble for caip~tRUsm W su'rvive'~ llri'marn,

~

'vuJtu'l".&" a:nd

it ,ca.JB o:n~y~tlt!k t.~e b ood, of f.hi~h,e]pless .. T~e.,alist[

http,:llwww"ap ..c/lrealist t
lll--lE IFU~ALIST ARc.]l--InJE' !PROJECT

The AEAUST lissue NI!.!I'iI'1~r 73, -!Feb", '1}9~6'1- Page '11'm !:Kl'!l!in~ 'ihl~ e.n'tlre ~~~e foundl at: h~:ihmw..l!i!p,:I;el~1 Q1l: :r1lf1'!,

,that tliM,eU.S,;, aO,~'el'll_elltt 11'ilul. ~Qng ~go marKied, C{(J;lH:a. It wo\dd lead 00, Ma]co.,}m:r;5., d'ea ~h.._ , By th ~ faU of' 1964 Ma~co~ft1,JlS"Jan 0 hu;Uet ,Atn€rrka hl. th~ U.N. WfilS, in 'h[g'l~ ,~al·. ll~ ll,ad, ,est~dJlisl1~d ~]ose WQ(.~'khlg l"e'lnHon~lt'ips,' '!I1dt'h, the_ .N. 'd.edeg,ations ;, Se'l,i1\e1·alAfl'ic,~_Ula; ;flJaUo:n~~una ~.as a i3:~n [ii;~u" iguwe in tIle Deil,'e:g~,'b~~." LniI,H[(,ge~ In 'No'j!\~m:b.e::rj' 191(iB4l,~ e'l'JJ the U.S. interve~IJ~d in tbe ,!!7l;fh' ConrliJ'I~$e ci,ril 'W~l!" by drO'P:ping PQ,~'a troops on s.tan~.el"Vm0'! ~(tdeo'im 'Cook fhe lead in 'w'hi~p]ng' 'u,,~ OP110$~i,ti.lo\U, to 't!h,er U.S,. He ]~ob.b:~!,ed l'e]ell,t[e:ssiy wU::b hl:s; 11._~- eon ... . taets, lU:lfi!il.~" them, ~o. Btro~,gly cQ.n'le~li the 'm,o.~\e, "ua[,ess ~lOIlJ \.;'~nt to b~ ilIJl'x-t/J! M",~lc(dm, was Qne of: the d ]I'Iv,1 n g f'or(:~~ ~ ellJnd t'}'i~;& unpreeedentsd lud] of abu$~' r:aiLnec:1 OmJ]: lrV3shbllfton, ii!llJ~n·j~g 'the General Assl~mbly Congu d(,ba-t~ ~n Deeem-

and Latin

ital [sm. has less v 1ct[miSj Jess bleed to, ,~IIJ!Ckj and i:t be .., comes wt!~.k.er' al],d, 'ili;r~ak~ll-', lEt'i3 o..n]y ,a mlll.''&te'l· of' tj'm1!: in my 'Q;phUEOn befor~ 'It 'Yt£'ll co]r1s;p,se ~o:mp]~t~ly"r ,M'ale(dm ,X was ]ea.di'Ji],g' A,m,e'i:'klau' N'regl''O§ 'on. a ~'Oad f(.)Uo~V'edb]" l1iiillians 'cf Ul'l~ir brothers 1'n A . .ia~,,A1d:ca

As the na trcn'il;s; of' the wurld f'te~ the1't'ls,e~vmj then, e.ttp..

An:1Je:rica. B:ut it was s'

1,'O~j

hat the U.S. '~f;j;ts :makjn~r !l'R aU-out el1 orc tb llenelrah A:fj'iea,. jJt f~j'~u~"(l :ts eff.orts f~·tl~'i~ tril.ted bY' '0II1@! m,aTil"":3 n ex-eonv ,,(.'1'11 ~ dO])ii!~addl.et ,an ''lfho~e u.-eCQ(!~l 'WQU ld h~L- e made 'l1im 1l~1,elnp,LoJahl~ as ,8. Sta7te
l

lnWnti,pns.

fr". 1'lut. llfan and IUs Id'e(Jr$. ]1~a d,omes:titC c\m'~ex't~ V~r :l5ld ]'tgtm~ is 8.\"V MJtl~olm, as ,9, m :[Oflg~l·,n'D,gle tbl,',eat;' he was w]t'I~l~fPOPUbll' w,ith the h~iLe.k' masses, but pl.agM.ed with 'tJ!m.'gani~~,tiQrn3.1and r.e,cru:lth~.g l'H"Q'b~,{:'ms tba;t reduced hj~ ~olitical ~'ffi~etivene-s8. But in foreign ~ttri!iIJi,I,·.~, 'talcolnl l\',~,SJ au 'inJrojneJ!ll:t and ~ serious dang t.. mo, "e than ~~1y other single f'tteliOF he was -re-'SPOJ:1 :\~jbl~ fo:m,' the ip-o,w'i ng S'i-li!!lp:ilci.on and fear . with whreh many Afl"ucan :$t~:tes viewed \\',nsllin"gJ:on';s (llf(JJcw;m
i

BMibTil~n,~ !;!{U~o.r' f MalcQtm }l' S-,'In:b, ,wtitu that: o ~jiThe State Uepa:rtment ct.·,~d]ted biD'l, 01" rp;1i.her 'b]~,h1EH~ hhn~fo1'" a ;gco.d pa ~t 0][ the st~'om,g' s-tand ijuf~hlstnile] _m.S. bd~n hy Af~·ican. ~atm,ons in th~' U.N. at 'tlle ti'lue of file latest atrceitle» i~, th,e IGOlt'ig"fi" As he k!tlew, the CIt' lI~nd Sl:tllUar agen,(!]es ta'k€: ,all inb~lr@st iii'! wlmt -th~ Sbrnte De:paJ'hl1um1t aoes-r[~t '~~'ke~~

A't 'tl~'e,,~eI"Y time'

Dep~n·t~,E:l,n ehauff'eur. ~
.. '\tluu:z;mg 4>,. A"'" .~ 118-, ~ i~rean

I~ nHJ~t- n~ve b~ n g'ilHing that :!lJ:uch a man, by goaI~T .::1' .n.'. u .!~..I\.L(!"'I ,~gthl!on3.

be["~ 19[1)4.

i"r

"~ A a.gn.]J1r~r,", _:. i1'II(!"[I'-

to the, f':"l;te of td=u:k~ 81ltt cited as eldd~nce the at ihu;l e, '0-1' the u.rlUed. Sta:tes pl'~rn'!'Oe'H:t '~(!I'l~{alfd eh'H·"r:i.gbts t:bi@' !S'tru.g,gle 'in Mjs~dS$:i!_pp~~ I'-The African 'm,gVi~'1:?[·.of'm;u'l(,9l]ydis~l!n'bedl t'h~· itmet'iean ~,t1thQf:i,tiles" whn ga\l'e the im,pre-s:::do;rt, that 'th~:r b~ld'"
~oen c',au~!bt (VIr ,fUlMir.d}"
_

8t,,:t~3 m(!!l:~' ~M,e}[',age hI. dealing 'Ni-U~ the 'UnJb!!d Sb r tes and 'wo1Ll.ld 111:'[ t'IlU"11 give Amedcan N,erroe..~ move lev'etl',ag'e: bl: ,AIJ:U;J(!;]ca;:n SOCil®ty. '~IH',a,nd]@l" ,added:u "The ~l~ok,es:men of some Ail'lcall. ;sta,b~'S actec] pt·€!"" cl<$ely wU,bhl 'the, 1ramf.w,ork orf t'bfil:se tleeollitlm~l]daUoJf~S ~,3S't mo1ltth lJl tb,e.:~CoJlJ8'o d~ba'te a:t tbe Uni~ed N~'tiolls,. Thy accused 'tbG'~U~jt€:d Sta tea O!i bei,1!~g' ]'lld'j ff'erent
give_ the. ,African

H~tld i:e£l' 1:'e~pO'J!"ted. :i':n tfq,,~, N'm", Y cwlt\i 'Tiinc.s of J~n~al'Y 2, 1:965, t:h~.t, :r.1I~a']eQlmbad. urged the Af') lean de'leg,8.'tes not only 'W .a'tt."1Ck ItS. i:~.te~·vell:UOI1 'i 11 th~' CQn,go but to ' 'Wplo,y I,jth.'eracial ~j'tuat_[oJm, ilil th~ U.nlt~cl S,t~,b!$i as ::1:1 'instnnll,e:[)1[fi; i]f ~,tt~ck, iu di~C\ls;s:in\g in1,bel"~j:tiena] problems" beeause i~~ucha stl!"~,tegy 'would

~r. S,

A)tl:e''''~fa:~Stnost stlllf[~dngsefbatlk I'll the' U',.N. since the Bay (d" :r'lgs !1LRS,CQ. But Was~dngto(U did not ,aeeept it~r
- "II" oil. I. ] Ullmlm Uit!J.ol'OIl

i'f::a~ Conl'O

intel"'~ntiO'ItJl.
"tli;. ~!!. ',.,

~ ~ul b een

1'~3I10~!d'bh~ f'or

Ma 1112 o.]m

1 gUf;l,l"a:lL1:tee- you :in fI,:'le mi']'n]too~t urOi(j~if:] be."SIlIl:''l"Orl~n{br:d''~ ,-,and th~ hOlmes of sn~h a;s~{)ebi'oo$ ,3$ ,Al.ex llnlt'!,y w'el~e
bug,giijd. ,jo.ked ,flbout m,t. Ol,e' b~gan, to. introduce

efrec .ive, a, ftw' of ~t:~Icn'Jms asaeeiates a~:td [l'e]:)tth,l'res ,b~g(JJnto w,arn '~1m of' the da ngers 101 governm,ren t retal ... hlth)']1i1. ll~ had been ~,H;ldeF survettlanee sinee b,e bro~~ 'wH'[h ,t~ e Jif usl ims, but ]l:L1'lV th"'H'!6 were as 'ma,ny as tMFe~ difie'I"@nt v;g'ents $h:.<!,dQwhag 'J:ilirn ,~.t one time. H~'s phones were ta']lIp.w-!'~Oltli, my horn~, te-lephone if I slid. '~1i"'1n going' t.o bmnb he E:mrl"ire State lli-1Udhrug,' '
J

a 'ln~Ui'k,ed man. As la is a,rrU-:'[J, S.. ~H~t'~ les ~irf~''i.¥ m{!'l~e wi de~p'll~ad ~n!E1 v j,t
'\1/~) ,

lV]

i€.qufltnl:lU:"S',.

,M:alco]Dll t;ded to t:n.k~:t"h~ ~dluatio:n in strhJ~.an.d re~e]l
j}

W3,~1~:ingto-l:1~s b'1:~cli[ P't] hUe En@'l'tlly N'llm'be-r. One. G,eo.:r.ge

Ma lcolm ~,fid be-cmM,re" ,;vit;n lI:'I

a,,' perir~

d of' 9 mo:nths~,

b~,~l'ilinfo(['liQl~(;] by· l"l!![j:alb]e so\tt"ef:S, th~ttt· dtet['e \V,el--e, elA agents ,r ig'lilt 'in ..Ju~' Ol!'goll1ri Z;;-L t Hon, ~nd rYe beell ,~]~i)"@lil tll~[r n~l1ne~. M,a~Jco,h:11 kn,etJl,,-' 'tlil~, dangersjf hut, he
~,D.admg,. my ilMnW:al'il"Za ~ U~!['e!ateU!irDg 'fJo qui:t,!",j

'nd!fflm't gu to ~'tQiP' bim,. "~l a:sked h:im if he .re~iJilly' 'I'-ooo,&,nlg~(] 'the J.li'.mrp.o:m;"t:am,ce- 111'$ ~'ttempt 'l'U go. 'W t~l~iUnittd, ;Qf N(,tt];On~,,:'~ ~1fr,3. Collins told thi~ ~nrtbo~\ r.'l-li~' [!;~ti,d ,~, mel ~you Inio\'~' .. ElT;,'l~ ma~l;he 1: hav.'~n~'t :fully 1',e~iJh:ed he,,, 'vUal tbJ$ t:hinJ is to the gor'fr~rnme~l'I!t.'" j~] toEd bin'l th~tto take a step of this kind bl! flceded p,)'(}'h'!eU{'Ul r~~ I p.:I:"O\e:~Uon. t b,a t: be felt S~Cij,l'~ ,,¥~:eb. Btlt he eouldn;i't evell. tI"t1S't his fJWt.J. bodyg'l!it:t.'I~ds.

fri~d ~ ~nd reneu11. es,; ,also. ABC ~tnd CBS aud FB.! ,and CIA.,j'~) But :he k U'~ll1,T tl1a t p~et["f'liLi fOl'C!l1!~ 'l1!,l"~I'@ a.fl:e:r bi m,. His widow B~tbl" told this ,a!jt}lo:r~, uIle beli;eved, nu~t the p Ol"J;'et ,s-t,lin,JCt Iln~e in. \~1ashi:ro,gtQn, 'Willn.ted h ira dead.. ll~ 'Of1C~ ,sa i~~ 'Tf anyil;ioQ;y kiH~ :3!riC ien be tile 110,nee SoU¥" l~Ot'l nd ing thi s hou. sC', H,~ "WillS fCl1ll0\ved \l{here"\re!t' he went j, it '\'V4;~i ~l. eonS~'lflijt -th~,llg.~'" ~ j\_[:~];coJm~s UN move g!'lew' to frQ'i"U!l)mi, Thds s.:i~tel' Ell a asked hi m ],f !j,e kJll~w to 'IiV'~1t~~:t~1:Ilgt.hs "y lIlJMllngt{Jll. i
l

w [th the w()n~ds; IJ!o]1,ol'ed

glU~$'b,bl,~O't1il,elr3~· and] s~s,ters~

his. m.'eeti'n,gs

r,"'e~

J.b,var,

I:'"

,stlid

he: h~_.d ,to

,go aitealdL'J

THE REALI.IS,T ARC:I--nVE: [PROJECT

hnp:llwww .. .p.ie/lraal ist e

The REAUST [I~sue NllulI1ber '73,- !Feb" '~961- iP'qe '~2
~'DM ~:

1hl~ enlh ~~~e fO!.lm:11 ;!;It: 11!l1\p~Iwww,ep"tt:lrl~I[~1II131

MtlS. C'oillHfi9 tnl'~ed &~f' br'a'tlltef[' iWc le,av'0 the 0o'llfltry iI(a.~til h~ 'lilj,f,as r:e_ady to :~:etUl'TI d" lJ;'e;ctt,· to the U, N", but ~e ftllt ·th~.'t~t~ch ~ move WOli~!~ be oo'v.a'l~rilllr, (Af'te:r' lilte ~l:'@~bo:m.bi:tlg of b ls b(}m'e~ Malcolm ~.naJly aJJclI!:e-ded to h:is, sister's 'wilsihes ~ l,.lane: 'tit:.k_e'~ had ~eu pUl"Cbas:~d and. 'M:n]eo]m, piallned t~ .le51l,v·e ·tOl' .A:f:Ld CM. on Ttl;.esdill:Y!j Fe:bF1!1~:t;,y' .2ih.'d,. H,~ '!i?li;~~ aS5liS5hil3:wd 011 thQ 2]~t.) . In e®l~b' Fel~wuary i' ill/9 Gb" lIal~(lIl~ Ie,,, to London to d~ilhfJi31' the ·c]osi[lg .addl~e$~, SJ.t 'th~ :f'll'S't ,con;gr:ess of 'ih:l]f~ Oou ml.ci . of .A:fti:~iJ.(f:'i. Or.g~ndz~Uons" I Irrom London he was: :sclledu ~:eiiw fly' fuo ~P~'l:isto, spl!a'k tu~:E'Ol'-e, "the CQ]lg'i"e$iS of Af:d.f.'a·n Stl1d~!ds, Wh~n. hi~. ·pJ.fule ]~"d·~d ~t O·~·[Y' Feb'l'uary 'thi' ~n. M·:a~I.oo1111J. tD.l~. he could nct d is.e:l'nbar·k Th1e. ~l'el:illell was (lo·ve:l:.nm.e·nt'[h,a!(I branded ']]Jm U:£J;:U N.lrd/9Strable P~QRjj! ~u~dn~' as a,rd~l''ij:d. tic) h~av,e th~. ,coun'tl"1{ h'timtd~~te:ly, w Ma.]~Qlm :had, vi:s~t,~(l.rl·~:rn,'ce j 'l;I~t three TFi.'O\Ilrtih.sbeioJ;'"-e withQut ex;pel'.le:nclng ,a:nr tl.~i1.:Cl]l.'t~rp..sud h~ 'was baJflJed by the! ·~"(pullS.lon OrG;@il'. In s tI"~'[lsc1l'lpt ocf' a ~pe~l'&' ,C01"ded te]ep·]i.OOl~ eall bet\v¢¢'t'IJ l\tn~loo~m :1 'L~~d()llJj 3U:dl. n tbe Paris stUJ,d~n't .gl~O~:P·l' l'ec:e:ot!y made aVQ,~~able "thi3 to a utho r, M'~IJoolm. ~aid. th.at:
1

wIfe 'Betty' and their fo:~u" ,ehn.d:r~n !ulr"~t)wiy ei)~a~d.
M)~l~:C::O] m

'~lad .aL~\!'ays O@@'ft wilUn'g'to 1L~.iak: his own ] ~f.e f:O'r' his bel ]@,fs" but, the; neal'I.R1Lwde:r @f' his 'family .~'ocked him", J~jr.m SJ ma,dlr€d man," he ~~i(l bt a I!1tJ[ahD.,~d 'voiC'e at a :p!nass QO<lderen·ce ~ftelt th~ h.Qm"~alii.g, ~il:t ,e1.0e!5u.~ft ·fr-.ilhte:n rnre f,Q[D.~ D'l,y~elf' as Ion.@; ~B I. ~f'e1t they would. lliot hurt 'm~y :f'aw,lb", ... ,.:1'11< ,A, bb:~~l'e ~ql~cl to '~:he bombj ng was t!h"e tht~'~;Jf= '!,\"~H~d. a:U1~f~lJ:pt of. tile New'Yo'rk Police Del:D,t;, to ;sh,Q.w· 'that: Mal~oJm'b(:!itl tJ,o,mbed his O'·W.Il. home; n~lS a lJr!,ll biidty stunt," F,~~$Q]'[J.:'[I.~ I'\~as~n. t'he p{!lic:e: did, ta()t 'want "the. 'pu bUc 'ro, take t[tl·e threat 'w, l\J:ajeo);m's .]i.'fe :$Ie!rtmlsib" r. ~nd polioo ~.,el3Jbi, i.~.silln;l]a:t~dJ t~ :~·.eiljorte1·s--'i'O:flf tbt ],FeciiJl"d:!l!-tlHlt i.t 'Yl15 ,aU a ho~~ ,~ta.g,~db.~ IfalodJtll ]:r[m;To b~uik u~ th,~ir ane:,g~tions~" poHe;em.'e~ GO "tb~ ~@~e .(]If' the ·m~ a,ppgn:enMy 'l\'~nt S~I fal' i.1S W plant a. tin '01: 8·a~,{\!~i~,el the. dl't$~~~' on in lu:i ~ .Y'().'IJlJn:g;es·~,c'hU~r~ l"Oam.. j;~\'hc:t "th~y pl~n.t-ed galSlr)line I 'k:ua,ew it 'l\r,A,$ no

,self.

s'tl£Jcl!;.ed '\1Ibj!l'l nu~y told. me I ghli~me ~ny exe l]~J~ for. it, I
nl¢H'~i:~ .~·e~.pens.i.b.le,.~~'

·Umillgh:t. that. :ii! 't~:l:e.:.t~e.·we:r"e. an::r eou 1fI,t.l~y in. E U.ii·~pettia"t ~&5 .liberal in i't~ Q\llp.ro,ac)l ,to tbe p.r'Ob~.em., it. 'W~$ Franelt'~ Tbl:S ls 1j;vhy I '~iU$ '(I',o;ilnw~ted from llllu;ling' ..
ID:

~~Iwas

sur.~I,[:j'Sied

\v't.i,(!::ftI: :m

~'r1;'h'J~dhi Pa~.i:s Jall'clj. 'WM

lQD1g~r th~ '~lllls]i'ms,/~'M~l(lt)]mts sbfuet.. E11:~ "toEd nI.~., ~~ nly itbe pollee ~01J1]d. have 'plantedl It\r b(!~'Jm~e as th~ O fil\e, (:Uec] down :~e.igfd1j»\l'B we!ui; into th@:. h~~ure:to ,g'let ~rn.8". e'l~tke~ 'f'o~i' tlte cldldr'e]l f':r~,m th~tw' ,~'OO'mS~J \v'~l:a t lrodn~\t been '~.;ml·~.,ed., "",'l1dllO'n.~ ~f fhem ,saw this j'lJll:g' af g;as,oHne wh ..'n. ~hey b:~ok.thtn.g;f~ £I'6n1. the be b:y 8 d:lf~s:s~r ~ e
f

n~,e;

oo.llldnit li;UD.¢1. T~,ey ,(Udu~'b [biUe.,'e the :6bte Depart,.
~J1.r~l@ntinghes-

.And ·tJilien. tb@ bo:mb sq.nad ,ar~r.:iv,ed and W(ik U:L~ 'ho!l~, ~11](1 then they lli'{tlal'iJejd t]u;B~ g~~~~)~ ctl' ine,

~n~e

Q'!ll~J'

·t]Ji~yto M,a~eolm~ his ,as$um:p,t;ion ~lf its (julp~il itf i$ ull.de~l's:ltt;lfll.dab~i1:!~, Eu't P:K''esi.oclleJ.'l.'t De G.a:~1.]le's .g,Q:V€l"rtm,e-n:t.

in. ~i(ffw of' .~

StiiiJJ.t~ Depad,m~t~~

Uib'ted fQl' it.s l'llWe:~tivity to Sbi·te· D.e.p.a.rtme:nt d·£C~t;l... F!:n:t.:ti!l~f::m;·o~'e" hrJi'UYt'm.ation 'Uu~t.hRS :s,tdlSelluentJ¥ ~Qrme tQ Ugirt p~itl'tl:!l J,a fi~lgerrin qu.it~·an.othet ~ir~U:o(f].. George B:r:eibn81l1 ,~r,i!e of 'the fe1i;v' Pe'il:~eep:Uve whtw a;~,t91y'Sts; red MalCiGdm.\~ iC.!lloe~Er, wr,i~es th~,t -'(~.Afteil:·' 1t.h.e
J

·il; 'b.a:rilly

awn It'!3me:,,~'''

:M~]e;Q]mls,lV~d~w' .~ett..~ O~irl"~]Obl)l'~t~~ h~r ~iSiter".,i'J];" 1a:w!'s ·ve~J'.sion, -of' ~veillt-s, f,~O~~y ii!lO'm.>etlD!1!e in the unif,orm 0:[ a; :1]:1~~3:n 01: poH.c;em~ll crm1;d have plaut.ed thel 'bolUs o·t: g;asCiUn~. ,Din _y ba h,!fts l(b:~e;l.'; l,' shoe '00]0, Ulle ,~1lIt:thow~ '~~I',t \\\l',a~ t~ mak~ it. ;a:"P'@,Eut as :ii 'v~ had bO'mb~d QUI'

as.s,al~Sil~a~on Mi!lJjl.oo.Jm~s t
t~ll.at
(},1l

\the1

Flt'eneb U~ver.nm,en,;t ·1!Jhol!l~g·.ht lte: m i.Yht. be ~l~s!t$sif.ia ted]

'belffi1;If' .r;ea~o:~ tal' :~'i'is. b~~:nt Q'J.iI,';ellid,~dl1f~rs· ULaJ:; the ·
l)q.lni

~:8!socit't:t~s ~Xl~1'(~1;$el'l be t

a.loused! by ,a hi\ghIY·-Il·]~~~d. ;N·m·th .A·fl:'iJ~l1l,]1. dh~]OH]3t., This O'.c]~I1! who :iJ'~~~i:sit-::; a ~ony'm ity ~ ~aiij tha.'t h:i.~ .r,}]l. QOIJ:ntlry~;8. iDb;~]IU~e'nee fil.J,lpa.l'a'tna: 'J~,a~lb~:t'b, qui~t[y ~h~.ffJ'l'iPl~d. 'by thJ~ Frencfu. D,e(p.!.q.rblle'r: ... of' A~],e:n Doet]mell.-, t M:rd~o~m':s m[].r.de'l'~ ,fl~~l .Ff~;HlJC~ f!2:.[IJ't'@d h,e 'H1Ii~"rt be 'liqui=· d.a.t~d. om: iil\.s So]]. 11<h~ dipioMf!Jt.~.s, e~l1mtl'Y~ whilcb e~.]'o:y~d. l~a 'li-el~tioit]s ~ uf,i.~h Fl',ance l;i\f,!,lS Sou inioJrme.a ~eea:~se Mar~ol.m. b~'I!d v.~~·[md. t '@D.i PI:r]~l' '[)()~~'ido:~s, 'nd :rms.s;ihly Inigb.t halOO. i a
J

sil1.eh. a ·Sf:m:nrlal:~J 'Th ['$ ,~~s:t]m~itiQ\I] :~'l~r,l'!t~a:R .l.iUe Sl}etm1~U[iin, :rIFt ia A.p:rH! 19~ 5. my 'tn't~l"·~~t 'Ma1~~nl~iS de~th 'W~S t.llf's,t in

:Fl~mtib 51o·il!. ~1l!dldid not

to b€lar

t~

j]lilllS

i()<l"· ..

.At a ·p\l.'esa, ooJ]fe:r~";{!)@ en 'W·e.d;n@~dl\Y'r 'F,@bruQry 17th .aJ; tlH~.'Kotel ~bel"e~a, Mal~olm i!)~td. ·tllii!;,t ~JJJ; !Q~i"~l off the Fire De~~:l't'mE:nt h_~cll.pd\!~,teJy ~t1mit~ed. t-ph i.m ·tl'k'\'t ·s~.,eonehad :plll3!Ged ,the g.il$_oH:tte '~lj. his ·c;hHt1.'·s I~h~ess,-el· nl'fire Ij}l'~'~:shaill~ .. [:ns:u:niiNl,C' :bhn] JliU~,t ;tDe ,~.~ "t.:he [,RrOoh!i!st-er] ~drpQrt 11.~t' 1alU.~~sa,ld th~:t ~e~~ had been iot phUi ted. ,th~~~~} ~r~1~1m told th·~ p':L~ess, th~,t!: f. j,~\V a~l~*~ma~d[ng tttl i:m.me(H;~rtei:n.'\1\es tig.a t[on by ~ d ~h!e·1'8"][ !j]f ·t'llle oombi n g',. 'Wle j,ee'l R ('lOllSp:iJfQe.'!f'lullS been ente~ed :into, aJ. tl1!e. lOji8Jl '[e velf with. iSO'm.elocal -poU(l.l!~ :ftl'~men ,~:t].,d 'P~~s. N'~itt.h¢i· I, ]lOoI" 'my 'wif~ ~nd ~tdld.~ h;m'ili' ~nsul,:ance,! a'nd. 'w~ ~hJ,nd .~n no 'W'a.y '00 gaJ~. :bom tl'il.e' oom'b~,nff,., , '. My .~':~~O:F.)meyas hlSt~.·u~t~l m~ ;~uil,·d. b
1 1

taMan ,a-uti

C(l'~,~ti!il'_~:s·pi'!'J]UI.~e thai

t~,e~ClA phu~lled

tla,tll:th~ t

my '!ivi'fe~to s~bmi't t:o a ~.i.edetect~l" te~c a n.'~ w J~l ,a.@;t
~Qe~e-.•~'I
pre5{$ s,~;m@ test

hli!2 gIven to pou'ce and ilren1.en a::Etlul!

)\bJooJm chal'~d

w.l:tail:. 18,.~lh]jg· Ol1-thirili ~o:n:s~ri.l"a,(fY']~a~J.8, to m'J1 ~:l~a\t!h.,~'

~QnrC'j,'enc~ th~d,; '~th{jl' jlO] ie~ in tb:15 'CiOtUrt'lr'Y knqw
~]H~.\i:te~] MalQ~hum'~, '~l~~~~

in. ~ ES cQ(nelt1ding

]!'emark~SI; ,q:t t:Eae

Nil) :me'tl~p~U~a.:mi '~~lWPiil,:P€\i"

dQ·wn

U3J'211'1~ a:Ileil~ E:1irs e~.~}u~ ~ian. f't'~.m Fltail'ltM~. ~~1f 'GIA is beghuiling to m;llil11,\d]ei[' :i~ O~"fn f1,Ut :!h'a.'~r'1~f :~' h.'e.' 'C~HlmElt;l/t~d In . e1e.g.an:t;'ly I: ll;todlda:t~d

~[U~ns

at .~,ennedY' l]<a:te'~nat[ml~] Ai rpol't 'f~!."{jmLo~do(lJj+. T~:t1 ~olIrs la;fuel·~ at m:; 45 A.'M·" ~·!nl]d.a:y mO'l~ird:ng~ a~· h:e ~:nld illS. i:aJnily fslept in. tb@ir ulOdes't h~m,e in E~s't E~lllb~~:f$t! Q\:i~{}Hr 'f'Q~r' 'Are: bo.oobs we~r:e l1u'J:"~oo, tltll'Ol1gn 'the win.-

F.l:'ei~,c;h, On S~t:~'~.ild~yj'F'!~b:I:"u,~tJ"1~! 1Il9'65~. '~:lilc~~,m v~d M .and

clllp~biH.ty" i:CT~let l''eSS Eh;-~s -(h¢ i.'mm:"~s~do:n. t rM j ]'ving a~au.t P 'tba "t'h[s thing/~ h~ bi.'tter1y told. a N e~ 'y O'l'k Ti?WJ:.e~ l',epoil!'te:r tb_jt¢~ d=ny:s 'hef'm:oe. :nja,_ m.uI,dJef',. t _fiTlU~~ i'gD.Q\I/\r! the evj~· a.e'lIlce ~md Utec ~ct~flJl ~l'twm.pts/" T1be press hand.led. the s,tO'l:'Y'of th~ bum bing' hL ~t~Jc~.~,

il:~nf'elr-enoe ~nd. his aUeg.fdi;ti~(Il~ of

:p~H~e

way

d.o,~ts. T~.e~ ~()~b$

WJ~l~€ Cit1J'r~fliln,

iililJist.r]bllte~ SlO ~~. ta

se-.al off ,ftllY e_~e~J)@~N:itJ3l1.t '~h~'~ouf'th bomb .Ilance.d o~[f.· l\!]udil\\\,' P~,l!U~:and exp.~o .3. iITer;] 11.al'1'ld€'~·~J' O:ll1 tb~ front ]~,WJlJ,. The hIHu!'ie was. de\5·b'()'?,ecl.~ bu.'t Maleo[mil his

that the pl1bHe ,@ithG!I.:" really b~n~vecll. Ma,r.~olm. '~>Qml)~d his 9~~?li hO'm0 togai'[1 ~ f'ew 'be~uni:n(l'3 mt :iit1'b)~ m.ati.~~ny a£~~ume~.th.a~ hi~~~].d ~l~~m,i!e~~ 'tl,·e, Mu~lims" 'h,2'Hi ,~~)'rmmHt~d act ·the J\S far :lI!:9 'th·e PQE.'SfbiU'ty of ~r.us;Hm.iUVOllv:eMent. goe:s, it was l1o:t jn'dlJilJl~~,~.rber we]} 'the .r.,ll!H:di:ms to fil1'~~bmnlJ lJQ]:'

112

l,hsi

"list
IPR,OJEG1r

http·:llwww .. p..c/raalist et
llj..lE. IRJ~AUlS,T AR(]j..INE

The R8\UST

SlC'an:s 011: !!i!n'Ure i~Q ullr~

[Issue NllJl1I1bQr 13 - !Febl" '11961 - Page '13
foundl at: h~p:tfiNww.iIi!p,'l;efrealr51tl13

a hOI:l.e fun of ~bn~]renj they oogh.t have tried '~ ;}ttaek they would 'b,9.v'e aJ]O:\lred, him to li:\"e, may';b~ ]:a,'tetl' find .. ,1~H,~,'colm,i,lornc, blUrt 'th, "it" ,nodus 07iH~rttn(ht11 wt)l.Ihl uo.t iug SQ'mi!: way to hf).rcl'imh1Ja'~e hi. ~U1.t1l end him to Iall s eo get him, lout of tb,e '\V,a:y.~\' ,tndude wiphUt out his ram]];,; In t)le p~Q~eS$,. A nd if I. as ;tl~o ftlig kt b£ assu r.nedJ~'the :~t~:~]i'ma, One d~:y befoh''e hls death :M=.:!Jleo1m:I;JJ:lolled Ale'Ni llaley.
w'epe :merely tlry'in"g

ing ,any QJii~J it W'LS u[dik'e]y, t'hey wt) 111d, have pidted. 'that, pa,rUeubu" bouse as tl~l~ir tR.l'g:et.. The bUlldilrt,g b~]Ql~.g,~d the :Mll~Jims!IJ tl'fi:JA;t j~]st ;tW()' weeks 'be fo re, to :Malcolm had be~n ordered to lilJ.cate It; the day aite.r the bombing MiJl,coJm's ap'peal f'ol!" a st,a),' of' evict-i,QIl. '"as

to

t~I"r.OI'j e ~

Maleo:]m ,"d'ckol'lt kill-

It

l~ejceted bJ'I' iCh'U 'Co\1'rt ,J'u~t]~e ,)_;f3 urfee )Ven and t;tl~

[~e'till ~'Jled' to tilre ]I usl ims, 'H!lJweye[;; dee'p t:t.u~~h: thir.st fOr It'fi\'!eJlLge~' 'M'usD:imlS, 't,he ara fi l·St ~nd 'feremo,~t good. bUS.~,I10s.!$I1l'i3n ~ tney d,Q' :nO-it 'born b the:i:r own :[)l·ollHr1tj~. 11!;idwt~ ~:p~nt -the last i day.a: of 11 Uf'e 4e~perately' a:s,; t11'y'~.)g to ,cOnVlnOi2 "the 'pres'S and, l:)luldc th2.t i;t".hO¢V@(l·

"t:heh' las.t eon-[.EM,:;L n ~ 'Hjs, voiee was hoa l~&€ and seemed fIl,gi ta ted .. H~l,ey' '\'r'rib~s,. "l~ was obv lou s thra.t jl~ wars u no'iSJi'a gl'Ga t sb'·a'hrl. He wsnted to tfiJa me &omething,._ He said that :chel'e "y~t'e other groups, " nd intel'est.s, b.esid.,e the Mus.Hms "i,V nQ w,i!re seeking hiis (leath.· ~ M'aleotm said to H~ide, lila t. I'~;[.k~ow",ha\t tMY [the 'Mus,lims] c~n do :IDJud w:~~t."t'they ~1'iIi,t, ,~ud, talC,Y' C£Ii'n't
'\VialS

do some Qf 'the ,5bdI l'eC,(!uijy ,going' :Qn.~"
J

HaloY ~dGJ~, tl'a a t~ 1IlITbeB,~jt ~e"em'ed to ~:ne ($UC~l an iC;H1!.d ~bru:p~te]l;nige of ~subj~(!:t:, ~Yotl :kn,CJcw" I'm glad
r:":f@

\v,as

0'1.,:111,

to get him, (a~d he

'm!,t~ ,to p(l·,ot~et llJim!i.H~~:f and l!1i~ family but he 'was turned d'Q\l'.:.l'l., A week blter~t:L,~ 'MaJeooo's ""dcllo\llr Betty ~eft Uelevue
j1:llre police '\·fJi'Hlt he satd,
I

'the Mltudims) ,r.eally mel;lJn't bus.h:!ll~sS, But no one. would li~t.en to. )jjm" l\~aJcQ]~m. ap'p1led ~,t the 28:~lLPJi'ecj~lf',.t 'f'Qr a p'ist~] per-

no. ]Q.N:_gel:·

b.eU,evM

it

w~:s.:

be~n the 'ftr8.t to establish 'Q:fficitd, U~~beIl;\'1lle!!:r.tJAf-'o~ A~:dea;ns and our bl'oon b.l~others 'in, Afr,ic;;L,.~ ~~ To H .. 1J]e.Y'" lvh,Q was not '!P'J['iv)l' 100, MaL~o~,.m'~~ pdlitjea] plalls" ~t was an !~~o.d.d~bl"l~.p,t IclIallilli!e, o:f eu Idectn-i I[ [~,C't, a M:.;:L]co]mwas, 'tel ling h i~ f'l".i~~Hll tlle reason he was g'oi ug

Mo:rg~te a.ft~u' id,enUfy,in;r hC'f Ilus~~:n)(l!"s bod~', ,~H~to{)ld newsmen i[!i a bitter, te~u~~c:h'Qk£dJvolce:: :''1. ndpilr'e:s.5

be]:i,e.,IV'ed, rr~,e'l never took Edm ~ei'i4)~'~~f' Itv'€iiL a.fter th,~' b~1~11bj'11.rof ("~U: house tIles' said he. d]Q it, ])'iDlseif'. u, II-e.t" Vio]c,e bil~Oke. f.!N,ow 'wl'la,'t ,8.1"(,:,-they ,go;i'ntl
orH~

'VeI~e Un"la h:.,

N'o

'00

1

d(J;--:si\Y

ton was Jout to lh}!.lddat@ him. ,j,IIt was 'RO' ace;ld€:nt tkat I' "'as bR'ff'ecl f;~ .i.l:i,m Frii'l1Cil· ,ail1d te;n hours ,a:ftel" ,I ,al"Jr'i've.d back home IllY' home was bQmb@a;,," 'be dec lared at his

TlIE!' fil;;e=bo.bing

Uta t h!@ shot

hi,H1lS:eJf !'" ,co-nvi'nood 'M~lC0']m

>

'that, \Va:sh[R~-

Fe1n"u:a;l:~Y 17th

he had Sle:llt Ill, ooleg.l'.aM to 5~JI'~t~'jJ'Y oill' .Sta:w ii:usk lod K]ng' an o:ffl~:i,al pl'ob~5tj cl~srgi n,r tbat -the g'Q,ve:rJl,~ ment Iil'}md ,no ill. te.a tion to lI'Edv :me or 'p;l~(Ytee:tmy Uf,e~~~ A. f!i2l1!f ,aY$ befol~e hir~ =l5~a~3illatiou, he Ine't with Afax d ,Hale~r' fiili' tlu~:[ad U fn,e',,, IIal~y V~POl'ts in, tile E)Uo,8'~e to Mal,c,o]m s A.uto'b'io(J1''a:pky 'tha.'t, M'~leolm no longer tJlo:ugbt it ,,,,a'S the MtuiU;m£l; lv.:ho. 'W,'e}'@ 'kying' ro, kU~ 'him. "~Thmlls have bnppened ... t1:u;rt ~1"e' bigg.:1' 'tl'uan wha:t they can (lo/.!! he told HaJh~:y. I~~hi'ngc$ hav~' gOJlIe beY!Qnd tba t/'

Pl"e5S

c{j~f·e-tenc'l!. M(Jjle:o,]m revealed

that

Tlu1~ ntg'bt. b,!:!'fo;re '~:]S :lu;.sa.ss:ill~;ti.Qrn, .:&bJcolrn :st.~r,~d ,El't 'th~ N e~v Y'Q'~',kHi'lto:~ Hotel, {A fbe'l' file b~m b.ing ,C}f thei m?hou .e, his family' h~ij 'b~'n put II [1 by f:dends in, Qu~en.s.} ,Ale::.rUale~i' reeounts In h:~~ E[Jril,Og'YE to MaJs eol n'l\, A ut()b,t(){J~·(J/ph.y tha t, :31tel!" he ebel."ke'~ In and wasghten a l!'OQ:Pl en the.' 12Ul f~o.Ol!!'; ; 'Som.reNe,gl:'o mel!1 en ered the gi,arnt hoteP~, I:n~H~Y lobby.. Tlu~y be,g':"lfO ~.~ki:ng' 'r;;i:.·io\~ ~ '~j(lll men w~u~.t ro (HJr.b i M',al'tlo'im X was In, 'The beU11;ll:en~, C3:f '~~'iuU,"Sii'a· would nevel' answer th.n,t q~:est:jJOn con~e::t"'Jing an~~1 gl!l,e-st , , ~ Ute bellmen ql.l.i~kly' notifid the hotel's 8eeu:rU~y' ~bref'. 'Fro,m then nll,til Ma1lCo.lm x: cib@ck.-:ed out -tbe next c]~1~l~,e~tt'a r3ecl,l,rity 'v~~,g.i1~;m,oe '-If,a>$e.pntil} WQ'llls],. iO:la,int.a~ ned on the: 1,2th 8,00(1,'.Ihlt'."ng that Ume, M:!;lJc.o.]m X 'I'i!.ft t.he roorn
O~~3 on~.tl !11~~\T' jlJil,st ha ve. been J~~l·t of M'~leoll1i s l~()ildin.ij! ,surv,eHbulce: ~~,'tt-~rD"-i)!:l~ they ecm]d. ~tav¢. lfe.'p~

'00 die,

,

T'he two. '~n

J"!~sent~d sOM,eth h1!g mOl'le sin Ist.f..':r,. (Ma ]ca]m 'was t:lL U€d by whJre~ :eJlndblacks ,aUIte.--=the CIA. m~'ke,s ;a point of'

botn
N

r,eel·ufUng
fol)f'

. _ _ at _ e'gl~oe~

black ,age'ut$ at JcoUeges ~ndl uN-hr'~rs]:t]es;, Us'e: i~, ,Africa :and to k€!epi tabs on 'tr:Glib.le~ome
D!me_. :hr--- '."

'F[]s si5't~:r, ,EJ [3, Coi]]ill]-@;, 'told. 'lne th,a t !7~On tho@ ~,ay

ei;]fng ,al--o'u'nd his neck. H lS 'W idA".!,W Betty b:llId m~ tba t r,~My lws.bund s~use(] fSo;l:n.eth]'I'lZ th,e nig}n,t :br!fQI"'i2 h,e

M'aleo1m him,s;e]f

,se,ems to 11~,~,,~ f'tlt the no:o"SJt2. t~gh't~

before hiSi d.~~th! '\V'hi,ch 'W~s' ~ Bu;tlll"da" 'w,e i$,pJ£nt the d,n.y tog~'tn,e1·. He d.1S'ellsse:d th!e 'r.~ct that tll,e wa;y lds hQu$~ W~~ bom.bed~ and hilS being 'blBil'red 'f'l~OnJli Frlt:nce'~, letl him '00 be]'ie-v,e, th~,'t tit@: 'p}ot6:m'S of hb~d.eath Wel"e 'm,ucl] big'get.' than tlle 1Irf:u~H:m.s"In diSicu@fdng the Me~· 'b?il'lbi'ng Vi"e both ,agreoo tlfiat with 0'1:11" ex,pet'i~]!L~~ o.f Ma.ck 'p'eOip']e~a. :m.eth.od~ of re!'!,il~T:I,g~ 011 @a.c:h otbe:r '-, th i~
J

th,el~e nfe:l;'~ Iloads of :poUc-e, 3:r!Ql!Urfl t~ :J!n~onJ and ,saId lm!e! ould, ten n:ill~ w 'mori',e w;be;o be saw me. [ nelV,e'l" Stl'\V' him again, n The li:~xt,morning 'M'aJe~Im \V~:s a.\,rakea~,d [n hi's ho,ool
l'OQrn

w,ag m.lu:dJfZl-.ed,. H~

C~~~,ed 'me

a ulI!d said

was ':not

whUl! he ecJ'!!11daudJ l'-e:P!lIPt.s that )[olcoim,

the. 'wo,rk O:'.f b:lae[;r,poo([)[e. "She ooagaiihl l\',ar:ne.d inn· broU1er- W lea'\rt tlli! ~ollntrY'
l ,

,n1H1::nUoned. t~l!~ e;iil;]]+

t'he ~·.ecehel". j~W,a~.(~:p; bfothe:Jr~"n ,3. lfII1~1Ttl'SVO]C~ s~id u soft!y~ Tl'i1el"E~ v,I'ti'S ;'1, e~ick a:ll:d U1,~phone WE!'nt d'ead. 13ef'ot.'0 h~ a,~:ft the ho~l he 'p:b,oned ,Ids wife and ~:i.ster- an.d N,e:gl'O :a..nd ,jCa,llc~g,]an· v'pie:as.. 'Voice/" h'e told his w if~,~
f~r m~, Ella" because
£0:1: fb.is day.'~ :MaJcbl~\ ~l~'idJG;dJ hi
~1uiie~ Q-I1 h f

by th,~ r:-n,giij,,' ()~ Ute telepihone.

H~ prj'cl-;;~d up

agl"~@d pl: ~marrib· j it1 Ol'de~~ $~rl,~,gtaa hi~ f,ImU,r. 'tel rd ~J g:ai~:1. b) ni[11 'tbel); ~'nd I believe nQ~v.'" Jl'rs.,,, C'o-lHns said". Utllil his muv'!2'to. take th"e l",ae~ is:!irlLle to. th.e 'UW \v'o~~d, aUse. llis de@.th., , .' • To. blk;~ h~ ...4.mel~ica;liJ. black: e 'prob]ell1 j~to. 'the lhn,i'teCl. N{I,Uoll~. i.'!iftel' gaining res~eet :il',om 'h~ A f'l'Q~A s],9:u a,nJil EU'~·OlJ!ea;l:l'''v~n'ld~, ~$ 'tl,1''01m Id ,t~ have b!'oug~t abtlut BJ, rlJay o-f r.~ck()nhu.g' for 'nu~~nited. U Stab~s G ovennn,ent. A:nd tllis WlaS '"'hy h,,@.'wlts :kured., Had n,o,t he InenUoned 8010g .in,to .the United. Na:tio.ns

:re!uctal1l,tly

lS ~ b:i I~,ty to dis ti lIIg'!lis'h EU'J!r]U\ t W3.::1S ,il w h:i te UHI;U'J',5

'To his :sis'tel"'~ EHa~ h-I~ aut WOI~C]3lr,e'l'e ~ HyoU ,))r,ay

'mOI-e than I 'ye. ,e'!.e :' neetled, ~t 10~fo:re. So. you ,a~k A n~'h to, gu ide Itl~5 'beeau~e ] re.el the'y may lUl'\fe me d,o.omed

I .:firmtv 'hel3eve' n,ow I need

a

Mtt]eo[m.
Fou
J;~

~~:N'ot t~lj8

'.1J

h,~nlJs la,ter he r

d~Y'II"! h said. 'C[U ie-tilt.

~:ssis.te'l' told }]i:rn. Y'l!~" tlUis d~.y ~;I.~
j'

'Ii"o 3.$

dil2'ad~

1

r•• ry li96,7

,I

hUp,:llwww"e.p. ~c/re.alist
THE RiIiALI<S,TARClHIVE ,PROJECT

The FlEA.UST ItcSsue Numnber '73, -lFeb\" '~961- Page '~4' ~1Ii~ 011:ibis I!;!nJllfnJi ~~e io!.md ;at~ht~~Iwww.ep".lt:fr.e>an:i1tl13

basile. f'acfu em:er.ge$ i.·neJ.1Weta'bl~ f·:r.oirn'th~ ·ta'ngl'ed sk,ein. 'o'i Q'V~(J1'ts SU[fI~ou'luHng :Ma]t:.e]m's m.1Lll""der· he :
'(,J,D'!!:

eo~I.'!l:l ]l(D.·t h.!!li.v.~~~@~1 killed. wltho,urt

frf the N'~·~ Y,lJ)fk P·~.]iceDe,pt. A t all his. PJ'levi:e'u~ me~UDgs. ~.t. "the .. A,'~d'tlbon Bti:]]-, roo:m. t~t~b]J::i.bJtng· h~d. :s.w,~)'me:d with ·poin~~.,~ssig~,ed .
liberate
Or'

othe.rwise

tme.

:Buw:s:tancc

de-

·bo.t'h to 'p~?ii)tect Af aleolm ::ilInd stave: ~ff.' any clashe~ b~, tl¥l!en, :his t'oUowers, ~'~,d :Ill~ck ·M:nsJi,m3. E;;un~~ ·tb~ at

me~Ung ow. Snl1a~l"J F:~brIU!l.ry ,21s-tJ OIU! '\,~~e1i:afte:[' his 1~o·u.se had been 'fil~~l]41mbe)ii:J:" thli! U sual peli~' d~t~:U lv,as llOrW~1!cn·e·tn ~Vjd~l'H~:e<, ~1'1·3. Pa t~'Ud,~, ~I. Jl!tuss~~.~,a PS;l~·c·irjatl'le :8oc~al l"i.~O'r.·k~rj wt'Ob~:,iR']f~ e'ye~'i\·H~less ~CC!!)!l~.t. ~rE '~h@ ~~~a$S]nat]~n f,~r Un~F~m·~~.tuy27'th .Ba.lti1~~OO·18 .AfTD~At»~eflMn. .D lseuss,lng he~",ill;~'f\qd at the ba]rl'o~m tell. 01' i!teen mlnute~ 'before ~ralt!lo;hTlj l'V,9;S gIJJUlli0d d)()lVn.~ she l'e.poirts,: ~;;The'
t.iJ'.'~jIL. hu :I!];'O:n:l1;. o.f t]lt~

,so.f'tl~; "T.h:tl:tlia a. lie'.• " ·.A:tld, A]ex: lill"aJll';Y ~qnun1eil'l'ted~, '~~.De:~,ut.Y: 'PoH.be' Clam!" m:i~,:d()ne:E" .Arm':t; sta t)enlu:mfu tlud; :r-.1alc-obn x Jrle.il1:9ieO J)QUce: p:r.oreetiQH c:on:iHcts cli:rect]y wit11L th~ iBtat~ment~ 'af maJn~1I' of' his ~:S.$O~j3tS that ,cll.lU·1 t'n.e. week: '~(['~ U1:' leeditlg 'the ~S:S,t't9;$~ln2lt'to;n M,~,[oiJlm.X fom,Til.a:i.n@d re~eat~d]1tha,t the peliee 'wO-lddJ~O'~ tak@ his :l'<~n~~l'8 fo;t
!I'

'Iicker'

'Ilxf expr~S!lSli.0l:l. croil;sled

her :t:a.ee ·as· she

Dl,1iU'1nur:ei

:!pl'i9~~Hon. 3®'I.·j{)'US]Y /'._

b~Pl'ot;eet

l'rhG po~nrfrl

a rna

oi eou rilS~., is t'ba tit
hil

111 M3ile:oi]m~5 posit]ot;Pu w~,e1the:r 'm:- :n'ot

is the

poliCJe":!l' ~'lil.tJ

1:1!h~l;ewas :I!lliQt ml'e' (jae~l' in sir~tt.:'i! AIl~'rt'h~'i',e~r'G~]tll1l.'e~sl j QU'F.n3~i~tHer~~IDt F\~rt~t, ~o'ld :m~ ~ ~;I au:':ri.\~ecll ~t ~2 ],,51 "and i:t strnck IDe:' ,'~_s, S.U-:8]1,g·e ~ 'that therb 'l;7Vas such an a.bsmc~ of' l.']o~ioe,~ llad n:~.t>el[d,~ j[ leil ...~,V'el''y one of ~fa,~,cp] m~'lj :H~l'leml',~dHes j n \h~ Y'(!:Al" aince he iu:'!(],ke '!,With the Muslin'1~j and ,alt lJ!JlI of ·them, 'tlb.i(!Ft'! 'l'el~e ~~:t :~J~~~'~, ~, ,dlo~el1. polh~:~m,~~. half g't~ntU.tII·g_ (iJ!l~t;.1\ideof.' fhe d.'~i'ilFmtai1'8 entrenoe, G\l' j US-It. ~ns\idle 'the door:. On tllj!S oc~~gi;an 1 (1:i:dn t ~ee liiJ:I\;:rO\lle. ~i' 18 ill t tl:Ui!l'e: 1it'd1,g' ene In) ifo(l'med :poHce·manh]~i.de. the build hUfc!. D U ]:,'j tl8' ·tbe trla1 ,O'f Ma,locol ~n.~I,S,aUe'g~rl assessins, one lQ']' 'th€~wibu~:ss§ ,:vas l~~tro]lRan G:ilber! B.enq., :SQlR~1slg~,l ~,Cli!),n'tf~~(;:t$em~~'900 in 'lhJ~ t~jtn(Uity· .• lTerlWY ·t@st&llec] U'rumt :~~ ·~.ad been .ass;ignen to t'lWe: .A.ud1l1bon ~;~]]l~aorn on the day orf ·the ~_ss.a8s.iiria"Ei(!!n.
1

b~nroo:m 'was, cl~JJ{i" Gi

'po]'~cem~tD,

·thila lti[)l~f'l' as s:t aJ~.pl.~e;vi:QiU$ rnei@tin,gs~ H:t!DtS' WillS '00]0. ,to iltonc6l;il laJm~elf hI the B\alb:"O(f~ltir'-~, R()~~lloQ:mj' ,~om~ distanee i~'Ofil ·th!l! main :alld:itor.i1!l~ whe~e M~]CD,]m
'wa;s" ,to :sp~\Li1lk. .
p~\t:r:Q] 9,Jll lIeJu',]" 'te:sti~ted that be lta:d been told 'b) .• st.a,y 'Wb~r.~ 'he oOU I.d. not be. aeero. .~:ml~omm,untca t@ 'by' 'lv,aJk [e.. talk ie wah .a pofice' det!Bj i~ cOlWcea~ed a~ross UU~· $tt'e!!t iF! the CG]Th1.m..b:i ~ Ptesbyt@!ri:a:n :MecU·e:d. Oen:t.el"; ·the .ttJ.,olSp\i·t~.·1 ~um,p~e.x:. ",.rh:~"i~· MaJc,qJm":&Dod.y 'wa'~ ta:k'eIiiJ, ,aitetr the' $ hOQUngm .Iienty '\~~5J.~ tfii.d b) :nCl·Hfy the pj)noe ~n 'the: 'bo~piti\~ '~lI'i:fa]mY'U:ghl~' h.a·plp~I~,ed.!!l'-3,u:c-:h sll.Qts ,or. oth~l~sJol;nl('lij llL~ of b'Qlable;. DE,tf~il'e :lleJlrY' Ico,t(ldJ :g@' a;nJl" ftltt'h'el":jo m:"' 'he ~ak~ Vi<':hy thE!! pol:i,ee ,~~pe~te~ tro'(J b]e O'n that '[p~,rti~'~]~.rday~, the Ass:ist~nt .D~~,'trh;t At~i'.n'~t·~h{iik!ed. Olf:( ~he Hne: ti;}i qtl'e~:tjo'fiiin:g !ll,ud, hllst]ad Hefnv,Y- ¢jtf '~Lhe ;sm~u.1" ~he lTIQlr.i.1hL]'Ild (b~loeJmS'e :a:t.Wtrne'1,3 'J]e-v·er l~ec:aJlJed. ltim. l':mmed.~,at-fily· a'f"t€"j,' tlll,@: ,ass~~s,l)]~,t]!Hl. 'p-ol i~e O'm~~aJB '~tt~lU~~y a·S[n:ec]. th.'e V'IL1.bHe t')~at they hoo lded 'to g.br~ ~ .M!31c~~ ,rD;(JIt:ectio:u; ·btu.t "ve,~~e t.\~btlft'~d. One da,y afher m.

:iB~,t iI:)S-Ce..;"1d of' belins: ~ta;HGJ\ilIi~d t'hf; tJ!IiI;tr,a]'U;ce 9\1: hI .at

he i3.end's t Ilern ~ f'of~m:1 lJlJV itatk.ii. '~\vl!ien a 'i'l'iI'D.'n'$lJiO~,[H~~ ~ishm~~cl :a'rtd It@: ~md ~i8 f,a;mUy a,'[m~5t tl'lcinef~l~ed" ,~oHec· ·PJ:'~tect'ia'm. is ~u'~O\m~Uc: ~n,d'~r~so]'i!~j:ted., E~~'I~, O,f con l')~e'~ 'when the msn is !M1~.i.reolmX., (WhIEH1L G~Q<~.·gle':LinecQ]n RQ~k'l~'e'~ who 'p-f~ides him:sr~lf l, on 'neove:l' r@q.uest"ira.g PJi)]ice pl"JQit~e'ti(J),n:~ ~t:i.'irv,~~l :i.~ N,~w 'Yof'k C:i~~'":for a ~,ublic m.'~:elUn,gen !~~brtl~'~',y :Ji10~ 19G.G'J the fir CiO .Yo1'lG :7'*tlb~.s :Fepcn."te.(l UlHlt ~'~~ $1n'i!!lU .army' Q~ 'lnillee ;;md. p1;dnc]othesm.eJ[, irD!c'~.uc1u.nir ':ffi:8 llilJ.{)rUll'te(l ·PQ .. Hcemm'i t1U:n'H~H ,[J~t to '~@e:IP' rder " ., . 1lock.weU 'w,as o CI.os)~lr gtD~!trdJi!d. ~ J. /'~).. .M:aJ~~]rM bi~nrl:!:H=ll 'bald p¥~v~a,u~l~ b~~fi gi've,n ·h~ia.'fY 'prJ!] [~e ·p:!!;'.o~ectic)l1. '~~rrthii)lJ,]1t.aslklng 1{)(l' it., A]e~ .IfaJey ~e'po¥m o,n~ :i ~~3taJne~ lv'bel'e M,~lca~m, 'w'en',t '~O eourt to. eOl!1l,~iB ·Uu~.dFd:e~· to 1iraca"te lris 'h.Ot]3e h ... QtJe~l1ls. ~:nd w,a:$' gn~u:'{led by "'~t1lfe\n'l~Y' u.JiL]fO'~~~!~d~Qlkqmdn, ,i'l'l!iid t;\ve']v~ phii·:ttciot}],e,s d e'~ec'ti'I"~$. ~~ 1> l:f there 'were ue un [fOl'.Dl~ ,]Jo.H,oeme:n te ~rot:ect ~la."loo.l:mi' t'l'iUi!1~e~e~m$ til) '~ave been a. ciOutfngen.t. of p]~.h¥e~oU:l~m.re:ni in ·the 8,1l1:neuc-e. Th'e·i ~~':t~Q;I,~n ·evf'nts ~ des@(l'v~a, c]o~e:r.· ~ru;"llt]'!'lY'.. Unde(l: t'h,e hoo,d] bii.e\,.'!\~M:e'mbel'~ i~)'f Cih""~"S ,$ec:r~ ,Po] ~!!e Uta it· Sa.w Mm'~L~Qlm SM,ot! t" '~he
11 e;1",tll;iiJ T~i"b'lt'l:l.e'j's

2~h~ 'cbat:
l1]:lfb:ul'lill

l'tfU:to!l L~l¥is r@};lcurted an plait:lclot'h'e~men

F.e~I'u.~h1I'

~~ '~Scverat lmderco.v'eY

'men~n:Er '~!lU a.t~ th~ tillliL~ Ma;~.'colm ·th@re •• ,. ~ AeC:(lfl'{J.J'i]l~gt{i) a" :bigh iP{)n~e o·Meia]l' ~eV''er~r :m~'mb~l',s '~f' its iou't$~a~di~_g ~,n~{t. h'i·g'~br al(f!cr,@t1v~ thQ .B'U~-eaj ~~f :S.peei.al :Sel"v]~~ (B,O~i!!i) ,v,!lI~'.~~'.he AUI~h;li'" l il
bOoH Ba;.]]:r1{j;6lli)]].,

')Vln,"e in tb,e: l!1i':ls. I$~.it:llt· d~~d.

·~'ffi'a.~iOl~~m.s,_·h.~v~ ef~de'Jlti~:I~to

'i~·rt];Sl

~·o, ~e;g,',dUII&~ ~
~!. ~

''- ., ~

IKH:~S.pol iee-'l,,"'h.o never
C'O·V'et

·e.iO'tl~ so t:h,a1l. if they' wet~e .:r.'eg],~/i,Fe:~ to 'h~lf'@ ,a. card OF e1TIbh!_m _&i 't:hJe Black .Ngt]~~li'lfJ[~;~(l(t it i~ ~ :ni.'f~be:t ~ 'they hilod them,. A 1PJo]i)~~; official fro]d. Le'Wli9 f!U iii :i!lUffieiel1t to S.ly th.a::t we h~d irrhn eOlfer,ed ..~I 1" BOSS fag~ntB ~~~l"'e in t%.'e' h3,~].tQJim-~·1 ther as mamhel's of.' t]n.0 ~.udie]iJ;ce Oir. hii.filtr.aoo,rs ]]I M'~lJ1bt),1mj'~
1

,~dm,ostany

wela:r
sit·!1]a ..

orgfIJulZf.I,tiofil='trtey
Ol'

the l\1f~lMetF' Ted Postgl] of t]fLe .N 6iv Yo:t"k
:ftlill 'in~IT]eW' 'OWl'

'w.ilh Mf$., BeUy S.ha.ba.2.z, 'llJ:~Je.'O,]m~~vidl in the, (~QiIH'se,,0:£ which th€',f s;tO'[)ped to li~ft.en 'to ·telev[siO'ml ~QVG1'i),:ge 'Illf th.~ ~~~ta$s,bjja;UQn~ ~~Jt'va,s; an ABC·,TV :r·(innd"u~, ~.a~t ~dght on 'IU:te ,a;$$~~ssi'il'at;j!o:nJ! Posw,:n, 'wl!i:Qte III 'the. F·e·bl"L]a·~y· 23[1;;d ~,
u.tr~l the a;t't~'ac:tiv~'~' ~ t-OjlJ1Hl~f:aoed

,P~~t l'~l~ort,~d

In d~f~~ld:h;ig th·~m~~.]'!f~~ t!.gatnst c'lllarges o:f' lllegU~ th~ PO'li¢~ d~hil'lhe ~;S:~~$$;i~,a-Uon t ,i:ilUl!'. (Th:[s,. df'~~H>fl:.he: ~:e-l}1;!mbi:nlS' took: t'~e. by' SIIJrp;r t .at'temp!t an h,[Q;]cQlmJ~ .~ tf'e! gll~ "!i¥{lil!'!k. be'fare.) In. f.actl t'!le :N.Y. P,t)] ie~ Dr.epartm~1·t u~as, inf-Q'l"m,e~] th at SJD .at",·
,~@nce 01' oo-mpj.ic.ity,
l~

t-~ ap~n·e'hen.(].his l}dlle:rs.,

di'i,d

nut:

11ft a Gnger

to p-rotoo!& hi m

PIQ~tl

yOU11iJ.g WQMD~~:[[l

:~[lio,k.e4 i~pa~s.[~e:tV' ·!tts D~pNl'ty F',oli'ce Comtmoi:s~ol1,ei!·' 01in. '\:\;r :aUe~" A,l"mJ 'Ui"~8 ~a:yh1Jg' t(U oOOtl~'$"€' we Q:ff)!~~ed M':dco]m X c~Qli,~e ru'Otec'tion :m,~lliJy 'Um~s ]~te as' the day hii9! hfH.l::S'~ '\-\1'as l~bm.be~-bl),l:t h~: ahifay.$ l~e:f~.$ed :i:t' N"Oft :a

·~e:mpt.. W,8oS '&[!l be: 11jJa~d.e J('~:~c~Jm~'·~Uf'~ 'W(!U In advance. '0;[1. O'f' the a:s8f1o~5ina tLmru. Tne· d~;Y' after Ma]g:o.rMjS D:TI lU\i 0[' lflJJ]i Cbieagn 'pol lQe: fo:~~o~ 1~~"~a1~d t!ha:t 'w'hen :M~]CI:!lm h~td 'visRed ChiCla:g,o 'lt1J D~~m'beF'~' .1~M:S·5 the ~J~ Angelt"~ llill]~~~~ 1 inte·]lig;~n~~ luti t :1.'e]03:y,e~. ·aw:fu·l'1ii~.g fha't p·]ans, w-e're ·3 foot ''00' na'ire M::dcolm ~j]{]UeJ:l:pubU.dy~.!\' At d]e 11i['eSS, ,catrf;~l~llGe hi

Tillie R.,CII~is"
1m"IE ,R.i~I!S,T ARc{l-oIfVe: PR,OJEC1r

hHip·:llwww ..ep.ie/iraal ist

Tne REALilST [Iissue Numnoor 73, - Febl. '1[,96'7- Page ~5
~n~ 01'1hl~e~lIIjre~~~e fOLmd at: ht~~:fIwww.l!;!p ... t~I~I[:iilJ73.

p~Hee JH~,a.dq.Wfllii-e:~,s Capb.im WU[ia_m D'UJfi'y'~ head! of ·tbe citY~$ llQ~Ue~i:ml:telUge:nced'[vj:s~n~ and Sgt Ed.wa:ll:'d MbCleUa' 11;1& 'thll lI)~vi~io'~ IS Siubv.ersh)lljj. n:nit:,
Chic.ago
_~~._. ~ U,'Ci.i. ,~~tt.'tr. ~

And. the~~ W,lW,,~
'~f~Uce

'The iJo]t~e ttu,iilY llaye, trlred

AOOCl!lrdiu.Erto, "th~ N. Y,. Tim.G-~ of Feb. 22", '~~Sgt" M~ tU®lIan. said, today at tbe ]_)QIit}e hll!lad(].l1ill·b~l~S' :wIDe:WS ,ClQllife~"ellW' t;hlilJ.t M~lc~]m ~a]dl Dootm,'bew:' :31 tli;a'!:, h~ fe~\l'ed be '\N,;iS betng' ~t~lbd f'or d~ath b.e~" ~,nd tJm:l New Y'OTi: ,P:oiWB wn~ ,~er'tetr~(em.p'basis addtMilll;, 'The Jt')~A.,m:_el"ican }"iepol~te~.on, lr'ebruary MittnJd,tba!;, ,jA~CQMin_g "tOe 'the '~olice siPok;eJ:imen~, the de.p~\':rtmc:nt .k~'a!·win)ldd..J'an.u~l'Y th~t an~ ,a\tt~pt, was, 'to, .~~ mad~ 0,l1iJ Ma]COrnml~l Ufe.'·

l"'l!v~al@d th~t 'theY' 'bad warned, Ne:w "i'ark Of' a '~:@~sUd'e ·m:U .. ·,1"" .... ;.,'''''''''''m,nt ''''''11 "rL~a'lli':I ....l'm- '. v., _, ,l-H) .Lq:;u[r

II~}!'B'J!"'~ .leg 1)0(1;" e'V'e~'~]week~'I altll(fI1S'h th~r~' \v®!s :~O' ~ mil!dlieml l'eaSOll 'wh, h~ ,~~~ltlnot h~'Ve bem 'OJerat~ ,on. ~n;uD~d[a,t~]y Was - someene l:uopingt;fmlt otjmJ~l'iea'tioQl)s WQ\lld set in llUo'l~ H,ayer would di.e~ i!lc[li8ihn'!lU;~t'~:I:' \Vb.en h~'O'!riIly;g'l~W sC:l"t:1l11get~ the b~~[et'lvaa :iln~n:r l~eM(Jrlf1ed:. There Is SO]~,i$ t-vjdJe~e eb~t ,a;:no'c:lIle:I1" of tbe ':tEll r'el~ers I.,' 11..., i.'b. .~~ b 1.'1.\.' tl :~" :.aill'i6"'~JIl'1l~:l$ ;I;''b,' "."' 'wa.:s Cf!.Iugut ~yl,.lU.'e, mliJlU'~IU·it. Idi~]& '._!IJ]jLe POJl.lle<e
i

a mare JH.libU.e method; ,sl1n-:g~ij~$ ~f~r~ inttxu~wd, W 'lta:ve t'biij!: ib:IlUe't i'~,

11.0,,J,Eiek

It,uh.rs

:i!L'rn1Llfitl

to ,~i~e~. 'hit'll.

;I-_

-g'ot tp him in tilne" '~ilJv'e're)~ lli1i~ct!·~coo and. :S:p1id.ted n:~1
'iI..'"-.111M mQ ~

p0'Hood;e:fm,rim-e:m;&I's '~el1a,viQ':r. ~ .ffineh.JJtUng ,i.'t$ ,alttemp't, 'to b~i\me. 'M,~d~olm'ip;r 'lb~ 'hn'~iblingof Ids, Qlw,n he;me~ IC~-:.b~ 'high ooh~'Jl@Soj ,tb:~ d@~h~nitmen,t"j' most 'likely' inelutiin,g a£r~i~ 10:£' ]3058" kne\'V o:f' the ,~~s$i~a;UQ;m a.tte:mpt and 'l[lr;3n.ted 'Ito, :insr~rur~, ,suc~e.s:$., U~, 'Tb'QSl; 'wh·fltU; he first ~mllrde:r try fai~~~,anr~. M'a]eQblll. t SUD;'vj v~d, t'l~e i:r~-bO'm bi.ng of fli~ lUJJus@'? :ffit was, ~lea}.t~aJ ii()}; the! ~Q]iGe to ;platy Aown t:be: afti.o'Ulsnu·s 0:'£' ·th~ a,ttaik,.

"the

'Ther~ j:s, ~mn]youe!expla;n~tfa,~, ':t:b~t, fits all .a;s~u~cb, ',f O
NI~fl~ York

I f ~b@ :plI.l:d·ic, l('eaJl~l' bel ]:ev~, !all. ~~$~inaUn~ a:twmpt h~~, be~~ made ag:a:[nst I!ra.l:eo]mi" ,PI'eS'smiA "o'uld l];a;w,e been b:r-Q,"tlght to b~'aJ.~n th'e pO:Hce to p'lr~t~t bim,; and o ~vitl1J.,3, seciilnl~, a$~:a$m~:tioIi, ();r~ alread~ Duder.' Way, d
·tlle i(ro1ii~pbB,taM'~'0001(1 Bot aifQ,~d ·tld~~

ti:at thoe,)l1hQle

'fifili:l f'ot, t~e a$S~~i'f;l"8. (It is, ullliU]rely'th~t "the :M,u::rd~r-' e:l"Swoubi J'la\l1e gUH'aed Malco.lri:l down. ~nbI~~a.d daylight bef~'e 400 p-eop]e u~'i!~s {Ro;.mii!~H@., ,a, pO$j,t:iQ(JJ ot ,~n, authQ:d t1 ~,'Jl tI;~;nn;~Qd th~ t'~ecy 'WQ1ll14 ~U)t ha.lf~ ,t~ 'l',TGil'r.y ajOO!l!l t poU~e, i.~ter.:tfett:Q:b~@~) Th~s, t~~clnj5,us,pecth'i\g P·a:tJ:~t)lm~nHf:nry 'Ii:v.ai3, se'Gf,et~d in the' R©&~, aOQ;.m, of ,thG All1dubon B~Ur.o~m s~:d. ~cO]dto l'l~pOil~[' '[bael~} lds, iSt]f.U~l~i.Q'J;rS to when 'he~h~,'rd s,b:01s. On thc~ ~.si~ ';(Iof ;dill the ~~liaJ]Rb~e re'vid.enee ~lem€nb, Df ·th@ N~w YO]!:'k:P'oHc~ ne'Il·~~tm,'~t W@l':e wi~Hng ~~c~m.-·
<

ba:en :a. '~ub,H~~:t,. ~tUHt~j",~,d by Malcolnl him~~H~if(~ whe.n, :ne ,aI~lJj:ed.>&.t'ij~wi$i: ,~nd d~, ma1il~e~, ,llrobe~tiOl1li' he w~ c~Qh]y :Wgnored.b,:r 'fb~ pre~s~ 'T,k.e p@lic~ l'o~e :~n the lUll1irde;r itsdf '\Y,a~ ~PR:~RnrtU:r a. paaalv~ O:~e-----t~lU;)ryjus,t rs~t.a,yed. aw,ay i~nui l~ft an d~ar
tir[I:IJ:Ef' bad

S"Q' it \V,as, cmad:m:edJ

a:o.dI ,a gqed m~lD.y' p~opl,e, lmUmrm

-.

j,

Q:I!i]l~sJtioolh]g/.r 'Tb,e Time8 rerv@at.ea tba~. 'in ndU.ion ~o H'l"'~l':!la ~@iClQ[ld nun, had 'ilbeen 'alip.pl'l~'h~nd.Gd ~ I'iP,a"tr.oJmau TE~o:ntDs. Ho'y:~ :22" sadd he bad '~eeu sla,.. li.o(l], €mbide tb~ ']tlo,jlth Stre~t !3~tl'n~1}ce. \llhen 'i] 'healV~ 'tbe ~hQ~tj_nr and th~ 'pht~('j ~p.Lo-clJedL," lLi: r~~$h~d~njj HW .M'a]()lolm.lv,i1l1Jlf; on 'the.~t.,ge :a~dl ~~l"abb-e4 MSll~~t~ ,~ wh~ :~e~ sairf Sl'I'lllre :peQioU~.'12J W~l:e ChaS~D:g,'" ~,~ ]I bl"eUgl1rit him th ~ - ·t ~ t:LC. '~),..'1] ~~ ~ ..;~vegan. iIJ. £''' ·1I.\(l!u!E!! jl,;["GiIl' 0.:&1 . ~~.~e. :1i'ilJiO:W;;, t'it. 'e,l;iLe >crOW!IJIl. 1i.. !Ill!eall,oHJig me a:nd the:. SUiSpoot~,:~ :P~t1'6iml!Jn He,y ,sa;id.• B'e s;aid he plllJt this, maitl-;llQJt othel,!,'w~j3~ .~d~n'ti'li~d. 13'ool" :fcr n~w~ :m.e:n-i'~l~Q poUe:e '~Q~[,t(j 'be t.ake:n ':tQ tll~ W,;'u,I;s.wo,rtb, a. . . A VC±in;lUe :statioD. ~Ielse.~,c]ea:;r']y~ is ,8., In::iIJl1 'whQm both, :rn:?i~,t_r;olm~», lI:w and ths 'Cl"Oll1'i~l had .gDO~, ;r.e'3ar®(OW belieye 'W8,.,fj blfVO:!V~. '~nth.e ~~s~~inal;;10'J]. All~l Y@~1 'fl~om, bat ,Moment, o:m ll,~ t mere is he3l!d tDt bhll~ , SQinte-OD¢ b~d Sl~l~t out word tha;.t; t'~~ s:~bjoo~ 'W'88 to' '~~ dl'o:pped, and thi€. Pl~€SS, ~'[p,pai·,eD'itl,. Ob~y,edi' Fi!W1\";[m 'the :t-a;teGi:fir ediUo:n 01 the, N ewY (»"~ Til~~~ whleh :is, '~(dnte:d o:nly S, 01' fhollJl'S ls:erl; t'be et\~]'iei\" su'b~~Jl!d~ j\~F'IPU,ce,Hold, 1\"r,jj' F,~" Qli~.est\.jJO'lling/J h@l.a.hei![_1}: ,~l1~ng~dl. ':00' iOl]E'; ,Is lield in .K~ni'n.g'.i~' i oj. U J, i

(C".jii-·,.)' fl' ~J_ Jirln ~\i!,~ t'ij;,,- .I....ew 'irf-QT-'It -li"t'·o':\~-- .I __ .....•.. ,~ ~. :!i!l;~ j?cMt~e8' I~e;pm~~,tib,e, nuu~d.el" 01!IJ. M'olitda,y m,o:rniEg., ~eh.. , l"[]ary 22nd'j 'V;IUh Ul'e sM'bhead:: '~PoHre. HQ)l'~. Two Fe<t'
,.t.
Ii=:; :U:i'$IL;

t- is. ~.i!,;eY'~ II'I'ht e

oIL

l

T.1'ib~'l?l@jI pu'e. to p(l,~~$S '~)al:l\)1' S!1ndJay 'eve~i'a,g':!! tcb.e 8nb~ i ,~e:M 1I.llinderthe .lead, ~.'~,t~:c']¢ Jhnmy B,Jt'¢sUn on, ~th~ 'b, .llssJlssina:i.'ion. is '~"'p(!lHI~e .J.~ciIJ.~eT~ro SU$peilts;.~" llJfea:llll r'e'~ort~ b~. Ids, $tol'Y t'l!!I,~t t'ti,f~ -fII·~t~ui~peflt~

Y~~'lc 11(til'f;ilfil :7l.tibitiJ'lle:. lEn th.e iir£fu (City;) e;ditioM, of. tlt'e!

A sImiiar'

'Iea't 0.1',1egerdeJnain

OCC'lllI',l/'ea in

theN.ew

p:~,lleeg'in ,the
D',espi.l1e

,ol.~c:e, t]QoperaUQD~ tla.'@ 13Jssu.sillJatir;m was

~'i'.ti.sa$$t~a;tiO:H '0:£

'M~dcoilm,,x.

llXlt

~.1l1 lU1g,·!li,di.:ft.ed St1CeeiBiS.

O~;~0& ·tbe aessas~i:ns~ Tabt~,adge H'aye:r', 22, 'of' '~atbe~:'i8itl)Jl~,N~w Jer'~iI! 'w,~ SJlotc ]]1 the :Eeg .a's; .he ~!i!d tb~ 'baUMO'm'i 311eg,edl~' '~y '!if;ed<:~Jm X;a1s secr~ta~I!',y; R~u.'oolii Frali.c~s\. H'a:y~~ W3$' tl',a~'Pr~\llrr ,a, 'mob a:~.d ~lmO$t bl:['~ ,a;paJ:t hefo([~e~ he w~s arr:e:if~ed by two :~o']i}~eJJlJeli who~' iSl,i:I,il!~l ea\~;' hi' been CT~iBi'llg :in,

Av'ell~,1e precinct ,'rh.e:re the cib~s top po]'ieemeu, 'lDlJmet'Uate,ly ,r;G1TV~ir,g~d, ~')IdJb~.g~n OEle of tb!e. heaviest a homi.c]de :lrll'v~g'ti,gati.'OO!ls 'tttis,ei:ty, h~Ja. ,e\te.Jl' ;S~R"
j ....

Jffiraye:r'~,~uul belen. taken to E~n,e"lu~ '

l.~tJ:l,eotlii!@l' ~tq..s.iF.J~ct wa'S, iI.:JIlkel(l,to 'tbJe W:adSW'ijI't~

PrisO]lw,aNJ,

wl1i1e

tb~ :rl'i~1meJ 'the au bheoo h~s heen chan.~eii 'to !'~f\g.lice R!!s:t1U;e 'OrM Su~retU and ~1I.mention 0:£' tile ~er:end au~w~et hatS be~n, ~dlit~~ out ItJif H~~I j]n~,s ~t~J:':r~
But ~n.MlI~ 1teI(t (.L:a:t@ C[,ty) !il:d ~t~CJ,n M

t'b@~ l1~'g"ll~~1'.~!Ood.i (They ,@:,dd~IIltlN']1laa .U(tIt '~~e, t[ppG[J '0:1 to ;stay ,d,e.t'll" !l)cf .tl~.'e; ba]~ri;l!Q,m,) 'u\ "~! 1'" ,I!.AI ~ 'D""",itI 'lIJ.'" ,I.. ,!,.w,a~ll!r J]:au a 'Cl]:P', O:Ji. ii':illcU 1;. ~I~J=~~" III 'I:.. ~ pO~!t\!t:;:"" 'W~l1C:n, l.iaru:JI!Le~ .nl~ :~t.1,'l1ched 'O:!fH~; ~f tbi~~ nnu·d_~l;' guns fuuM 0.0 t'h,e, SOeille,

and. :l1 th.l.1Jm~~a!'jn,t w~s lateJr '.fOU1fid. OIl :the 'rema:[n8 of [8 tc;b,;e ~moki~~'lhl,]mb exploded! 8~ "a di.~.l·s~~nin the :iU'~i.r ~:f ':[be 'ball iLr'oom~There, i~ ItG'· d~n;lbt, !@If 'h'~~,gl}Ut, , TJfe I~'ptij l"@ 01 lIayer.' 'Must :ha:v,'e OOffi'l a S-eVeif~ 'b]ow to th~· ol·s:a.'t1'i~H of ti]e ~assJhla tiUH. \Vh.uHl he t~k? If' the ~b :ft;tlim) b~nt@n 'him t~ id,eath~,Ol' if t'be j'~f..lg'n:t~" OO!ll$ Ih{iJ,d,'~akel]: ;l~jm i'tll'tO' ,c'Ustad,t~ t~(!I'e would :bave been llJ@' pF'Dbl el14. E,lffi IlICl!W~, with the ,sP:~oUi ght, oif 'Flub]i.ernty
1

en :bim~,Hayer 'wouhl ,h~ve,te' ista;ilCi 'tr,ia1.

EV\ffJw.y :Magaz.lne,. ,AU:!l:t:l 'Mc'l'~1 !i!;O:iJl arsbJ j'~W,lta't ha.pJ;i~ned to th!!!' j"thin,-[i.p:ped" O]ifV·~skilltU~d La1titi-lm]~.' ~" • ,jl. 11' d· "'.. ]..ng' ll'!!iillli, ~''b. ~l!.0! ~m;p~m"", AI a, 1),],s'6(!lJJlJl ",II... ',v !WJ:u.'e'. ]i!li'e,(l:II,.~}O\l1 ~J!j,.ti' ,t'iii. ~l~ a;t~ge;And ",!,!~S, ~.·ell~l,u~d "the' ~Qliee! :fl~oln, a l\'e·~fl:' ']yhiti~: b,y? .. ing ,a:t 'threhand:s ot l-ra[,~o11;ri,:i'iS :f'OJ!Qrll¥~'S 1'1" ~fo,r.r.1So11!;s deEie~i~tion of the ~'~Jil;rstery ~u;~peett' en~' robo~:ar:tetl by '~Y@'l~ibl~5;S~~ a;t tb~ mUnJiei" :s:oeneJ! bn;rnea ;ihn(ii~'t word ~Eo([' w,~rd with ~MilIJ]eolm~s, ,(te~C1'hlton 01 a i :malu' 'who :b::HidtaU.'ed. :h[m tH~:oug:h LOlldO'n 3]'[~1 'W:a~ on. "tbe iscsweo'f

\Vhat nUlk!S~ thi!. ease of this ~jmyatel'Y ~:~SPJ~:c;t~~ e~r!e.n mgJte .intr.i.gu inl1'i$ tll~, ~vUh~nc'e tll,a;t he l'1V,a:S 'DO& ~ N,egl'JCJ\, h'1!.i.t ~.:pi:u~:ll~~ul 'be Plu~rto 'R~e:a.n ''(H~ 'Guham.i j[n. ,to a>D, artie~le 0]:1. I,ra~,{:)o]m,"~ (If!~\'tih. :in the OC'w,betl:~ .1'$165,

I.

:~,bttle tbt ,reblrn~d

hi'.

to. N e'W' YO];); .me 'w,eu 'bef,or,e
~ '1&

FlIINGrr 11"'7
1,HE IR!~U·ST .ARC,HIVE:PROJIiCl'

h1Jl::p :llwww'"ep. tc/lreal ist

The AEALilST II~sue Numnber '13, - lFeb" '~9al - Page .~6
~~~ '!!Jt: 1hl:S1!;!~lfreII~e f:o~m:li al~ h~:lI'w'ww.ep,;b::hyeal[~V131

his de~·th. iI\'H~'was ~i 'tr~'~~;.;up..iP.'ed., QUve-lk~n[lje;i Q'pe wlth. f~r.{~:t r:~~, ~~M;.=doo]m. l"·epo:,[red ~ 'H~ kllle,~ t'b:a.t. the '~I1iA.~m,pl.o:y~, aUly' Cij,b~n. exUes m :in. im o:ve{l':S~:$ 9Jeti.vi1tim, and Qit~ll 'em~Uif.u:ed.t he CIAIS~fpp:Eifid. C ubaliIJ.e~ iJe ~Iilotgc 1¥ho dew' for r:;sho)'tlbe~'s rn:e.J!~ri'fiary ~,h'f'Q'I"~~ :EI!,raJn~.ttbe Ottnge,]ese :reb~, ..) MalC'{)lm~'s sisrte~,I"Ells told, me tlara,t 1'''Members ,a)f 'j~
,groli!l,p \1!.<hn lUlld ·t:tr~.s.~nf ~.i'l 'tbei~" ha;n'tls ·ti.B·~pe l1ia~d thh1:r~ on tt) :m~.. lfh.ft]f t!h.,er ~~re a:.bou;t to ,aftwol<: him. 'fllu~th.e1l:~, pOnClem~l1 :puUed. a g'MJlIJ~Hltd·tdhi the-m ,th~t if a they at~a~ed th~s m a Ill. Jru.e wnuld ,shoot., '~~~e'n "t'h,e. lloH{}~' l:ul$!1,.e:d b [m to a,poU~e li2i8;r .f:IoIltd:"

A~si~ttJi'ti.t·ChiQI l'm$ipa~t:ol"Jose~h ·L. O~\]e;, In ,c!ll.ltrg.e QJf .M:a.nh~,ttgLl1 .N' orth detect]'v~S;N '$abl th~Lt Willw~,m,
I

Hal'.ris, whO

'W33

\vnul~, tak·e~ C~[\I!: of' '~ds, own. pFobil.'i2ms.~' 'The 'bdef Times :re!p(iI,l·t ,1i,fa~, th.,~ ia;s;t ·m.enUm hI t'b~ pJ.·,~$s·0'£ \V:i ~U.tlJlD Hal1;'1"is, On~' 'l\,f,Ql11d '~a'lie ,8;SB'!NJm@d t'h~J;:t the- ~a~!~ of a man ~~"~()~~l:y W'(]lJ.uit(le~1 ~d:ng M·aloolm.j~ du m1l11~.el·wlilul,cll be,. H Flo-thi.ng ·e]se, g"o'od human in'te:r.e~:t CJ>,;y:=---but 'not in thi s e;~i8~\. .A.s the ~{')Hce ~~ inV'E;3tig.a tfon'JI ~.t. ·MalcJO·]m!s, IMlU'icl.er

tlIDe' It£bciffioM!i.'!]lf' .l"ef'~s~ to ,~ay 3!n!t.ll'i~g exce:p:t. tb~:t 'he

in th!~.hospital

w,X'th :a b.un,et 'woi,uJJd :h~

~ooP:f'dlns' to O)]~ llH~lmber~told h~m to get dlo~1rn. be't'¥~~H Ute s~a:~s,. ·T~l.en.t'b,~¥ I"Med ,i,twa;y',.

ation,

,gt:trtu,.de'rway'~, th,el.'Je l\1'111$a w,erh-d ~~guelte tile.

~asa:~~;iH~

'.i'~m't W~~ w·]d '~,e by aeve:~9.] peop]E'i tb~t tlri~ m.Q:fiiJ Plllg~;,"ro· "R'iean~, he l~o'~ed like a :fO~~g.n~:r,. :r g'Oifu ,go,od d·~serip·tEGns f;~. ·twu ·p·e.o[JJ.e in,

)oO:~d lUx:€: Cuba\ll oi: a
T.l1ey

:sweaterr:'~:nd w~'S "\"lery' ·tbi.m-Up,~dJ~jl Why has th [s: ·im.trn·dl'[sfllp~·e;LU~i!d from gi,gb.t ,~.'\Vh~bav,~ ·tll.@. JG~;ie~n~ve.~'-jdJGutititFrd, b:im~ (kit" a:ttem(~lted IGj)' BXpl~J:'o, tnt l'~ti!J~O~]S f.~,:!,' h i~$.arlr~es"t'? t '~unre :re:pe~l~oobf tt·ild tOI 'COJJJt~u!.t ',the a:!'l'oe,~t[itg(t.ffic@l·~ Pt!J,tr'(tlIDm~:OC1 lIoY'" .a.t 'WadS'", " w'O'l'tb Av~nu'e ,ltnd, :r\iI!i.ghbol'ill;g'· In~eein'Qts~ bu't h.~ teQ S~~$ tc(], ha~ b~eom,e·a n,Orl1i.~·~~ra6(J)~ T.he([~e!are t~· ~xp']an(lJ,tiol1s f'!lu'" "the 'm:Jfshl'Y '5ll!~.p~cti· \th~t m.alre :$e!HSB •. (h:H~ is 'tl~;a;~ as $~~~ t~ke'ly~.'t.-he :poUce.·l'.'I'er~coo1pera.ting wl th the ,:~uass:in~p snd <Whleve;r.ythil'lg ~QSSiichtEl '00 In~~ ·t~ct ·th0'ot, The. ,~)Uler:l~ tlrn;iD;® tliH~1 man w~s ene of the ~b~qllOOllU~, B(~ [ ~\~nts, g'(l'il'l~le{1 thl'"6U~']lOi[];t ·t'b~~ ,~'I!,nli¢ooe~. ,~n'J:d.~~ he w~s id~n:tHl'ed. .a.-t fhe lV'adswe(rt.b,

'particJllal:""

~aid. be

l\".;lB

\v'€'a;r.·hl;l· ·ai· ·t;u:rlt]e---n:enk

boon. kU[,eti by ,i~'t:he PQ~r s;tr~~etl;l ~~~i> ~:~iru. 't1'~;g·e.d 'th~,"t a :m,ed[a\to:~t ,co~teI' with :El'lj'ah Mu~,a~.mad ~~:nd memlber5, 'oil ·M~]tob!i.·i's OO.&TI "to ]U.'i'iIlii the two ·a:rI(l<[Iriza,t]~ni5 ~10.Si!fl:' 't-Qge.the'l". T.b'EH~e ~vm~e:~O:Me ilujjJC;li;t;[OR-B th~t A~~1'" m:i.ltht, be Mal~olm'a· ~moo~~s~' bri the 0 O.AU~ (A wc~k bef,o.1;·~i~ de,a1th M.alcohn :r.Ad. ,~al"'n.edil 11"'['f ~ 'my' .ll'f;~.[$. w'~iI!'~hth~ee t:;ents~ then LeO'il"S :i~ WlJl't~ t111tO
b:iil~

utlnA"mee.l·, Ma~crihlJl"'S N!!N¥ E~:!'b;;nd. l'~p.resrent.:iI;tiv,e;, tr.a veLecl. ~f'l''Om BOB'blH to', N'~w y ~rl~ ,1nn-neciHa te·~y ~.f'~e:r.·th@ -Rl'!lsSJssin.a.ti.on to e~nf,e;['w'i th '~Ih]oolm';s :~dd~s.

:He cha~:t·s-OOtl1,ait; Mn.i:coh't'l

,eent.s}" ) sCll,tr-dn;g ~:peech 'h~[r£oil~e't;he Boston 1IJ[i]i,alI~ Labo:t':iro:r1im~ a In'',a'ncl\ of t'h,e'So~~i~Ust·\Voi·k4!r~ F,alty. i.iI h~ :ftlcts :[:mID lllY ~oa,.. se.ss:i,on es to ':flo ~~1J kiUed. mrr;;i:~c.olm~.~~ 'told ·tt..'e· :ke meetj:~g.. ~~T.~:e'::killer:s ~,n~l:ttc f.t'>om Chic~;go [Mu:aiUm bes,('lqu3]!, t!e l'S ]'0 T.lleY~:I·e' f'l"O,m 'Vliilis~l'b]g,oon~n deHw'red
':a.\

O.n Marcih is, 19 85 Am~er'

ve·

ss

Av,s'!,,,p(l~e'Gh],·ct"thre '];roUee actec!] .. 'to' 'P.I~ote.C't h:[s .i4rJOV'@~·.,lJ'
''Ii'-'I

Hut. ~n. th~t
.~ .,.

C~J5e')

wby d1Jiill. mo'!b beri!e,ve 'the
-

lhUi!: had

ifj'hni

He~r.o.moicSed ta b~hl a\ :p~'.~g ~:f!8:r~\Flc~ in. t·he· ne8;I"
blSli l'eV1efi1

'lE'Ullul'e

iLu,lb'Oo~:m.,

evidenee, 'D[\oIY~ng the; f.~piCJi,"'n'el:. silL(' ~C'" ·tn~e'£1j' :r@;SPQD8i.bi~]ty~ ~n~b]rl.i:ng 1&10g1l;Ui]I>en:tS ~:Rd tf.Lpe~

3·~!Swe~i.Jm.g·deals

t'~e two m~\mibe'fs· (!If 'th~ :audience. who' 111f·el~e ,,;r'OiiJ ~aJ@d., Th~ N e::iD' :Y lQ1'k Time8' 'reJo(l"~ed ·0lI

AJm.oth:etr q:u!est~on. about the 'a;~u~as~ltt~a.t[on tbi,\t needs

wnn

.~:B:.. 1.965, thf:l!t:, ~T~e. ;s~eet'ato:l's. who, 'Were: WQ],Ul;di~d ~\~li]HlilmHa.l"~"[s, ~~ ,614: Oak Tr~ P]OOii!~ tb~· B:l''£D;n~tft'lm.ld. ·W'.~]]iam Pal'k:eJJ" o:f :2m-05 31th Aveltij:e:, AS,.· 'e'hrum~¥
I

~SS~S:sbl1lrti~~n~ "I :knofw'inY' Ufe~ is ·w~li·th:noth[tlg, Amee:r to]l~ltlThe 3'Ud"if~~" ~he n'~x:t ·:m,Q.1·ridl'l,g' h.~~, deoo bo~y lva~. d.isl!~

re~.ordl'i~,g'3 ~~. .had been givHo 'by Mfl]g9Im. 'before hj~

dI~,e~ on~ o:f s.~g"llIt '~o:mJ)[t!:t:dl a~, tlt,~~~myste'rYS'M3'" ..,a~ p@~t .'~1B~t lLt S<~mT!Js tf1npor'tant·"tu k.BO'W nt~~~ ~,bn~t ~8'ny. • . ~(r:j,e'\~h,o wal ""'f(fti.nid~d d\:n;in:~ t'l'H~shooMng;; th,e, one a:s~ai'i5~dl1;, ·~~rp:etw:~d t.he ~oe}lJje:1 ~,a.[m;a}~ge KayeF~ was ~g
\.. a~i!ls~i]il.s m.ay b$lve b~ellli s'i:mnar[~br wOlllut1€Je(]. T~e: fh:s.t 0'1 titre' two' :m:en~, 'WiU[!f:lLmJ :P~l1.']£j~r:il ~a.-lW. be

A.fte::r- a f.ew hri.'ef ,~u'bs'eiLItl~nu;iIi;··'tfcren,ces" ·the 'proos l S1eettIlH'ffi to~ l'~ii! iu,t@lre5t 'ilin H'af'id~,and :P3'~:k~·rJ a.nd ·they

f~Jl'[a~ Qu~en~\l'''tll'~ ~.reportid In sii:;Usf.a·cfuu-y aGRltUUOH, last :l1Il gh.t ~·t oCo1:tnDbj~. Pres b.rteil~]~'Ul M,~tUG;alO~n't~r/~

cov~ll',ed .-;by ~ dha'mbeil·.nl~:id 'in hi~ S:b.,erty EiU,m.o:r.e t[ot-@·~., He: had die!i!. a1. sb',a:nlfu]a'ti.o.1],.
The

.roam s't !Bosmn's,

'iP0]i,ce ~mmedl:iate~ya-1Ua;01lDiOed t'ha:~ t'h'fl: rea'U~e of ;,lJiU ,ep:~]e:p,Ue ito. BIU.t .AID.e!er's wi'le! .rev,e:a;lecil. ~h,e(l" h:l!Isb~litd had. ,1\' C<l\,m.p·,]ei!;e llW;edic1l1 ~checkltp' ~ust ame m.~'nth b~t~~"ian,d '~h~~~~r,aS -'~O bJi ftt oi ·~pni!·P:SiY/j She 3,1~~ ·~H,gc]ijse.d that \-Ynein he~ :I1lJ~~b~'liL~V,~ ,v;n.~, bo.~~.. Idi~coveill'edl~ 'bi~ lJ,]aclreued. wFllgU:e pl"otr:~(h~d.') etwe~n his '1

dr@ath was

shoOt b;y' one of M;:alo.Q.lm~'sfo1'l(j.w,e([~3., and ·~}'~JJret'· ·the of

deait.._L ,I t'ft;.,.... t.... 1kII,1;; , 'iiiI·,n-;·.,... . ,_- _ ~I,~ U~ .!Villl..ilJ.!O

ijp~~ 'in,

llil

ep:Uept'ie ae.izln·e
~l

seV~i:e ~n~u.JJih
!I9j!o
L

~,"" ,i'r\tlmflol!>l,;n11 .u:JI ~IU,'Ii:r ~_...

"tl" J.'

lI:,'w·""]·I""'II..". ·A "'.""·lU" ")lI>fJ' ....U.!I ~ _.
,V1'!lrlr"!ti
~J.

'ro e,aUSie:
~.

-Jl_a,~_

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pJ1J1"&rQ:t~OfOC.,

.P·riUee :h'bad, i'f:lltUltr~'bed .Ma](]~hlilf"s!~r!~n.iz~.t~orn)
·C:KtlSi~ be b:r'Oug·~·t hj;$ 4=Y'eal.'~ri[d. ~h'l

~~d:<@]y :t"lll@d, O'U.t ,il:i5 liQ. mur'de([' ~;lIiruSp@et, not only 'ib:e~a1J1se he W,~S .~ f.ollowelJ! ,gff Pvh']Q~lm {.th~'CIA 1,~Jl N'ew ';f crk
with. him
to 'the

but ·b~..

mi&~U:ns. P~U"kr€'l'","'\\'~!!l, a,pp~u'\I!nUy \l"'Culll!CJJe~, .[n. the· :fntrf!: by' 8 sJi!Qt:tgu'n p,eillre:t .a~, he ttl¢d to 'll'!iiteG:'t 'his iSlOll ,dUI'lti,E' U'[e! slTtoo'ti'ng:. The ,~as~ of ~finifJJm H,a;~t'is ],\'ii ·.,Oll~e1'Jatt'i,g'lli'ng. Har:r.is. s:hot in. t'~.'~ ];ight ,s:h~e .3:$ 'be 'W\a~ l"Umllng' fl~@;m t,he balh'OCim" ~~ w~s JlJo:spib,liz.ed in ser.lou s ~o1ttdi.tiO;1t\. (T~!H~j b1iill~et 't'~urt 'W\€!iunded hhE, Bards ~tnld me:' ~Ill. 'a g:u3i'lided i~tervfeWl eaHe.' :f.l'o:n1 ,a. ~S2'i' t'!fi,(li ~a'me ca]ibl'e!

'l'~~
.ft "

tklinr ~~,~~. k~t 'Vel:'y l~lJ iet.. Th'el:poUt!'~ h:fI8~d. it ,~U '!l\P~.'il lif:1'5. CQ]~i'I:1S ,a"ddeclji" "'II spoke. to .rus wifie: "011. the' teh~ph'o-ne~ S,he sa~a that ~hitd ·¥#l!enmaI'lf:i.ed ·to him '~Q'I' "11 ye~Jls:~a'Wld he~d n.'eve~' ih;ad jjJ;ll ·~·pne[)tie fit of ~nY' kiud., E~t j;~Jlt'"~ 'wh~t, the :~;O']iee,~p:t 'OO1][ng: 'lileJ" did it.. j1. 'T.h1e B·b:l.;y[n:g o{ Leo:n .Ameer "was :a;rtl objec't ]e-~sm[ to

Mr.$~, EUa Co.nblJ$~ Ma']co'nm's. s:isb!r. wh(!l ]ivErs. ]'0. Eoa~ to'H if:mrl:. kne'\v .Att1e.'i~r l'WieM[~, ld. :m.e ~ . w firm~;y' beUe.ll"e th~t L~o][ ,AmeJe'l" wa~ a$s~:S:s~:mlll.'t~d. Ih :Btlsto:n @"'!j;f@ry-,
j\i~
'0 .' .•

... .'.-' .' b-(~~ ", as: ~1I··J,.. lt~~_:m: ~gQ H'a"~ ). ~.w_~.. ,Ll "" IT~]' --1' Id"':' , ·~s~:r., . Tilie N',ew ·F-OIf'.k:f-ime.s repxrrted. ,o-n .Februa:!\',y 14th·'(bat •

P0.5~e:S;'$lQn :most Gf' 'Ma]cdlm'~ tapes. ,and files :flJi!dmth th1em to ~l1~lUI.. I ~m~:s. 8~ab.n'~,·· 'h:~s. #2 :rman~,dl"iCl!P.ped OJilit of si:G:'h~. R'eMlb-en. FI:':U1CCjifJ,. his st;creb!'n:'f~ ~vhdbad • be.,{fH j:~[JJi~ood 'f'Ol? sJ:mOiU]1~r T-alm;ad!g·e .IlaY1@l', jumped
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The Re.aI1is'

htiip,:llwww'.,ep ..tcllreal ist
ARQHNE IPROJE.CT

The REAUST [Iissue NllIrrnber '73,- iFeb",'~961 - Page '~8
~M ~: this I!;!II1IHn;lI1~~ef~!.lntl[ at: hlt1~:Ji':tiuww.!!;!p.tt:flfle>aIl':l1tl731

E1g11't ItlOlTht11S, 'hd;er- 'he was ,at'f€s:ted by t&',e F~r 'whU@ u~@ tdtd !lJI 'M~looJ'Wjs t.hr~;fi tl:1leg,ed, !8.SSalSs:1HS 'W'a, ll:l ~f"QgI~$3~ bu.t he wp, n'~v~)" aUOlii;v~ 'to, 'teEt~f'y d~];!I'H;.e th!~ ,dta[ hnp!:nt~(tlJ.e~ ofhja._ te~t[monY' to 'th,'€; ease ;Jtg';i1Iiinst, Kayel·" His pil~es{m:t '"\i"h.eJl'ea,hj)~,t~Jl atlJ!~ tal d:l~~
~]WC\~

'fl"'~ the
~~,l1tied

ImSijtj on oj tbe dlf.ll:r,B~s ~g~rin:d bl'~l1,~a.te a ern-1tIlp:h~te :m'yste;]:y~ jfQ:k'" th(:i~e \'!ii"ha hale) b'3e~ ~'(.0Si~ 'tQl M:~[,e01m~

l'i1ace~,th~ JIQ]i,e6 lti ~, dHl.eu I:t 'positio:o", :He w,!Oul,dJ b~v.e, to sm,~,clJ, t~ia[, i'Eb .all th,e d.s1~8tlmLat~R'w~ed.,m,~'t ,aU, w e:yew:i,tn,~~ r'e~ol:,ta, of 'the, a~i9~~'sln:at~~n ,lndi,e.ate:d, 'that a oota;a (iill 5: frll,l;:riJ~'H~·n:h~db,ee.n bl'vo'lveti.,

lb~(:a.me: ,@qtuiv:a;lernt.·'to sttr1!,jfivat T,llil~,C':;1p.t'lu:e of 'T~llllt!.dg~ Hayew' ,~.d tbe :m,uliCIe:r;scen~

llo:r'ted 'that .n.v~ ~'en,we1"e,

l~~PI:xtt." o,f the aSl!l3:ssiualiGl!l al®t) r't;l.11'\\l\0lved,:.,'th~9, tb@ N, Y., ,P!JJ!.t Im'ted. ou. F'elJ.r llJfU.'j' :23 Ul'at ';I":fou t' a:u.e8'~.ed Ha,y~r- ,~ oo'mlPJl~@ wnp 'Vf!.l'J'~;Shoo 'fl:i;.m thf> 'baU:r~om ar.,~ '$till a.t l~~ge~,~J]tltlle H 6-1."tiI4 Tilibtfm~1B ,reported 'Ute :Same ,day ' :EliIlitb:~
Pl!l!SS

,ffin, th!e 'lfrll!4Jt. !II!'
e,~: •

t:.h.a't ~'I,;;i.t le;lst '~v,e Ute:n we:re bel ~e'ved h) hav,f!j tabn D~t
,& "" ~~u , .
"'i"v.i.;-;r;1 '('uiii!;.I.II ~~'I;:;i

g~i1t rested so]e:ly on 'thete-s.tJmQ~r of 10 'witrl:~~$e's" Ca~:rMurly' halUt.i.,~pi;(ik0cll b.;r 'th~ DA,1~ ,©-:m,Cl~ f~?O'm ~l1jJOlrl,g a[ott~ ,"",[tin H~e:r,. :F'ortil,uutt-elJ' fO'1'" the ,p"aU:ee,!, tW~1 ,S:ll.m the 400 pe01;)h~ who :8,U.e~(le€lthe meeting l,y'h.ere ~lal:me:n., l\Ve!l.'\er;e~d:r at :lruand" eelm wa~, kH~@.ott" FOUl;' uf these witnesses ld~~,Ufi'ed 'fW'O enf'O\l"'eers foe]; iB'la~lt: M\llLs]bn Mosque #1 hI :Ra;r"" Jon~:!ion and, sh:; i~'enti1doo Bl.itJel"'" ':r~!e, te:5.tjmo;uy ,Q;'f J..~~ Thom.aJs (15,X) J ohnJa1J and ,N.orma·H ;(3:X.) 'B.utler~, ~'V@'rf D,ne IO:i' tl1u~S'il= 'p~'A:ieet!J,U.(f~l wH~n,eGs~ ~:s"riddred wilh , 'ih"~db~~iI1, r~'es,t.ed. '~n,D,~~~mb~r",:U~.~4fjr»:" the :Sho@titig' 3 levlai.s;i~n$, ,[lisw·tia~}s ~~Iui~u.tI"i,:g1a:tlies., l 101: ,8; ,M m1ili. d.e~etor, Be:nj',am:[n ]3"rij'\WI}'" (BrlOrlv,m. Wtl!$ [They' Wel~e ~JI, ca,ref.ully caae:bB~ .:.uul m~n'i.:pula;tred llJot ~aJel"[ous~;y'wmHldsclL) ,A,t "the 'U:mel o£ Ma]~(ii~m.jls 8:$thl'iOUlhcm,t 'by' tbe poljo~,· iLnd, the D i~b,r"i:ot A ttO'rne:~l's SiiElJS~ii]~.ti.OD. tIley' 'W'eJ!'e boUt ODt aD, bail aw,ai't:i'nr tr.ia'~ o:m.~,~,and those most h:nf~Q'l·t:'Ult 11:.0 DA~'sease 'wern, tlte (i)ri assa ~,]t ,chat'g~::l. ,ar-,r.ested on a 'v:a:r1eoly of 'tru mp~d-up 'cbal'~l=ll lu·,lor to 'th@ilr t~tJmo.H'Y~ O~t ,~j1, ~ra,i] 2ft 'llie 'tim~ of' tlll~tria,];, iEI'aF'0,r. ,30meoti!e' 111 the ipG]:l,~e ~partment, a;e·eDJis· ,to ,!i'lllIen. i\~i'im~se5kJ1e'\7V UiMlt t'h@il!' i:r.te lci1Jel~!I[~lH1J@;d 'Oin ]:[!IlllW hav~ r.rz~U~,*d! 'er'C tb,~: two ~p.el'.f'ee.t :PlSil&y'a:. Th~ 'f.n~b.ue W >ri[~sdy the~ oo(D.p~:ratecll 'witb '~e Pl"iQS~cu'ti01fl, WQ'l!J.~~~l h~,v~:U(j 1~U:Eh~'M.t1t.y 'eUevitlg:' t'h!e. ,eaD~Jble> of' M'.ttlb • Co.Jn1~-s.c murder;: }}£lIe] 'Ul.ell"noc ,r!dready at:tem~,'t@d 'bj, l~lU T,n'!±!! 'R1U.st "b~~~ja,g, af' 'thi!\\':itneu~s,:~gai'nst Btt'Uc.r ~nd an,(j,tbeirM~li~~n [d@f~ee~to:r :m,ucib ]e:.s;s jml~Q'rta:.nEe'~[t h i' Q'f' IJ~lhns(Jn '~fere at'll ~y T,l\tomas, a:nul Cba:d!ss ]llackl~eJl, Wa9 de.dd~dl ,to t,[it}.,OW :Ehl t1~r ,~nd, J,ohnsollJ, iuto the, pot bOrth Qf' 'wb,om ·CQl'J;.'o'tJQl';;lt0d ,th~'pi17ose,eutkKg ea:.;~ :in, w]'tb lH'a;y.'er.'" e"Il,e:ry de'tai~. illn; the eh~os, t:h~:t 3JOOOJIli~\9,I1jOO 'the sho~~ Aftel' I'(!!i ,r"'t11l1l"e.u,gh t'l1J.e 'm,oUml~ .oj' gin;, '~~~inten~:ive inl oo,Uo. T,h,~as, ;~nd,Bb,'ek\:vell ¢]u(im;~d tal l~v,!! ,~l~e'D ~ ~verythililg ~,p~e[hl: j us:& 3;S 'tlle pl'()~ecuJio:n said it dJi d~ :inv\eEtiga t:]on~,':f.B l't'U~'I' 'l\~t!Js ~:u:r,e.sted onF,@'1:ll"lllal';Y' ,2,iUth and. :ldenUi~clJ :Ri;Y\~\t~ :But]~l' ,and Joh:!I:lt;t)rt.ills the: t~'G~, ~U1L(I. J'(l;hnson Q'1Il Mar'cn a;r~. TED:@, ]}QUce w'e:nt tu :fa;nt;1~tle :a.lSSJlS<si1:uJ" lttn..:g-thiiii ,to Cil}'fiV]ru~.~'th.e public ,th~ tWOI nr~, wer.e dalJlr.. (;~l~Y 'f,~a$li tbc .u~ftaJ" \!dtr:Nll~S/' h::;1!tl be~n h~]d ~n, ,g,e[~0'l1S, ICl'<]'h1JjllilJ;ILls. jaj] und:e([' ,liO'lOOO' hQ:1l!mJJs;[n~e ]'.\l:al~b~ ,:l'~ 65. :~ :~denU~ A'fte'l.'" llt]'tlliiH\ 1ln ,aJl~,g'ied. ktn:'tilte' ~"iJ.lel,.tJ was, arl'es.ted ~.eclJ:H~,Y'~l' E,ut[e1" ~s t'h~ t~¥Q :men "v]]o ~~u~l!d 't~,~ ,il.!i!.d a s,'to:ry '\va8 jJ'i'¥'Em to the press 'that; 'whelll he bad, been (U~t&ul."banee i~ thle. ~e:nte1:' of the hal h'oo.:m. He ~Uf'led, ;~~Pl~~&~llid!fdmQilltb eal'lie~· fOI' 'the sh~ot:i::ng bt Bml~'il ~. t'h~;y 'ehen c.ba.rgtd to t'h:~ ,iita,gll! fi,~,i'~.ga:t )_I,aleolm with 'th~ PQH:o~ h;ui '~Tlrp~!¢ll(~d. bi. we~~ra.~ilr\g S1~eEd S]]001 faee, l'~V'@l'v,ef,a" ThQ:M.a1 atld.ed 'that bee ,also SfLW J'ulb.tlSi~\ll. :m~]:sks,as' '~n~t-ecti'fin, ~gablit his kal',a'~e 8U~'1:cks\.Before :standing tiu~al''UlQ s:ta,~~: li~ritb a 1~~1j,ve~-Qff ~hiQtglln i'n hig ']~e: w,a~ 811 bchJU~,(illl' thel;lJ~I,Hc¢ h~tl'!!dO'tlt chd:m~d,! B,utl€l\t' :~:ta.~dJ," ll~u;l,ci".~u:~k:e~l mask or ,o:~!eQQJ) with ;;, s.i;nglc tal"a'tft th~ 'T.h,Q'mas~' [C',:~tlm,Qny flteoo th~ 'prru;eeuUoH !3tJJiS:~~ l~tt~r'l(\;_hop;. Trun ~s, f~ it,Y' ~a.lG ISiiJ'OO}, ,ev:a;[[o([~at€idL

,~l~i~uJ't, 'the'b' Q'WH rela ~il ,e!Ve'n~~ 1n OI~d.0l" to lIl'OOS~nli''tr l~ pu bri.e, sC~JlIeZ'o~,t_3Ij'a.;~to be :tlou.nd 'who U could; b.s fY(:]jmlHd fol' tlu~;ln~J rd~r ,a~d,rn~d~ te s,'C~n~d, t~,~~l hlrem.'t
,~O'l!lb'~

,t"~·':"""·~ ~""'i'i t:'hlil', __ .;ler 1I'1teJic_e ..!I. :n'l,:l''' it!!.... mM..... ' fhe ,it' . 1 on.,.... Ot'll;i' would b~ al~m~tt:htS'j,:n~om,pe,l;enc~, and .'~Kb'~,sUr''ii!i~
.!<,t!gQJ J!.V,f, ~IOA~

IIi,i. - .

..

-

fOI1~ ..tJ:IJ, l~O:W and 'two men in the first l'l0W wh~, t}\e~il" :pi:::i'toJs injt~ 'M'tJilc~)1m as, lite 'feU t~ the sta~e. Th,er@ was Olfil~ l'WlY ,to. C'onch.JJs,i vely Idetei!f~,ine: t.he tlctu.;al n~n:nb~t· assassins. Peter IG hS$ re,p01"h~(l tM. the (lIE N.;Y., T'ime\8 on Feb. 2,5:\101965, '~~],~t ~jt;h.~p~Uoe i;N~'~ i:m ltOS$€S~JO:l of' :mQtil,)~'i. p[ctlu'e8 t!h:a't~ b~cll b€~n '~keu ar.t 't~e, A'!Udu'bo:~, ,Ba]]r,o-o. ~~~ wh~l'e .. the :kll]:hilK took '~',]aCJe.n ~,h@~~ film~ w01;D~.'.d,1fi~,ve b~en 1:n~V'all~~biel ~lf~,d!F;:nce----'blJlt the'r'e: has bsen no :ftn;;t'bei" ,men'ti.{J(ri fJfi 'tn.em, 'b,Y''pll:e~:~ ee po~,~c:e"The:y have d.l'{.ipped ~ut of 3tg~ttas sudd,elll'iy' OSJud t~'0'a:'o!:lgbly a~, th~,wys1:Jel'Y' l!!Il~S1p.eet~ I 'who may' wen h~~ a:m!eal~ed ~n. 'fil:le :ib:n ,S]OlllS" with bi~ fO~,E arU(j m-plice5 lIayer!'og ~rlJlilt w~s C'Oneh.lJsi've1y d'emO'.Ds'tr'tJj;t.ed ::lJ1't the tr.i'a]1! both tlu:o~,gh ~:v idi@li·e0 $u~h as h]~, t.huM.b~rj:ll:ts on tHe 1!'eInliru; '0:£ "th.e sm.'0ke-biilmib and 'tin'.Ough. l'e~ia'bl~ wUnes.s;es, who :id@'J'tU:Hea h'hlD; as .one Oil t~a ,lrlUlm~,. B:u,t tlJe ,e~se .Aa{s~s:tant D:[sb'i~t A:t:tO'l'Ue.y Vino@Ert D~r:~,~d:Y: pr~sen,ted a.g~:inst. B.uf]e:II" ,and JO'ihLl'1%o;n wu~nl i

l'I'O'!r;vGvler~ all '~'eUable, eyewibu!s's '@'v'[(l~~t~e:bul[~~'~~$, th~,t 4: men ,:ve'[:"e f!Jt.1;1] al~:y'j nvelved: Ollie 'w no ,(fa UiiOO 'tl~e d ]Vel'S~Q,:mL the ~,iddt]e of ,fl:'h!e, JJa'llI;~~'HilI,'!Il1cll, dild.tl.'~tP~l'_ iH < ucr:p~,t~ hl the ~lru:rQting'" anoUler """ 10 ftred a sihot,g!ln 1

~re(Ubly weak,

N·Q~:~t~itll ~~id~l,'ce; li:DK,e,IiHl, t'h,e.

t;) the .en:'i:m.e;, thei~

h~d aJ&'.'Qm~\~f1n'[eil· the ,ar[!'es:tiug' Om0E1!'tS ~v~,~ lid, th,~~f'hol,~:~tol'y as, n~Qmp]ete :£',a'bl'icatio(D"
neI1(n:·t~i'3
t\~hi(J'

to b,·i~l in

~lmDst &' year ,after 'M~.llQo]m~'~ m~vl~clle~~1 t'~~~llr'O~el1utJ.o:n ~on b~ndec] tha~t J8 ut).e 1" And, IH:iNye~.· had ,cteat~d the d,hi'~rsh~JiJ t]ffi,e Icellt~r O! the tu auci]i~In:[ll..uiia ~ wlvile, JO.lU18001 ftelJ~edJ :1\lI~lci;.bim'[ lvi'th ~. s.b~tgUll bl,~_5t. Butler ,a,n.d 11~jfEn'UlJe:n we~ ..er SI)JJPPO$~dJ 00 h~:'?'I~:r.urn, to~,,~a,li'd_sth~ sta,gf2·fili'iag ",vltb 'p:[s!lo]s at ID,[al", OO~n:l'iS 'Ilr'~ne body
i,

'\iIfl:l:@D .H~tfi@J.'.i' Jon:nS01D. !~ul!~l :ui;]el" 'wel'e. in.aII;y bt~a'l1,gh.t ~
t~U[l~~l·.Y~, ~1 19~

who ~Ue.~ded t'b.e:t,;daJ ~lany f'Ol<' 'Sj~l w~el[$; tba't h:is~ 't:L!~ti.,~ 'mnn:v' 'W'8IS~i mI j n ti!1ll'nil;lg 'the j 1II1'Y '~I',&i'Ds't Blllrt'l..e;r and. IJ o llimo'n. (Thej I,H',y 'ffitse1:t rt~\"¢.l' 'tOQlk. nO'~~>$~, 3n(1, ~.~ ,the tl',~\%I,'s 5e~iJlgfy hl.te(r,mlna~']e evilile~'~e! dJl~ol1.1ed '@ti, aeV\ .., m',~[ 'nlamb,t!ts Ci))uld b~ g,ee:11. dozjng' i:~ tbe $'~n'Y bo:x.) 'lkO'n13Sr~ .awn l'Q]e ];1:1 'e:v'ents 'was l'8.'t;her eh;nu:1JedJ.' As mIte of Mah~olm~'s b:(}dr,~t]~l'ds,1t ""V~'I!~, duty to 'p';t'Cl1ted h'i.$ his ]ea~l~r.tslife ,lj,Ii.tn his own 'i:E' necess:al'!',r,. Ihl'tJ.! as 'the ,PtJ'8t l'@j).o:rrlieGll,001 Jan,1!l~J·'y 27'~ 196tl~: '!I;lEn~ b~d not '1O~eti1'the, rQl'e of ttle, hef~1 'on th~ da,
ill

perfecU:v:, sud veoora.1'.l

tl''ia'~ l'~]lnil'~eTh'~ 'tll!is 3J,ut'ih.'Qil"", toM

;,1

1l"ItQ! 1 1tIt ••

trtI{p.:llwww ..ap..clreal ist t
llj..lE IFt~LS,T ARt1MIVE PRnJEc,l'

J

Tne REAUST [Iissue. NllJmnoor73, - lFebh, 'nUll - Page '~9
~a:n~ 01:'ihl~enllire ~~e fOLlndl at: htl\P:fIwww.l!;!p.t~l~[~U13.

oft-he ~l~.yh~.S". '. " He 'l1~(lb~ell str,al!1g~f:a.11~· ~ 'p]~ed: in tIlle: Au,dj'libCtn. B,iliI "roor.ii~, ~;n.d by lri:s ~wn' ~dJiLIb.~~8[Q~, ~Ji'm'f;;fd '\11rith a( .357 :MalJnum, pis:tO'i. ,He- tesHOeti tl~~d ,he b~ besn eal'ry]'~g a gun $h~~ehe wa,$ 15,.•• i. But tl1.lii!:, ~iti~~ rOl!l.'!itd orE l"FL],[d fin~! had, S!em;t: ]idm ;SCUl"l:,y.ing' :f~k" iC~OVe([' ull,delE' the table, "r. ~ -1~1Tl@(pe~ iaJL,B a number o~' .inJ,oor~,~till~r i~~~, to Cary 'T'hteUiUtg" 'tesUm,o<n~r, IflQir one thl'i:lg" i~; U'Dle M:ra a;f"~r fhe S11ooth],gbe ne¥e:l' me.nti~n~~, 'to- 'Mt'll(l.Q]ln1.~S w]clo\~ '~lr any' o Ui,el' 0:£ ,MjjlJ(~Ji1h'll~~~ fdelii,~l~, and ;a$soci~tte;s' with. who~. he was hl elese c.o'ut~u:::t. 't}'u~1t. ~,~, ha'idl ~~n ,aU Ul€J
. .

:~emO've.t]
chased

'ttJ! SI~l) the 'two· me.f]j~ E t~'t'[.erpo:[ntled at biro and lu1!~ fell to 'the floor,.

h:i,!!l:Rj;~to'~.

Su.it b~ $a u~' ,~ man ~~I!OQkiIlg' s.ta;rtied,

_.-

that hi;'3 sto.~·y be!rtil.n tOtj'~~li2 ;slta'~i. . If'Or ~ nf5ttl:t lvH~~~$,'J T~1Qm~'ul' iI)];Y;[iL ba(~g'rD~,nd 'b~u>d~Jr induces f:'l itt:h in :h1:S ve:t'ae:it!ll.. . T1b}e de.felm.se attefrlI~ted 1(0 intreduee into t~t:Jm.on,. a t1~..vchi,~ttd~ \~rerlE}~.·t 1~:'!l)'m l~~Ue'~ nn 1lbomas, 1!,'Y~ 0 ue :~:a(] been b<i~'l~ita]h~ecln ,m fD 63 a:~nl:er he ran 'Uri [·ougb t:hJe i

assasslns f;le!11~b';u,d could i~@lIilti'fy th Q!!un,. It '~v~~ ii1hll~y aflle.'l~ ~(s:u:e'h2nd.! when he "Fa.s, :t,n~~~'~~dy the P[j;U~~ b

or' :frir'~:~ell!ed, l"h.eli then tlJJ1~lfied end T·tur~, i~mlJitQthe Lad i¢s~ LfH~t1a:'¢. lit i(i,@ll ttm~d this JJiIJUil ,~u~ ehnson, (Why'.!' in the mf'berlua.t.'h J i®cr a Sl1JOtllti'IIg 't~~.t had th ~~fj':VTlj th~1 ,~]lJrt,h,~ebu.Ur.'Oo~ttlU'tO :hy~,'{wriai' :h{!: 'w('.!u]d~~l'tQllto ·liJI,oti.l~el .3. man who ap,p,eiIl'ed. ~'~,8:ta m:'Ue!!t 0]' r~ig]~te[jj.,ed W£IIs neve\' llitough'~ eut.) W]'tb '~!11 i.nor Vli!;rilll:tJ.ilJl!lS" :H~,a.ekweU'!:5Sstory eehe eel the '~~est'mo'n," of •. ~ti!l:¥- wif:.nes:s,J~· Ca Jry T[~Oin;j!a8" ;;lUld h i9l gen,i L ~lr~J dem~a:ni(n' tll'!!d, l~];ij, calm, $,irl!ce:re voice f,3."io7·ol':ahly il1],p'['ei5s1e~1 tJ~i! 'C~lI 11"t Bu t 'CbmJ."l,~s :B'ltl}!f.'ik,\"~U i',_@ :llu~telr' ~v,a$ [llll.icldy ta..l'nisrD)!d. 11;. 'w,a$ l::ev~,~,'I~d th~"t ~:n his Cl',a.ncl Jury te~Ul)ljjO'ny Ol~, }[al':r~h ;l\ JL~ 65 hie too had toUt ,g totn~b dJf['~n~'!lt '~~'t, ~ ThMH"1! h,~ te~:rtii'fied th~~,'t »~IY~il" !l.lul .MnMel' w~r.e sittln'g
~,! i~

"rhen, t~C'1 b]l',~ed to ne~.. B]ac'kwen tes'Hliel1" 'he. owf:re:r. theIn, a.~,d as he !r.~.n,i$ow}'t tm"te, ~.ij~l~ pl,U-~b~

Jesu~ (j1ujst~ ill dlid Mt kill. ~1I'~su~Ckl,~i.s't l" Tlile· jud.ge ~'efiJse~leo :adm,it the
sb~~etl'!l l'!:~"i@t1!'min.g:
i'fi[

d.il(1 '~ciI1t kill

B,[I.t !iIJ:t the' 1tDd·£d h~ g,~''W@1 a tl:l!t~l]~~] 'a.:n1.111 g·,~~'lti .. d~d e SCJL'ipti1JU nt' lI.ayer, and :13UU~l· ~~'t~imlr[]J tr~i']leu "~ntc!i; l1IJg '~}~e :ffill€i~t, t::(ri'i1,l!.~~~'"\~Pt~Ghl\[«l de1'~Jl15e· t1!J'ttorneys 'Gltd i:bQt M~~~c:r~l~~. T1m.~ 0])]~y l]~ of' h i8' G:I.'aJ'id] J U 1':/' 'tes!tim0'~l ~ rt ~.mPl'~15~. pen t'h~ jUl'j)FS) 'wag the p~im 1lar ,g,enesis, of u wldcb h~ l.~epea t_,ad 'in- the ,com:"b~o-o;rn 'w:ia '1119 id.e'llti fi.~·~ :~ IS te~t.i,monr" \'Vl,~n j]@: iAils.t.it.1r@d; b~:for~ th~ Grund J[I.ry 'ti'rJ(fi 'Of .r9'J~rl~,(:I!pf~1S 'UH,'!l ~1.~;t~'i?tled"l';igh:tened m~,fl'~' f who 'Urull(t fil'~.t i::I]Jd[e'ted. 'the three d~·f·er..iat:b in M~I.~h, ~'~lI'il5~, bad flecll. lneo tbe p~wd~l" room. he ~,l:d an €nrtil"~]Y d[ffi$I"G]Wt stm"Y. ,\,r~lelt;1. tra;p~'ed in hia, cOllltt·,ad[ctbil·Y test,:inlOn~~j:Bttic:k= At the '~rh"J;l in., J~n1!il"'l'Y" ],'SrS6, he t~tj :led, ·t..bat lia"yel~ 'w'e~~, tFi,~ul to J ~t'$'trfy h.is l)~tJ~.l"jl~ b@fol,~~th,~ Git a nril. atl!ti B'WItle:r eaused ~he dj'v,el·s.],Q,n~, whUe JQ.'h'~~r;Xi'l f red JllU~Jl {Jill;!: 'i;1'as; he "sa i.d 1[.eU]ug" t:h,e 'tl:llt.h. at: Ehe" ~l'.ia]) ~OIl '!the S:htoit\g'lUl". a,u.t in i~, '!(arUer GI~lld J1.II1"1 ·t-eStim:ODY 't}a¢ gr,CiliiirMS 't~at he had. Inil;ot 'lt~a,ilted adn'l,it; thalt Bld~t ~e ,gW'Ql~~ u.11de(l' ~J8J.tht'brat J,ob.n£tl?t. ,a~.d,D~tl~t .(~alUi~~d ,a,lI1I.C]:lI~yerh:a.d 'b',*,en. s itHng l!'ig~.'t beside him ~V1d l1e tihe dj ve~~~i.rxr'i,~ whi'I,~ H f)..1J1.P" 'fq'l~ed 'the slito.t,gnn. T.l]r~sfl,t;ted U:t~ld tb~;n£ nothing t!V ,S'W]) th~m. the earJy p-GlJ:i.~~ 'vers.i on acrf th.. m.lJj'rd~:r',. e ~~ 'W~~ ~Sll,:~U:l1oo S~~Y':1 'jl~ft my pil)~t,/tBl.a>G'kweU I to But a.fter Uae .4i ~btfl1ets hI! :ij"a:Y',el':'s l){i!~ket were t~'aee~, go:dtl~ ,';j':rn)(~ 'that. ill '!;¥eu:t to 'th,e, nom: '~/'he]1 [Biu:Ueilf ] t~ o(jrfi,e of the rnurdQr 'l/X'I'Ul'PQHS 'Ud~ ~tQ.]fy h~lJdtL) ,chalilg'e:. 'vo:tnt~cl 'h~!li gu.]U mit 'm~. 1 d~dn~'t nt ,a~~J'One ·t0knaw .'" W~ S1@,JfOhliLS;O~. bOC'a::fll~ 'thee ,!:dll;CJtgu JI1=wield,el' ,~n'l.ldJ :I~la.~y.· wa$ 'VI1,e'ltiI, e was ,alSked, h? he. .lllad Heel i1n h is, Grand IJury h sbQv~ ba~]k inw 'the lIl:!JdJ)~:H(;e it'h Bl~U~l",. eary W te;.5thnO'.lll;~f':~ Bbt'Ckw!1U l~~pU¢d!~, I'~y I iUd/" f1~!, Thoma'S, 'wU~ingly ~wi tdteclJ !rtm:i .. s~ perl"j"u.lJl'ifng' h:i.m!Ndf e Th.. j iiU'Y ~ ~d, ~t best !l diC!,i:ee ,o-f 'pe['j)u:ies, but f'll)'~ E 'lllll tlie prt)c~~., smne ml'Cat]le, l'ea-8O'~ :!]1~armlU~{ll!(,}li!~ to bGUev,~ th~ 1t c (The hold. tbi~ p()'lic~: h~cd ~V!l!il' Th_O~~3 'I;~j~~ ~o~~~1·1tlt B'la,e;k,~t~U l'Va~s teJ~ ~.n~ 1i!J:~, 'itrl:l'th i:EiL .l:~ ~:IOU: t~~tJ~(fj!IJ t~:.st:ii~ ... '\t\~hjJ(I:be. 'Wiil5 iu iU~Uy 'held 3$ a, m~:ler]~l wi:tne',S,9. ,to 't~u~ IDOJbY,;, Vetell'a:rrl cFtm,e reporters at 1th,e 1!.r]~l t'Q\I.d me 'tj~a t, S'~'lOot..l.nff h~ W~3 p]ai;)~d hi ~Jhnon:y' j,~nj ~ rl~]a~·(u:l,D5U""" n.@xt to >Gary iJhO'm~s~ lBha~w'eU ~s, te~.'timon.Y wa:s U~,'e' 1:ae:ks--s:tjl1e de~ew.11i.iQrJ:l e!ente:t:", Ut1t in J't,nle'~, 196,~ .he ap-' moot, impoli'hlrut f~cor in SW]:Il,ri]~cg'the j'lla'Y ,ag,aiilll!s:t pUliZd, i(lfi" rtl,~a~~. Tbil!' Po.Ue-rE'prolnpUy' aC~:Vla~d. IlJ'i:m, 0:£' Bu'fuh1!I' fLnd ,rT'oibrnmm •. • ", ". 'I!. 'l ' ... i~ ~·1 .'1' '16. !C'Om;nu.UHlIg· :3..l"SOilil.WJillhe ln~II;';!l1: a: nno~y J;al ~ ~'il'in n~. w,n ' Irt'h.e IGJrth;~t th:rer2 wit~"le~se~ who :icl!~~'ti:ied J~'hr:i:s.~, b~1!:l"Iisd?eli't"~(lto a :1·'~J..rl!illa;l" Wi~.·'iS'()n, Aft~li th~ t ':h,e; c:a1J sed 3.1'lld the ,I]~le 'who hl,en tined E uUe1' we1.·;e E!i\I'"@.]f[ ]~S be""
l' J

.tepOl"t 'iu:tQ evi'~e~lie@, • By his ir;jtwnaa m'i~~:i)~n,'1~hQ'm~3'h~Jdl been :a 1~{!'rO'~n .. ,~tJldjct and, at a time be '\',~H~ supposed to be ~ 111Je1lnber .of the 'r~.gidly p~l.·i:~~Hfd(!,:~,l J31~!(l;k. ~i.UiSl ims, ~n. Ul!C'OJ10l'iC., Thl~' most i'l1ttel'Mc1t;~ ng 'b~fdng abo~.t Ttlil:.1nil!a~t,v-}].lch

:dJ'i,~ttll'b~YIlCli! in t'he rniddh~ ~d .the bal I~'OQm1 ,ii!leoi.'theF' of' W'ho~. 'h'e f101!iIJ]t1. lrd.entif·y. Ile ~]d, the Gr~;ltd Jl.'U;'Y UI-n:t he @Jnd 'lrl~:v~rseen ;a]i\y{n~~ ~haoU;rj]~r,at iltllybod,y-, •
tl~~

~~~t~.ie, f't.·olU't l~ffi~~ "llou'ld

tbrn_t

b"t0 other

.mum ~u~.d£rentedJ

A:

t1'~: '!'Did

"I'N 0;,

'I d'itln 't,

~~l

:s,e~ ~nyb(u;ly
]'!

[IN ,8. glUl.

~,j~

'w,

11.,.

witli1~~:t'l:~~' ~.g~dn~;tButlcr mm" ,JOIU]So.ll.) The Ol:a;]y o:thel' ,~,itJl~~:$ t,Q id~~tify gwll th~~@' e~·d~.. fe~,dJant' ,~3 :beil:liB' i~vo;l,vG!d 'l~~ ~Cba rles BL;jL,clk.W'ell, ~tnd 'h~ t()~ g,a lUil en:tftl,e;ly ,~~i,~eFen ~'OO;i,'Ybl ttn:~ Grand v~ t. ,J'!,U",f·, 'Like Tboma3" B]tIie.kwle~[ W8lS one 0:£: M'all~o:hn~~ hody'gtUll~(ls. He ,~as, ~;~aHOlled ~t ~h0 ]~f't,,;hilnd ~id.~ 'O;f
~(s1:~l"

HO

~nOl'~

h:oullJ,e~ ,and w U~jngo1y 'I~,]aj:~edo1!,l~ his; l'(l·l~,fl.$:

j

~nd n,ut]¢'l~' st~rted t'h~ 'b a 1['1room $!l.·U'U! l-"$JlllliO!= ..JII .. . i '~~l:iL1$. hi'm 'lUJ',irrg ~:t Mi~.1!C011m. FIe 'cb,em l1e<~,~d a :Ehotg~n bIa~t l'igh,t; ~'lI!]]jnd] la.lrn hut ..rl if! m2lt ~E'!le\1/ ho ·fiI'ec;]. it.. As
~OUl"t "~'h3'~H~yel" IU..:iI 1] f" .tR @: 'l'I!]'vem'S)i01}:}]]lw~~~ Bih.1I (:.!Jl! 0' Jl~
~I' • •

much a 'If,st~'1r~'Wlt~\,~S~~~'a~ C~:~'Y' i'iJ~0l1:1MS,. JI~ f"o]![o.\!I·eaJ thtt In"()~~cu.ti .. versl:o!n. of ey,en Ea, :ri.F:bt, dOl'orn th.e H:ne~ :a:nd COft~ Q(()'l v,~~",eda<n Lm':t'fii!J~:sion ·of qll ~:et ]~lt~gil·Jjty~
b!!!j 1l1~
,!);5

the :~t:~;~ge w'Den the sn.o.Q,tjng' ·be,g,a,]l. EniSC'kv.~ie~l a·t first g,alfoe srg:li~1 :of

He t~'~d the

;I:'\l."

de.femse a.ttm:ne:Y5~ Ch~n··Ir!~·T., B'~~Ue'l"~1' :a~ tih,~, d¢f~Uve n(.l d ~'~ve h 1m to B,~llervd.,~ lKos·[pi.ta:l tQ hlen:tj,('y th.e! 'I/\'ouli:l.dooHa}~~I'.Evgn ,a:fWl;'" is ;miistn'k:e liIr;,r~3 !,)o,j'nteo@J b aU t to 'h 1)J1. .00 eonft.i.nued to ]na,[s~ 'th~'t his b1re][)rti:~eat]f)n. 'W,flS con·oot., F'rum t:hefl on 11Le'Coll:b'aql'i.crod 'blrn!)@lf on ~vtyry' in~j.~'~,· 'poi:n it; ~,f b is ~;ttj'mo][Y', fI,{)tm(ie'l.'1'ng pa th~, eti .. call,Y ]:0 tbe '~I'i~ness l)o:x,. Th~ C(ilJai~Gl1SUS o:f Ut~.Jt;r:i~i
"~f

'wo!lxe~'i dr~mati~a]]y ]e~f'tthe· ~L'utdJ to· Jiiolnt ,i:l'liii. ]i.he'll.tU'y .. ir.lg ~,~lg.el." ~:t. Norman B'1lll:(!l\ li~l:lldJ! ,BO~Ql'd i:ng tltiJ 'D,~t p lnaio d.eiillt~ly; ib@:!Ml o,n~ of' t~~ ,~fS~ss;iJls., DeP ~,na,'W3;S 'a ~ignifled, ftncl goml~nabn·e~ !Q]dm~u:J and ]'I'is tesHm.o]1Y' ,~d~'0 rs t $r~rpoo'~:ed hnp)r~s.fd:v€~,E,ut )i!Dt :f'OI:' long., 'Und~l' ~l'f.)SS~ifi!i~~'mi]1adOin. f:i:l'f~~Y ]de,n.Ur.~ed (kne' 0'( ·tJl1fJ he
I

3:tlrd. mo:~'e oot'i:tr~d~if!';Jtoty-t}ruan the t-"r>f.!l) ~jlst~r 'l"/f~neiSses~~ e~ry T~iOnu.tf5IlI~d Ch$u:,les Bt8!ckweU~ A. cas~ il:l.:rpoint: Ed,w~nl D[Phla~ ,a 7~)~y~a.li'-ol.QJI(Hj(l,'" H

]'i e'vab]e

.FebrLilQry 'I "7
THE 1R!~IS,T ,ARC,HNE'IPROJlifrr

h1l P:llwww.elp~ tc/treal ist
1

"

The AEAUST l'ssue Number 7S, - Feb.,119B? - Page 20
~n:s
;r;rl: 1h~!!ijriTf nil ~~e

found al: hlttp:/lrHww.iIi!p.'llt::frealE:litl13,

kn.ife from 111',l'oek,et ~ts ]ong blade 8ilif'li'tlil ~ brightly, The: o[~l ll'li:UU, was so Il~,c'a.sed l~ iU'Q lduuielf that' be J ufige ~ll'i nl't ha "Ire the healrt ~Q even ~·ep':l"i;lJ;Uuld. him.,. ~ UeP ina was an ~.He:1!IJ~ g']l1BJ'Ily from l=>or u,g~I's C pa ,o~·i Verde Islands, and. he tl!SUfied. that be :had. joh:uilJd ll.d~ colIn's OAAU ,j~lan dTor1t to g,et' @!unpr!:1 mon.ey to retum h;cJrnre" He received no &.r~,ar.H;dng from 1VIa]oo,Em's group lnlt he bC:J~s1D~~otIJ. 't'~'Ui1l wltness !Sh:tnd, '~ha.'t ~~rm, g.o,inlt baek :1I~J(m now." 'Tbe more taJ1Ji,e:d l"el)OJi't:eI"S as, umed tb.a.t the n,A 'h~1dpromised him rt:bu'h fal~ ~f be 'Uc.o<operRted~i II, :his test;IDmO'ny~ 'If ~o], A 1?,et·,n1o.~~ 'mu~t D have wanted his mOoney back a:ftemr tlgn'les~ tl1,e old man made of th'hlg~. A 1~lCither t:n;),i~aJ witnese 'Wa~ V~l!'I~a] Tempi,e~ a '23~ :vear-old (U~lHvashe:f 'Vlh.O 'identifi@d B.,ut]~ .and.• Jehmmn ~s 'ElY,O, 'Oif t}u~ M8.a5si.u:s" It.c ~a:~clJhe batt 'W hi rb~!d 11Q fa~ '~he 'men :rft.e[r' he heard SllOts, somewhere b~ihi.n.d.b hID,.,He. 5u{fe'i,·e~1 'froM an ea ~~~~Ih~um ,der,eC'~, tlUL't had impai~~d, his hea m.·:i og si ]lee the lag,e of two; be had g,re.a,t tl'DuJb;,le, 1'Le;n'i,~gtile qu@:st]ons oj .atoo~'ne',·,~ ~sta:ndlMg a fC"\rv feet sW'at .f~'om him, Bu t~h.;e ,said,. his Jim,eari had baet'l ,PerI~g feet on the day ,C)f' the iiss,assb:l ... ~UQn. He was, able to ld¢i~;Ufy J OhJ:lSlOR, he tes Ufie:d" because he h~d ~:~e'rnh-im once beiore in 19-6,2.at a 1\if'u.slim. 00.1.= lN~~tiotli.in Oirieagol' He eo't1ld.:n't ~:efm'emh~l'a;m:1ytbiR8 e'I~~: abo;ll!lt the ~Olil.v~nU'o]'l-;\,"hel"e he Istal~@dwnat lids bus 'tr.Ill1~ W';\"S' even 'Um name .of f< friend, of bi s who 'I.o.al@~d :hi'fi] the bt]s, :f'~'re,. E;'WL1t 'Jm,~ od~ml':IY' r,;·pe~.be.]f.edJ .rQhn$~n, whmll he ,h~a.d $Ct'J2 olily (l,nee 4: yea.l·s befw'e, bJ ~ ICll'O"'wd~d a\ud.i'tori UJlMfl!, ''i!HJless~s ]ik.e 1fhom~sJ Bla c];f,,,;v , DePina ell and T.enl~ pl,e COlll~d 'have b~~in s]mdled. to ribbons 'by .any' fu$t ... y~a.:r ]a ~~ s'tuden:t. Bl~ J iOhn~Qn if:~nd B t~U~r'!iS ,cniU \3Il,PO(m nied t r-t ~"de:r'ense~j ttt;!il:·]le.yS~, "-'!JJtter a :fe,!;!' tepi¢l :fol'ay!S,~ ~dlW.a;yS ~ Jet theoi1 atr Uae hook. One u ~rtUSlud asp~e:t ot. t'h,~ h'i;al was the ]utrod uet 1(J'n of' h-!Co ~~$-eel:"e.t; witlli1e!Hj.es.~1 During tJJ~[r h1StimmlJ!'I' S'llectators and Pl'®SS ,alIke w'~re htJ,rl~ed 'from the C(jud~Jl

a k~,ljf..e he had used, H~ t-'iioll.ght. a ffium-arnl ebviou~dy ec;.lduiS,~d. and then smiled br ightly. ~1I'rIus:t a. seeOlld~ I' ll shew r\ID;~/1 be :s,~dda,~J] p,~d]e~a hea \f ¥ CI~sl;)

'(\\Ie W~~t·~ all a bit gl'at~f'l![l to. DePh~.am ]1towev@l' :for ~ddj [ig the 'B,ola now of h ~Emor. '~O the ~1JirO'~e~clI B ng:s. A~ one $Iu:int, w hen it 'was. brou gb:t 01J.:lt: b,),,'the dlefen~e that he ]i-ad been arrested S'O<J]l€l:ti-mlt ( ,~:] fOl' knifing' a WODl~ liID. in lt~l\,d~ te New Y ork, 'DaP ina '1Na~ ,aake~l wha:t k ind

nA ~,secaehi

1IeltOl"ters

'W',9JS tha

t ,senUlty had tt"i um,ph€d

ov,~r tb~

~mong b:isJ r-ep.o:r~.ei's th;a,t ~~Timber1a.b~' was in, ~~tu..
a litoy :BJ;I'I 'Il!tl]Mi.'&)i~el"

r.I,g.

of

1'hc nature :Q':IU],il:\'t,lV'Q 111eltiS testl]:llm1Y~, b~,:y\~ndthe falot tn..'1,t 'it 'was dl~t.L·il'neut~[to de£'eudan:t Butler, has ne\1~l" ~m:~n made pubnc~ in the b~5t tradition of '·Stlltr. elta mber" iPfro-e~ed i.nga." Bil~tIer ~~ 'gUM in his d~f~li:S~ that be 'Imd been. a:t homa 'the R'f'wl'noon ,of the ,as!1.i!a$Sin~.tjolll suffering flL'O:Fl'l an l d fl~'lJm.ed v,ed fI. il1ll 'h:i$ ltight leg, !h;·. Ken.netJ1iJ S-eslo,VI~-of Ja.eobi Ho~pitaJ in th,~, Bl"'Ol;JR testified t~·~t UiF.!' morn ~,ng 0'1 the. -assas~iflatio,n. ,BuUel" h",d be~l1, 'treated at ths hosp{i.~11 fo.:~' "a SWfP@l·fidl;l~~.bJ!'.om~bo~~~t bit:i3~'~ a painfrrl ]n:U!ctiO:lJL '\~,'hi,eh nu,kes waUd:ng d~m,,, cult .. "I r,a've hhn b~d~~ and a shot ,of 11uHl~ei:lliD'j!n D f. Se::dove mEd Mle eOJI.u:-tJ Hand told him .to. keep. his, :Ieg e~,e}'-a:t.@'{L1m BuJ'Je;r.' I~ett 'tM ho.s:f)it~1 iSholl'Uy Mfo,re l :00., p.l'll.!, {i,!MLd ~~t~rnedJ hO):l)e..T~fJ wUnMses, ldaoed ITi~ hi his ho.u,se . at the of the mu rdear.. :l'k7rs, Gk!tl~i3 'WUts said :sbe telephoned B,ut]eJ1'~~hQm,@' m,h1J'~It:e_s after ~,h.e ,h:e:~l~d Q radio ·olldh'.Lhl Ulft't ,MaJeohn had been killed and he anIs.w~redl th.e pbon.e. M~r~., Juantta (~ililm a]!$o 't~]fie4

l'he second ·secret wrtness'' was named Sullivau, He, is an, F HI .ag~IIJt.

police ~RC!ld.

_

:tmle

l

t~king' care. of J',to,usehold chores the enU re. d~y.~ A neiIJ~bo(['j 'EdVt~l~d!:LC)~I te~tUied tbat he v'ieHed ,John~o.;nh~ ~ljS a;pa~l"tm.en,t ~:rQ~n~ 3, :30 in 'Ute ,a,nerJJLoon~ ]~ss 1110:r1), o.f. Ear'l G·l"e@·n:e,u e.ye~·w~'lne~.e 'the ;3!SBJ3Is,S,lna,a to U<Hl", Thc~ 'pl'\()secutio:n cb(.IJ,rgeQ 'th:d J,ohnson b.,ad fir@d th!e s~,'!IJil,~",<ofl ,sijQ'tg'IU'!L ~t MaliQQJm~ but G~·eene. testified U'La ·the, man w'h.,o ,~'ie'lded 'tle slt\otgo in was I~Vie.l~Y t ,stout, V",el~Ydark~, and h,a,d! a :h_,ea,vy beard;,1:!' (,JohES"on ~$ s,1end,er, d!~an-~ha veu Ught~blnU!d :and .of mecl!hJ.m nmglut.)
1

eelm was kU]ed, ~nDd~pok.e, to Butler. _ Hia Clflli'11' 'Q:'l1rL,e:rwj:tne " lV.a;S h@s w'if~, T'herns:a~ l'¥,ho s:31irJ, he eame bOM!! ~ro'IJlnd ]. :00 p.m. and l~,y dOl~WD to I'''e~t hj~ bad le.]I. She ,S'\\lo\l'~ he ~r1,'everI,ef, t.be bouS'e t:h~t : tt~y,., (In uun-d@l~r b'i~liS UlLe:te~U!l1lQJIJr of a de(ifen~a.n:t~'~ 'wife and. immedh;JJ.te f,ami~1 i{~ ~Jmo,~jE au tomat;~~ dls1'eg~l~ded.) Io.hnJt~o:a1.'$ (a.~ft~),Be' e]ahn@~;l that he had. heen 'horne,

that

sh'@ ~a]]edl s:.tu~rtJl.y' ~'f'teil' :3 :,0.0 ~""m 'the ttmc ~fal',.

ny

hoo

than :20 lui nutes after :M.ab~qbIl, had been shot. Jobn~~ll'!S, d,eufe!l!u:u~ 'WEiS ~:ds>o Sil:lc~PQ,iI1'ted by the

h~.t]-,

5

Geol'g,e Harne .. l'e'p.o:rted in ih . .A ~ter.d(M,n, ,NtJ"lOti , on. F@br~lar.Y 12~ 19lUt, Untit t:h.e h ~ar]ng of secret 'witnes:lIO(ts ~I,t U~.e:tl~];jb'1 ~'~ma!k;ed.the 'fh'st ii'emenl'blli:l~d 't~me whem ~ ~m:-h ~ Sit~p Ju~d b¢·~~'n...]UHIi 1.n. :l!1 hornic]me ]11 t.be 26~ t1 . ,e:lr.'~old Crimju3l1 Courts b~;tj['d'[Dlg ,:ll"t 100 Ce~l'te'i:' Street,. AiI!ld ou]y "one o;lhe'l~ ~lJuh exdnsiofll could be recaUed th'~fe .fOlf' .an~' otb,er 't)'PE1!' tria'l: th~ lUck@'y J'!2U;;;'e,",P~'t of \Vard vice bCjj1dng l'5ev~l'~l :yeal'S ,8\gb. ~ (At the ,J>e~1oo h'; 81 the l~reS:9 .'!I'lld pub] lC weJ:'0 ban'e~ '\'1,1h@in the :r.1I,an.~e of :a. high "W~sb:iington, 'o,fflcia,1 '~fas .abont to he. e'Btered ~nto ~1i.f.i.dlffnce,.)

:r.o{)·m.

Gl"e~J] had 'been, 'sHUnS" on the l·lf,8'ht-.JliJJ!.d, ,side 'Oil 'the: bdb"Oom when he S,~'\V' 'thit$· stou,~, dtl.rk~sldllnedl m~n '\]I,riU~ 8. b~9.'rd fi~'e aft M'ale.olm. II]s t~Umony W'~S pat'e t:i(;u iarty. Fmpl~esi lI'e---eKc,ept tu t.he: j Ill:·,y~be.cau-se ,as a ~uppo.rtel· o'f Male(lli~,~ 'h~, was, host.ne to t.he lliiJs[ims, ~,rJ;~ ""~H~u nHkely' to 'have pel"j"ttre:d 'hitl1i!l5eJf on J o'hnsO'I'1.'s,
I

I su bSe~tUIm Uy learned. the nal'nG of tth2 \\"it~~!ft$ses,
The
C],6S~ trOlLrd

.&\\ 0.

mys el'Y

Bu t the s'h'oiFI.g\esft. w'lbl!e;:;5 fo.1" B Ilth~'r :and JohnS-tOOl '[heir 'ClJI-defe]!u]J(:lnt, 'f~]m"ul" H~,yel'; Om Fe:b""m~, a8t 19~i 1L1,YE:r 'took tlbe "ldtJJJJe;Sg .5uu\dl "'l'l]d in a dra·,nla'tie lnove fQ)ilJf'~se.d h:1,ijguil.t and. a,bso]vedl BLU,Ue~;,Ilitld . ,JO]'ID "Ol!1!. 'Orr any invol'!l~m,ell~ i~ the fITlltl-.cllel:' .. }la,Yer- 'told. a St.tHll1cd CQ\U·tl"QQJIfil he 'Jt~d ~I.dectded to. b!!l~ the tnttb'J~ aftel' a b:r~t!f OOnVel'iS~t:Uon wi,tb hi5 tWQ ,tQ-clJefenda,nt:s, in the ~jbul[-·peitll' a,d.jacen.t ' ..' the court.. l~OgDl. "rT hej' ~aid i.t was ,a,hon t time/~' Hay;e'l" !l.uotoo tbe '~WO me'11 as ten ing" hi m.. uvre .'"\01'e '\VOnd'~i·h"jter when you
'VI"oas, \!fel"e gOi[n,g

beladf.

i.ty,. The 'fA pcu·.'5(lnUe~, omte ~ave~ no such e.mp,[oyee' lis:t~rJ o.n ta'i(~if l'eC:Ql~dJ:!ll~ sUJbstllJl')tia;ting speC:!ldation
211)

:~]f.trt was: R.o'll~.h~ T'[m'b<er]a"kE:!. ,~Uilil he to~,d t'h~ . ;n,c, "j,ras "1)1 eml)loyee' of the T:r.~n -it Author=

t:mlJf(~5~, :~~le repli!ed si'mp'ly'; U! j'1jst '\vant t.he, tr~~U9, to' 'be lkm.:OwR==that B~ir_l,e}" .~ftLd Johnson d.idn~t l'unr@~Ulythi,ng 'ttl do '~N,ith Uti:s crhue. BeeaiU,~e was t;betC', l knew wh~t I h~.J~P~llOO and I kllOW the :~eO'[J]e who "",,'ere t:he;Jte.'J

to. dJo thi:s }', "rlten n~j udr:e .asked IfaYier why 'he. had deei dlec1J to ~

T,!Ul1t

I•• nst

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~an~

.m: ilrnl~ enUre
twisted

~~aYe fOLrnd at: hil1;p~f/w!uw"l!;!p ..b~_f~l[~iI:I73,

A~cordhlg to t:;hle' Ti1J}~ 'Of :MXlil~e'~l:s~~, "~J'\'f'l'" ,j~$a;ttl H he h~d ~u~d three f!JC'Oo.mpnees, but: he declined! to Ila.:me them, FI'e s~ddl h~ h~d ~~iIl. '~PJ#l~~o<~e~r:d,e~fdy in t][~
'iifIffI,1"i/iI

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1 ,'d,-· DiUJ it" el

'I _.::J ,# -."'d!BJll'!JLOijJl.,eH~ -Dil@Jle.y Jl()l
c", _. ~
0

;il,_bll;i,n~

j:to J,(rU:~

knew, lLe s~:ddj 'WalS that ~n,~ ene in,v:01vi~tl hi the ~lr!::tle:-t
'It''aiS

but,

]le

deel ined -to
" -, -'-

;:l-~

try wilo:m" .. ~ " OOJe thill:g' :he did "

'U.n'l ~k,e ,the' PN~o1!1'ti{j!n '(':O-U'f,Ol'm. to, it-s OWliL tl1,e~is~ Iia:yers ,~~cI·,i::pti.'!!ln. Qf' UU~:mU rde:t" i~ :iUJi[y ,cO:I1;s,~n'Q~n,twith th~ i.arcts, as reIm.rted by 's:ye."W]tnesses
B'ffii!~t}thlg"

par:t bt ·the actuatl

evidence. ,to

C:i1,~tti.'ce: [a &lfea~.

'I,'~1 UJ:a.!.! 1...," 'Ib" 'd t...,,,, - ',-' "-, ' H R} el ],.'f.!£V'e~_ .!!u -1''10, -,. ue: J!~a:.. ,uee-r.w. IU"Qml;&e• ~;- d i;!O -O'O-"IIi, .t'", ' "f'(;ii'-' '!J' lbD([ '~h~ job 'by ,a, go~··b~lw~~j]~fiio Q]l[oa~beclJ ,bi'm. bu H~'[,~~ ]_em'~and "was n~t a, Muslim" ~i' 'Wh~'1ll Assis,tal1t D-A D-e).·.mody ~rc-O'l",du1[jf n!S~ed &\ylSI' '\1Vllily:me ~Ud lUirt reveal Ui'l1 nama of fu:b[$ '!P'~ym.QeSOOJi.' ~ hi l~l!pili€'ldl t'itat "iTf ~Ir:-~
"p. .•

a ::a:tnr~kM 1U3lim:~}1

~ttQill~] :had.kept Qn~ p,olut he 'w.o~hl u:v.e. :('OlU'I.d ~Ilt"
~j

~Skjtlg

:me O:~

D[el".lIlQdly d.)'(5p(;l~d,h]~ qu~~toonj't1g Hke ,EJ:, h~ DOb'W a.i1Id~ilu~l",edIDty:'----Cb:a}]ee!lid nat b,~,t.'l·,3ie'k a;HJd.try ·w e~:Dtdtthe: ,,~:estfu'n that. h__a;d s-olDehow mlleih~d '~!1 tM iMl1tj ~r mE the ,ol:'gapi zel' ~ t'b.ce ,~~s;assiJ]a.ti-on~ ,a, point
~'Ii;iJ~i;d t,Q<t~~·

n.ewsm'eill 3,t 'the mu r.d,!M_' !~~elli,~~ .It. ails;o "'lll5-'!lV~t"~ ~ 'hlle l1'Uaj~ol· que-s. tion pert-a.i rr~:llg '~ nutler'~llrl.J[~hnsont~ gij::ilt-ll(pI,IY ~"'l]d two ·fitillll w,e'][= kn-O'W",itt !Ili'e~o.rcersl\P" for -the 1~tUi~~Jm~~o~q1),lje, ~l'M:r'a, e hall roo:m, ei~e·]y gU~l"a6dl by- 'Un~!h' :fOil,"[11er eO'H'u;'ad:es~lEi= ~J1'ms l~~ho ilita,(J,~]e!e~ted '!rvi'thI11iale'Olittl. ,~.WhS' W\f!t-e: tki!.Y :not :remgnbed lil'lld ~jeckdli~ 0:1;' ~t thil! very l~~stf.l"i.ste~l fOI" 'wJ~a~pOl.n$/?' l[JlJ~l",~d_iblf ·thi!$ ,:;]'mple, {J!1€lScio:n ,r. "l].'tal to Rufi:ler and JO~;~$Oll~$_ def.~n$e<~ was l1ev~r' onee Mk.ed of ~'ily ,of' the 'W',i:tu.e-s~es by a ltl;(m:ney~ fQ.~ the t~, d-g:.endi 1-

~ll'bil"

Lite of his dient.,

w,iJtb des~l't(),q I~D8ide;.. quac.y·,,, TIley ,a;PI~a'r,enMy ,n.ad nf~the1' tile time, the:mG111ey
rattottl'llY~ ,cond,[urte~ the:m___$el'v.ea,

Tjn~o,tlg;lto'ut

the tidal

J

the

e-Cil~~~It~p·pol1nt~d. deUnISie

,o:f' OOllll".s'!:!, snl~pHJed th~ ~nls.'we;rn~i'theil:' ::B~t~l' :n,61' J(!Jbn$~~ ~V~H evre.ar' in -the Au.du"bO'll B.aJJ r.oom~, a:n{lJ 'bat;b lta:d. l:tae:u I!ld.bl,ess:!y f:ra:-med by the P.oU,e'e :n~p,u,~'~nt~ w~_i,t'!h i~ lbl1':idBl:te,~ wHnesses- iSmd, ~ul'born~dJ perj lU',Y' '10 order ~ {'iOinV]C't thte'~~nd, prut-ec-t
!.

~I"il,tm-_adg.~ Hay,el'

~~:It

,t].lJ(':

AMili01~lcglTh e~~ 'to11d the ~\j)l]Jrt :se-vet,al ,times. that lI'~the oruYI:ea:soo-l"~he' hta.d ooI1ms~~dl. W~~ b) ,(I)o:tect :l;cWll i'llnoeen:t Pil,en~ hIs, :~oU'V'a'ti'!:)llS, m~y im:v,ebe~n. S'lOOnew'ha:t. MOI·@ cmIl.p[ex". Part O'f tn~ "!OOnb'oot,'t t~l" Mf:lJ~;olm:'s ifi;n1.l-;QeJ: ~'eJort~,(UY' '~tro,vi.dedlJ 'c'lla t Ha}'iei',s, family '!!IlI\ollld he patd, 'the :mo(tlVey' ii anytb:iJ'l,g' )\'I@!:lt Wl'rOO,g. .A.p'DJaI"~nt]y· tbis ['\l"(}viswoJl~a-d not b~" flili~:ti]].edt ttnd. afl Ha;Y'el~ sa'W the e!\i';,id.enM p:m:n-g' up, a'.i'a~i)]'st him" a~d, hiop-~· f ~,c;quili_" ~ tm] 'fs;~ling~, h~ W~J.S ll~:V,~',grO\lHI bitter,,, t H~yer ma~i ba.ve d~eiclte~]to '~'mpl.Qy ,ill £0l7m ,of. :n,ot·,.·toosl1Q.btl~ PI~~!$ ~l.l'~ ;(Jill his ~.~known, '~!aiym3s't.el!':Sm He :n~,'-' v~JJl>ed ~no'Ugh 't~ f.[]ghten t'~mlf byt n~t ,en(!!1[q;gh ~ ~X~, '[Ot;:se :th¢ ~n:spi-r,ae:-Y' ~r.chis Jeii)~!5,sa.-s~i.u (aU. thl"·S-e ,of' "",1:1ftm ·Ha.-y'a' clallmii: to lb,\'\J\@ mown I·fat o,v~r' a Yttc3l"J ~ Haye~'~'s co~.f~s,illon i~ all 'the 'l1ll0'[!'~ C~11V]nt:hil:.g b~,. ~atilse· hIs 2-COOUJlt of the ,a$s~~~hj~,tl;Q(o1$ tb~ o·J!l[Y one ,advallJi21l'uJ. at the 'tt,',hd, 'thR,l; [col'l',esponds to, th,e iniUal :vresa Dl'e.p~r'ts and to the ~~;ti~l)J11 of ey~\t·dtne~~g,. Hay ei.' tp~ 1:i fled. ·be ~.nd. 'hj~ ~ocQinlpHf.Ie both sat iE. -th~ fl"{)i:rt 1"O'W and -shot at MtlJeollm with 1"Iew-o]vertii. lvhHe ,~ tbird m~n W];'~dJ~. ff'o;'I!wed·(lfi: ~bJOt,glln ti~o:m, th-e ijilliUlJl~~J~
1():rl"

~);~:g,:u;l;i~e;l',~ 'U:u~'plot ,3)ga,i.n~t :Ma'~tdl., a,oo the of' 'tbat t11e Mu~Um-s- "I,-lj,li~l",e Imwhred" n,(),t

tlnr one area ·tJ'Iat could bi~;v:e::;l(li.v,~d th~:ir'f(llerrt~th'-ei

iti~H~atr.Q·n to cO:®ld]~t ~'D.inv@_d[ga t~~n in-.w l f~t

Desprute H;a:yer,Sl _ d[[\iUtl;a!t.j.(~ oonf~f$si.on. al1Jdl 'Ul~," test~ .. _ r m!l):!fBY0'1 d€'f,~n3¢ 'Wri~3S-G~ 'th~-t, B'~tmr ,~u'9d .-IF ~hn5c)!n. had, 'b@ll~l in, t:hei r homes, at the t~i.me of 't'M m.~t!X1le:rj' U~e: somnolent iij ry ch~ '00 ~®]~~ ,tile UA 3, ease, [J'I!Uilgie Mal"kJ!j~ s, :!p;ast:y.,'faeed. UtU@ ,m~-n. wi'th. ,a_l.'¢ti.{",: eye~ ~uicf~, bo:t"l!!d e~ilr~ss,[On.~ cbat~~itb~ j'1lil"(JJt,S tn ,8i~ept wh~t th~ ,~ish.ed o,f llaLye.l"'S €iOUiL'tL9Q;O,m ~,nfe$il:!!:i..O-Ji and dis= re,g;8,rti 'thJt r--e~t-]mply:i,[tg' :tltu,t, :tlle. ,$tl4"Y' ShiO'l'U]d ~p:t '~is ~Qltfe~~on oil ,guilt bu t. d l!;i.l!'nega:wil.hi ~ :t-€'SUmoHy aoo:l!1t :!Ii, c~ns"rita,Q,y a~ Bt~'lb~J" and JIDH~S01l.~s:hi!:s:ooe~l~. (Marks was, a,~paf\elWthi!' s~loote.~b, tl'iA! ·~Q\~el.'s-';tbat",be: f'o~ 'thiil t--l',l~l ~ll. the.! bas,is a( b'!s r~p-1Jllta.;ltilllli1. ~g ~ ~)I',banglug judl:e.~,: the N F Pr)$ t ~,,~pr;t.l",ud a ·~ro~U.'e: n ,Feb., ill ~ l',tI' ·I966 t~l9,t Mal~S b~:biiLt]~ny. '~~,P!l~~s,:id!~~ firstQV'er d,e'gree nUlroe:.r 'trftlils bl wbieh~ ,llI,S :it ·~a:]Jp'ells.J. t:he de>:ferndanti! aide, usually OOllv,if:tea., " ~ '" In. f'~.Gt~ 1iI¥h@~cap]"> tal '~nu:Jljsrhm,e[mt was, abtll~~b,ed ~n this S'ta.te'~:fi'1l:eotth,e ;0' illl:mta,te'.s .of the death. ll.olJXSe 'w-e1.~ thm:e as ,il :renU of. t~ia~.$ h~~~?d, ibry S't~pr~m~ ICOiLi~;~J u~tjqe: JvI~'[1t~"~~) On A-!p\dl. 15" :t96fi! Ha;.v~er,; J.gbinJSGliIJ ~.md ]3 OJ:U~I' '''''ter,e; :se)1:t~)lee.d to 'lif@i lmp:,ris-oi'im~t-~ A ~i:£e l!;eu:lJen-c,e i.~, New YQ-rk State. :Dl.e~nm the d<efe:ltda;nts 'wuru beoo,me ~[wK:[b~;e.
J

'the real assassms,

f'Of'

p~l1'J,]e irftGl.'."

Illl a:n;r m'IJ.u..QJer' C.9lSle~, ·primar.}" {,actO).' 1'rtI. d~t~1111&ilh]g a ,gll:Jilt lsi #l;o~we'~ F.l~om. th~ d~tY G,1f l\~a]e'O]m's de~th 'tbe
Dl~~S

:p:a:']::3lon.

~iirvtng' :26

ye51r-s

~;ndJ 8 month:s 'hi

'Q:r..:iy th,~ Black

fo:n(U,w~l",s ha-te(i). M·:n)e:o·]m '~,.dUl aU the dox rese1;'-tW@.fen" 't]le ~le-l~etle"

'~r~sJl,ms ],tad fJ. 'mo!U\il\~ ,f,O\~' the ,et:i'!'fIF@., T'h.ere is no ,cl.o1J_~ibt t;bl~,'t'the 'M~~eDg:(fw' o,f AUa.lI ~ud, his
:Er.ecn?_.yth~
~'lt'l'lO-

m.edlj,a~ e:rl.eoO}u"ageir by th~~ ~~]i.~e) ~-@$UittrJedJ tbat

B:~;~ 'th@' Mu~il ]:m'5

EUjab

'~)jJS 'ma,t~rr ~s. a-ss:a~s-illrt[:t18 :MaleoJm. h.e
cooUywelgbed

11·llhmm~.d ,reached ·a deci~i.Q,n O:L1.~lue:h

!b11"[~: .an;:rUd:ng 'blll

t 'lml:r~l~,:dv~~ uare B
fL,

dalll\geil.~-

'\!irQij:id

~.b~~QQ.d,re'd.IJ~d. E'l.b ;pro~ls-t~ill\g ~ff'ort51 R't bo:m~ :l~.d! (fre~;it@ldl :34~rio~'s,~dmhli$.tr1f]Uvle p~clb~ems, f,~~'h'! ~ group.. .F,~'w.~tt:tisJims haul ,A:ock.ed tOo Ma~~id!ltn~'s bairn.-er s~inre his
£111:'i.g[na] dG.:i<®Ct.ll'Blit.,

eo:lrn"s

'the.

'Pl~:i}S;

:l.ud.

OO)}$,

of 'the ::IlI:la Ue:r" Mal-

l~a'VeJ

Q.L~·S"§H~i:Hfti.'O:l1"

was

'W'e:lll~:;'his 'f'l"€:QlU;~~~t trav~~s

A.'C(!ol'ii'i~ g to li~y.el',the l!1Ii'on b,Y sl'lJ(M~tt;j.ng, ,~j·.M igr,el",

'nltli'tl Wbfl

p:o~elt !l'.1 ~.a:,tcil'1 '(be ~~.tm' of the b;.dlr~(J:rn, a:nd mON: DQ

get.

~"l:3:'ed the d.l ve I."'"
h:efl1d~
Q;~

y-O'UjI::

t 01 my-

1);1"o.pllet" It :is lU-i.l~dJto 'heU,e\ta 'Uu~;tb~ k~· al]:alytica~, his bl",~jn the debi'ts of kHUur ~r~l~o]m 'l¥cmld 110t b~ve ouf;"reigbed. th.e plu~9;ea:" EUiab"~ ),·~~,i,gio~~,$' oQmlnel"ci,al ~.nd @mpj1('0 inau iI:'edthe S112!~nj t,f' o:j 'his :fa(]t~,:g ye~n,'S;. n-e' w~s ~rt ] U4:e]y W, F]sk, it j urst '110 :swa,t )\~ba,t h~ '\li'md.d see ~~

Eli,fitl!h. Xuha'mm ~~. ~s as

lljK.~h

a ~~s.t~!Deollnt~tlrt ~~

,Q

&bru.ar,

.'6'1

[211

h1ijp[:llwww "e'p~ ie/tractl ist
llHE 1~~IS[T ARC,HNE IPROJIiCT

The REALIIST Il'ssue Numnber '73, - lFeb\.,'~961 - Pqe
~!ffl_" Qt: this

22

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