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Name:

__________________________________________

Instructor:

__________________________________________

Office:

__________________________________________

Office Hours:

__________________________________________

Phone/E-Mail:

__________________________________________

Web Pages: http://www.cengage.com/communications


http://www.cengage.com/communications/verderber/communicate13e

___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________
___________________________________________

Student Workbook
for
Verderber/Verderber/Sellnows

Communicate!
Thirteenth Edition

Leonard E. Assante
Volunteer State Community College
Updated by
Robert Weiss

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgments
Preface
PART I: FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION
CHAPTER 1: Communication Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 2: Perception of Self and Others . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 3: Communicating Verbally. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 4: Communicating Through Nonverbal Behaviors.. . . . . . . . . . .63
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 5: Listening and Responding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 87


Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
PART II: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
CHAPTER 6: Communicating across Cultures . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 7: Understanding Interpersonal Relationships. . . . .. . . . . . . 125
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 8: Communication Skills in Interpersonal Relationships . . . 140
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
APPENDIX: Interviewing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

PART III: GROUP COMMUNICATION


CHAPTER 9: Communicating in Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 10: Problem-Solving in Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 194
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
PART IV: PUBLIC SPEAKING
CHAPTER 11: Developing and Researching a Speech Topic. . . . . . . . . . 214
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 12: Organizing Your Speech.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 249
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links

CHAPTER 13: Adapting Verbally and Visually. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271


Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 14: Overcoming Speech Apprehension by Preparing Deliver 293
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 15: Informative Speaking. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Diagnostic Speech Checklist
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
CHAPTER 16: Persuasive Speaking. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Learning Objectives
Interactive Chapter Outline
Key Terms
Activities
Chapter Self-Test
Helpful Links
Answers to Sample Quiz Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Many people have assisted me in preparing my second student workbook for the
Communicate! text. As with the first, without their help, this text would not be as
thorough and useful as it is! I would like to specifically acknowledge the following:
-Deirdre Anderson
-Breanna Gilbert-Gambacorta
-Stuart Schrader
-Cindy McLeod
-The faculty of the Department of Communication at Volunteer State Community
College
-And especially to all of those colleagues across the country who have offered
feedback all constructive- since the release of the first workbook. I hope this new
edition is useful.
-Leonard Assante, January 1, 2004, Gallatin, TN

PREFACE
Welcome to the Student Workbook for Communicate! Thirteenth Edition by
Rudolph, Kathleen Verderber, and Deanna Sellnow! Congratulations on your decision
to enroll in an introductory communication course. Effective communication skills are
an important component to a successful career and satisfying interpersonal
relationships. When I decided to accept the offer to write this companion volume, I
knew that for it to be a truly useful addition to the text (they call it an ancillary in the
book business), students had to actually use it. And use it regularly. And use it often.
The publisher also sent me copies of other student workbooks that had been written
for other texts. In each of these, I found useful and interesting ideas. What I decided I
would try to do was create a book that was hopefully more than a workbook, but actually
a companion guide to the textbook that incorporates both my own ideas and the best of
what I have found in reviewing other similar texts. My hope is that you will find this
approach useful in your study of communication. This Student Workbook is designed
to be used with the textbook in studying for exams, learning key concepts, doing
application exercises, researching speeches and taking notes in class. I encourage you
to take this book to class along with your textbook, use it to help you take notes, to tie
the individual concepts together into the big picture, and to assist your communication
education. Below I list the key objectives of the textbook and course. I then introduce
you to the key parts of this book and how they are designed to help you. Good luck!

Textbook Objectives. The textbook is designed to meet several objectives;


To make the communication process understood by defining and clarifying
key terms used to talk about communication.
To apply communication concepts to situations we encounter in our everyday
lives.
To present guidelines for communication competency and skill development.

Course Objectives. While all communication courses (and communication


instructors!) are different, it is very likely that any course that uses Communicate! has
the following objectives:
Define and describe the communication process.
Relate self-perception and behaviors to verbal and non-verbal communication.
Recognize various meanings of verbal, vocal, and non-verbal symbols and
their effect on interpersonal relationships.
Describe conversations related skills, including in electronically mediated
contexts.
Identify methods of dealing with conflict in interpersonal relationships.
List and describe effective techniques for communicating ideas and feelings.
List and define guidelines for effective listening and responding techniques.

Describe the nature and stages of relationships.


Describe the interviewing process and related interpersonal skills
Identify the process and procedures of decision-making in groups.
Identify leadership styles
Identify steps for personal leadership development
Identify key techniques for successful interviews
Prepare and deliver an informative speech
Prepare and deliver a persuasive speech
This student companion contains the following components:

Learning Objectives. Each chapter begins with a short list of objectives for that
chapter. These are written in the form After studying this chapter you should be able
to. The idea here is to give you an idea of what your instructor expects you to
understand when the chapter is completed. Think of it as a list of your goals for that
chapter. The sample test questions are based on these.
Interactive Chapter Outline. This is a detailed outline of the corresponding textbook
chapter. It includes space for you to write your own notes. Use it as a guide to
the organization of each chapter and to help you takes notes in class or while
reading. Research suggests that students learn better if they can concentrate
more on the concepts themselves and less on how they are organized when
taking notes. The interactive outline provides the organizational structure,
allowing you to concentrate on the individual terms and ideas.
Key Terms. A list of all terms highlighted and defined in the margins of the
textbook is presented here. Space is provided for you to write in the definition,
examples, or additional notes. Looking up and writing out the definitions of these terms
is an excellent study aid and helps to build your vocabulary. Test questions often use
these terms.
Activities. One of the most important features of this companion is the selection
of chapter exercises. These activities are designed to help you understand and apply
the key ideas and concepts from each chapter. There are several different types of
exercises. These include:
InfoTrac and Internet-based: These activities make use of technology, the
Internet and InfoTrac College Edition, an Internet-based research resource you will find
useful when seeking additional information on key concepts or when doing research for
speeches or projects. This text contains all exercises found in the textbook as well as
additional activities.

Observe and analyze: In selected locations throughout the textbook are the
Observe and Analyze icons. These prompt you to complete a journal activity in this
workbook. All the necessary journal forms are located in this text.
Chapter Self-Test. True/false, multiple choice, and short essay questions are
provided. These questions are designed to be similar to those you might
encounter in an examination. If you think any of my answers are incorrect or
my questions misleading, let me know. My students do!
Helpful Links. At the end of each chapter I list several useful or interesting Internet
links that are relevant to the material covered in that chapter. I have collected
these over the years and have borrowed many from colleagues. Feel free to
check them out. All links were accurate and current at the time of writing. If
you find a dead link, let me know.
Miscellaneous Resources. Some chapters include other materials in addition
to those listed above. This is especially true in the Group Communication and Public
Speaking chapters.
I hope this text is useful to you. Please let me know what you think so I can
make future editions even more useful.
Leonard Assante
Department of Communication
Volunteer State Community College
Gallatin, TN 37066
Len.Assante@volstate.edu

I
FOUNDATIONS OF
COMMUNICATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Communication Perspectives
Perception of Self and Others
Communicating Verbally
Communicating through Nonverbal Behaviors
Listening and Responding

CHAPTER 1: Communication Perspectives


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
How does the communication process work?
What characterizes each of the communication settings you will study in this course?
What are basic principles of communication?
What major ethical issues face communicators?
What is communication competence, and what can you do to achieve it
What is communication apprehension, and how does it relate to communication
competence?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. The Communication Process
A. Participants
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Messages
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Meanings
_____________________________________________________
2. Symbols
_____________________________________________________
3. Encoding and Decoding
_____________________________________________________
4. Form (Organization)
_____________________________________________________

C. Context
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

1. Physical Context
_____________________________________________________
2. Social Context
_____________________________________________________
3. Historical Context
_____________________________________________________
4. Psychological Context
_____________________________________________________
5. Cultural Context
_____________________________________________________

D. Channels
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Interference (Noise)
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

F. Feedback
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
G. A Model of the Basic Communication Process
_________________________________________________________

II. Communication Settings


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
III. Communication Principles
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Communication Has Purpose
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Communication Is Continuous
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Communication Messages Vary in Conscious Thought
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Communication is Relational
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

E. Communication is Guided by Culture

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
F. Communication has Ethical Implications
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
G. Communication is Learned
___________________________________________________________

IV. Increasing Our Communication Competence


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Develop Communication Skill Improvement Goals
________________________________________________________

Key Terms
communication
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
participants
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

messages
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
meaning
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
symbols
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
encoding
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
decoding
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
context
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
physical context
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
synchronous technologies
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

asynchronous technologies

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
social context
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
historical context
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
psychological context
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
cultural context
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
channels
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
emoticons
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
acronyms
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

interference (noise)

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
physical interference
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
External Noise
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
psychological interference
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
internal noise
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
semantic noise
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
feedback
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
communication settings
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
intrapersonal communication
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
interpersonal communication
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
small group communication
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
public communication
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
spontaneous expressions
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
scripted message
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
constructed message
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
immediacy
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
control
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

culture
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
ethics
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
truthfulness & honesty
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
moral dilemma
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
integrity
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
fairness
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
respect
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
responsibility
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
communication competence
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

10

skills
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
credibility
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
social ease
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
communication comprehension
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
traitlike communication apprehension
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
audience-based communication apprehension
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
situational communication apprehension
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

context-based communication apprehension

11

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Activities
Activity 1.1
Test Your Competence: Identifying Elements of the Communication Process

For the interaction, identify the context, participants, channel, message, noise
and feedback.
1. Contexts:
Physical:
Social:
Historical:
Psychological:

2. Participants:

3. Channels:

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4. Message:

5. Interference (Noise):

6. Feedback:

13

Activity 1.2
Communication over the Internet
The Internet has thoroughly revolutionized communication over the last 20 years.
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of communicating via the following
Internet-based mediums: e-mail, newsgroups, Internet chat, social networking sites,
social messaging services (e.g., Twitter), and blogs. Spend some time evaluating these
mediums if you are not already familiar with them. Enter your thoughts into a twocolumn table, with advantages in the first column and disadvantages in the second. Did
your analysis produce any discoveries that surprised you?
To help you complete this activity, you can use the table provided in your Premium
Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 1.
Activity 1.3
Communication Functions
Keep a log of the various communications you have today. Tonight, categorize each
episode by one of the five functions it served. Each episode may serve more than one
function. Were you surprised by the variety of communication you engaged in even in
such a relatively short period?
To help you complete this activity, you can use the log sheet provided in your Premium
Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 1.

Activity 1.4
Conversations
Think of two recent conversations you participated in, one that you thought went
really well and one that you thought went poorly. Compare them using the form that
follows. Describe the context in which the conversations occurred, the participants, the
rules that seemed to govern your behavior and that of the other participants, the
messages that were used to create the meaning and, the channels used, any noise that
interfered with communication, the feedback that was shared, and the result.

14

Activity 1.4 Worksheet.

Name:________________________
Conversation that
Went Well

Context

Participant
s
Rules

Messages

Channel

Noise

Feedback

End Result

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Conversation that
Went Poorly

Activity 1.5
Use of Email
Do you use Email? Consider the mailing you have done over the last week.
Using the worksheet that follows, classify the kinds of messages you have written (use
such headings as letters to friends, inquiries to Web sites, questions to professors, and
so forth). How many messages do you receive each day? What percentage of those
do you reply to? Compare your email use to regular mail. How many letters (not bills,
advertisements or solicitations) do you send or receive each day?
Activity 1.4 Worksheet.

Name:________________________

Email:
Kinds of messages written over the past week:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
How many messages do you receive each day? _________________
Percentage that you reply to:

___________

Email vs. regular mail:


How many letters do you send or receive each day? Send: ___ Receive: ___
Activity 1.7
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Cultural issues play an important role in global business. For example, in the
airline industry gate agents, flight attendants and other service providers must be able
to communicate effectively with people who come from different cultures and speak
different languages. Using InfoTrac College Edition, you can find an interesting article
on this subject. After typing in Intercultural Communication as the Subject Guide,
locate the article Plane Talk, by John Freivalds. Read what the airline industry is
doing to make language learning a priority among flight attendants and pilots. How is
this training working to achieve industry goals?

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Activity 1.8
Using InfoTrac College Edition.
The ability to communicate in complex ways is often seen as a key difference between
humans and lower animals. Using InfoTrac College Edition, type in human
communication as the subject guide and locate articles that contrast human and animal
communication. Then list what you perceive to be three key differences between
animal and human communication. (Remember to use the View other articles linked to
these subjects function to assist your search.)
Activity 1.9
Using the Web.
Using the links listed at the end of this chapter, browse through some of the sites
devoted to the study and research of communication. Are you surprised by how many
sites there are? About the amount of research being done in the field? About the
different types of communication specialties? Pick any two sites and write a brief
comparison essay. Focus on the content and organization of the two sites. What did
you learn from your visits?
Activity 1.10
Analyzing Feedback.
Keep a one-day log of all the feedback (verbal and nonverbal) you receive from others
while communicating. Ask someone who knows you well to indicate the kinds of
feedback you typically give him or her while they communicate with you. Analyze the
similarities and differences in the feedback you give and receive.
Activity 1.11
Diagram a Communication Event.
Using the model of communication presented in Figure 1.1, diagram a recent
conversation you had. Who were the participants? What messages were sent? Using
what channels? What feedback was given? Was there any noise present? In what
context did the communication take place. Draw a diagram of the model and insert
each answer in the correct location.

17

Activity 1.12
Communication Settings.
After reviewing the four communication settings discussed in the chapter, identify the
setting you feel you are most effective in and why you feel that way. Which setting are
you least effective in? Why? Using the example presented in Figure 1.2 as a guide,
develop a Communication Improvement Plan to help you increase your competence in
the communication setting in which you feel least effective.
Activity 1.13
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the scenario in the text, and complete the exercise at the end of the story.
Web Resource 1.1
Profile of Foreign-Born Population
Read more about the U.S. foreign-born population at the U.S. Census Bureau website.
This site provides reports, data tables, and other information about people living in the
United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth.
Web Resource 1.2
Ethics Connection
Learn more about ethics at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara
University, a forum for research and discussion on ethical issues in American life. The
Centers site features information about ethics in business, healthcare and
biotechnology, education, government and public policy, and technology.

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Chapter 1 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)


True/False
_____1. The mood and feelings each person brings to the conversation is called
psychological context.
_____2. The process of transforming messages from another person back into
your own ideas is called encoding.
_____3. The route traveled by a message is called the context.
_____4. The major criteria for determining communication competence are
successful and concrete.
_____5. A salesperson giving reasons why you should purchase a product is an
example of how communication has purpose.
_____6. Communication is continuous.
_____7. Skills are goal-oriented actions or action sequences that we can master
and repeat.
_____8. Fairness means showing regard or consideration for others.
Multiple Choice
_____1. The fact that you are likely to take legal advice from your lawyer is a good
example of the importance of ____________ to communication.
a. physical context
b. social context
c. complementary context
d. fairness
_____2. The process of creating or sharing meaning is called
a. communicating
b. encoding
c. transmitting
d. decoding
e. receiving
_____3. Joe is normally an easygoing person. However, he recently broke up with his
girlfriend to whom he was very close, although he hasnt informed most of his friends.
When Lee passes Joe in the hallway and asks how he is doing, Joe walks away without

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answering. Lee is surprised and puzzled by Joes behavior. Joes response is an


example of
a. physical context
b. historical context
c. psychological context
d. noise
_____4. If a person is thinking about the great time she had last night while listening to
a class lecture, these thoughts would be considered
a. encoding
b. decoding
c. feedback
d. noise
e. none of the above
_____5. Which of the following is considered an ethical question?
a. Saul gives Maria a reward for finding his lost dog.
b. Juan takes Leonards book out of his bag.
c. Cindy tells her friends she bought the food for lunch when in fact
Amanda did.
d. Joe punches Nick in the arm.
_____6. Juanita walks into a room and sees her two children arguing over a toy. She
listens patiently and openly while allowing both children to explain their side of the story.
Juanita is exemplifying which ethical implication of communication?
a. respect
b. fairness
c. responsibility
d. integrity
e. moral imperative
_____7. According to Samovar and Porter, which three cultural elements have the
potential to affect situations in which people from different backgrounds come together?
a. perception, communication, context
b. communication, context, respect
c. nonverbal processes, context, communication
d. verbal processes, psychological context, cultural context
e. perception, verbal processes, nonverbal processes
_____8. Mandy is preparing a speech on a complex chemical process for her Organic
Chemistry class. She spends a great deal of time deciding the order of main ideas, the
use of examples, and preparing summary statements. Mandys project is a good
example of the importance of what aspect of messages?
a. form or organization
b. channel
c. noise
d. decoding

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Essay
1. Explain how the different types of noise affect meaning.

2. Define communication competence, and discuss various strategies we can


use to achieve and improve our competence.

3. How have mourning rituals changed in U.S. society? How do those changes
reflect current cultural and technological trends?

4. Describe a moral dilemma. Provide an example. Why do many people lie


when in a moral dilemma?

21

Helpful Links
http://www.natcom.org - National Communication Association (NCA)
NCA is the largest organization of communication students, researchers and
teachers. This site previews some of the activities communication scholars engage in
and offers a variety of links to other sources.
http://www.cios.org - Communication Institute for Online Scholarship (CIOS)
CIOS provides discussion in a variety of current issues in the filed of
communication, links to extensive resources and links designed especially for students.
http://www.mapnp.org/library/grp_skll/grp_skll.htm - Group Skills
A selection of web resources assembled by Carter McNamara of the
Management Assistance Program for Non-Profits, this site lists numerous resources for
group dynamics and problem-solving.
http://www.hack.gr/jargon/ - Jargon The New Hackers Dictionary
This link is one of many on the net to one version or another of The New
Hackers Dictionary, a list of the slang of the computer user and the computermediated-communication user.
http://www.toastmasters.org/pdfs/top10.pdf - Ten Tips for Effective Public
Speaking
This guide created by Toastmasters International shows the importance of
understanding the setting when making oral presentations. Part of the Toastmasters
website http://www.toastmasters.org
(See your Communicate! companion website for links to other websites
referenced in your text.)

22

CHAPTER 2: Perception of Self and Others


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
How does the perception process work?
What is a self-concept, and how is it formed and maintained?
What is self-esteem, and how is it developed?
How might culture or gender influence our perceptions of self?
How can our perceptions of self change?
How can our perceptions of self become distorted?
How do perceptions of self affect our communication with others?
What influences our perceptions of others?
What can we do to improve the accuracy of our perceptions of others?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. The Perception Process
A. Attention and Selection
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Needs
_____________________________________________________
2. Interests
_____________________________________________________
3. Expectations
_____________________________________________________
B. Organization of Stimuli
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

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1. Simplicity
_____________________________________________________
2. Pattern
_____________________________________________________
C. Interpretation of Stimuli
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Perception of Self: Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
A. Forming and Maintaining a Self-Concept
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Personal Experiences
___________________________________________________
2. Reactions and Responses of Others
___________________________________________________
B. Developing and Maintaining Self-Esteem
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. The Influence of Gender and Culture on Self-Perception
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Changing Self-Perceptions
___________________________________________________________

24

___________________________________________________________
C. Accuracy of and Distortions of Self-Concepts
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
___________________________________________________
2. Filtering Messages
___________________________________________________
3. Media Images
__________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
D. The Effects of Self-Perceptions on Communication
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Self-Perceptions Moderate How We Talk to Ourselves
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Self-Perceptions Moderate How We Talk about Ourselves to
Others
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

25

3. Self-Perceptions Affect Communication Apprehension


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
III. Presenting Self to Others
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Self-Monitoring
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Social Construction of Self
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

IV. Perception of Others


A. Observing Others
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

B. Using Stereotypes
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Emotional State

26

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Perceiving Others Messages
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Improving the Accuracy of Social Perceptions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Key Terms
perception
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
pattern
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
interpret
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
self-concept
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
ideal self-concept
self-esteem

27

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
incongruence
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
self-fulfilling prophecies
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
self-talk
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
self-monitoring
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
role
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
uncertainty reduction
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
implicit personality theories
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
halo effect
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

28

stereotype
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
prejudice
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

discrimination
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
attributions
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
perception check
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Activities

Activity 2.1
Observe and Analyze: Who Am I?
Using the directions found in Skill Learning Activity 2.1 in your textbook, complete
the following two worksheets.

29

Self-Perception Worksheet
I am
skilled at

I have
the ability to

I
know things
about

30

I am
competent at
doing

By
personality I
am

Others Perceptions Worksheet


Others
Others
Others
Others
believe that I
believe I
believe I
believe I am
am skilled at
have the
know things competent at
ability to
about
doing

31

Others
believe that
my
personality
is

Activity 2.2
Who Am I?
Compare your self-perception and others perception lists from Activity 2.1. How are
these lists similar? Where are they different? Do you understand why they are
different? Are your lists long or short? Why do you suppose that is? Reflect on how
your own interpretations of your experiences and what others have told you about you
have influenced your self-concept. Now organize the lists you created, perhaps finding
a way to group characteristics. Use this information to write an essay titled Who I am,
and how I know this. If you wish, you can use the table below to help organize your
thoughts.

CATEGORY

SELF-PERCEPTION

Skills

Abilities

Knowledge

Competencies

Personality Characteristics

32

OTHERPERCEPTION

Activity 2.3
The Speech of Introduction about You
Listen to the speech of introduction that a classmate gives about you. How do you feel
about what was said? Did anything the speaker said embarrass you? On a scale of 1 to
10, rate how pleased you were to be introduced as you were. What did you like about
what the speaker said about you? What did you dislike? Do you think that the other
members of the class have an accurate perception of who you are based on what the
speaker said about you? Why or why not? Is there anything the speaker did not know
about you that, if he or she had included it in the speech, would have helped the
speaker to do a better job? If you could go back and have your get-acquainted
conversation with the speaker again, what would you do or say differently to help the
speaker do a better job of presenting you as you would like others to know you? How
does all of this relate to the concept of self-monitoring? This activity corresponds with
Skill Learning Activity 2.2 in your textbook.

Activity 2.4
Monitor Your Enacted Roles
For three days, record your roles in various situations such as lunch with a best friend
or meeting professor about a class project. Describe the roles you chose to enact in
each setting such as student, friend, or customer.
At the conclusion of this three-day observation period, analyze what you observed. To
what extent does your role behavior change across situations? What factors seem to
trigger you to enact a particular role? Are there certain roles that you take on more than
others? Are there roles you need to modify? Are there roles you are reluctant to enact
that would help you be a more effective communicator? How satisfied are you with the
roles you took? With which are you most and least pleased?
Write a paragraph explaining what you have learned.
You can find a data collection sheet for this activity at your Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 1.
Activity 2.5
Stereotypes and Media
Spend a few days cataloging the stereotypes in mass media. Enter your research into a
log broken out by the following categories: (1) medium of communication (TV, radio,
magazines, newspapers, the Internet, or signage/posters); (2) source (general content
or advertising); (3) target (race, ethnicity/culture, religion, gender, sexual orientation,
age, income, profession, hobby, or appearance); and (4) connotation (positive or
negative).
After you have completed your research, analyze the results. What target was most
frequently stereotyped in your findings? Did some mediums of communication indulge in
33

more stereotyping the others? Did regular programming or advertising employ more
stereotyping than the other? Were the majority of the stereotypes positive or negative in
connotation? Did anything in your research surprise you? Write a paragraph explaining
what you learned in this activity.
You can find a data collection sheet for this activity at your Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 1.
Activity 2.6
Culture and Perception
1. Describe a recent encounter you had with someone of a different race or ethnic
group.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
2. How comfortable did you feel talking with this person?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
3. In what ways did this person's race or ethnic group influence how you
acted or reacted?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
4. Did it affect the topics you discussed or the care with which you phrased
your messages?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Activity 2.7
Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Perception.
Some perceptions are not always accurate. To test this idea, do the following activity.
Record your work on the worksheet that follows.
A. Observe several other students in your classes in an attempt to determine
their mood. Choose both students you know well as well as those you dont know.
B. Using the three-step process of perception as outlines in Chapter 2, do the
following:
1.
Attend and select stimuli. List what items you focused on.7
2.
Organize the stimuli. Look for any patterns in behavior. What did
you observe?

34

3.
Interpret the stimuli. What conclusion have you come to
concerning his/her mood?
C. Finally, check your perception. Ask the students you observed to confirm
your perception. Note the stimuli you observed and the conclusion you came to. Is
each students mood what you thought it would be?

35

2.7 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Perception Worksheet.


Name: ____________________________

Stimuli

Patterns

Interpretation

36

Know/
Not
Know?

Accurate?

Activity 2.8
Culture and Self-Esteem/Self-Concept.
Imagine you live in a culture which values age over youth and group over individual. In
a brief essay, speculate as to how your life would be different than it is now. Are these
differences positive, negative, both or neither? If you live in such a culture, reverse the
assignment.
Activity 2.9
Knowledge of Self.
Read each of the following scenarios. Put yourself in each situation, and answer the
questions for each.
Situation: A friend and classmate asks if you want a copy of a stolen answer
sheet he has for an upcoming exam in your next class. How do you answer?

Situation: Someone you are really attracted to has just asked you out to a
dance, but you had already agreed to do something with a friend that evening. How do
you answer?

Questions:
1. What role did your self-concept play in your responses?

2. What role did others possible impressions of your behavior play in your
responses?

37

Activity 2.12
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the scenario
in the chapter. Answer the questions at the end in the space below. Your essay should
include a plan for Mr. Hernandez and discuss how he can use social perceptions.

Web Resource 2.1


Real Self-Esteem?
Read this provocative article about self-esteem by Dr. Richard OConnor, Self-Esteem:
In a Culture Where Winning Is Everything and Losing Is Shameful. What points does
OConnor make? How does his conclusion coincide with what you have observed?
Web Resource 2.2
Self-Esteem Model
The Web site Coping.org is the home of onsite manuals for coping with a variety of lifes
stressors, including the Model of Self-Esteem. This site provides information about selfesteem and offers suggestions for improving ones self-esteem.
Web Resource 2.3
Identity in Cyberspace
With the advent of the Internet and anonymity it affords, we now create roles that are
quite different from our offline roles. Read about five interlocking factors that are useful
in understanding how people manage identities in cyberspace.

38

Web Resource 2.4


Fighting Words with Words
Learn how to identify the sweeping generalizations behind stereotypes and how to use
balancing statements to counteract them with this Coverdell World Wise Schools
activity. Coverdell World Wise Schools seeks to foster student inquiry about the world
and others and began as a correspondence match program between Peace Corps
Volunteers and U.S. school students.

39

Chapter 2 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)


True/False
_____1. Selectively attending to information and assigning meaning to it is
called perception.
_____2. As you get ready for the big game, you say to yourself, I know I wont
play well today, Im too stressed, and you end up playing poorly. This is an example of
a self-fulfilling prophecy.
_____3. The three steps of the perception process are selection, retention and
attention.
_____4. Self-concept and self-esteem are essentially the same.
_____5. It is possible to improve the accuracy of our perceptions.
_____6. Prejudice and discrimination are synonymous.
_____7. Our emotional state at the time of a perception may influence that
perception.
Multiple Choice
_____1.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Self-esteem is defined in your text as


our overall evaluation of our competence and personal worthiness
the list of characteristics that define who we are
part of the self-perception process that never changes
all of the above

_____2. When you focus on how you are presenting yourself to others, you are
engaging in
a.
the self-fulfilling prophecy
b.
self-monitoring
c.
attribution
d.
stereotyping
_____3.
a.
b.
c.
d.

The richer our self-concept


the higher our self-esteem
the lower our self-esteem
the better we are at the selection phase of perception
the better we know and understand who we are

40

_____4. Suppose you prepare a meal for several friends. One of them
comments that you are a good cook. You ignore the message or reply, It was nothing
special, anyone could have made that meal. This is an example of
a. self-fulfilling prophecy
b. how we may distort self-perceptions by filtering messages
c. a negative role
d. halo effect
_____5. You just received your income tax refund. You are in a very good mood
all day. As a result you tend to see other people and events in a more positive way than
you might otherwise. This is an example of
a. how emotional states influence our perception
b. halo effect
c. roles
d. none of the above
_____6.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Which of the following is not a way of improving social perceptions?


questioning the accuracy of your perceptions
ignoring information that does not fit a pattern
seeking more information to verify perceptions
realize that your perceptions of a person will change over time

_____7. A role is:


a. a pattern of learned behaviors that people use to meet the perceived
demands of a given context
b. enacted based on our own needs and relationships
c. something we only enact one of each day
d. a and b
_____8. You make a dinner date with your best friend for 7pm. It is now 7:30pm
and they have not shown up yet. You guess that your friend had something come up
that they have no control over. This is an example of:
a. improved social perception
b. social role
c. attribution
d. self-presentation

41

Essay
1. Contrast self-perception and self-esteem

2. Describe how we can improve our perception ability. Offer at least one
example.

3. Define stereotypes, and discuss the ways the affect our perceptions of others.

4. What are the different strategies we can use to improve our social
perceptions? Provide an example of each.

42

5. Define the concept of a role, and identify some of the roles you are playing at
this stage of your life.

6. Explain how advertising relates to our self-concepts and ideal self-concepts.


Provide examples of popular ads that utilize this approach.

Helpful Links
http://www.adiosbarbie.com Adios Barbie
This site looks at self-esteem by discussing the Barbie image and its effect on
women and men.
http://www.parascope.com/articles/0397/sublim.htm - The Subliminal Scares
This link connects to an article on the impact of subliminal meanings on the
perception process.
http://www.mentalhelp.net/psyhelp/chap7/chap7l.htm - Disliking Others
Without Valid Reasons: Prejudice
Material from the book Psychological Self Help by Clayton Tucker-Ladd helps the
reader understand the roots of prejudice.
http://www.mentalhelp.net/psyhelp/chap14/chap14d.htm - Changing your SelfConcept and Building Self-Esteem
Another set of material from Tucker Ladds book looks at self-concept and selfesteem.
http://www.serve.com/shea/stereodf.htm - The Meaning and Significance of
Stereotypes in Popular Culture
Many people seem to have stereotypical ideas concerning people of other
cultures. Robert Shea looks at stereotypes of Americans held by people from other
cultures.
http://www.coping.org/seas/model.htm Tools for Coping

43

CHAPTER 3: Communicating Verbally


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
What are the purposes of language?
What is the relationship between language and meaning?
How do culture and gender affect language use?
How can you make you language more clear?
How can you make your messages more memorable?
How can you ensure your listener will understand the words you choose?
How can you phrase messages to demonstrate linguistic sensitivity?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. The Nature of and Purposes for Language
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
A. Purposes of Language
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
B. The Relationship between Language and Meaning
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
C. Culture and Gender Influences on Language Use
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

44

II. Improving Language Skills


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Language that Clarifies Meaning
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Make Your Messages Memorable
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Use Linguistic Sensitivity
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Key Terms
language
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
speech community
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
words
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

45

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
denotation
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
connotation
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

syntactic context
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
low-context cultures
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
high-context cultures
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

feminine styles of language


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

46

masculine styles of language


________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
specific words
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
concrete words
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
precise words
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
dating information
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
indexing
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Generalizations
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
vivid wording
_______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

47

simile
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
metaphor
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
emphasis
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
jargon
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
slang
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
generic language
_______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

48

Activities
Skill Learning Activity 3.1
Identifying Specific Language
Pick an article or essay from your favorite magazine (either the print or online version).
Read through the piece, highlighting instances in which the writer uses concrete words
and precise words. Also identify places in which the writer employs abstractions or
generalizations that could be made more specific if they were expressed with either
concrete or precise words.
Activity 3.2
Dating and Indexing Messages
Read the examples below and practice adjusting messages so that they are dated or
indexed. After writing your first draft, check to make sure that your revision is more
concrete, precise, and provides examples and details. Now read your response aloud.
Does it sound "natural"? If not, revise it until it does.
When youre done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors at the
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 3.
1. Oh, Jamie's an accounting major, so I'm sure she keeps her checkbook
balanced.
2. Forget taking statistics; it's an impossible course.
3. Never trying talking to Jim in the morning; he's always grouchy.
4. Don't bother to buy that book for class. You'll never use it.
5. I can't believe you bought a dog. I mean, all they do is shed.
3.3: Similes and Metaphors
Over the next three days, as you read books, newspapers, and magazine articles and
listen to people around you talk, make notes of both the trite and original similes and
metaphors you hear. Choose three that you thought were particularly vivid. Write a
paragraph in which you briefly describe how and why they impressed you.

Activity 3.4
Test Your Competence - Clarifying General Statements
Rewrite each statement on the following page to make it more specific. Work to
make general and abstract words more concrete and precise. When youre done with
this activity, compare your answers to the authors at the Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 3.

49

1. My neighbor has a lot of animals that she keeps in her yard.

2. When I was a little girl, we lived in a big house in the Midwest.

3. My husband works for a large newspaper.

4. She got up late and had to rush to get to school. But she was late anyway.

5. Whered you find that thing?

6. I really liked going to that concert. The music was great.

7. I really respect her.

8. My boyfriend has long hair and a tattoo.

9. She was wearing a colorful scarf and bright shirt that was a little short.

10. We need to have more freedom to choose our courses.

50

Activity 3.5
Observe and Analyze: Crude Language Audit
For the next three days, keep a log of each incident where you use crude or
vulgar language or hate speech. Record where you were, who you were with, what you
said, and why you choose to use the language you did. At the end of the three days
review and analyze your data. Based on your analysis write a paragraph in the space
below that describes your crude language behavior. How pervasive is your use of
crude speech? Are there particular settings or certain people you are more likely to
swear in front to? Are there settings or with people you are less likely to swear? What
words are your favorites. Why do you use crude speech? Then evaluate how
satisfied you are with the frequency with which you use vulgar language and with your
reasons for using crude speech. Do you think that you are more crude and vulgar in
your speech practices today or has your use of crude language improved. To what do
you attribute any change. You can download additional log sheets at the Communicate!
web site.

51

Crude Language Audit Log Sheet for Activity 3.5


Date and
Setting
Others
Crude
aprx
prese
language
time
nt

52

Reason
for language

Activity 3.6
Denotative Meanings
1. Compile a list of ten slang or in words. Discuss how the meanings you
assign to these words differ from the meanings your parents or grandparents assign to
them (for example, Hes bad!). Use the worksheet below to complete your work.

Word

Your Meanings

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

53

Parents/Grandparents
Meanings

2. Write your own definition of each of the following words; then go to a


dictionary and see how closely your definition matches the dictionarys
building__________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
justice___________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
love_____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
success__________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
band____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
glass____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
peace___________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
freedom__________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
honor____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Activity 3.7
Monitoring Your Use of Language
Tape-record at least ten minutes of your conversation with a friend of family
member. Talk about a subject that you hold strong views about: affirmative action,

54

welfare, taxes, candidates for office, etc. Be sure to get permission from the other
person before you tape. At first, you may feel self-conscious about the recorder. But as
you get into the discussion, it is quite likely that you will be able to converse normally.
Next, play back the tape and take notes of sections where your language might
have been clearer. Using these notes, write better expressions of your ideas for each
section you noted by using more precise, specific, and concrete language and by dating
and indexing generalizations.
Now replay the tape again. This time take notes on any racist, sexist, or biased
expression that you used. Using these notes, write more appropriate expressions for
the ones you used.
Finally, using the worksheet that follows, write a paragraph or two that describes
what you have learned about your use of language from this experience.
Monitoring Your Use of Language Worksheet
Conversation time and date: _________________________________
Conversation participants: ___________________________________
Conversation topic: ________________________________________
Areas of unclear language: __________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Areas of sexist, racist or biased language: ______________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
What have you learned?

55

Activity 3.8
Using Technology
How your ideas are worded can make a great deal of difference in whether people will
understand or be influenced by what you say. You can use your word processing
software to help you with your brainstorming. Nearly every word processing package
has a thesaurus (a list of words and their synonyms) for the user to access. For
instance, in the Microsoft Word package, the user can highlight a specific word, click on
Tools, drag down to Thesaurus, and be presented with synonyms for the word. For
practice, select any word that you would like to improve upon and look at the synonym
choices available. Then select the choice you believe would be most meaningful. For
instance, if you highlighted difficult when you clicked on Thesaurus, you would be
shown hard, laborious, arduous, and strenuous. If you wanted more choices, you could
then highlight one of these words to see additional choices. If you are trying to make
the point that studying can be difficult, you might decide to use arduous as the most
precise word.

Activity 3.9
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the scenario titled What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics, and then answer
the questions that follow in the space below.

3.7 Using InfoTrac College Edition


Although it is easy to spot sexism in language when someone uses a negative slang
term to describe a person of the opposite sex, there are other ways language can be
considered sexist.
Using the InfoTrac College Edition subject guide, enter the search terms sexism in
language. Click on Periodical references. See Gender Issues in Advertising
Language, Nancy Artz (1999). Focus on one of the issues discussed in the article.
What is the significance of the examples presented? Why should people be concerned
about this issue?
3.8 Using InfoTrac College Edition

56

It is interesting to observe how language use and word choice changes over time.
Using the InfoTrac College Edition subject guide, attempt to find information on how
language use and word choice has changed over time. Be sure to discuss the article
One person's word choice can be another's insult Sarasota Herald Tribune, Dec 9,
2001 pBS3. What are some of the reasons for the changing use of words?
3.9 Using InfoTrac College Edition
Using InfoTrac College Edition, find and read the article I love you man: Overt
expression of affection in male-male interaction, by Mormon and Floyd. Summarize
the article using the worksheet below, then develop guidelines for how men can use
language to develop intimacy.
Article Summary:

Guidelines for Creating Intimacy Using Language:

57

Web Resource 3.1


Merriam-Webster Online
An easy way to consult a thesaurus is to access Merriam-Websters online Collegiate
Thesaurus. Use your Communicate! website to access Web Resource 3.1 MerriamWebster Online. Select the chapter resources for Chapter 3, then click on web
resources.

Web Resource 3.2


Slang Dictionary
Slang and jargon are so pervasive that there are special dictionaries devoted to the
specialized vocabulary of different communities. To access one maintained by
California State University at Pomona, use your Communicate! website to access Web
Resource 3.2: Slang Dictionary at the Communicate! Web site.

58

Chapter 3 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)


True/False
_____1. The text defines language as the body of symbols and the systems for
their use that are common to the people of the same language community.
_____2. Connotative meanings are the standard dictionary meanings for words.
_____3. A words meaning can be affected by other words in the same
sentence.
_____4. Saying 35mm SLR instead of camera is an example of using
concrete words.
_____5. Dating information is telling when the information was true.
_____6. The United States is a speech community
_____7. One of the uses of language is to talk about language.
Multiple Choice
_____1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Which of the following is true of denotative meanings?


meanings change over time
meanings vary depending on life experiences
there can be more than one denotative meaning for a word
all of these are true
none of these are true

_____2.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Saying A professor puts in long, hard years to earn his degree


is an example of word connotation
is an example of word denotation
may be an example of sexist language
may be an example of specific language

_____3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

One of the best skills to use to avoid stereotyping is


dating
feedback
denotation
connotation
indexing

59

_____4. In response to the statement I dont think we should ask Jessica to be


on the team smart kids make lousy athletes, you might use an indexing response
such as
a. although geniuses are usually weak, we dont know Jessica is a genius
b. we can still ask her to be on the team because she is our friend
c. Its true Jessica is smart, but we dont know if she is athletic too.
d. Jessica is not as smart as you think
e. None of these are indexing statements
_____5. Jargon
a. is technical terminology
b. is never appropriate
c. is often useful for dating information
d. is the same as slang
e. none of the above
_____6.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

A speech community
is a group of people who speak the same language
can range in size from just a few people to hundreds of millions
is the same as a language community
all of the above
none of the above

_____7. Your friend tells you he will be around to see you tomorrow morning.
He shows up at 11:45 AM while you expected him at 9 AM. You and he get into a
discussion about the meaning of tomorrow morning. This is an example of
a. how we use language to discuss things outside our immediate
experience.
b. indexing
c. using language to limit
d. using language to talk about language
_____8.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

In a high-context culture,
Yes may mean no.
meaning is presented directly
context is irrelevant
none of the above
all of the above

60

Essay
1. Discuss the differences between low-context and high-context cultures.

2. Analyze the statement women tend to use both more intensifiers and more
hedges than men.

3. Compare and contrast connotative and denotative language. Provide


examples.

4. What are the key aspects of speaking appropriately? Be sure to include an


example of each.

5. What are the four uses of language? Provide an example of each.

6. Should hate speech in the media be regulated? Why or why not? If yes, then
who should decide what can be broadcast, by what mechanisms, and under what
circumstances?

61

Helpful Links
http://www.apa.udel.edu/apa/publications/texts/nonsexist.html - Guidelines for
Non-Sexist Use of Language
The language policy of the American Philosophical Association is an excellent
example of both the rationale for and implementation of language use guidelines.
http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/conndeno.html Connotations and Denotations
Written by David Megginson of the University of Ottawa, this site offers a concise
look at connotations and offers an example.
http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/inclusiv.ht
m - Dos and Donts of Inclusive Language
From the Honolulu County Committee on the Status of Women. A set of
guidelines on the use of inclusive language.
http://www.britannica.com/dictionary - Britannica Dictionary and Thesaurus
Another good online dictionary and thesaurus.
(See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.)

62

CHAPTER 4: Communicating through Nonverbal


Behaviors
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
What are the characteristics of nonverbal communication?
In what ways do we communicate nonverbally with our bodies?
In what ways do we communicate nonverbally with our voices?
In what ways do we communicate nonverbally with our use of space?
In what ways do we communicate nonverbally with our use of time?
What can you do to improve your nonverbal communication skills?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication Behavior
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Types of Nonverbal Communication
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Use of Body: Kinesics
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Gestures
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Eye Contact
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

63

3. Facial Expression
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. Posture
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
5. Haptics
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Use of Voice: Vocalics
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Pitch
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Volume
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Rate
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

64

4. Quality (Timbre)
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
5. Intonation
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
6. Vocalized Pauses
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Use of Space: Proxemics
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Personal Space
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Physical Space
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Artifacts
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

65

D. Use of Time: Chronemics


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Self-Presentation Cues
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Physical Appearance
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Clothing and Grooming
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
III. Guidelines for Improving Nonverbal Communication
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Sending Nonverbal Messages
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Interpreting Nonverbal Messages
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

66

Key Terms
nonverbal communication behaviors
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
kinesics or body motions
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
gestures
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
illustrators
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
emblems
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
adaptors
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
eye contact or gaze
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

67

oculesics
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
facial expression
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
posture
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
body orientation
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
body movement
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
haptics
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
vocalics
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
paralanguage
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

68

pitch
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
volume
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
rate
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
quality
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
intonation
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
vocalized pause
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
proxemics
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
personal space
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

69

physical space
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
artifacts
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
chronemics
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
monochronic time orientation
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
polychronic time orientation
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
endomorphs
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
mesomorphs
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
ectomorphs
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

70

Activities
Skill Learning Activity 4.1
Observe and Analyze: Body Motions
Find a public setting (for example, a restaurant) where you can observe two
people having a conversation. They should be close enough to you so that you can
observe their eye contact, facial expression, and gesturebut not close enough that
you can hear what they are saying. Carefully observe the interaction with the goal of
answering the following questions: What is their relationship? How did each person feel
about the conversation. Did feelings change over the course of the conversation? Was
one person more dominant? What seemed to be the nature of the conversation (social
chit-chat, plan making, problem solving, argument, intimate discussion)? Take notes of
the specific nonverbal behavior that led you to each conclusion and write a paragraph
describing this experience and what you have learned.

Activity 4.1 Observation Form: Body Motions


Behavior (frequency)
Participant 1

Participant 2

Eye contact

High

Med

Low

High

Med

Low

Smiling

High

Med

Low

High

Med

Low

Forward lean of body

High

Med

Low

High

Med

Low

Touches or plays with hair

High

Med

Low

High

Med

Low

Touches or plays with clothes

High

Med

Low

High

Med

Low

Taps hand or fingers on surface High

Med

Low

High

Med

Low

Arm position relative to body

Med

Low

High

Med

Low

High

What is their relationship?


Acquaintances

Intimate friends

Business associates

Friends

Romantic partners

What type of conversation did this appear to be?


Social chit-chat

Plan making

Problem solving

Argument

Intimate sharing

71

How did each person feel about the conversation (what emotions were
displayed)?
Participant 1:
Participant 2:
Did feelings change over the course of the discussion? If so, how?
Participant 1:
Participant 2:
Who was more dominant?
Participant 1
Participant 2
Neither seemed to dominate

72

Activity 4.2
Vocal Characteristics
Spend a few hours listening to public or talk radio. If possible, listen to a station that
broadcasts in a language with which you are unfamiliar. Attempt to block out your
awareness of the speakers words and instead, focus on the meaning communicated by
the pitch, volume, rate, and quality of their speech. Be sure to listen to a number of
different speakers and record your results in a log. Can you detect any variations in the
vocal characteristics of the different speakers? If so, what do you make of these
variations and what they say about each speakers message?
To help you complete this activity, you can use the log sheet provided in your Premium
Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 4.

Activity 4.3
Observe & Analyze - Violating Intimate Space Norms
Enter a crowded elevator. Get on it, and face the back. Make direct
eye contact with the person you are standing in front of. When you disembark record
the persons reactions. On the return trip, introduce yourself to the person who is
standing next to you and engage in an animated conversation. Record the reaction of
the person and others around you. Get on an empty elevator and stand in the exact
center. Do not move when others board. Record their reactions. Be prepared to share
what you have observed with your classmates.

Activity 4.4
Observe and Analyze: Self-Presentation Audit
Once you have completed the audit sheet below, review how you have described
yourself on each of the self-presentation dimensions. Then write a short essay in which
you describe how you present yourself, evaluate how satisfied you are with this image,
and list what if any adjustments to your self-presentation you would like to make so that
your self-presentation matches the image you are trying to project.

73

Self-Presentation Audit
1. Body type
a. What is your body type?

_____________________________

b. How does your body type affect your

_____________________________

communication with others?

_____________________________

c. Given your body type, are you in good

_____________________________

shape.

_____________________________

d. Does your body type seem to affect

_____________________________

how others react to you?

_____________________________

2. Clothing and personal grooming


a. Take a tour of your closet and drawers.

_____________________________

Describe your dominant clothing style.

_____________________________

b. Why do you choose to dress as you

_____________________________

do?

_____________________________

c. What does your style of dress

_____________________________

communicate to those who see you?

_____________________________

d. Is this consistent with the image you

_____________________________

wish to project?

_____________________________

e. To what extent do the clothes you own

_____________________________

permit you to alter your image?

_____________________________

f. Are there certain types of clothing that

_____________________________

you feel you should acquire in order to

_____________________________

project a different image? If so,

_____________________________

describe the clothing and how it would

_____________________________

alter the image you project.

_____________________________

g. Do you have any body art (permanent

_____________________________

tattoos)? If so, describe the location(s)

_____________________________

and design(s).

_____________________________

h. How did you choose the location(s) for

_____________________________

the body art?

_____________________________

i. If you have body art that is usually

_____________________________

visible, what did you want those who

_____________________________

saw it to think about you? What do you

_____________________________
74

think those who see the tattoo think

_____________________________

about you? Are you pleased that they

_____________________________

would conclude this?

_____________________________

j. Do you have body piercing? If so,

_____________________________

describe the locations and the jewelry

_____________________________

that you usually wear in them.

_____________________________

k. How did you choose the location(s)?

_____________________________

l. If you have piercings that are usually

_____________________________

visible, what did you want those who

_____________________________

saw them to think about you? What do

_____________________________

you think those who see the piercings

_____________________________

think? Are you pleased that they would

_____________________________

conclude this?

_____________________________

3. Poise
a. How comfortable are you when you

_____________________________

meet strangers?

_____________________________

b. How comfortable are you in expressing

_____________________________

your ideas in a small gathering of

_____________________________

friends?

_____________________________

c. How well are you able to figure out what

_____________________________

must be done and to take charge in a

_____________________________

crisis?

_____________________________

d. Do you enjoy speaking in front of a

_____________________________

large group of people?

_____________________________

e. Do you enjoy the job interviewing

_____________________________

process and find it easy to answer

_____________________________

questions and present your ideas?

_____________________________

f. Are you satisfied with your level of

_____________________________

poise?

_____________________________

g. Do others praise you for your self-

_____________________________

confidence?

_____________________________

4. Touch
a. Do you like to touch others?

_____________________________

75

b. Are you comfortable being touched by

_____________________________

others?

_____________________________

c. Are you comfortable giving a stranger a

_____________________________

firm hand shake?

_____________________________

d. Are you comfortable hugging a casual

_____________________________

acquaintance?

_____________________________

e. Do you find it easy to initiate hugging?

_____________________________

f. Do you touch more or less than others

_____________________________

in your family? Friendship circle?

_____________________________

Workplace?

_____________________________

g. Have other people commented on your

_____________________________

use of touch? If so, what have they

_____________________________

said?

_____________________________

h. Overall, what messages do you think

_____________________________

you send to others by how you use

_____________________________

touch?

_____________________________

i. Are you satisfied with these messages?

_____________________________

5. Time
a. How well do your expectations for the

_____________________________

duration of activities meet the realities

_____________________________

that you encounter? Do you

_____________________________

consistently over- or underestimate the

_____________________________

time that activities will last? How does

_____________________________

this affect others perceptions of and

_____________________________

communication with you?

_____________________________

b. Do your activities correspond to those

_____________________________

expected in a given period, or do you

_____________________________

keep a personal schedule that is at

_____________________________

odds with the expectations of most of

_____________________________

the other people with whom you

_____________________________

interact? How does your activity

_____________________________

schedule affect what others think about

_____________________________

you?

_____________________________

76

c. How do you view time? Are you more of

_____________________________

monochronic or a polychronic in your

_____________________________

use of time? Do you usually arrive Very

_____________________________

early? Early? Exactly on time? Late?

_____________________________

Very late? Do others comment on your

_____________________________

early or late arrival? How does this

_____________________________

affect how others see you?

_____________________________

d. How well does your use of time

_____________________________

correspond to that of those with whom

_____________________________

you communicate most frequently?

_____________________________

77

Activity 4.5
Gender Variations in Body Motions
Find a place in the cafeteria or another public spot where you can observe the
conversation of others. You are to observe the nonverbal behaviors of three dyads for
at least five minutes each. First, observe the interaction of two men, then the interaction
of two women, and finally, the interaction of a man and a woman. Using the
Observation Tally Sheet provided here, record each participants behavior and any
other behavioral cues you note. Using these observation notes, review the material on
male and female use of body motions. Did your observations confirm these trends? If
they did not, develop an explanation about why they didnt, using the sheet that follows.
Nonverbal Behavior Observation Form: Body Motions
Dyad #1:
Behavior (frequency)

Participant 1 (sex: _)

Eye contact
Smiling
Forward lean of body
Touches or plays with hair
Touches or plays with clothes
Taps hand or fingers on surface
Arm position relative to body

High
High
High
High
High
High
High

Dyad #2:
Behavior (frequency)

Participant 1 (sex: _)

Eye contact
Smiling
Forward lean of body
Touches or plays with hair
Touches or plays with clothes
Taps hand or fingers on surface
Arm position relative to body

High
High
High
High
High
High
High

Dyad #3:
Behavior (frequency)

Participant 1 (sex: _)

Eye contact
Smiling
Forward lean of body
Touches or plays with hair

High
High
High
High

Med
Med
Med
Med
Med
Med
Med

Med
Med
Med
Med
Med
Med
Med

Med
Med
Med
Med

78

Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low

Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low

Low
Low
Low
Low

Participant 2 (sex: __)


High
High
High
High
High
High
High

Med
Med
Med
Med
Med
Med
Med

Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low

Participant 2 (sex: __)


High
High
High
High
High
High
High

Med
Med
Med
Med
Med
Med
Med

Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low

Participant 2 (sex: __)


High
High
High
High

Med
Med
Med
Med

Low
Low
Low
Low

Touches or plays with clothes


High Med
Taps hand or fingers on surface High Med
Arm position relative to body
High Med

Low
Low
Low

High Med
High Med
High Med

Low
Low
Low

Using these observation notes, review the material on male and female use of
body motions. Did your observations confirm these trends? If they did not, develop an
explanation about why they didnt:

Activity 4.6 Vocal Interferences


Tape-record yourself talking for several minutes about any subject. When you
finish, estimate the number of vocal interferences you used. Then replay the tape and
compare the actual number with your estimate. How close was your estimate? Wait a
day or two and try it again. As your ear becomes trained, your estimates will be closer
to the actual number. Keep a record of your improvement using the worksheet provided
below. Now that you have raised your awareness, identify the vocal interference you
use most frequently and develop a communication improvement plan (see the sample in
Chapter 1) to reduce your use of that vocal interference.
Vocal Interference Worksheet
Date
1.

Estimated Number

Actual Number

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Most commonly used interference:

79

Difference

Activity 4.7
Cultural Differences in Self-Presentation
Interview or converse with two international students from different countries. Try
to select students whose cultures differ from one another and from the culture with
which you are most familiar. Develop a list of questions related to the self-presentation
behaviors discussed in your text and record them in the space provided below and on
the following page. Try to understand how people in the international students country
differ from you in their use of nonverbal self-presentation behaviors. Prepare to share
what you have learned with your classmates.
Interview Questions and Answers (Student #1):

Interview Questions and Answers (Student #2):

80

Activity 4.8
What Would You Do?
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 4. Answer the
following questions in the space provided here.
1. Analyze Barrys nonverbal behavior. What was he attempting to achieve?

2. How do you interpret Lisa and Marquezs nonverbal reactions to Barry?

3. Was Barrys behavior ethically acceptable? Explain.

4.9 Using InfoTrac College Edition


Touching behavior can be perceived as a sign of comforting, affection, or
harassment. Using the InfoTrac College Edition subject guide, enter the term touch.
Click on periodical references. Then open Just the right touch, Patrick McCormick
(June 1999) for a discussion of touch as comforting. Under what circumstances is
touch most comforting?
4.10 Using InfoTrac College Edition
A great deal of research has been done on the importance of touch in healing
and health care. Using InfoTrac College Edition, find Studies Give new Meaning to
Hands-on Healing, Psychology Today, March 2000 v33 i2 p25. Then using the View
other articles linked to these subjects feature of InfoTrac College Edition, find similar
articles and summarize their findings below. Were you surprised at what you found?
4.11 Using Technology
As you watch a tape or DVD of a movie or a television program, select a
segment where two people are talking with each other for a couple of minutes. The first
time you watch, mute the audio (turn off the sound). Based on nonverbal behaviors
alone, determine the climate of the conversation (Are the people flirting? In conflict?
Discussing an issue? Kidding around? Making small talk?). What nonverbal behaviors
and reactions led you that conclusion? Watch the video a second time, observing

81

nonverbals but also listening to vocal variations in volume, pitch, and rate of speed. Do
any of these vocal cues add to your assessment? Then watch it a third time, focusing
on what the characters are saying. Now analyze the segment. What percentage of
meaning came from nonverbal elements? What did you learn from this exercise?
4.12 Using the Internet
Using e-mail, chat room, discussion board or online instant messaging software,
conduct a running conversation with a friend, classmate or other acquaintance. Do not
use videoconferencing software. Be sure to discuss several issues, engaging in both
serious and humorous interactions. Analyze the conversation and its outcomes. Were
there any ambiguities or misunderstandings? Were there any moments when you could
not tell if your partner was being funny, serious, sarcastic, or emotional? Were there
any times when your partner could not tell your level of sarcasm, humor, or emotion?
Were these problems resolved? If so, how? Would a face-to-face conversation have
avoided some or all of these problems? Why or why not?

Web Resource 4.1


Maria Brazil
Maria-Brazil.org is a U.S.-based Web site dedicated to Brazilian culture. The link at your
Premium Website will take you to a page on the site that depicts how Brazilians use
body language to communicate. How does Brazilian body language compare to body
language used in the United States?

82

Chapter 4 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)


True/False
_____1. Nonverbal cues provide very little social meaning in interpersonal
communication.
_____2. When Shari uses her hands to show shape and size while saying A bocce
ball is about 6 inches in diameter, she is using body action as an illustrator.
_____3. Personal space is the part of the physical environment over which you
exert control.
_____4. Cultures throughout history have practiced body painting.
_____5. In some cultures, eye contact is considered rude.
_____6. Paralanguage is the nonverbal sound of what we hear; how
something is said.
_____7. Asian cultures are for the most part high-contact cultures.
Multiple Choice
_____1.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Pitch
is defined as highness or lowness of tone
changes often accompany volume changes
may be higher when someone is expressing nervousness
all of the above

_____2. If Dwayne pounds his fist on the table while he is telling Diane Dont
bother me right now, we can say Dwayne is
a. using body movement to mimic emotion
b. using body movement to describe emotion
c. using body movement to emphasize speech
d. none of the above

83

_____3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Vocal characteristics
convey no meaning beyond the words themselves
include pitch, volume, rate, and quality
can convey significant meaning
b and c
none of the above

_____4.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Which of the following is an example of paralanguage?


pointing at the dog
moving the furniture around to improve communication
saying one word in a sentence louder than the others
ignoring the dog

_____5. You are driving a nail with a hammer. You accidentally hit your finger.
The look on your face in response to the hammer hitting your thumb would be
a. a display of the feelings
b. an adapter to the situation
c. a tension reliever
d. a regulator
e. a polychronic
_____6.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Eye contact
shows we are paying attention
can reveal emotions
allows us to monitor the effects of communication
all of the above

_____7. We observe Gracie slamming her purse down on the table and loudly
yelling I cant stand calculus! We then assume that she meant to do this. This is an
example of what principle of nonverbal communication?
a. nonverbal communication accompanies verbal communication
b. nonverbal communication takes the place of verbal communication
c. nonverbal communication has less meaning than verbal messages
d. nonverbal communication is assumed to be intentional by the observer.
_____8. Body movements
a. take the place of a word or phrase
b. illustrate what the speaker is saying
c. control or regulate the flow of information
d. relieve tension
e. all of the above

84

Essay
1. Discuss some cultural variations in self-presentation

2. Discuss how vocal interferences can influence the perception you make on
others.

3. Describe the four distances of informal space identified in the chapter. Give
an example of a situation in which each distance would be appropriate.

4. What are the elements of paralanguage, and how does each element affect
message meaning? Provide examples to illustrate your points.

5. Discuss why effective communicators need to understand cultural and gender


differences in the interpretation of nonverbal behaviors.

85

Helpful Links
http://www.unl.edu/casetudy/456/traci.htm - Analysis of Cultural
Communication and Proxemics, (By Traci Olsen.)
http://www.csun.edu/~vcecn006/nonverb.html - Nonverbal Communication
Helps Us Live
A helpful review of the importance of nonverbal communication in everyday life.
From California State University Northridge.
http://www.ivillage.com/home/fengshui/articles/0,,415228_270596,00.html - 4
Feng Shui Success Stories
The art of Feng Shui is explained in this alternative look at the importance of
management of the environment. From iVillage.com.
http://members.aol.com/nonverbal3/eyecon.htm - Eye Contact
This site that looks at eye contact from a variety of different perspectives, some
with photos for examples. From the Center for Nonverbal Studies
http://members.aol.com/nonverbal2/index.htm - The Center for Nonverbal
Studies homepage (Created by David Givens.)
(See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.)

86

CHAPTER 5: Listening and Responding


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
What is listening, and why is it important?
What are the five different types listening?
How can you improve your listening skills by focusing your attention?
How can you improve your listening skills to increase understanding?
What are three tactics that can help you remember what you hear?
How can you improve your listening skill of evaluating what youve heard?
How can you improve your listening skills so that you appropriately respond to what
youve heard?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. What Is Listening?
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II . Types of Listening
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Appreciative Listening
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Discriminative Listening
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

87

C. Comprehensive Listening
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Empathic Listening
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Critical Listening
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
III. Steps in the Listening Process

A. Attending
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Understanding
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Remembering
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Evaluating
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

88

E. Responding
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
IV. Conversation and Analysis
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Key Terms
hearing
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
listening
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
attending
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
understanding
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
content paraphrase
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

89

feelings paraphrase
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
empathy
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
empathic responsiveness
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
perspective taking
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
sympathetic responsiveness
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
remembering
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
mnemonic device
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
factual statements
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

90

inferences
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Activities
Skill Learning Activities
Activity 5.1
Questions and Paraphrases
Provide an appropriate question and paraphrase for each of these statements.
To get you started, look at this authors model:
Example: Its Dionnes birthday, and Ive planned a big evening. Sometimes I
think Dionne believes I take her for grantedwell, after tonight shell know I think shes
something special!
Question: What specific things do you have planned?
Paraphrase: If Im understanding you, youre really proud that youve planned a
night thats going to be a lot more elaborate than what Dionne expects on her birthday.
1. Luis: It was just another mind-numbing class. I keep thinking one of these days
Professor Romero will get excited about something. He is a real bore!
2. Angie: Everyone seems to be raving about the new reality show on Channel 5 last
night, but I didnt see it. You know, I dont watch the boob tube.
3. Kaelin: I dont know if its me or Mom, but lately she and I just arent getting along.
4. Aileen: Ive got a report due at work and a paper due in management class. On top
of that, its my sisters birthday, and so far I havent even had time to get her
anything. Tomorrows going to be a disaster.

91

Activity 5.2
Empathizing Effectively
Write a paragraph describing a time when you effectively empathized with
another person. What was the persons emotional state? How did you recognize it?
What were the nonverbal cues? Verbal cues? What type of relationship do you have
with this person? How similar at the two of you? What type of empathizing did you
use? Why?

Activity 5.3
Test Your Competence - Creating Mnemonics
Mnemonics are useful memory aids. Construct a mnemonic for the five phases of the
listening process: attending, understanding, remembering, evaluating, and responding.
Record your mnemonic. Tomorrow, while you are getting dressed, see whether you
can recall the mnemonic you created. Then see whether you can recall the phases of
the Listening process from the cues in your mnemonic. How well did you do? Write a
brief paragraph describing your experience.
Activity 5.4
Test Your Competence Listening to Remember
At the Communicate! web site you can take a listening test to evaluate how well you
remember what you hear, with and without notes. The information presented assumes
that you are on your first day of a new job working in a college department office. You
will listen to the directions once and then take a test. This first time, you should not take
notes. The second time, as you listen, take notes. Then use these notes to help you
answer the questions on the second test. To complete this activity online, use your
Communicate! website to access Student Resources for Chapter 5, then click on Skill
Learning Activities and select this activity.
Activity 5.5
Test Your Competence Evaluating Inferences
For each of the statements below, identify the fact(s), and identify the
inference(s). Then, write three specific questions that test the validity of the inference.
You can also complete this activity on-line at the Communicate! web site and compare
your answers to the model supplied by the authors. At the web site select Student
Resources for Chapter 5, and then select this activity.

92

Example: The campus walk-in health clinic is understaffed. I stopped by the other day
and had to wait two hours to be seen.
Fact: I had to wait two hours to be seen at the walk-in clinic
Inference: The clinic is understaffed.
Questions:
1. Is one persons experience alone enough to support the inference?
2. Are there times when there is not a backlog?
3. Are there other things besides staffing levels which could account for
the wait?
1. Christy got a 96% on the first test. She must have crammed all weekend.
2. Kalis pregnant. Just look at how tight her jeans are, she can barely keep
them buttoned.
3. You cant get a good job, unless you know someone. Mike searched
everywhere for six months before he finally talked to his next-door neighbor who
hired him for his construction company.

4. If you want to go to dental school when you graduate, forget it. In the past
three years, none of the students from this program who applied, got in.
5. Kids today are growing up too fast. I mean, they carry cell phones and
everything.
Activity 5.6
Critically Analyzing the Use of Facts and Inferences in the Media
Watch a political talk show and an infomercial on television. If possible, record the two
programs so you can watch them more than once. While you are watching the
programs, note as many individual factual statements and inferences in each program
as you can. Next, write a paragraph in which you answer these questions: What was the
ratio of factual statements to inferences in the two programs (for example, 1-to-1, 1-to-2,
and so on)? Did these results surprise you? If so, how? Were the ratios different for the
two programs? If so, how did the results conform to or deviate from your expectations?
How did evaluating the inferences used in the two programs change your perception of
their messages?
To help you complete this activity, you can use the log provided in your Premium
Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 5.

93

Activity 5.7 Conversation and Analysis


Use your Communicate! website to access the video clip of Damien and Chriss
conversation. Click on the In Action! icon in the menu, then click on Conversation
menu in the menu bar. Select Damien and Chris Overview to watch the video (it
takes a minute for the video to load). As you watch the interaction, analyze how well
Damien uses the skills of active listening and how well his responses demonstrate
effective support and comforting. You can respond to this and other analysis questions
by clicking on Analysis in the menu bar. When youre done with this activity, compare
your answers to the authors at the Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them
in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 5. Below is a transcript of this conversation
that you can use to take notes as you watch the video.
Note: Damien and Chris work in a small shop selling shirts and gifts. Usually they get
along well, but lately Chris has seemed standoffish. Damien decides to talk with
Chris to see if anything is wrong. Damien approaches Chris in the break room.
Conversation

Analysis

Damien: Chris, youve been kind of


quiet lately, man. Whats been going on?

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: Nothing.

_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: Come on, man, Whats


going on?

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: Just life. (shrugs) Im just kind


of down right now.

_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: Well, what am I here for? I


thought we were friends.

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris thinks about it and decides to


talk about it.

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: Well, Carls been on my case


the last few weeks.

_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: Why? Did you do


something?

_____________________________
_____________________________

94

Chris: Oh, he says that Im sloppy


when I restock and Im not always polite to
our customers. You know, just cuz I dont
smile all the time. I mean, what does he want
little Mary Sunshine?

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: So youre angry with the

_____________________________

boss.

_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: Yeah, I guess. . . no, no, not


so angry, Im just frustrated. I come in to work
every day and I try to do my job and I dont
complain. You know, Im sick and tired of
getting stuck back there in the stock room
reorganizing everything. Its not like theyre
paying us big bucks here. And Carl shouldnt
expect us to be charming with everybody
who walks through that door. I mean, half of
the people who walk through that door are,
well, theyre totally rude and act like jerks.

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: Yeah, I feel like you on that.


Some of those people shouldnt be allowed
out in public. What is Carl saying about how
youre dealing with the customers?

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: Oh, he just says that Ive


changed and that Im not being nice. I
mean, he used to call me his top guy.

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: I mean, you know how Carl


is. Hes a fanatic about customer service.
You know how, when we first started, he
drilled us about being polite and smiling and
being courteous at all times. So maybe when
he says youre not being nice, he just
means that youre not doing it all the way you
used to. I mean, Ive notice a change. I
mean, youre just not yourself lately. Is
anything going on outside of work?

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: You could say that. Sarah and


I just bought a house, so moneys been a bit
tight. Now, she wants to quit her job and start
a family, and Im not sure we can afford it. On

_____________________________
_____________________________

95

top of it all, my kid sister shows up a few


weeks ago on our doorstep, pregnant, and
now shes living with us, so yeah, it is a bit
overwhelming. And Im a bit worried that
Carls going to fire me.

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: Wow, that is a lot of stuff! I


can understand why youre down, but did
Carl really threaten to fire you?

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: No, no, but Im not perfect and


he could use my attitude as an excuse to
fire me.

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: Well, did you think about


telling him whats been going on? And
maybe, you know, hell understand and cut
you some slack.

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: Or he could see that I really


have changed and hed can me.

_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: Ok, well, just tell me this. Do


you like working here?

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: Yeah, of course I do.

_____________________________
_____________________________

Damien: OK, well, then, youve just


got to tough it out. I mean, youve just got to
use the game face on these people. You
used to be the best at doing that. So youre
just gonna have to get back to being a
salesman, and leave everything else behind.

_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________

Chris: I guess I never realized how


much my problems were affecting my work. I
thought Carl was just out to get me, but now
youre noticing something too, then maybe I
have changed. Thanks. Thanks for talking
this out.

_____________________________

96

Activity 5.8
Attending
Select an information-oriented program on your public television station. Watch
at least fifteen minutes of the show while lounging in a comfortable chair or while
stretched out on the floor with music playing on a radio in the background. For the next
fifteen minutes, make a conscious effort to use the guidelines for increasing
attentiveness. Then contrast your listening behaviors. What differences did you note
between the second segment and the first? What were the results of those differences?
Activity 5.9
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Why is listening perceived to be important in so many professions? Which
specific listening skills seem to be agreed upon as most important?
Using InfoTrac College Edition, search for the subject of listening. To answer
the questions, open several articles and summarize their findings below. Be sure to
include the bibliographic information for each article you discuss.

5.10
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Search using the term Empathy. Find the article with the very long title:
Emotional care of the patient & family in terminal illness: caring for a dying patient can
be very demanding. Pat MacDonald explains how expressing empathy can help
patients and their families but being aware of your own emotional needs is equally
important. Why is empathy important in health care, especially care of the terminally
ill? Do you think you could understand the world of the dying patient? Summarize the
article below.
Activity 5.11
What would you do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 5.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.
1. How ethical was Janeens means of dealing with her dilemma of not wanting
to talk on the phone but not wanting to hurt Barbaras feelings?

97

2. Identify ways in which both Janeen and Barbara could have used better and
perhaps more ethical interpersonal communication skills. Rewrite the scenario
incorporating these changes.

Web Resource 5.1: Mnemonics (p.)


You can read more about mnemonic techniques at MindTools.com. Use your
Communicate! website to access Web Resource 5.1: Mnemonics.

98

Chapter 5 Self-Test (answers at the end of this workbook)


True/False
_____1. The goal of discriminative listening is to accurately understand the
speakers meaning.
_____2. Listening involves noting verbal cues only.
_____3. Saying something over three or four times until you remember it is an
example of a mnemonic.
_____4. Inferences are never true.
_____5. The process of decoding a message to reflect the speakers intended
meaning is known as attending.
_____6. Comforting usually just takes a single phrase or sentence.
_____7. Critical analysis is the process of evaluating a statement in order to
determine its truthfulness.

Multiple Choice
_____1. The process of receiving, attending to, and assigning meaning to aural
and visual stimuli is the definition of
a. listening
b. critical analysis
c. empathy
d. inference making
_____2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Physical posture
is irrelevant to listening
guarantees successful listening
is part of being prepared both mentally and physically to listen
is only part of assigning meaning to information
none of the above

99

_____3. Maria says to Lisa, I saw Carlos earlier, and hes really excited about
something. Marias behavior is an example of
a. a factual statement
b. an inference
c. attending
d. empathy
_____4. Fred says Man, I really blew that assignment, I guess Im just not cut
out for physics! Barney replies If I understand you right, you didnt do a good job on
last nights homework? Barney is using what strategy of improving understanding?
a. empathy
b. questioning
c. attending
d. paraphrasing
e. articulating
_____5. Michelle remembers phone numbers by visualizing how her fingers
move across the dial pad, even to the extent of pretending to dial a phone number in
air. This artificial memory aid is an example of
a. inference making
b. a mnemonic device
c. a selection device
d. critical analysis
e. supporting behavior
_____6.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Offering supportive messages


is part of the responding process
can help express care and interest in the other
can cheer up the other
all of the above
none of the above

_____7. Albert has just told Paco that he just found out he failed his biology
midterm. If Paco pictures himself in that same situation, imagines how he would feel in
that situation, and then assumes that Albert is feeling the same way, Paco is
exemplifying:
a. respect
b. framing
c. perspective taking
d. questioning

100

_____8. Carla just told Keri that Zack broke up with her. Keri feels compassion
and concern for her friend, but she does not feel Carlas sense of loss and sadness.
Which of the following choices best represents Keris feelings?
a. She is feeling empathy for Carla
b. She is feeling sympathy for Carla
c. She is feeling respect for Carla
d. She is perspective taking
Essay
1. Describe the different stages of the listening process.

2. Describe several ways to improve your ability to remember information.

3. Explain the difference between factual statements and inferences, and


discuss why it is important to understand the difference.

4. What are some characteristics of effective support messages? Give


examples.

5. What is the difference between sympathy and empathy? Provide an example


of each.

101

Helpful Links
http://www.csbsju.edu/academicadvising/help/eff-list.html - Effective Listening
College of Saint Benedict | Saint John's University study skills guide for effective
listening and note-taking in class
http://www.listen.org/quotations/quotes.html - Quotations About Listening
The International Listening Associations list of quotes about listening. The
associations home page is http://www.listen.org/.
http://userpages.umbc.edu/~cweide1/oraloutline.html - Barriers to Effective
Listening
by Jack E. Hulbert.
http://marriage.about.com/cs/listening/index.htm?
once=true&iam=dpile&terms=+effective++listening - Listening
This site from About.com explores the importance of listening in marriage.
http://www.vandruff.com/art_converse.html - Conversational Terrorism
This site includes is a humorous approach to a discussion of what not to do when
responding to others.
http://www.campaign-forlearning.org.uk/campaigns/learningatwork/lawday/resources/tolerenceskills.htm Tolerance & Empathy Skills Resources
The Campaign for Learnings Tolerance and Empathy Skills Resources site.
(See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.)

102

II
INTERPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION
6. Communicating across Cultures
7. Communicating in Relationships
8. Communication Skills in Interpersonal Relationships

103

CHAPTER 6: Communicating across Cultures


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
What is intercultural communication?
What is the relationship between a dominant culture and a co-culture?
How does the communication of people from individualistic cultures differ from that of
people in collectivist cultures?
How does the communication of people from high uncertainty-avoidance cultures differ
from that of people from low uncertainty-avoidance cultures?
How does the communication of people from high power-distance cultures differ from
that of the people from low power-distance cultures?
How does the communication of people from masculine cultures differ from that of
people from feminine cultures?
What barriers do we face when communicating interculturally?
How can you improve your intercultural communication?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Culture and communication
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
A. Intercultural communication
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
B. Dominant cultures and co-cultures
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
1. Race
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

104

2. Ethnicity
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
3. Sex and gender
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
4. Religion
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
5. Sexual orientation
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
6. Social class
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
7. Age
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
C. Cultural identity
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

105

II. Identifying cultural norms and values


______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
A. Individualism-collectivism
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
B. Uncertainty avoidance
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
C. Power distance
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
D. Masculinity-femininity
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
III. Barriers to effective intercultural communication
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
A. Anxiety
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
B. Assuming similarity or difference
______________________________________________________

106

______________________________________________________
C. Ethnocentrism
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
D. Stereotypes and prejudice
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
E. Incompatible communication codes
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
F. Incompatible norms and values
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
IV. Intercultural communication competence
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
A. Adopt correct attitudes
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
B. Acquire knowledge about other cultures
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

107

C. Develop culture-specific skills


______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Key Terms
altruism
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
co-cultures
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
collectivist culture
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
culture shock
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
dominant culture
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

egocentricity
108

______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
ethnicity
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
ethnocentrism
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
feminine culture
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
flexibility
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
high power-distance culture
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
high uncertainty-avoidance culture
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________

109

individualistic culture
_______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
intercultural communication
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
intercultural empathy
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
low power-distance culture
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
low uncertainty-avoidance culture
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
masculine culture
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
religion
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

social class

110

______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Activities
Activity 6.1
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Race and Ethnicity
What is the difference between race and ethnicity? Can you think of examples of
people who are ethnically different but racially the same? Racially different but ethnically
the same? Can you think of anyone for who both designations might be identical? For
whom the two designations might be contradictory? What does this analysis suggest
about the accuracy and legitimacy of such classification systems?
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 6.1 in your textbook.
You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your professor. Go to
your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Skill Learning Activity 6.1.
Examples of individuals who are ethnically different but racially the same:
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Examples of individuals who are racially different but ethnically the same:
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Examples of individuals who are racially and ethnically the same:
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Examples of individuals who are racially and ethnically different:
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

111

Activity 6. 2
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Similarities and Differences
Recall a time when you visited a place that was different from your usual social
milieu: a different country, a different city, a different kind of club or market. Did you
assume any similarities or differences? Were your assumptions correct? How did they
affect your perception of the place? How did they affect your appreciation for or
enjoyment of the place?
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 6.2 in your textbook.
You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your professor. Go to
your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Skill Learning Activity 6.2.
Location:_______________________________________________
Basis of
Assumptions

Similarity
Assumptions

Difference
Assumptions

Race
Ethnicity
Sexual
Orientation
Religion
Social class
Age
IndividualismCollectivism
Uncertainty
Avoidance
Power Distance
MasculinityFemininity

Impact of assumptions:____________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

112

Activity 6.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Acquiring Correct Cultural Knowledge (p.
119)
For the next week conduct research into a distinct culture with which you
currently have little or no familiarity. This culture can be grounded in gender, race,
religion, ethnicity, social class, sexual orientation, age or some combination of these
factors, but whatever culture you choose to study be sure it is one that you can access
locally. First, arrange to observe members of the culture engaged in a typical activity
and make note of as many of their individual communication behaviors as you can. Be
sure to take your notes respectfully, being careful not to offend those you observe. Next,
spend some time formally researching the culture and its communication behaviors at a
library or over the Internet, only consulting reputable sources for your information.
Finally, observe members of the culture once more and then write a paragraph in which
you answer these questions: What were your impressions of the cultures
communication behaviors the first time you observed its members? How were these first
impressions altered, if at all, by your formal research into the culture? How did your
formal research affect your second observation of the culture?
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 6.3 in your textbook.
You can complete this activity online by going to your Communicate! Online Textbook
Resources to access Skill Learning Activity 6.3.
Activity 6.4
Note-taking log
Name of culture observed:_________________________________
Communication Behavior Observations (time 1)
Individualism-Collectivism__________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Uncertainty Avoidance____________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

113

Power Distance__________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Masculinity-Femininity_____________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Other Observations_______________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Research on the culture
Research Source:________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Summary_______________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Research Source:________________________________________
______________________________________________________

114

Summary_______________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Research Source:________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Summary_______________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Communication Behavior Observations (time 2)
Individualism-Collectivism__________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Uncertainty Avoidance____________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Power Distance__________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

115

Masculinity-Femininity_____________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Other Observations_______________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

Activity 6.5
Gender and Language
Consider the following statements about men and women in U.S. culture. After
you have thought about each of these statement, locate some references from your
library, the Internet, or other sources. Consider your own reactions and those ideas from
the sources you locate. Write a brief essay that summarizes both your ideas and those
that you located.

Why is it that a man who is ordinary in physical appearance is described as


average or pleasant looking while an ordinary woman is described as homely?
Why are thoughtful men described as considerate while thoughtful women are
considered oversensitive?
Why are devious men considered shrewd while devious women are considered
scheming?
Why are angry men defined as outraged while angry women are considered
hysterical?

116

Activity 6.6
Identifying Cultural Values
Take some time to think about the values that characterized U.S. American
culture. List five of the values that you think are most important.
1. __________________________________________________________
2.__________________________________________________________
3.__________________________________________________________
4.__________________________________________________________
5.__________________________________________________________
How are those values communicated?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
How do those values help or inhibit intercultural communication?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

117

Activity 6.7
Checking Assumptions
Listen to someone on the radio who you have never heard before and have
never seen. After listening to that person for about 2030 minutes, answer the following
questions.
How old is the speaker?___________________________________
What is the ethnicity of the speaker?_________________________
What is the sexual orientation of the speaker?__________________
What is the religion of the speaker?__________________________
What are the speakers values?_____________________________
______________________________________________________
What is the social class of the speaker?_______________________
Now, write a brief essay that summarizes your assumptions. Discuss why you
made those assumptions. Explain how your assumptions may impede interactions with
others.
Activity 6.7
My Cultures
Think about the various cultures that you belong to. These could include your
nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, etc. Which cultures do you consider
most important to you? Make a list of the three most important. Include a list of the
values that you believe are associated with each of those cultures. Why did you select
these cultures over others you belong to?
1. ____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________a.
______________________________________________________b.
2. ____________________________________________________
______________________________________________________a.
______________________________________________________b.
3. ____________________________________________________
118

______________________________________________________a.
______________________________________________________b.
Activity 6.8
What Would You Do?
Read the scenario titled A Question of Ethics in the chapter and then write a
brief essay answering the two questions found there.
1. What exactly are Margeauxs ethical obligations to Madhukar in this situation? Why?
2. Does the fact that Tyler is not the host relieve him of all ethical responsibility in this
case?
Additionally, why do you think dietary restrictions are an important part of some
religions?

Activity 6.9
Culture Clash
Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to locate the article Culture
Clash by Anver Versi. The article can be found in InfoTrac by searching ethnocentrism
in the subject guide and then viewing the periodical references. Write a brief reaction
essay regarding the influence of ethnocentrism and culture clash on business practices,
particularly in African nations.
Activity 6.10
Power Distance
Use your Communicate Online Textbook Resources to locate the article Whos
in Change? Cultural Value Differences: The Concept of Power Distance by Don
Rutherford. The article can be found in InfoTrac by searching power-distance in the
keyword search. Read the article and then write a brief essay describing what you
would do if you were in Bobs position. Consider how power-distance has an impact on
your own life in your workplace or at school.

119

Web Resource 6.1: Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions


Geert Hofstedes website lists national scores in five cultural dimensions: power
distance index, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance index, and long-term
orientation.
6.2: Individualism and Collectivism
This page from WestEnd.com, an agency that does research in education, offers
resources that explore the differences between individualism and collectivism and their
implications for teaching. One of their publications, a knowledge brief called Bridging
Cultures in Our Schools: New Approaches that Work, discusses sources of crossculture conflicts and describes strategies for resolving them. To read the brief online,
click on the link View online/PDF.

120

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
1. _____Culture shock occurs only when a person travels to another country.
2. _____All people in the United States are members of one dominant culture.
3. _____Race and ethnicity are essentially the same thing.
4. _____In terms of social class, the dominant culture of the United States reflects the
culture of the middle class.
5. _____High uncertainty-avoidance cultures like the United States have a lower
tolerance for unpredictable people, relationships, and events than low uncertaintyavoidance cultures.
6. _____People from low power-distance cultures believe that inequalities in power or
status should be underplayed or muted.
7. _____Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own culture is superior to others.
8. _____One way to improve intercultural communication is to be open minded in new
situations.
9. _____The opposite of altruism, a trait that can improve intercultural communication,
is egocentricity.

121

Multiple Choice
1. _____All of the following are true of gender differences except:
a.
women are primarily concerned with personal relationships when
they communicate
b.
men tend to include others in conversation more than women
c.
men tend to focus on tasks or outcomes when they communicate
d.
women tend to actively respond to others more than men when
they communicate
2. _____ Ethnicity is influenced by:
a.
language
b.
nationality
c.
religion
d.
ancestral customs
e.
all of the above
3. _____The dominant culture of the United States reflects _____ values and practices.
a. Buddhist
b. Jewish
c. Judeo-Christian
d. Islamic
4. _____Which of the following is not associated with individualistic cultures?
a. competition between people is desirable
b. personal rights and responsibilities are emphasized
c. voicing ones opinion is respected
d. maintaining the avoidance of embarrassment
5. _____When Jos receives assignment guidelines from his instructor, he prefers very
specific guidelines and a rubric that will be used to evaluate his work so that he
knows precisely how he will be graded. Jos is likely from a __________ culture.
a.
high uncertainty-avoidance
b.
low uncertainty-avoidance
c.
high power-distance
d.
low power-distance
6. _____Coming from rural Utah, Melissa felt some apprehension and discomfort about
her first week of class at New York University. Which barrier to effective intercultural
communication is she likely experiencing?
a.
anxiety
b.
assuming similarity
c.
ethnocentrism
d.
prejudice

122

7. _____Bob, who is originally from the United States, has been working in Mexico for
a automobile manufacturer. He has an idea for improving production efficiency, but
he believes the system for listening to and adopting his idea is out-of-date and
resistant to change. He knows the system in the United States is superior. Which
barrier to effective intercultural communication is he experiencing?
a.
anxiety
b.
assuming similarity
c.
ethnocentrism
d.
prejudice
8. _____One way to improve intercultural communication is to be aware that we may
feel uneasy or unsure of ourselves in new situations. We can improve
communication by being okay with that uncertainty. This means of improving
intercultural communication is:
a.
being tolerant of ambiguity
b.
being open-minded
c.
being altruistic
d.
none of these
9. _____Paul decided to take a trip to Costa Rica so that he could learn about that
culture by actively participating in it. Which means of improving intercultural
communication is he using?
a.
formal study
b.
immersing oneself in the culture
c.
tolerating ambiguity
d.
being open-minded
Essay
1. Describe the characteristics of both low and high power-distance cultures

2. Describe a situation in which either assuming similarity or assuming


difference would inhibit intercultural communication.

123

Helpful Links
Altruism
http://www.altruists.org/about/altruism/
Visit this site to learn more about the norms and values associated with altruism.
Find ideas for becoming more altruistic and enhancing this value in your community.
High and Low Culture
http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3a.htm
Find more information on this website related to social class. Read about some
of the distinctions that are made between high and low culture.
Mexican Culture
http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/mexico.htm
An interesting website that explores some of the features of a collectivist culture,
namely Mexico.
Improving Communication
http://www.diplomacy.edu/Language/Communication/improving.htm
An interesting website with various guidelines for improving intercultural
communication. This site is directed to international diplomats.
Uncertainty Avoidance Index
http://www.clearlycultural.com/geert-hofstede-cultural-dimensions/uncertaintyavoidance-index/
A fascinating website that discusses the uncertainty avoidance levels associated
with countries around the globe.
See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.

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CHAPTER 7: Understanding Interpersonal


Relationships
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

What is competent communication in acquaintance, friendship, and


intimate relationships?
How do disclosure and feedback affect relationship life cycles?
What role does communication play in beginning, developing, maintaining
and deteriorating relationships?
How do dialectal tensions operate in interpersonal relationships?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Types of Relationships
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Acquaintances
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Acquaintanceship Guidelines
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Friends
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Friendship Guidelines
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

125

C. Close Friendships or Intimates


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Intimacy Guidelines
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Disclosure and Feedback in Relationship Life Cycles
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. The Open Pane
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. The Secret Pane
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. The Blind Pane
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. The Unknown Pane
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

126

III. Communication in the Stages of Relationships


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Beginning Relationships
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Developing Relationships
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Maintaining Relationships
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Deteriorating and Dissolving Relationships
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

127

IV. Dialectics in Interpersonal Relationships


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Relationship Dialectics
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Autonomy Connection
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Openness Closedness
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Novelty Predictability
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Managing Dialectical Tensions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Key Terms
relationships
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

128

good relationship
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
acquaintances
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
impersonal communication
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
saving face
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
friends
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
trust
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
close friends or intimates
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
platonic relationship
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

129

romantic relationship
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
self-disclosure
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
feedback
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Johari window
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
maintaining a relationship
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
relationship transformation
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
dialectic
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

130

relational dialectics
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
autonomy
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
connection
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
openness
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
closedness
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
novelty
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
temporal selection
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
topical segmentation

131

neutralization
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
reframing
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

Exercises

Activity 7.1
Observe and Analyze: Distinguishing Between Types of Relationships
1. List five people who you have known for some time whom you consider to be
acquaintances. Why do you consider these people to be acquaintances rather than
friends? What do you talk about with each of these people? What subjects do you
avoid? Do any of these relationships have the potential to become friendships, if so,
what would you have to do to make that transition?
2. List five people who you have known for some time whom you consider to be
friends. Why do you consider each of these people to be a friend? How does your
relationship with each differ from you relationships with your acquaintances? What do
you talk about with each of these people? What subjects do you avoid? Do any of
these relationships have the potential to become best friendships or intimate
relationships? If so, what would you have to do to make the transition?
3. List one to three people who you have known for some time whom you
consider to be your best friends or your intimates. Why do you consider each of these
people to be best friends or intimates? What do you talk about with each of these
people? What subjects do you avoid? How does each of these relationships differ from
those you have with your friends?
Write an essay in which you describe what you have learned about your
relationships. You may write this essay and e-mail it to your instructor on line at the
Communicate! web site. This activity corresponds with Skill Learning Activity 7.1 in your
textbook.
Activity 7.2
Observe and Analyze: Johari Window
Access Web Resource 7.2: Interactive Johari Window. Select five or six
adjectives from the grid provided that you feel accurately describe yourself. Enter your
name (or an alias if youd prefer) and save your grid. Then ask a few of your friends,
132

relatives, or colleagues to access your grid and pick out five or six adjectives from that
grid that they feel describe you.
When you have finished, write a paragraph discussing what you have
learned. Did the adjectives other people picked to describe you match the adjectives
you picked for yourself? How does this information explain your experiences in
developing and sustaining relationships? Does this suggest any changes you need to
make to improve your relationships?
7.3: Dialectics in Your Relationships
Choose one of your current close friendship or intimate relationships. It can be
with a friend or family member. Briefly explain this assignment and ask your relationship
partner if she or he is willing to help you with this assignment and to have what you
discuss become part of a short paper you are doing for this class. Only if your partner
consents should you proceed. Otherwise, find another friend or intimate.
1. Briefly explain the concept of relationship dialectics to your partner. You may want to
have them read the section of this chapter that explains these.
2. Once your partner understands the concepts, have a conversation about each of
you has experienced each of these tensions over the course of your relationship.
Can you each think of specific instances when you were out of sync? How did this
play out in the relationship? Be specific and be sure to talk about each of the three
dialectical tensions.
3. Based on your conversation, write a short paper/journal entry in which you describe
what you learned. How has hearing your partner talk about how he or she
experienced these changed your understanding?
4. Given what you have learned in this conversation, how can you use this to improve
this relationship going forward.
Activity 7.4: Trevor and Meg
After youve watched the video of Trevor and Meg and have read the transcript of
their conversation, answer the following questions.
1. How do Trevor and Meg disclose their feelings and offer feedback?
2. What stage of their relationship life cycle do they seem to be in and why?
3. What dialectical tensions are they dealing with and what strategies are they, or
should they be, using to manage them?
4. What is Megs real fear?
When youre done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors at the
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 7.

Activity 7.5 Observe and Analyze: Advice on Cyber Relating


Imagine that a good friend of yours has become involved in a serious cyberrelationship and has asked for your advice. Based on what you have learned in this
course, and your own knowledge of cyber relationships, write this friend a letter in
which you give your friend educated advice on how to manage this relationship. Youll
133

want to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of cyber relationships, but also be
sure to recommend and explain specific communication skills that you have learned
that might help this friend to be more effective in the relationship.

Activity 7.6
Using InfoTrac College Edition
How does online education impact the relationship between students and
teachers? Many students and teachers feel the relationship developed in a classroom
setting is very important to educational success. So what happens when that face-toface relationship is replaced with an online one? Using the InfoTrac College Edition
subject guide, enter the term online relationship. See Joan E. Thiele, Carol Allen and
Mary Stuckys article Effects of web-based instruction on learning behaviors of
undergraduate and graduate students in Nursing and Health Care Perspectives.
Summarize the article in the space provided below. What did the authors find? Are you
surprised? Why?
Activity 7.7
Using the Web
Select one of the web sites noted at the end of this chapter. Each one is
indicative of the hundreds of web sites dealing with the material from this chapter.
Review the site and summarize the content in the space below. Compare this material
to that found in your text. What are the similarities and/or differences between the web
page and the text material? Attempt to explain any differences you might find.
Activity 7.8
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario, and answer the
following questions in the space provided here.
1. How is Jeff acting ethically/unethically in this situation?
2. Like Jeff, people in general have a reputation of acting differently in cyberspace
than they do in the real world. Are the ethics of cyberspace any different from those of
the real world? What about fantasyare the ethics of our private desires different from
the real world? Are we ethically obliged to disclose our fantasies to our loved ones?
Finally, use guidelines from Chapter 7 to role-play key moments in this scenario,
changing them to improve the communication ethics and the outcome of the situation.

134

Web Resources
7.1: Holding Effective Conversations
This bonus chapter discusses how to hold effective conversations.
7.2:

Interactive Johari Window

This interactive site allows you to gauge your personality awareness. Describe
yourself from the adjectives provided, then ask your friends and colleagues to describe
you from the same adjectives. This site will build a window of overlap and difference for
youa type of Johari window.
7.3:

In-Person versus Cyberspace Relationships

Go to this page at the Psychology of Cyberspace Web site to read a thorough


comparison of the differences between relationships in person and electronically
mediated relationships.

135

Chapter 7 Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
1. _____In the beginning stage of a relationship, your goal is to understand how
the other person sees the world.
2. _____A dialectic is a tension between competing forces.
3. _____ The three primary types of relationships are acquaintances, friendships,
and close friends and intimates.
4. _____The Johari window is a tool used to examine the relationship between
disclosure and conflict.
5. _____ Autonomy is the desire to link your actions and decisions with your
partner.
6. _____Reframing is a strategy in which your change your perception
concerning the level of tension in a relationship.
7._____Even when conflicts are managed effectively, they inevitably weaken a
friendship.

Multiple Choice
_____1.
showing
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

When you risk putting your well being in the hands of another, you are
commitment
trust
self-disclosure
idea-exchange behaviors
none of the above

136

_____2.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Which of the following is not something we expect from our friends?


positiveness
assurance
openness
defensiveness

_____ 3. Friendship guidelines include:


a. initiation
b. responsiveness
c. self-disclosure
d. emotional support
e. all of the above

_____4. An intimate relationship in which the partners are not sexually involved
with each other is referred to as:
a. dialectical
b. an acquaintanceship
c. platonic
d. romantic
_____5. In the Johari window, which pane contains information that the other
person knows about you but that you are unaware of?
a. open pane
b. secret pane
c. blind pane
d. unknown pane
_____6. In which stage of a relationship do we engage the relationship filtering
model?
a. the beginning stage
b. the developing stage
c. the deteriorating stage
d. none of the above

137

Essay

1. What are the signs that a relationship is deteriorating? Can such relationships
be saved? If so, how?

2. What are the different strategies that you can use to get information about
another person? Why is this important for developing relationships?

3. What is the JoHari window and what is it used to explain? Can the shape of
the panes change? Why or why not?

4. What is a dialectic? Why are dialectics important in relationships?

5. What are the major competencies for developing and maintaining friendships?
What role does communication play in each of them?

138

Helpful Links
http://www3.azwestern.edu/psy/dgershaw/lol/marriages.last.htm - Why
Marriages Last
This site by David Gershaw examines seven reasons why partners think their marriages
last.
http://www.etsu.edu/philos/faculty/hugh/honesty.htm - Honesty and Intimacy
An article from Journal of Social and Personal Relationships explores the role of
honesty in developing and maintaining personal relationships. By G. Graham and
H. LaFollette.
http://humanresources.about.com/careers/humanresources/cs/conflictresolves/in
dex.htm?iam=dpile&terms=%2Binterpersonal+%2Bconflict Conflict
Resolution/Controversy Management
A long address, but one that leads to a useful site that explores conflict resolution
and management.
http://pertinent.com/pertinfo/business/kareCom3.html - Six Ways to Get Along
Better
This site by Kare Anderson looks at simple strategies for preventing conflicts.
http://www.geocities.com/research93/ - Close Relationships and Personality
Research Web Site
Close Relationships and Personality Research Web Site has a fun and interesting
personality quiz that helps determine your attachment style.
(See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your text.)

139

CHAPTER 8:

Communication Skills in Interpersonal


Relationships

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

What are the characteristics of comforting messages?


How can you manage disclosure and privacy in your relationships?
How do people negotiate different needs, wants, and preferences?
How do we deal with conflict in our relationships?
What is a collaborative approach to conflict?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Comforting messages
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Skills for comforting
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Gender and cultural considerations in comforting
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Managing privacy and disclosure in relationships
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Levels of intimacy
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

140

B. Expectations of reciprocity
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Information co-ownership
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Guidelines for appropriate disclosure
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Sharing personal information
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Sharing feelings
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Providing personal feedback
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Communication skills for managing privacy
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Indirect strategies for maintaining privacy
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Direct strategy for maintaining privacy: Establish a boundary
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
III. Negotiating different needs, wants, and preferences in relationships
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

141

A. Communicating personal needs, wants, and preferences: passive,


aggressive, and assertive behavior
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Cultural variations in passive, aggressive, and assertive behavior
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
III. Managing conflict in relationships
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Styles of conflict
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Guidelines for Collaboration
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Key Terms
accommodating
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
aggressive behavior
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
assertive behavior
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

142

buffering
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
collaboration
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
comforting
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
compromising
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
constructive criticism
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
describing behavior
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
describing feelings
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

143

disclosure
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
establishing a boundary
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
forcing
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
giving advice
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
interpersonal conflict
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
negative face needs
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
passive behavior
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
positive face needs
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

144

praise
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
privacy management
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
reframe the situation
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
withdrawing
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

145

Activities
Activity 8.1
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Self-Disclosure and Popular Media
Popular American culture has a reputation for promoting self-disclosure that
probably exceeds that of any other culture in the world. Yet clearly, as the phrase too
much information indicates, it is still possible to practice self-disclosure inappropriately
in popular American culture. Of course, what may be inappropriate for one person can
be appropriate for another. Find three instances of self-disclosure in popular media
(film, television, radio, magazines, newspapers, or the Internet) and write a paragraph
on each explaining why you think the particular instance of self-disclosure is appropriate
or inappropriate.
You can complete this activity by using your Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources to access Skill Learning Activity 8.1. This activity corresponds to
Skill Learning Activity 8.1 in your textbook.
Self-Disclosure Instance #1

Self-Disclosure Instance #2

Self-Disclosure Instance #3

146

Activity 8.2
Test Your Competence: Building Your Vocabulary of Emotions (p. 178)
For each statement below, select three words from the Vocabulary of Emotions
listed below that might fit the statement, but would present different emotional reactions.
To compare you choices to the authors models, complete this activity online at the
Communicate! website. Select student resources for Ch. 7 and then select activities.
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 8.2 in your textbook. You can
also complete this activity online by accessing your Communicate! Online Textbook
Resources. When youre done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors.
Vocabulary of Emotions
Words Related to Angry
annoyed
enraged
irate
livid

incensed
mad

infuriated
outraged

Words Related to Loving


affectionate amorous
fervent
heavenly

aroused
passionate

caring
tender

Words Related to Embarrassed


flustered
humiliated
mortified
rattled
shamefaced
sheepish

overwhelmed
uncomfortable

Words Related to Surprised


astonished astounded
mystified
shocked

baffled
startled

jolted
stunned

Words Related to Fearful


afraid
anxious
nervous
scared

apprehensive
terrified

frightened
worried

Words Related to Disgusted


aghast
appalled
nauseated repulsed

dismayed
revolted

horror-struck
sickened

Words Related to Hurt


abused
damaged
mistreated offended

forsaken
pained

hassled
wounded

Words Related to Happy


cheerful
contented
elated
glad

delighted
joyous

ecstatic
pleased

147

Words Related to Lonely


abandoned alone
forlorn
isolated

deserted
lonesome

desolate
lost

Words Related to Sad


blue
depressed
low
miserable

downcast
morose

gloomy
sorrowful

Words Related to Energetic


animated
bouncy
peppy
spirited

brisk
sprightly

lively
vigorous

1. I feel _______________ when you call me late at night.


2. I am _______________ that she told everyone about that.
3. He was _______________ when he discovered what she had done.
4. Witnessing that accident really made me feel _______________.
5. When my father died I felt _______________.
6. Im _______________ about graduating.
7. Im _______________ about losing my job.
8. I was _______________ when the doctor told me I needed surgery.
9. I suppose I should understand that it was a mistake, but I feel ____________.
10. When you look at me like that, I feel _______________.
Look at each word in the Vocabulary of Emotions, say I feel . . . , and try to
identify the feeling this word describes. Next make a list of those feelings that you
recognize as ones that you experience. Then recall recent situations where you could
have used each of these words. Write the message that would have been appropriate
for each situation.

148

Activity 8.3
Identifying Descriptions of Feelings
For each statement below, determine if the message is a description of feelings.
If it is, place a D next to it. If you determine the message is not a description of
feelings, then supply a message that would be a description of feelings.
You can also complete this activity online by accessing the Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources and then compare your responses to the models provided by the
authors. This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 8.3 in your textbook.
1. That was a great movie!

2. I was really cheered by the flowers.


3. I feel that you not respecting my rights.
4. Yuck!
5. DamnI screwed that up again. I feel like an idiot.
6. I feel certain I got the job because I was the most qualified person.
7. Congratulations, I feel happy for you.
8. When Pams around, I feel like a third wheel.
9. Im ecstatic about winning the award.
10 Im sick and tired of you.

149

Activity 8.4
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Praising and Criticizing
Think of someone you need to praise and someone to whom you would like to
give constructive criticism. Prepare feedback for each person in the space below. Use
the following steps:
1. Begin by writing sentences that identify your general impression.
2. Recall and write down the specific behaviors, actions, and messages that led to your
impression.
3. Identify all the consequences that occurred as a result.
4. If you have any advice that seems appropriate, record it.
5. Write a short feedback message that follows the guidelines for effective praise or
criticism.

150

Activity 8.4 (cont.)


Now in the next day or two have a feedback conversation with at least one of
these people and use your preparation to help you deliver the feedback. Then write a
paragraph describing what happened and how well the behavior was received. Analyze
why you believe the feedback was received as it was.
To help you complete this activity, you can use the worksheet provided in your
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 8.
Activity 8.5
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Passive and Aggressive Behavior
Describe two incidents in the past where you behaved passively or aggressively.
Now analyze each situation. What type of situation was it? Did someone make a
request? Did you need to express a preference or right? Was someone imposing on
you? What type of relationship did you have with the person (stranger, acquaintance,
friendship, business, intimate, romantic)? How did you feel about how you behaved? If
you had used assertive messages what might you have said?
Activity 8.6
Assertive Messages (p. 186)
For each of these situations, write an assertive response. When youre done with
this activity, compare your answers to the authors at the Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 8.
1. You come back to your dorm, apartment, or house to finish a paper that is due
tomorrow, only to find that someone else is using your computer.
Assertive response:

151

2. You work part time at a clothing store. Just as your shift is ending, your manager
says to you, Id like you to work overtime, if you would. Martins supposed to replace
you, but he just called and cant get here for at least an hour. You have dinner
guests arriving in two hours.
Assertive response:

3. During a phone call with your elderly grandmother, she announces, your Great Aunt
Margie called, and I told her youd be happy to take us grocery shopping and out to
lunch on Saturday. You were planning to spend Saturday working on your portfolio
to take to interview next week.
Assertive response:

4. You and your friend made a date to go dancing, an activity you really enjoy. When
you meet, your friend says, If its all the same to you, I thought wed go to a movie
instead.
Assertive response:

5. Youre riding in a car with a group of friends on the way to a party when the driver
begins to clown around by swerving the car back and forth, speeding up to tailgate
the car in front, and honking his horn. You perceive that this driving is dangerous
and youre becoming scared.
Assertive response:

152

Activity 8.7
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Your Conflict Profile
Access and print out Web Resource 8.2: Your Conflict Profile, an InfoTrac
College Edition article called How Do You Manage Conflict? by Dawn M. Baskerville.
Fill out and score the self-assessment questionnaire and graph your results. Read the
description of each pattern. Study these results. Do they seem to capture your
perception of your conflict profile accurately? Which are your dominant styles? Are your
scores close together, or are there one or two styles that seem to dominate and other
styles you prefer not to use? How does this pattern equip you to handle the conflicts you
have experienced? Based on the information from this self-assessment, what do you
need to do to become better able to handle conflict in your relationships? Write a
paragraph in which you describe what you have learned about your conflict profile.
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 8.7 in your textbook.
Activity 8.8
Jan and Ken
After youve watched the video of Jan and Ken and have read the transcript of
their conversation, answer the following questions.
1. How does each person handle this conflict?
2. How well does each person listen to the other?
3. Are Jan and Ken appropriately assertive?
4. Comment on how well each provides feedback and describes feelings?
When youre done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors at the
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 8.
Activity 8.9
Using InfoTrac College Edition
As we have seen, assertiveness is sometimes perceived as aggressiveness.
Using the InfoTrac College Edition subject guide, enter the term Assertiveness. Find
the article An assertiveness training program for indecisive students attending an
Italian University Career Development Quarterly, June 2003 v51 i4 p322(13).
Summarize the studys discussion of the relationship between assertiveness and
various social skills. Were you surprised by the articles conclusions?
Activity 8.10
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Are males really more aggressive than females on average? Are there cultural
differences in what constitutes assertive behavior? Using InfoTrac College Edition, try to
153

determine what the research suggests. Using the subject guide, enter assertive and
locate references that focus on differences across cultures and/or genders. What did
you find? Summarize your results below.

Activity 8.11
Using Technology
Sign on to an online chat room. Spend at least five minutes just lurking
(listening). Then begin to participate in the chat. Considering both your comments and
those with whom you are chatting, how do the levels of self-disclosure differ from inperson conversations? Is there really much self-disclosure occurring? If so, how doe
sit compare to self-disclosure in face-to-face encounters? How can you tell if the
disclosures are truthful? Use the space below to record your observations. (If you need
an introduction to chat rooms and how to get started, enter Yahoo! Chatrooms, click on
search, and then click on People connection chat. http://chat.yahoo.com/)
Chat room entered: _________________________________________

154

Activity 8.12
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario, and answer the
following questions in the space provided here.
1. Assuming that Ronaldo declines Chaunceys offer to cheat, what are the remaining
ethical issues he faces? Which would be more ethically compromising, letting
Chauncey and Doug get away with cheating or betraying their trust by notifying the
professor about their actions?

2. When, if ever, is it ethically acceptable to divulge information that you have sworn
not to share with others?

155

Web Resource 8.1


How to Say No
The University of Floridas Counseling website and Hampden-Syndey Colleges
Counseling Center website provide good advice about how to refuse requests, including
unfair and unreasonable requests.
Web Resource 8.2
Your Conflict Profile
Learn about conflict management and determine your conflict management style
by reading the article "How Do You Manage Conflict?" by Dawn M. Baskerville.
Web Resource 8.3
Skills for Collaborative Conflict
This article, Resolving Conflicts through Collaboration, describes how to initiate
conflict and how to respond to conflicts initiated by others.

156

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
_____1.

Assertive behavior and aggressive behavior are the same.

_____2.
Passive behavior is best for maintaining and improving interpersonal
relationships.
_____3.
You should always try to increase the level of self-disclosure in
interpersonal relationships even if the other person does not.
_____4.

It is best to ask permission before providing constructive criticism.

_____5.
Early in relationships, it is best to self-disclose the kind of information you
would want others to self-disclose to you.
_____6.
When we describe the feelings we are experiencing, we should also
provide some judgment of that emotional experience.
_____7.
Relational dialectics are seemingly opposing forces, such as opennessclosedness, that occur in all interpersonal relationships.
Multiple Choice
_____1.
Margie tells Estelle that she dated Tommy for a while, but she stopped
when she decided his only interest in her seemed to be sexual. Margies statement
could be classified as:
a. description of feelings
b. self-disclosure
c. expression of feelings
d. passive behavior
e. aggressive behavior

157

_____2.
When in the earlier stages of a relationship, it probably is a good idea to:
a. not self-disclose any information during your first meeting
b. disclose information only if asked to by the other person
c. reveal the kind of information about yourself that you want the other
person to disclose to you.
d. only disclose feelings
_____3.
You are reviewing another students paper at his/her request. The best
way to open your criticism would be:
a. Your first paragraph is great, but some of the other paragraphs are
disorganized
b. The paper is disorganized
c. There are many problems here, but I think we can fix them.
d. Its ok, but
e. None of the above are acceptable starts to constructive criticism
_____4.
Henry is looking over his exam. He finds a mistake in his professors
addition of his total score. If Henry behaves assertively, which of the following does
he say to his professor?
a. You made a mistake. I get 5 more points.
b. Would you go over my test again?
c. Im really angry that you counted my points wrong!
d. When I counted my point total, it came to 89, five more than the total on
the exam cover. Am I correct?
_____5.
You know that someone made a mistake that impacts you, but you say
nothing. This is illustrative of:
a. assertive behavior
b. aggressive behavior
c. passive behavior
d. precision
e. none of the above
_____6.
In the middle of a conflict situation, you say All right, you winI dont
want to fight anymore! This is an example of
a. withdrawal
b. forcing
c. bonding
d. accommodating

158

_____7.
While passing by, Paul notices Annas test grade and why she got one of
her answers wrong. He then says to Anna Hey, I see where you made a mistake
on number 3 here. Let me show you how to fix it. Anna reacts negatively by saying
Get away from me! Who asked for your opinion?! Where did Paul go wrong in his
attempt to offer constructive criticism to Anna:
a. He failed to be specific
b. He failed to ask Annas permission before criticizing her
c. He did not describe her feelings
d. He failed to attend to negative face needs
_____8.
Masking or hiding feelings may be appropriate when
a. you are being assertive
b. when you are being aggressive
c. when the situation is of little importance
d. withholding feelings is never appropriate
Essay
1. Discuss the differences between assertive, passive, and aggressive behaviors.

2. Describe the several guidelines for offering constructive criticism and why they are
important.

3. What is the role of self-disclosure in the development of relationships?

4. Identify and discuss some basic skills that can help you succeed when you are
providing emotional comfort.

159

5. Describe the five styles of conflict, and provide an example of a situation in which
each one would be appropriate.

Helpful Links
Self-Disclosure and Openness
http://www.mhnet.org/psyhelp/chap13/chap13i.htm
Psychological Self Help by Clayton E. Tucker-Ladd offers a tutorial on how to
overcome the fear of self-disclosure many people have.
Self-Disclosure and Openness
http://www.mhnet.org/psyhelp/chap13/chap13j.htm
This site continues the discussion found in the first site above.
Giving Constructive Criticism
http://www.minoritycareernet.com/newsltrs/96q2give.html
A concise list of hints for giving constructive criticism from Minority Career Network.
Assertive Communication
http://www.uiowa.edu/~ucs/asertcom.html
A good list of techniques on how to be assertive along with a discussion of the
importance of assertiveness. This site was developed by the University of Iowas
University Counseling Service.
The Test Caf
http://www.testcafe.com/sert/
Another assertiveness test. This one is from the Test Caf, a website full of
interesting self-quizzes.
(See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your text.)

160

APPENDIX: Interviewing
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
What types of questions are used in interviews?
How do you prepare for and conduct an information-gathering interview?
How do you present yourself successfully in a job interview?
How do you participate in a media interview?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Structuring Interviews
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. The Interview Protocol
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Effective Questions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Primary and secondary questions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Open and closed questions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Neutral and leading questions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

161

C. Order and Time Constraints in Interview Protocols


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Guidelines for Conducting Information Interviews
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Doing Research about Interviewees
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Conducting an Information Interview
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

III. Conducting employment interviews


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Preparing for the interview
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
B. Conducting the interview
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

162

1. It all begins with research


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Write an effective cover letter
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Prepare a professional resume
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Electronic cover letters and resumes
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Preparing to be interviewed
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Guidelines for job interviewees
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
IV. Interviewing strategies for job seekers
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Applying for the job
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
1. Write an effective cover letter
_____________________________________________________

163

2. Prepare a professional resume


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
B. Electronic cover letters and resumes
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
C. Preparing to be Interviewed
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Guidelines for job interviewees
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Following up after the interview
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
V. Strategies for Interviews with the Media
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Before the interview
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. During the interview
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

164

Key Terms

bridge
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
closed questions
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
cover letter
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
electronic cover letters and rsums
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
interview
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
interview protocol
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
leading questions
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

165

neutral questions
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
open questions
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
primary questions
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
rsum
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
secondary questions
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
talking points
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________

166

Activities
Activity A.1
Open and Closed Questions
Indicate which of the following questions are open (O) and which are closed (C).
If the question is open, write a closed question seeking similar information; if the
questions is closed, write an open question. Make sure that your questions are neutral
rather than leading.
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity A.1 in your textbook.
___ 1. What leads you to believe that Sheldon will be appointed?
___ 2. How many steps are there in getting a book into print?
___ 3. Will you try out for the Shakespearean play this year?
___ 4. When are you getting married?
___ 5. Have you participated in the garden project?
Activity A.2
Observe & Analyze: Information Interviews
Select a televised interview (for example, a news program, infomercial, or
congressional hearing) for analysis. You may want to video tape it so you can watch
it several times. Using the worksheet below, count the number of open, closed,
neutral, leading, and follow-up questions. After viewing the interview, analyze it.
Was there a good balance of questions? Did the interviewer as appropriate followup questions? What was the apparent goal of the interview? Was it reached? What
grade would you give the interviewer? Why? What were the interviewers
strengths? Weaknesses? When you have finished analyzing the interview, write a
paragraph discussing your analysis in the space below.
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity A.2 in your textbook. You can
also complete this activity online by using your Communicate! Online Textbook
Resources.
Questions Type Tally
Questions
Neutral

Open

Closed

Leading
Follow-up
Total

167

Total

Activity A.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Interviewing an Interviewer
Make an appointment to interview a human resource manager who is
responsible for employment interviewing. Prepare an interview protocol that probes this
manager about his or her interviewing practices. After the interview, compare this
managers practice to the text discussion. Submit your protocol, interview notes, and a
short essay that describes what you have learned to your instructor. You may complete
this activity online and e-mail it to your instructor. This activity corresponds to Skill
Learning Activity A.3 in your textbook.
Activity A.4
Rsum and Cover Letter
Read the help wanted ads in your local newspaper until you locate a job you
would enjoy. Write a rsum and cover letter applying for this position. To link you
to an online resume service to draft and print your resume, use your Communicate!
Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.7: Rsum Builder. When
you have completed your rsum and cover letter, if requested, submit them to your
instructor.
Activity A.5
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Thinking Like an Interviewer
Read the sample rsum depicted in Figure A.4, or find another sample rsum
more to your interest online by using your Online Textbook Resources for
Communicate! to access Web Resource A.10: Sample Resumes Online. Analyze the
rsum based on the position for which it was written and on the candidates education,
experience, and skills. Write ten primary questions you would ask the job candidate if
you were going to interview him or her for the position.
You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access Skill Learning
Activity A.5.

168

Activity A.6
Conversation and Analysis: Elliott Millers Interview
Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access the video clip of
Elliott Millers job interview at Community Savings and Loan. As you watch the video,
notice how well both Karen Bourne and Elliott Miller follow the guidelines for effective
interviews. A transcript of the conversation is printed below which allows you to take
notes as you watch the video.
Note: Elliott Miller is a second-semester senior who has double-majored in
business and communication. Today he is interviewing with Community Savings and
Loan, which is recruiting managerial trainees. Elliott has dressed carefully. He has on
his good charcoal suit, a light blue shirt, a conservative necktie, and wingtips. At 10am
sharp he knocks on the office door of Karen Bourne, the person with whom he has an
interview. She is in her mid-thirties and dressed in a conservative navy blue suit. She
opens the door and offers her hand to Elliott.
Conversation
Bourne: Mr. Miller, I see
youre right on time. Thats a good
start. (They shake hands.)
Miller: Thank you for inviting
me to interview today.
Bourne: Sit down. (He sits in
the chair in front of her desk; she sits
behind the desk.) So youre about to
finish college are you? I remember
that time in my own life-exciting
and scary!
Miller: Its definitely both for
me. Im particularly excited about the
job here at Community Savings and
Loan.
Bourne: (smiles) Then theres a
mutual interest. We had a lot of
applications, but were interviewing only
eight of them. What Id like to do is get a
sense of your interests and tell you about
our managerial trainee program here, so
that we can see if the fit between us is as
good as it looks on paper. Sound good to
you?
Miller: Great.
Bourne: Let me start by telling
you about a rather common problem

Analysis
________________________
________________________
______________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

169

weve had with our past managerial


trainees. Many of them run into a
problem-something they have trouble
learning or doing right. Thats normal
enough - we expect that. But a lot of
trainees seem to get derailed when that
happens. Instead of finding another way
to approach the problem, they get
discouraged and give up. So Im very
interested in hearing what youve done
when youve encountered problems or
road blocks in your life.
Miller: Well, I can remember
one time when I hit a real road block.
I was taking an advanced chemistry
course, and I just couldnt seem to
understand the material. I failed the
first exam, even though Id studied
hard.
Bourne: Good example of a
problem. What did you do?
Miller: I started going to all the
tutorial sessions that grad assistants
offer. That helped a little but I still wasnt
getting the material the way I should. So,
I organized a study team and offered to
pay for pizzas so that students who were
on top of the class would have a reason
to come.
Bourne: (nodding with
admiration) That shows a lot of
initiative and creativity. Did the study
team work?
Miller: (smiling) It sure did. I
wound up getting a B in the course, and
so did several other members of the
study team who had been in the same
boat I was in early in the semester.
Bourne: So you dont mind
asking for help if you need it?

________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

Miller: Id rather do that than


flounder, but Im usually pretty able to
operate independently.

________________________

Bourne: So you prefer

________________________

________________________

170

working on your own to working with


others?
Miller: That depends on the
situation or project. If I have all that I
need to do something on my own, Im
comfortable working solo. But there are
other cases in which I don't have
everything I need to do something well maybe I dont have experience in some
aspect of the job or I dont have a
particular skill or I dont understand some
perspectives on the issues. In cases like
that, I thing teams are more effective
than individuals.

________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

Bourne: Good. Banking


management requires the ability to
be self-initiating and also the ability to
work with others. Let me ask another
question. As I was looking over your
transcript and resume, I noticed that
you changed your major several
times. Does that indicate you have
difficulty making a commitment and
sticking with it?

________________________

Miller: I guess you could


think that, but it really shows that I
was willing to explore a lot of
alternatives before making a firm
commitment.

________________________

Bourne: But dont you think that


you wasted a lot of time and courses
getting to that commitment?

________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

Miller: I dont think so. I


learned something in all of the course
I took. For instance, when I was a
philosophy major, I learned about
logical thinking and careful
reasoning. Thats going to be useful
to me in management. When I was
majoring in English, I learned how to
write well and how to read others
writing critically. Thats going to serve
me well in management too.

________________________

Bourne: So what led you to your


final decision to double major in business
and communication? Thats kind of an
unusual combination.

________________________

________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

171

Miller: It seems a very natural


one to me. I wanted to learn bout
business because I want to be a
manager in an organization. I need to
know how organizations work and I
need to understand different
management philosophies and
styles. At the same time, managers
work with people, and that means I
have to have strong communication
skills.

Activity A.7
Test Your Competence: Mock Interview
Pair with one of your classmates and conduct mock interviews. You and your
classmate should exchange the material you prepared in Activity A.7. You will prepare
and participate in two interviews, one in which you will use your partners ad, resume,
and cover letter to prepare and interview your partner for a job, and the other in which
your partner will use the material you supply to interview you for a job. Your instructor
will provide you will additional information regarding this assignment. This activity
corresponds with Skill Learning Activity A.7 in your textbook.
Activity A.8
Critiquing a Media Interview
Select a TV interview program like The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, Larry King
Live, or some other program whose focus is a lengthy interview with an expert, a media
personality, or a political leader. Tape the interview so that you can replay it during your
analysis. Make a list of the questions the interviewer asked, and analyze them to
determine which were the primary, secondary, and follow-up questions. What was the
mix of open and closed questions. How did this mix affect the tone of the interview and
the amount and kind of information offered by the interviewee? What percentage of the
questions were neutral versus leading? Were the leading questions confrontational or
cooperative? How did these questions affect the tone of the interview and the amount or
kind of information offered by the interviewee. What do you think the purpose of this
interview was? How effective was the interviewer in accomplishing this purpose? What
one thing might the interviewer have done better?
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity A.8 in your textbook.

172

Activity A.9
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Under the subject cover letter, see Quick! Take cover! A cover letter is your
best ticket to a great jobif you know how to write a good one!, by Tamra B. Orr in
Career World, Jan 2003 v31 i4 p20(2). Compare the articles recommendations with
those from your text. Note at least three ideas on preparing cover letters that you would
want to follow.
Activity A.10
Using InfoTrac College Edition
What skills are required for todays jobs? Using the subject guide, use the
search term job skills. Review several articles and summarize what they say about
the importance of job skills in the employment marketplace. What skills are important?
How are organizations ensuring future employees get these skills? Do you think
necessary skills have changed over time? Why?
Activity A.11
Using Technology
Many career-oriented websites like Monster.com not only allow job seekers to
browse through job listings, they also offer the ability to post your resume online so that
organizations that are seeking applicants may review your qualifications online. Go to
one of the career search websites listed at the end of this chapter and complete the
online registration and resume submission process. Some sites allow you to upload a
file containing your resume, while others ask you to fill out an online form. Also
complete the career profile or other online questionnaire used to establish the types of
jobs you are seeking or are qualified for. Use your actual list of qualifications and skills,
location preference, salary range, etc. Periodically check back to the website and note
how many times your resume was viewed and if any potential employers contacted you
via e-mail or phone. Be prepared to share your results with the class.
Activity A.12
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in the chapter, and
answer the following questions in the space provided here.
1. Was Kens presentation of his past experiences on his rsum ethical? Is this
type of behavior deliberately deceptive or simply an exaggeration of the truth?

173

2. How should we deal with statements like Everybody does it?

Web Resource A.1


E-mail Interviews
To read some useful tips for conducting electronic interviews using e-mail, use
your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.1: E-mail
interviews.
Web Resource A.2
150 Typical Job Interview Questions
For a list of potential interview questions, use your Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.2: 150 Typical Job Interview
Questions.
Web Resource A.3
Discrimination Laws and Interviewing
To read a generalized discussion of the types of questions that should not be
asked in interviews, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access
Web Resource A.3: Discrimination Laws and Interviewing.

Web Resource A.4


Ten Cover Letter Donts
To read a list of several cover letter faux pas that you will want to avoid, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.4: Ten Cover
Letter Donts.

174

Web Resource A.5


What is your Objective?
To read more about formulating career objective statements, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.5: What is your
Objective?
Web Resource A.6
Rsum Pet Peeves
To read about and avoid- the top twenty rsum pet peeves identified by 2,500
recruiters, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web
Resource A.6: Rsum Pet Peeves.
Web Resource A.7
Rsum Builder
To link to an online resume service to draft and print your rsum, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.7: Rsum
Builder.
Web Resource A.8
Internet-Ready Rsum
For more information on electronic rsums, use your Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources to access Web Resource A.8: Internet-Ready Rsum.
Web Resource A.9
Virtual Interview (p. 219)
To sharpen your interview skills, answer sample questions and receive help to
improve your answers, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access
Web Resource A.9: Virtual Interview.
Web Resource A.10
Sample Rsums Online
To view numerous examples of rsums that may be of assistance in preparing
your own, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web
Resource A.10: Sample Rsums Online.

175

Web Resource A.11


Notable Notes
For tips on writing thank-you notes, use your Communicate! Online Textbook
Resources to access Web Resource A.11: Notable Notes.

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
_____1.
You probably wont elect to have the surgery, will you? is an example of
a leading question.
_____2.
You should plan to arrive 10-15 minutes prior to your appointment for an
interview.
_____3.
The job interview is not a place for the job candidate to ask questions of
the interviewer.
_____4.
Open questions are broad-based questions designed to allow the
interviewee to respond however he or she wishes.
_____5.
Follow-up questions are planned or unplanned questions designed to
further probe the answer to a primary question.
_____6.
Closed questions allow the interviewee the opportunity to control the
interview and take up additional time.
_____7.

Bridges are transitions used by interviewees during a media interview.

Multiple Choice
_____1.
Which of the following is not a good thing to do in a cover letter?
a. include your qualifications
b. include contact information
c. ask for an interview only indirectly
d. keep it short
e. all of the above are ok.

176

_____2.
If an interviewer wants an interviewee to express details, ideas and
feelings, the interviewer will most likely avoid using
a. leading questions
b. open questions
c. follow-up questions
d. closed questions
_____3.
Which of the following behaviors is not advised by your text?
a. starting a conversation about salary and benefits
b. learning about the company
c. asking about your specific duties within the company
d. acting as if you want the job
e. showing up early for the interview appointment
_____4.
Electronic cover letters and resumes
a. have become increasingly popular
b. may be different from paper versions in several ways
c. usually should be kept simple in format
d. can be sifted electronically
e. all of the above
_____5.
During a media interview, you should:
a. present appropriate nonverbal cues
b. make clear and concise statement
c. realize that you are always on the record
d. learn how to bridge
e. all of the above
_____6.
Questions an interviewee might be expected to ask in an interview include
a. Can you describe a typical work day?
b. What is the biggest challenge in this job?
c. Interviewees should not ask questions during an interview
d. a and b

177

_____7.
When conducting an interview for information, you should do all of the
following except:
a. be courteous during the interview.
b. listen carefully.
c. keep the interview moving.
d. make sure that your nonverbal reactions are in keeping with the tone you
want to communicate.
e. audio record the interview in all cases, especially if you plan to publish the
interview.
_____8.
Interviewing for information
a. can be used by students conducting research
b. is more likely to be successful if well-planned in advance
c. requires an interview protocol
d. can be used by health care professionals
e. all of the above
Essay
1. Discuss the different types of interview questions and their purposes.

2. What are the key points of information that should be included in a resume?

3. Describe the differences between an electronic resume and a conventional resume.


Why do these differences exist?

4. Discuss key elements involved in preparing for an interview.

178

5. How should one behave during an interview? Include a discussion of non-verbal


elements.

Helpful Links
Monster.com
http://www.monster.com
A free site for posting your resume and looking for jobs. You can search by
location, job type, etc.
Employment 911
http://www.employment911.com
Similar to Monster.com, employment911.com claims to have over three million
job listings.
Job Searching
http://jobsearch.about.com/careers/jobsearch/cs/interviews/index.htm
This site from About.com offers a long list of interview resources including a long
list of questions commonly asked by interviewers and a long list of questions
interviewees should consider asking. Also, tips on dress, thank you notes and other
topics.
JobWeb Resumes and Interviews
http://www.jobweb.com/Resumes_Interviews/default.htm
Tips for resume and cover letter writing. The main Jobweb.com site is also very
useful.
How to conduct an interview
http://stringers.media.mit.edu/interview.htm
This site provides some guidelines regarding the stages of the interview process.
Many colleges and universities have resources available for their students and
graduates to assist them in career placement. Check your schools website for more
information. Also see your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other
websites referenced in your text.

179

III
GROUP COMMUNICATION

9. Communicating in Groups
10. Problem Solving in Groups

180

CHAPTER 9:

Communicating in Groups

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
What makes a group different from a mere assembly of people?
What are the characteristics of healthy groups?
How do groups develop?
What are some types of groups we might participate in?
How can you evaluate group dynamics?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Characteristics of healthy groups
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Healthy groups have ethical goals
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Healthy groups are interdependent
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

181

C. Healthy groups are cohesive


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Healthy groups develop and abide by productive norms
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Healthy groups are accountable
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
F. Healthy groups are synergetic
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Stages of group development
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

A. Forming
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Storming
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

182

C. Norming
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Performing
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Adjourning
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
III. Types of groups
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Families
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Social friendship groups
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Support groups
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Interest groups
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

183

E. Service groups
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
F. Work groups
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
IV. Evaluating Group Dynamics
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Key Terms
accountability
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
adjourning
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
blended family
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

184

cohesiveness
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
consensual families
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
forming
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
ground rules
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
healthy group
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
heterogeneous group
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
homogeneous group
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
laissez-faire family
____________________________________________________________

185

____________________________________________________________
mixed family
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
norming
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
norms
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
nuclear family
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
pluralistic family
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
protective family
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

service groups
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

186

single-parent families
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
storming
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
support groups
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
synergy
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
team-building activities
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
work group
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
work group goal
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

187

Activities
Activity 9.1
Cohesiveness in Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Groups
Identify two groups (for example, a sports team, study group, fraternal or
community group, or work team) to which you belong; one should have members you
consider to be homogeneous, and the other, members you consider to be
heterogeneous.
Analyze the demographic differences in each group. When you have completed this
analysis, write a paragraph that discusses cohesiveness in each group. How cohesive
is each group? Are both groups equally cohesive? Was it easier or more difficult to
establish cohesiveness in a particular group? What real or potential pitfalls result from
the level of cohesiveness in each group?
To help you complete this activity, you can use the demographic analysis provided in
your Premium Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 9.
Activity 9.2
Stages of Group Development
Think of a group to which you have belonged for less than one quarter, semester,
or term (if you have an assigned group in this course, use that group). Now, write a
paragraph that begins by identifying the stage of development the group is currently in
and then describe how this group transitioned through each of the previous stages of
group development. What event(s) do you recall as turning points, marking the groups
movement from one stage to another? Has the group become stuck in a stage, or has
it developed smoothly? What factors contributed to that? What can you do to help this
group succeed in the stage that it is in and transition to the next stage?
Activity 9.3
Homogenous and Heterogeneous Groups
Visit the website of a large company, such as General Motors, General Electric, or Coca
Cola. Search the site and find the names and brief background sketches of the
members of the Board of Directors. Analyze the ways in which the members are similar
or different. Answer the following questions in the space provided below:
1. What relevant knowledge and skills might each bring to the groups decision process

188

2. What viewpoints are not represented by the board members?

3. How might an absence of these viewpoints affect their discussions?

Activity 9.4
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 9.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.
1. What did the group really know about the Boardman Center? Is it good group
discussion practice to rely on a passing comment on one member?

2. Regardless of whether the meeting went smoothly, is there any ethical problem with
this process? Explain.

189

Web Resources
9.1: Setting Group Norms
This site at Brushy Fork Institute, a group dedicated to advancing leadership and
community development in the Appalachians, features information on setting norms that
contribute to group effectiveness.
9.2: Groupthink
This site features an article whose purpose is to raise awareness about
groupthink and to provide some suggestions that can help task-oriented groups avoid
this phenomenon.

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
_____1.
Effective groups are most likely to be made up of heterogeneous
members.
_____2. A work group should include as many people as possible so there will be less
work for each group member..
_____3. Because a family consists of individuals who are intimately related, it cannot
be considered a group.
_____4. A social friendship group is composed of individuals who come together
because they share a concern or hobby.
_____5. A clearly stated future state of affairs desired by enough members of the
group to motivate the group to work toward its achievement is the definition of a
work group goal.
_____6.
In a group that is not cohesive, members may be indifferent towards the
group goal, not like each other, and work in ways that prevent the group from being
successful.
_____7.
Team-building activities are designed to help the group work better
together.

190

Multiple Choice
_____1.
The process of choosing among alternatives is:
a. decision making
b. norming
c. performing
d. storming
_____2. Which of the following is (are) characteristics of healthy groups?
a. They are cohesive
b. They are interdependent
c. They pursue ethical goals
d. All of the above
_____3.
Tanya shows up late for a group meeting. The discussion had already
begun and as she entered the room, she was greeted by several angry looks.
Which of the following best explains their reaction to Tanyas tardiness?
a. storming was in progress
b. norms had not yet been established
c. groupthink was occurring
d. an on-time norm had been developed by that group
_____4.
Adjourning is
a. the end of the meeting
b. the stage of group development where members assign meaning to what
they have done
c. the stage of group development concerned with the establishment of
group standards
d. none of the above

191

_____5.
a.
b.
c.
d.

The saying two heads are better than one refers to


cohesiveness
synergy
group dynamics
ground rules

_____6.

Groupthink
a. is to be commended, it shows the group members are all on the same
page.
b. is the result of storming
c. can be prevented by avoiding disagreement
d. none of the above are true in relation to groupthink

_____7.
Research suggests that all of the following factors lead to group
cohesiveness except:
a. Attractiveness of the groups purpose
b. Voluntary membership
c. Feeling of freedom to share opinions
d.
Effectiveness of leadership
_____8.
During the __________ stage of group development, the group clarifies its
goals and determines the roles each member will have in the group power structure.
a. forming
b. storming
c. norming
d. performing
e. adjourning
Essay
1. Explain how norms develop both formally and informally within groups.

2. What are the characteristics of an ideal work group goal? Why are such goals
important to the effective functioning of a work group?

192

3. Discuss the stages of group development. Label each one, and note why it is
important.

4. Define synergy, and explain why it is an important characteristic of healthy groups.

Helpful Links
Groupthink
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groupthink
From Wikipedia, this site discusses groupthink and offers links to additional
resources.
Group Dynamics
http://www.mapnp.org/library/grp_skll/theory/theory.htm
Assembled by Carter McNamara, this site looks at the basic nature of groups and
how they develop.
Setting Group Goals
http://www.montana.edu/wwwpb/pubs/mt8401.html
This site, from the Montana State University Extension Service, explores the
rationale for having group goals.
See your Communicate! website for links to other websites referenced in your
text.

193

CHAPTER 10: Problem Solving in Groups


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:
What are the steps in the systematic problem-solving process?
How does leadership function most effectively in problem-solving groups?
What are group member responsibilities when participating in meetings?
How can groups communicate their solutions to others?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. The problem-solving process
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Step one: Identify and define the problem
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Step two: Analyze the problem
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Step three: Determine criteria for judging solutions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Step four: Identify alternative solutions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Step five: Evaluate solutions an decide
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

194

F. Step six: Implement the agreed-upon solution


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

II. Shared leadership


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Task roles
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Maintenance roles
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Procedural roles
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

III. Making meetings effective


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

195

A. Guidelines for meeting leaders


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Before the meeting
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. During the meeting
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Following up
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Guidelines for meeting participants
1. Before the meeting
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. During the meeting
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

196

3. Following up
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
IV. Conversation and analysis
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Conversation
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

V. Communicating group solutions


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
Written formats
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
Oral formats
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
Virtual reports
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

197

Key Terms
agenda
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
brainstorming
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
comprehensive report
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
decision making
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
deliverables
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
executive summary
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
expediter
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

198

harmonizer
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
informal (emergent) leader
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
information or opinion analyzer
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
information or opinion giver
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
information or opinion seeker
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
initiator
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
logistics coordinator
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

199

maintenance roles
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
mediator
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
oral brief
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
oral report
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
panel discussion
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
problem definition
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
procedural roles
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
question of fact
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

200

question of policy
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
question of value
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
remote access report (RAR)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
role
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
shared leadership function
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
streaming video
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
supporter
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
symposium
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

201

task roles
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
tension reliever
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
written brief
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

202

Activities
Activity 10.1: Stating Problems
Indicate whether each of the following is a question of fact, a question of value,
or a question of policy. When youre done with this activity, compare your answers to
the authors at the Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill
Learning activities for Chapter 10.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What should we do to increase the quality of finished parts?


Do police stop African American drivers more frequently than other drivers?
Should television news organizations use exit polls to call elections?
Is John guilty of involuntary manslaughter?
Is seniority the best method of handling employee layoffs?
What is the best vacation plan for our family?

Activity 10.2: How Does Your Group Solve Problems?


Analyze a situation in which a group to which you belong attempted to solve a
problem. Write a paragraph in which you answer the following questions. Did the group
use all six of the problem-solving steps listed here? If not, which steps did the group
overlook? Were there any steps the group should have placed more emphasis on? Was
the group successful or not in its efforts to solve the problem? Explain why you think this
was or was not the case.
Activity 10.3: Emerging Informal Leadership in CBSs Survivor Series
Watch a recent episode of one of the popular CBS Survivor series. Select one
tribe and identify the dominant roles that each member of the group seems to play in
that episode. Who is vying for informal leadership? How are they trying to gain or
maintain their leadership? What do you think will happen to each leader candidate?
To help you complete this activity, use the link to the website for each
Survivor series provided in your Premium Website for Communicate! (Look for it in the
Skill Learning activities for Chapter 10.) Click on the Video link in the menu at the top
of the homepage to access video to each seasons episodes. Click on the Recaps link
for the group you chose and see how well your predictions held up. Write a short essay
describing what you have learned.
Activity 10.4: Identifying Roles
Match the typical comment to the role it is most characteristic of. When youre done with
this activity, compare your answers to the authors at the Premium Website for
Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for Chapter 10.

203

Roles
a. aggressor
b. analyzer
c. expediter
d. gatekeeper
e. harmonizer
f. information or opinion giver
g. information or opinion seeker
h. interpreter
i. supporter
j. tension reliever
k. withdrawer
Comments
Did anyone discover if we have to recommend only one company?
I dont have time to help with that.
I think Rick has an excellent idea.
Stupid idea, Katie. Why dont you stop and think before you open your mouth?
Kwitabe doesnt necessarily agree with you, but he would consider it rude to openly
disagree with someone who is older.
6. Josiah, in your plan werent you assuming that wed only need two days rest for
rehearsal?
7. Lisa, I understand your point. What do you think about it, Paul?
8. Okay, so weve all agreed that we should begin keeping time longs. Now shouldnt
we be thinking about what information needs to be on them?
9. Wow, its getting tense in here. If we dont chill out soon, were likely to
spontaneously combust. And, hello, thatll be a problem cause were the only engine
company in this area of town, right?
10. Barb, I dont think that your position is really that different from Sauls. Let me see if I
can explain how they relate.
11. Ive visited that home before, and I found that both the mom and dad are trying very
hard to help their son.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Activity 10.5: Member Meeting Responsibilities


Recall the last time you attended a small group problem-solving meeting. On a
scale of 1 to 5 (1 = not at all, 2 = poorly, 3 = somewhat, 4 = well done, 5 = to the best of
my ability) rate yourself on how well you carried out each of the preparation,
participation, and follow-up guidelines. Analyze your responses and determine how
effectively you participated in that meeting. What do you need to work on to become a
more valuable member of a problem-solving group? Why? Write a paragraph in which
you describe what you have learned.
To help you complete this activity, you can use the check sheet provided
in your Premium Website for Communicate! Look for it in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 10.

204

Activity 10.6: Group Communication


After youve watched the video of Thomas, Davinia, Joyce, and Pat and have
read the transcript of their conversation, answer the following questions.
1. Is the groups goal clear?
2. Do they have sufficient diversity in their membership?
3. What stage of group development do they seem to be in?
4. Are they using the problem-solving method?
5. What roles are being played by each member?
6. Do they appear to be prepared for the meeting?
When youre done with this activity, compare your answers to the authors at the
Premium Website for Communicate! Look for them in the Skill Learning activities for
Chapter 10.
Activity 10.7
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Under the subject leadership, click on periodical references. Scroll to
Principles of Leadership, by Edward Moyers, July 15, 2000. Look for the heading II:
Leadership is not a popularity contest, and find the statement Respect is what a true
leader strives for not just to be liked by all the people you are involved with. Of the
eight ways of earning respect, which one or two do you believe it is most important to
put into practice? Why?
Activity 10.8
Using InfoTrac College Edition
What does it take to be an effective leader? Search the subject leader and
locate three to four articles on the subject. Summarize those articles in a brief essay in
terms of the characteristics associated with effective leadership.
Activity 10.9
Thinking about Roles
Which of the three types of positive roles (task, maintenance, procedural)
discussed do you perform the most frequently when you are in a group? Which do you
perform the least frequently? Which role is easiest for you to perform? Which role is
most difficult for you? Why? Do you ever enact any of the self-centered roles? If so,
which ones? Do you see why these roles hurt the effectiveness of the group? How can
you eliminate these behaviors?
Activity 10.10
The Problem-Solving Process
Describe how you would use the six steps in the problem-solving process to
arrive at a solution to the following situation.

205

Your manager at work has decided that you and your co-workers should
decide whether it is time to upgrade your company supplied mobile phone hardware
and service. If you decided to upgrade, you are suppose to do the research and
choose the equipment and service provider.

Activity 10.11
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in your text.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.
1. Should Sue follow Heathers advice? Why or why not?

2. What would you do if you were in Heathers situation? What advice would you give
Sue?

Web Resources
10.1: Whats Your Problem?
This page at the Web site for the Sheridan Institute of Technology and Advanced
Learning suggests that later stages of problem solving move more quickly if the group
has thoroughly studied, discussed, and agreed on the problem.
10.2: Rules for Brainstorming
This site at the Center for Leadership and Community Engagement, George
Mason University, features a list of rules to guide the brainstorming process.
10.3: Identifying Your Team Player Style
Determine whether you are a contributor, collaborator, communicator, or
challenger using this survey at the Professional Teambuilding website.
10.4: Taking Notes
For useful tips on how to take minutes in meetings, visit this page at the
MeetingWizard.org Web site.

206

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
_____ 1. A role is a specific pattern of behavior that one group member performs.
_____2.
Information givers are people who probe the content and reasoning of
members.
_____3. The expert opinion method for deciding puts final responsibility for a decision
in the hands of a person outside the group with great knowledge or expertise in the
matter.
_____4. Step One in the problem-solving process is to analyze the problem.
_____5.

It is possible for an individual to play more than one role in a group.

_____6.
Group members can become informal leaders by coming to group
meetings prepared.
_____7.
It is important for a leader to speak to group participants before the
meeting.

207

Multiple Choice
_____1.
Which of the following is not one of the three types of roles discussed in
the text?
a. task-related
b. maintenance
c. procedural
d. other-centered
_____2.
In a problem-solving group, Maria provides the group with data that helps
it to make an effective decision. Marias role can be described as
a. information or opinion giver
b. information or opinion seeker
c. analyzer
d. harmonizer
_____3.
In terms of following up after a meeting, group members should do all of
the following except:
a. review and summarize their notes
b. evaluate their own effectiveness
c. review decisions
d. communicate progress
e. play devils advocate
_____4.
Len has been appointed the chair of the committee in charge of selecting
a new student representative to the governing board. He is what type of leader?
a. informal
b. formal
c. charismatic
d. framing

208

_____5.
A group decides to define the problem it has been tasked to decide as
follows: Should the company abolish the current pension plan and abolish the
current dental plan. This group has committed which error in problem
consideration:
a. The problem should use specific and precise language.
b. The problem should be stated as a question.
c. The problem should be a policy issue.
d. The problem should contain only one central idea.
e. The group has committee no error.
_____6.
The group member who ensures that everyone has an opportunity to
speak and be heard is the:
a. orienter
b. gatekeeper
c. encourager
d. analyzer
_____7.
Mark compliments Dana on the quality of her contribution by saying Nice
point Dana! Mark is enacting what role at this time?
a. harmonizer
b. enourager
c. gatekeeper
d. monopolizer
e. interpreter
_____8.
Which of the following is not one of the activities a leader completes
before the meeting?
a. prepare the agenda
b. arrange the time and place of the meeting
c. review the agenda
d. speak with each group participant

209

Essay
1. Discuss the differences between formal and informal leadership. Note differences in
the areas of how one becomes a leader and how one maintains leadership.

2. What are some of the guidelines the text provides to assist leaders in making
meetings more productive? Of all of these, which do you feel is the most important
and why?

3. Discuss the differences between task and maintenance roles. Why are
maintenance roles important to effective groups?

4. Review the six steps in the decision-making process, and identify the tasks that
should be completed in each step.

210

5. Discuss the threats to individuals health and welfare that online social groups
can pose. Should these groups be more closely regulated? Why or why not?

Helpful Links
Motivation and Leadership Styles
http://www.motivation-tools.com/workplace/leadership_styles.htm
This site, by Motivational Tools.com, explores the relationship between different
styles of leadership and motivation
Big Dogs Leadership Page
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leader.html
By Don Clark, this site offers an overview of leadership styles and skills.
Overview of leadership in Organizations
http://www.mapnp.org/library/ldrship/ldrship.htm
Carter McNamaras site reviews leadership in the organization, covering topics
such the difference between leading and managing, how to lead, and offering links to
other resources.
Check Out Your Own Leadership Style
http://www.teal.org.uk/styleind.htm
This site allows you to take an online quiz to determine your style of leadership.
Leadership And The Enneagram
http://www.breakoutofthebox.com/ldrho.htm
A review of 9 different leadership styles by Mary R. Bast.
Brainstorming
http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/tpss99/processguides/brainstorming.html
From process Guides, a brief guide to how to brainstorm
Brainstorming
http://www.jpb.com/creative/brainstorming.php
Another guide to brainstorming, from Bwiti.

211

Brainstorming Software
http://www.jpb.com/brainstormer/index.php
A link to free (trial) software that is designed to improve the brainstorming
process and results. From Bwiti.
See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.

212

IV
PUBLIC SPEAKING
11. Developing and Researching a Speech Topic
12. Organizing Your Speech
13. Adapting Verbally and Visually
14. Overcoming Speech Apprehension by Practicing Delivery
15. Informative Speaking
16. Persuasive Speaking

213

CHAPTER 11: Developing and Researching a Speech


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:
How can you choose a good topic for your speech?
How can you analyze your audience and setting so that your speech topic and goal are
appropriate?
How can you adapt your speech goal to your audience?
What are the three types of information sources for speeches?
How can you evaluate sources to ensure that the information they provide is unbiased
and true?
Why is it important for you to make a record of the information you find?
How do you orally cite sources during your speech?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Identifying topics
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. List subjects
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Brainstorm and concept map for potential topics
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Analyze the audience
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Identify audience analysis information needs
___________________________________________________________

214

___________________________________________________________
B. Gather audience data
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
III. Analyze the setting
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
IV. Select a topic
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
V. Write a speech goal
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
A. Identify your general goal
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
B. Phrase a specific goal statement
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

215

VI. Locate and evaluate information sources


____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
A. Personal knowledge, experience, and observation
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
B. Secondary research
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
1. Books
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Articles
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
3. Newspapers
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
4. Encyclopedias
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
5. Statistical sources
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

216

6. Biographical references
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

7. Books of quotations
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
8. Government documents
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
9. Internet-based resources
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
C. Primary research
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
1. Surveys
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Interviews

217

____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
3. Experiments
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
VII. Evaluate sources
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
1. Authority
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Objectivity
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
3. Currency
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

VIII. Identify and select relevant information


____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
A. Factual statements
____________________________________________________________

218

____________________________________________________________
1. Statistics
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Examples
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

B. Expert opinions
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
C. Elaborations
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
1. Anecdotes and narratives
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
2. Comparisons and contrasts
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
3. Quotations
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
IX. Draw information from multiple cultural perspectives
____________________________________________________________

219

____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
X. Record information
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
A. Prepare research cards
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

XI. Cite sources in speeches


____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Key Terms
anecdotes
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
audience adaptation
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
audience analysis
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
brainstorming
220

____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
comparisons
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

concept mapping
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
contrasts
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
demographics
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
examples
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
expert
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

221

expert opinions
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
factual statements
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

general speech goal


____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
narratives
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
oral footnote
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
periodicals
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
plagiarism
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
primary research

222

____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
secondary research
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

223

specific speech goal


____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
statistics
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
subject
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
survey
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
topic
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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Activities
Activity 11.1
Brainstorm and Concept Map for Topics
Action Step 1.a
1. Divide a sheet of paper into three columns. Label column 1 with your major or
vocation such as Art History; label column 2 with a hobby or an activity, such as
Chess; and label column 3 with a concern or an issue, such as Water Pollution.
2. Working on one subject column at a time, quickly brainstorm a list of at least 15
related topics for each column.
3. Place a check mark next to the 3 topics in each list that you would most
enjoy speaking on.
4. Keep these lists for future use in choosing a topic for an assigned speech.
This activity corresponds to Action Step 1.a in your textbook.

225

Brainstorming Worksheet
Vocation or major

Hobby or activity

Concern or interest

226

Activity 11.2
Analyze Your Audience
Action Step 1.b
1. Decide on the audience characteristics (demographics and subject-specific
information that you need in order to choose a topic and adapt to your
audience).
2. Choose a method for gathering audience information.
3. Collect the data.
4. You can also use the checklist below to help you with your audience analysis.
This activity corresponds to Action Step 1.b in your textbook.

Audience Analysis Checklist


Subject
Data
1. The average audience members education level is _____ high school ______ college
______ postgraduate.
2. The ages of the audience range from ______ to ______. The average age is about
______.
3. The audience is approximately ______ percent male and ______ female.
4. My estimate of the average socioeconomic level of the audience is ______ low
______ middle ______ high.
5. Most audience members are ______ of the same occupation/major ______ of different
occupations/majors
6. The audience members are ______ mostly of the same race ______ a mixture of races.
7. The audience members are ______ mostly of the same ethnicity ______ a mixture of
ethnicities.
8. The audience members are ______ mostly practice the same religion ______ practice a
mixture of religions.
9. Most audience members are from the same ______ country ______ state ______ city
______ neighborhood.

227

10. Most audience members speak ______ the same first language ______ different first
languages ______ English as a common language ______ some other common language
(list them:
).
Predictions based on audience data
1. Audience knowledge of the subject will be ______ extensive ______ moderate
______ limited because

2. Audience interest in this subject is likely to be ______ high ______ moderate ______
low because

3. Audience attitude toward my subject is likely to be ______ positive ______ neutral


______ negative because

4. My initial credibility with the audience is likely to be ______ high ______ medium
______ low because

Activity 11.3
Understand the Speech Setting
Action Step 1.c
Hold a conversation with the person who arranged for you to speak, and get
answers to the following questions:
1. What are the special expectation for the speech?

2. What is the appropriate length for the speech?

3. How large will the audience be?

4. Where will the speech be given?

5. What equipment is necessary to give the speech?

Write a short paragraph mentioning which aspects of the setting are most
important for you to consider in speech preparation and why. This activity corresponds

228

to Action Step 1.c in your textbook.


Activity 11.4
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Audience and Setting
Attend a public speech delivered outside of your school setting. If your schedule
makes viewing a live speech difficult, you may watch a speech delivered on TV or cable
(try C-SPAN). In watching the speech, give close consideration to the audience and the
setting and evaluate how these might have influenced the speaker. Was the speech
itself pitched directly at the immediate interests of the audience? If not, did the speaker
attempt to draw connections between his or her topic and the audiences interests? Did
the speaker use any particular words or gestures to connect better with the audience?
What about the manner in which the speaker was dressed; how might this have played
with the audience? Can you discern any influence the setting might have played on the
speaker?
1. In addition to the questions above, use the Setting Checklist below to collect
information about your occasion and location of your speech.
2. Write a short statement indicating which of these seem most important to your
speech preparation? Why?
3. Save the results. You will use the data from this checklist throughout the preparation
process.
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 11.1 in your textbook.

229

Setting Checklist
Topic:
1. When will the speech be given?
2. Where in the program does the speech occur?
3. How large will the audience be?
4. Where in the program does the speech occur?
5. What is the time limit for the speech?
6. What is the layout of the room?
7. What equipment is necessary to give the speech?

Activity 11.5
Select a Topic
Action Step 1.d
1. Review the three topics that you checked from each of the lists of topics that you
brainstormed during Action Step 1.a, the Audience Analysis you completed during
Action Step 1.b, and the Setting Checklist you completed during Action Step 1.c.
2. From the three categories in the brainstorming list, select the subject area that you
want to use for your first speech.
3. Next, select which of the three topics that you checked that you think would be of
greatest benefit to your audience.
This activity corresponds to Action Step 1.d in your textbook.

230

Topic Selection Worksheet


Vocation or major

Hobby or activity

Concern or interest

My topic will be:

231

Activity 11.6
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Recognizing a Specific Goal
Access InfoTrac College Edition and do a PowerTrac search with the journal name
(jn) Vital Speeches. Find a speech on a topic that interests you. Then read that
speech in order to identify the speakers goal. Was the goal clearly stated in the
introduction? Was it implied but clear? Was it unclear? Note how this analysis can
help you clarify your own speech goal. Write a paragraph explaining what you have
learned. This activity corresponds with Skill Learning Activity 11.2 in your textbook.
Name of speech:

Specific goal of speech:

Goal stated in introduction? (yes/no):

Summary of what you learned:

232

Activity 11.7
Writing a Specific Goal
Action Step 1.e
Write a specific goal for your first major speech.
Type of speech? _____________________________________________
1. Write a draft of your general speech goal using a complete sentence that
specifies the type response you want from the audience:
2. Does it focus on the particular response that you want from your audience?
Revise it to be more precise.
3. Review the specific goal statement. If it contains more than one idea, select
one and redraft your specific goal statement.
4. Test the infinitive phrase. Does the infinitive phrase express the specific
audience reaction desired? If not, revise the infinitive phrase.
Write your final wording of the specific goal that you will use in your speech:

At the Communicate! Online Textbook Resources you will be directed to Speech Builder
Express, a step-by-step program that will help you develop your speech as you work
through each of the action steps. This activity corresponds with Action Step 1.e in your
textbook.
Activity 11.8
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Evaluating Online Sources
The Internet can be a gold mine for a researcher, but the challenge can be
knowing the fools gold from the real thing. Pick a subject at random and search the
Internet for information on it. Find five reliable and five unreliable online sources on your
subject, explaining your rationale for your evaluation of each source. This activity
corresponds with Skill Learning Activity 11.3 in your textbook.

233

Evaluating Online Sources Worksheet


Topic selected:
Reliable source #1:
Rationale:

Reliable sources #2:


Rationale:

Reliable sources #3:


Rationale:

Reliable sources #4:


Rationale:

Reliable sources #5:

234

Evaluating Online Sources Worksheet (Cont.)


Unreliable source #1:
Rationale:

Unreliable source #2:


Rationale:

Unreliable source #3:


Rationale:

Unreliable source #4:


Rationale:

Unreliable source #5:


Rationale:

235

Activity 11.9
Locate and Evaluate Information Sources
Action Step 2.a
The goal of this activity is to help you compile a list of potential sources for
your speech.
1. Identify gaps in your current knowledge that you would like to fill.
2. Identify a person, or an event, or a process that you could observe to broaden your
personal knowledge base.
3. Brainstorm a list of key words that are related to your speech goal.
4. Work with paper or electronic versions of your library's card catalog, periodical
indexes (including InfoTrac College Edition), and general references discussed in
this chapter, find and list specific resources that appear to provide information for
your speech.
5. Use a search engine, identify Internet sponsored and personal websites that may be
sources of information for your speech.
6. Identify a person you could interview for additional information for this speech.
7. Skim the resources you have identified to decide which are likely to be most useful.
8. Evaluate each resource to determine how much faith you can place in the
information.
This activity corresponds to Action Step 2.a in your textbook.
Activity 11.10
Prepare Research Cards
Action Step 2.b
The goal of this activity is to review the source material that you identified in Activity
11.8 and record specific items of information that you might wish to use in your
speech.
1. Carefully read all print and electronic sources (including web material) that you have
identified and evaluated as appropriate sources for your speech. Review your notes
and tapes from all interviews and observations.

236

2. As you read an item (fact, opinion, example, illustration, statistic, anecdote, narrative,
comparison/contrast, quotation, definition, or description) that you think might be
useful in your speech, record the item on a 3 x 5 note card or on the appropriate
online note card form for this activity, available at the Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources. (If you are using an article that originally appeared in a
periodical but that you read online, use the periodical note card form.)
This activity corresponds with Action Step 2.b in your textbook.

Electronic Note Card for a Book


Heading
Notes

Author(s) or editor(s) (last name, first name, middle initial)

Title
Page number(s) on which this item was found
Year of publication
Place of publication (city, state, or country)
Publishing company

237

Electronic Note Card for a Periodical


Heading
Notes

Author(s) (if listed) (last name, first name, middle initial)

Title of article
Title of periodical
Page number(s) of the article
Page number(s) on which this item was found
Day/month/year of publication (depending on periodical)
Volume number

238

Electronic Note Card for a Newspaper


Heading
Notes

Author(s) (if listed) (last name, first name, middle initial)

Title of article
Title of newspaper
Section number
Page number(s) of the article
Page number(s) on which this item was found
Day/month/year of publication

239

Electronic Note Card for a General Reference


Heading
Notes

Item author
Item/article title (if one is listed)
Volume author(s) or editors (s) (last name, first name, middle initial)

Reference title
Page number(s) on which this item was found
Year of publication
Place of publication (city, state, or country)
Publishing company

240

Electronic Note Card for a Website


Heading
Notes

Web address
Author(s) (last name, first name, middle initial)

Web page title (article)


Date of original posting
Date of most recent update

241

Electronic Note Card for an Interview


Heading
Notes

Interviewee (last name, first name, middle initial)


Interviewees title or qualifications
Interviewees organizational affiliation
Date of interview
Place of interview (city, state, or country)
Title

242

Electronic Note Card for an Original Survey or Observation


Heading
Notes

Place of survey or observation (city, state, or country)


Date(s) of survey or observation
Description of people surveyed

Person, event, or process observed

243

Activity 11.11
Audience Attitude toward Your Topic
There are many organizations that poll public opinion on topics. If you have no
idea about how your specific audience might react to your topic, you may be able to find
some idea of general attitudes by accessing public opinion polls. The following
websites are good places to look for opinion polls:

http://www.WashingtonPost.com (Click on Politics, then Polls)


http://www.pollingreport.com
http://www.gallup.com

Visit each of these sites and examine the polling data available. These may be
useful for your speeches.
Activity 11.11
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in your text.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.
1. While blatantly fabricating information from a source is clearly unethical, what about
when someone like Alessandra writes quotations based on her memory of earlier
reading?

2. What ethical obligations does Alessandra have to her sources?

244

Web Resource 11.1


Brainstorming
For ideas about how to use brainstorming for developing speech topics, check
out the handout "Brainstorming and Topic Development," prepared by the Auburn
University English Center.
Web Resource 11.2
Statistics Online
The Statistical Abstract of the United States contains a summary of social,
political, and economic statistics on the United States.
Web Resource 11.3
Online Biographical References
LibrarySpot.com provides numerous links to online biographical references.
Web Resource 11.4
Online Encyclopedias
LibrarySpot.com also provides numerous links to online encyclopedias.
Web Resource 11.5
Quotations Online
Bartleby.com features links to Web-based sources of quotations. Scroll down to
the Quotations section.
Web Resource 11.6
Government Publications Online
The Central Library at Vanderbilt University hosts an excellent site that features
links to several frequently used U.S. federal government documents.

245

Web Resource 11.7


Conducting Surveys
If you want to conduct your own survey, Online Magazine at InfoToday.com
features important tips for collecting information.
Web Resource 11.8
Analyzing Information Sources
Visit this site, hosted by Cornell University, to read about criteria you can use to
evaluate the credibility of your sources.

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
_____ 1.

Topic and subject are the same thing in public speaking.

_____2.

A broad area of knowledge is the definition of a topic.

_____3.
Personal observation can be a useful method of gathering data about an
audience.
_____4.
You will be less likely to be able to move about when the audience is
much larger than approximately 50 people.
_____5. Concept mapping is a visual means of exploring connections between a
subject and related ideas.
_____6.
In order to not mislead your audience, use statistics that are both recent
and older.
_____7.

Objectivity of the source is not important when judging sources.

_____8.

Factual statements can be verified.

246

Multiple Choice
_____1.
The method for generating topics discussed in the text is called
a. brainstorming
b. analyzing
c. adapting
d. recording
_____2.
The sentence: I want the audience to understand the procedure for
registering for classes at the college is an example of
a. general speech goal
b. thesis statement
c. specific speech goal
d. topic sentence
e. none of the above
_____3.
The size of the audience
a. has no bearing on speech preparation
b. may limit how much you are able to move around
c. may require you to wear a microphone
d. b and c
_____4.
Tiffany is sitting in the class she will be giving a speech to in the future.
She looks around the room, noting the average age of her classmates, their gender
and ethnic makeup. Tiffany is engaging in what practice?
a. group affiliation
b. uniqueness
c. brainstorming
d. gathering audience data by observation
_____5.
Which of these is not mentioned as a source of information for your
speeches?
a. personal experience
b. books and articles
c. your instructor
d. United States government publications
_____6.
If your topic is in the news, which of the following is likely true:
a. books will be better sources since they offer depth of information
b. electronic databases will not be good sources as they are not current
c. encyclopedias will likely be your only source of information
d. periodicals will likely be your primary source of information as they are more
current than books.

247

_____7.
Interviews
a. are not useful sources for speeches
b. are best left to professionals
c. can be very effective if you ask the right person good questions
d. are great to use because they require no preparation
_____8.
The length of this aircraft carrier is equal to three and one half football
fields. This statement is an example of a(n)
a. contrast
b. comparison
c. statistic
d. opinion
Essay
1. Why is it important to know about your audience before you give a speech?

2. Why is it important to have a clear speech goal? Discuss this from the perspective
of both audience and speaker.

3. Discuss the different methods for gathering audience data.

4. Why is it often important to draw sources from a variety of backgrounds?

5. Discuss the criteria for evaluating sources.

248

6. In your opinion, is Wikipedia a valid information source? Why or why not?

Helpful Links
Topic Development
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#topic
A series of articles on topic development from the Advanced Public Speaking
Institute.
Audience
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm
A few articles on the audience from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.
Toastmasters International
http://www.toastmasters.org/
The homepage for Toastmasters International, an organization devoted to improving
speaking skills.
Polling Report.com
http://www.pollingreport.com
Contains lists of public polling results and information on public opinion research.
The Gallup Organization
http://www.gallup.com
Gallup is an organization devoted to research on public opinion. Much polling
data can be found at their extensive website.
See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.

249

CHAPTER 12: Organizing Your Speech


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:
How can you determine the main points of your speech?
How can you construct a thesis statement for your speech?
How can you prepare a well-written speech outline?
How can you create an effective introduction to your speech
How can you create an effective conclusion for your speech?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Developing the body of the speech
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Determining main points
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Writing a thesis statement
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Outlining the body of the speech
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Wording main points
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

250

2. Selecting an organizational pattern for main points


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
a) Time order__________________________________________
b) Narrative order______________________________________
c) Topic order__________________________________________
d) Logical reasons order__________________________________
D. Selecting and outlining supporting material
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Preparing section transitions and signposts
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Creating the introduction
___________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
A. Getting attention
___________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
1. Startling statements
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

251

2. Rhetorical and direct questions


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
3. Jokes
4. Personal references
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
5. Quotations
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
6. Stories
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
7. Suspense
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
B. Establishing Listener Relevance
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
C. Stating the thesis
_____________________________________________________

252

D. Establishing your credibility


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
E. Setting a tone
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
F. Creating a bond of goodwill
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
III. Crafting the conclusion
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Summary
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Clincher
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
IV. Listing sources
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

253

V. Reviewing the outline


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Key Terms
clincher
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
direct quote
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
joke
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
listener relevance link
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
logical reasons order
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
main points
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
narrative order
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

254

organizing
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
parallel
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
personal reference
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
quotation
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
rhetorical question
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
section transitions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

speech outline
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

255

startling statement
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
story
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
supporting material
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
thesis statement
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
time (sequential) order
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
topic order
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
transitions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

256

Activities
Activity 12.1
Determining Main Points
Action Step 3.a
The goal of this activity is to help you determine three to five main ideas or main
points that you will present in your speech.
1. List all of the ideas you have found that relate to the specific goal of your speech.
2. If there are more than five:
a. Draw a line through each of the ideas that you believe the audience already
understands, or that you have no supporting information for, or that just seem
too complicated for the time allowed.
b. Look for and combine ideas that can be grouped together under a larger
heading.
3. From those ideas that remain, choose the two to five that you think will make the
best main points for your audience.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..
Activity 12.2
Writing a Thesis Statement
Action Step 3.b
The goal of this activity is to use your specific goal statement and the main
points you have identified to develop a well-worded thesis statement for your speech.
1. Write the specific goal you developed in Chapter 11 Speech Action Step Activity
1.e.
2. List the main points you determined in Action Step 3.a
3. Now write a complete sentence that combines your specific goal with your main
point ideas.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..

257

Activity 12.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Identifying Thesis Statements
Access the American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank. Select five speeches and
listen to the audio recordings or read the printed transcript of each speech. Identify and
write down the thesis statements in each. Not all speeches have explicit thesis
statements, but they do have an implied thesis or purpose. If you feel any one of the
speeches you have selected does not contain an explicit thesis, identify its implied
thesis or purpose.
You can complete this activity online. Use your Online Textbook
Resources for Communicate! to access Skill Learning Activity 12.1.
Identifying Thesis Statements Worksheet
Speech title 1:
Thesis statement:

Speech title 2:
Thesis statement:

Speech title 3:
Thesis statement:

Speech title 4:
Thesis statement:

Speech title 5:
Thesis statement:

258

Activity 12.4
Organizing and Outlining the Main Points of Your Speech
Action Step 3.c
The goal of this activity is to help you phrase and order your main points.
1. Write your thesis statement (Action Step 3.b).
2. Underline the two to five main points determined for your thesis statement.
3. For each underlined item, write one sentence that summarizes what you want your
audience to know about that idea.
4. Review the main points as a group.
a. Is the relationship of each main point statement to the goal statement clearly
specified? If not, revise.
b. Are the main points parallel in structure? If not, revise.
5. Choose an organizational pattern for your main points and write them in this order.
Place a I. before the main point you will make first, a II. before your second point,
etc.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..

259

Activity 12.5
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Identifying Main Points
Choose one of the speeches you listened to or read in Skill Learning Activity
12.1. Listen to or read it again, but this time identify and write down the main points in
each. What type of organizational pattern is the speaker using in the speech?
You can complete it online and, if requested, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access Skill Learning
Activity 12.2.
Identifying Main Points Worksheet
Speech title:
Organization pattern used:
Main point 1:

Main point 2:

Main point 3:

Main point 4:

Main point 5:

260

Activity 12.6
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Identifying Supporting Material
Using the speech you chose in Skill Learning Activity 12.1, list the various types
of support the speaker uses to develop each main point. Does the speaker
acknowledge the sources of this information? Are there types of support that you
thought should have been used that are missing from this speech? Does the speaker
seem to rely on one type of support to the exclusion of others? Why do you suppose
that the speaker chose the types of support that were used?
You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access the Skill Learning
Activities.
Identifying Supporting Material Worksheet
Speech title:

Types of supporting materials used by speaker:

How are sources acknowledged?

Supporting material missing from speech?

Reasons for supporting materials used?

261

Activity 12.7
Selecting and Outlining Supporting Material
Action Step 3.d
The goal of this activity is to help you develop and outline your supporting
material. Complete the following steps for each of your main points.
1. List the main point.
2. Using your note cards list the key information related to that main point that you
uncovered during your research.
3. Analyze that information by crossing out information that seems less relevant, or
doesnt fit.
4. Look for information that seems related and can be grouped under a broader
heading.
5. Try to group information until you have between 2 and 4 supporting points.
6. Write the supporting points in full sentences.
7. Repeat this process for all main points.
8. Write an outline using roman numerals for main points, capital letters for supporting
points, and arabic numbers for material related to supporting points.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..

262

Activity 12.8
Preparing Section Transitions
Action Step 3.e
The goal of this exercise is to help you prepare section transitions. Section
transitions appear as parenthetical statements before/after each main point. Using
complete sentences:
1. Write a transition from your first main point to your second.
2. Write a transition from each of your remaining main points to the one before it.
3. Add these transitional statements to your outline.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..

263

Activity 12.9
Writing Speech Introductions
Action Step 3.f
The goal of this activity is to create choices for how you will begin your speech.
1. For the speech body you outlined earlier, write three different types introductions for
your speech chosen from these types: a startling statement, rhetorical question,
story, personal reference, quotation, or suspense. Choose types that you believe
would be appropriate for your speech goal and audience.
2. Of the three introductions you drafted, which do you believe is the best? Why?
3. Next, plan how you will introduce your thesis statement.
4. Develop a very short statement that will establish your credibility.
5. Consider how you might establish goodwill during the introduction.
6. Write that introduction in outline form.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..

264

Activity 12.10
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity
Identifying Transition Statements, Introductions, and Conclusions
Use the same speech you chose for Skill Learning Activity 12.1.
1. Identify the transition statements the speaker used to move from one main
point to another.

2. Identify the type of introduction the speaker used. Do you think it was
effective? If so, why? If not, why not?

3. Identify the type of conclusion the speaker used. Why do you think the
speaker chose to end the speech in this way? Was the conclusion effective? If so,
why? If not, why not?

You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access Skill Learning
Activity 12.4.

265

Activity 12.11
Creating Speech Conclusions
Action Step 3.g
The goal of this activity is to help you create choices for how you will conclude your
speech.
1. For the speech body you outlined earlier, write three different conclusions (summary,
story, appeal to action, or emotional impact) that review important points you want
the audience to remember and leave the audience with vivid imagery or an
emotional appeal.
2. Which do you believe is the best? Why?
3. Write that conclusion in outline form.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..

Activity 12.12
Compiling a List of Sources
Action Step 3.h
The goal of this activity is to help you record the list of sources you used in the speech.
1. Review your note cards, separating those whose information you have used in your
speech from those you have not.
2. List the sources whose information was used in the speech by copying the
bibliographic information recorded on the note card.
3. For short lists, organize your list alphabetically by the last name of the first author.
Be sure to follow the form shown in Figure 12.2. If you did not record some of the
bibliographic information on your note card, you will need to revisit the library or data
base to find it.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 12..

266

Activity 12.13
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Using InfoTrac College Edition, enter Vital Speeches in the journal name box.
View Vital Speeches and identify three speeches to look at; then view those speeches.
Read and analyze the introductions and conclusions to those speeches. Which ones
meet the goals discussed in this chapter? What could the speakers have done to make
the introductions and conclusions better? What qualities, if any, did you find helpful in
preparing your introduction and conclusion?
Activity 12.14
Using the Web
Locate a website of quotations. Browse the site. Seek quotes relevant to your
speech and write a few in the space below. How may these be used to enhance your
introduction and/or conclusion? (Be sure to copy full bibliographic information
concerning the source of the quote.)
Activity 12.15
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in your text.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.
1. What are the ethical issues here?

2. Is anyone really hurt by Marnas opening the speech with this story?

3. What are the speakers ethical responsibilities?


Web Resource 12.1
Writing Different Types of Thesis Statements
For guidance on writing analytical, expository, and persuasive thesis statements,
use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 12.1:
Writing Different Types of Thesis Statements.
267

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
_____ 1.

Transition statements should not be placed in the outline.

_____2.
Topic order organizes the main ideas of a speech by categories or
divisions.
_____3.

Organizing the main points by steps in a process is called logical order.

_____4.
Using a rhetorical question in the introduction is a poor idea because as
the audience ponders the answer to the question, they will not be paying attention to
the speech.
_____5.

The appeal to action ends a persuasive speech.

_____6.
Organizing is the process of selecting and arranging the main ideas and
supporting material to be presented in the speech in a manner that makes it easy for
the audience to understand.
_____7.
One way for main points to have parallel structure is to use the same
introductory words.
_____8.
Organizing your main points using steps in a process is an example of the
time or sequential ordering of main points.

268

Multiple Choice
_____1.
A thesis statement
a. is a sentence that identifies the topic of your speech and the main ideas you will
present
b. is the same as the specific goal statement
c. should be written after the introduction
d. is not necessary in a well-organized speech
_____2.
Main points should be
a. clear
b. written in parallel structure format
c. limited to five or fewer in number
d. meaningful
e. all of the above
_____3.
Daniel organizes his speech on changing the oil in a car with main ideas
that are the steps in the process. His speech is organized using what order?
a. time order
b. logical reasons order
c. problem-solution order
d. topic order
_____4.
At the end of her first main idea, Alexandra says: Now that we have seen
the causes of credit card debt, lets look at what we can do about it. You recognize
this sentence as a:
a. conclusion
b. main point
c. section transition
d. attention getter
e. none of the above
_____5.
You are listening to a speech that starts off with the following: What
would you do if you won the lottery today? Would you spend the money? Would
you save it? Would you donate it? You recognize this as what type of introduction?
a. startling statement
b. rhetorical question
c. reference
d. emotional impact
e. parallel structure

269

_____6.
The two major goals of a speech conclusion are
a. summarize and bond with the audience
b. bond with the audience and emotionally impact the audience
c. emotionally impact the audience and explain your thesis
d. summarize and emotionally impact the audience
_____7.
Listing sources
a. is usually done alphabetically by authors last name
b. will enable you to direct audience members to your sources
c. can be done using a bibliographic style format such as APA or MLA
d. all of the above
_____8.

What is the problem with the following outline segment?

I. Freshwater fishing requires certain pieces of equipment.


A. A good-quality rod will help your casting.
B. A properly constructed reel will help gain proper distance
C. Fishing line of the right weight will allow you to catch larger fish
D. Years of fishing experience also help.
a.
b.
c.
d.

The main idea is written as a full sentence


There are not enough subdivisions
Subdivision D does not belong as experience is not a piece of equipment.
There is nothing wrong with this outline segment

Essay
1. Discuss several different goals of an introduction and at least three different ways of
achieving those goals.

2. Identify three different ways of organizing a speech, and provide an example of


each.

270

3. What are the four main types of conclusions, and what are their main objectives?

4. Discuss three techniques you can use in your introduction to gain the audiences
attention, and provide an example of a speech in which each technique would be
effective.

Helpful Links
Organization
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#organization
A set of articles on organization from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.
Openings
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#openings
A set of articles on openings (introductions) from the Advanced Public Speaking
Institute.
Closings
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#closings
An article on closings (conclusions) from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.
Powerful Introductions
http://ezinearticles.com/?Public-Speaking-Tips:-10-Easy-Ways-To-Prepare-A-PowerfulIntroduction&id=76023
See this site for tips on preparing your introduction.
Speech Conclusions
http://www.aresearchguide.com/3tips.html
See this website for tips on creating an effective speech conclusion.
See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.

271

CHAPTER 13: Adapting Verbally and Visually


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:
What can you do to demonstrate the relevance of your speech to your audience?
How can establish common ground in your speech?
What can you do to bolster your credibility as a speaker?
How can you help your audience comprehend and retain your message?
What can you do to adapt to the cultural differences between you and your audience?
What are the different types of presentational aids?
What criteria can you use to select presentational aids?
What guidelines should you follow to construct and integrate presentational aids?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Adapting to your audience verbally
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Relevance
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Establish timeliness
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
2. Establish proximity
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

272

3. Demonstrate personal impact


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
B. Common ground
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
1. Use personal pronouns
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
2. Ask rhetorical questions
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
3. Draw from common experiences
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
C. Speaker credibility
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
1. Demonstrate knowledge and expertise
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

273

2. Establish trustworthiness
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
3. Display personableness
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
D. Information Comprehension and Retention
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
1. Appeal to diverse learning styles
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
2. Orient the audience with internal reviews
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
3. Choose specific and familiar language
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
E. Adapting to Cultural Differences
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
1. Work to be understood when speaking in your second language
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

274

2. Choose nonoffensive language


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
3. Choose culturally appropriate supporting material
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
II. Adapting to audiences visually
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Types of presentational aids
1. Actual objects
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
2. Models
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
3. Photographs
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
4. Simple drawings and diagrams
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

275

5. Maps
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
6. Charts
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
7. Graphs
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
8. audio materials
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
9. audiovisual materials
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
B. Criteria for Choosing Presentational Aids
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
C. Designing Effective Presentational Aids
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
III. Methods for displaying visual aids
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

276

A. Posters
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
B. Whiteboards or chalkboards
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
C. Flipcharts
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
D. Handouts
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
E. Document cameras
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
F. CD/VCR/DVD players and LCD projectors
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
G. Computer-mediated slide show
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

277

Key Terms
actual object
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
bar graphs
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
charts
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
common ground
__________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
credibility
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
flip chart
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
graph
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

278

initial audience attitudes


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
knowledge and expertise
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
Kolbs cycle of learning
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
LCD multimedia projector
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
learning style
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
line graphs
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

279

personal pronouns
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
personableness
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
pie graph
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
presentational aid
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
proximity
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
rhetorical questions
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

280

trustworthiness
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
visual aid
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
word charts
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

Activities
Activity 13.1
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Creating Common Ground
Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access InfoTrac College
Edition and search for the article A Question of Real American Black Men, by Bailey B.
Baker, Jr., Vital Speeches, April 15, 2002. Analyze how this speaker used use personal
pronouns, rhetorical questions, common experiences, and personalized information to
create common ground. Write a short essay describing the conclusions of your
analysis.
You can complete this activity online and, if required, e-mail it to your instructor.
Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Skill Learning Activity
13.1.

281

Activity 13.2
Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
Action Step 4.a
The goal of this activity is to help you plan how you will adapt your material to the
specific audience verbally.
Write your thesis statement: _________________________________________
Review the audience analysis that you completed in Action Steps 1.b and 1.c. As you
review your speech outline that you completed in Action Steps 3.a3.h, plan the
supporting material you will use to verbally adapt to your audience by answering the
following questions:
1. How can I adapt this material so that it is relevant to this audience by showing that it
is timely, proximate, and has a personal impact on them?
2. How can I make this material easier for the audience to comprehend by orienting
them, defining key terms, using vivid examples, personalizing the information,
comparing unknowns with knowns, and using diverse methods of development?
3. How can I establish common ground by using personal pronouns, asking rhetorical
questions, and drawing from common experiences.
4. How can I establish my credibility by demonstrating my knowledge and expertise,
my trustworthiness, and my personableness.
5. How can I adapt to the language and cultural difference that exist between me and
the audience?
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 13.

282

Activity 13.3
Adapting to Your Audience Visually
Action Step 4.b
The goal of this activity is help you decide what visual aids you will use in your
speech.
1. Identify the key ideas in you speech that you believe a visual presentation would
increase audience interest, understanding, or retention.
2. For each idea you have identified, list the type of visual you think would be most
appropriate to develop and use.
3. For each visual you have identified, decide on the method you will use to present it.
4. Write a brief paragraph describing why you chose the types and methods that you
did. Be sure to consider how your choices will affect your preparation time and the
audiences perception of your credibility.
You can complete this activity online with Speech Builder Express, view a student
sample of this activity, and, if requested, e-mail your completed activity to your
instructor. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 13.

Visual Aid Planning Chart


Idea

Type of aid

283

Display method

Activity 13.4
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Evaluating Visual Aids
Analyze speeches or other public presentations such as lectures, articles,
essays, newscasts, infomercials, etc. that you can find on campus, in print, online, or via
television. Evaluate the use of at least one item from each of the following visuals aids:
1) objects, 2) models, 3) photographs, 4) slides, 5) film/video clip, 6) drawing, 7) maps,
8) charts, and 9) graphs. How effectively does the speaker or author use each item to
illustrate or support his or her speech or presentation? Are there other ways the speaker
might have used the visual aid more effectively? Would a different type of visual aid
have conveyed the presentations message more clearly?
You can complete this activity online and, if requested, e-mail it to your
instructor. Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to access Skill
Learning Activity 13.2.
Activity 13.5
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Search for the journal Vital Speeches. View Vital Speeches and attempt to
find a speech on or related to your topic. If there are none, find a speech that sounds
interesting to you. Read that speech. Look for ways the speaker attempted to create
common ground. Did the speaker use personal pronouns or rhetorical questions?
Share common experiences? Personalize information? If you find many examples,
how did they help make the speech better? If you found few examples, how would their
use have made the speech better? Discuss what you found below.

284

Activity 13.6
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Using InfoTrac College Edition, do a subject search using the term visual aids.
Find the article titled The effect of a nonverbal aid on preschoolers' recall for color, by
J. Ling and M. Blades. (Journal of Genetic Psychology, Sept 2000.) Read the article,
and summarize the findings below. How do the research findings presented relate to
the use of visual aids in speeches?
Activity 13.7
Using Technology
Go to http://einstein.cs.uri.edu/tutorials/csc101/powerpoint/ppt.html and review
the basics for using Microsoft PowerPoint software. (If you prefer or if you have
different presentation software available at your home or school, use an Internet search
engine such as Google to find an online tutorial for your software of choice.)
Presentation software can be useful in creating computerized presentations, overheads,
slide shows and/or handouts. Using the tutorial, teach yourself the basics of the
program and design a possible visual aid for your speech. How can a visual aid of this
type influence the audiences attitude toward the speaker?
Activity 13.8
Preparing a Handout
Prepare a one-page handout on Mistakes to Avoid When Using Visual Aids.
The audience will be your speech class. The handout should be clear, visually
appealing, focus on main points and reflect an understanding of the material covered in
Chapter 13 of your text. Be prepared to discuss and present your handout to your
classmates.

285

Activity 13.9
Evaluating Visual Aids
Using the handout designed in Activity 13.8 or one you have prepared for your
first speech, analyze it using the following checklist. Considering your analysis, would
you make any changes to your visual aid? If so, what would they be?
Visual Aid Assessment Checklist
Excellen
t (A)

Good
(B)

Average
(C)

Type of
visual aid is
suited to the
audience
Aid is
visually
pleasing overall
Size of
type is
appropriate
and pleasing to
the eye.
Both
upper and
lower case type
used
Limit the
number of
phrases to six
Focus
on information
that is
emphasized in
the speech
Color
and/or clip art,
if used,
enhances
impact

286

Poor (D)

Activity 13.10
Graphing Numerical Data
Locate an article in a journal, newspaper or magazine that presents data in
numerical form. (You may choose to use InfoTrac College Edition or the Internet to
locate a suitable article.) After you have examined the numerical data, decide how to
represent that data visually. After you have decided, create an appropriate chart. You
may decide to create your chart using PowerPoint or other appropriate software. After
you create your visual, us a copy of the Visual Aid Assessment Check List to evaluate
the quality of your visual. Be prepared to share your visual with your classmates.
Visual Aid Assessment Checklist
Excellen
t (A)

Good
(B)

Average
(C)

Type of
visual aid is
suited to the
audience
Aid is
visually
pleasing overall
Size of
type is
appropriate
and pleasing to
the eye.
Both
upper and
lower case type
used
Limit the
number of
phrases to six
Focus
on information
that is
emphasized in
the speech
Color
and/or clip art,
if used,
enhances
impact

287

Poor (D)

Activity 13.11
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in the chapter.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.
1. In a speech, is it ethical to adapt in a way that resonates with your audience but isnt
in keeping with what you really believe? Why or why not?

2. Could Kendra have achieved her goal using a different method? How?

288

Web Resource 13.1


Visual Aids
For a thorough discussion of the methods and guidelines for using visual aids,
use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 13.1:
Visual Aids.
Web Resource 13.2
PowerPoint Tips & Tutorials
For a concise but informative list of tips for creating and displaying PowerPoint
slides effectively, use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web
Resource 13.2: PowerPoint Tips & Tutorials. Be sure to click on the link titled
PowerPoint: Web Image Capturing and Basic Slide Show.

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
______ 1.
The perception that the speaker and the audience share the same or
similar information, feelings and experiences is called common ground.
______2.
An important way to let the audience know you are aware of them is by
using personal pronouns.
______3.
Since chalkboards are usually large, they are best suited for larger, more
complex visual aids that take time to be written down.
______4.
Since rhetorical questions invite the audience to participate mentally in the
idea being discussed, they distract from the speaker and therefore should not be
used in speeches.
______5.
board.

The easiest method for displaying simple drawings is by using poster

______6.
Handouts can be a distraction in that audience members may pay more
attention to the handout than to the speaker.
______7.

Three visual aids for a five-minute speech is usually appropriate.

______8.
Visuals that use all-capital letters are easier to read than visuals that use
upper- and lowercase type.

289

______9. LCD projectors should be used primarily in smaller settings such as


classrooms.

Multiple Choice
______1.
The following statement uses what method to build and maintain the
audiences interest? (The audience is a group of college seniors.)
Have you ever wondered what life will be like after college? Will you be able to get
a job? Will you earn enough to afford a house, a nice car, good clothes? Will you
be able to save for retirement? Get married? Go to graduate school? Well, today
Id like to help you answer some of those questions by detailing steps you can take
now to ensure financial security.
a.
b.
c.
d.

proximity
timeliness
rhetorical sensitivity
demographics

______2.
In her speech, Karen says: Let me bring this information a little closer to
home. Over 100,000 people a year die of this disease. Thats twice the population
of this town and five times the population of this college! Some of these people live
right here in this community. This is an example of
a. developing common ground through personalizing information
b. developing common ground by sharing a common experience
c. adapting to the audience visually
d. the use of proximity
______3.
The level of trust an audience has in you is the definition of
a. attitude
b. credibility
c. audience analysis
d. trustworthiness
e. none of the above

290

______4.
A diagram that shows relationships among parts of a single unit is called
a. a bar graph
b. a line graph
c. an organizational chart
d. a pie graph
______5.
Christina wishes to compare the market share of two different soft drink
companies to each other. The most appropriate visual aid to do this would be
a. a bar graph
b. a pie graph
c. a line chart
d. a photograph
e. a proximity graph
______6.
Salvatore wishes to show the audience the chain of command of the
organization he works for. A useful visual aid for this might be:
a. graph
b. pie chart
c. flow chart
d. model
e. none of the above
______7.
Which of the following is true about handouts?
a. they can be distracting
b. they are easy to prepare
c. each member of the audience can have their own copy of your visual aid
d. the audience may focus on the handouts when you want them looking at you.
e. all of the above
______8.
Which of the following is not true about visual aids?
a. the more, the better
b. ideas hard to explain verbally might be easily explained visually
c. the size of the audience influences the type of visual aid used and the method of
displaying it.
d. all the statements are true
______9.
Which of the following is not true regarding the principles for designing
effective presentational aids?
a. Use a print or type size that can be seen easily by your entire audience.
b. Use a typeface that is easy to read and pleasing to the eye
c. Limit the lines of type to ten or less
d. Add pictures or clip art where appropriate to add interests

291

Essay
1. Discuss several ways in which a speaker may build her or his credibility with an
audience.

2. What are the major types of presentational aids, and how can they improve the
quality of a speech?

3. Discuss the ways that speakers should be aware of and adapt to cultural
differences.

Helpful Links
Audio Visual and Props
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm
The Advanced Public Speaking Institute contains a series of articles on the use
of visual aids.
Using Visual Aids Effectively
http://www.hawaii.edu/mauispeech/html/visual_aids.html
This website from the University of Hawaii offers several suggestions for the
effective use of visual aids.
Using Visual Aids
http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~jmf2/floss/visual-aids.html
Types of visual aids and tips for using them, with some Internet-based examples.
When Your Presentation Crashes . . .
http://www.fastcompany.com/online/07/130crash.html
Tips on giving a catastrophe free presentation when using visual aids and
technology by Eric Matson.
292

PowerPoint Tutorial
http://einstein.cs.uri.edu/tutorials/csc101/powerpoint/ppt.html
An online tutorial for using Microsoft PowerPoint presentation software by the
Department of Computer Science at the University of Rhode Island.
See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.

293

CHAPTER 14: Overcoming Speech Apprehension by


Practicing Delivery
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:
What are the symptoms and causes of public speaking apprehension?
What techniques can you use to manage public speaking apprehension?
What can you do to use your voice effectively?
What are the three most common delivery methods?
What can you do to conduct effective rehearsal sessions?
How can you use presentational aids effectively during your speech?
What criteria can you use to evaluate the effectiveness of a speech?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Public speaking apprehension
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Symptoms and causes
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Managing your apprehension
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Communication orientation
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Visualization
294

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Systematic desensitization
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. Cognitive restructuring
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
5. Public speaking skills training
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Characteristics of an Effective Delivery Style
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Use a conventional style
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Be animated
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
III. Effective Use of Your Voice
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

295

A. Speak intelligibly
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Use vocal expressiveness
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
IV. Effective Use of Your Body
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Facial expressions
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Gestures
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Movement
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Eye contact
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Posture
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

296

F. Poise
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
G. Appearance
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
V. Delivery Methods
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Impromptu speeches
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Scripted speeches
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Extemporaneous speeches
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
V. Rehearsal
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

297

A. Preparing speaking notes


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Handling presentational aids
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Recording, analyzing, and refining speech delivery
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. First practice
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Analysis
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Second practice
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. Additional practices
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

298

VI. Criteria for Evaluating Speeches


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Key Terms
accent
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
adaptation reaction
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
animated
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
anticipation reaction
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
appearance
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
articulation
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

audience contact
299

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
cognitive restructuring
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
communication orientation
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
communication orientation motivation (COM)
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
confrontation reaction
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
conversational style
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
extemporaneous speech
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
eye contact
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

300

facial expression
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
gestures
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
impromptu speech
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
intelligible
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

monotone
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

movement
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
pauses
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

pitch

301

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
poise
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
posture
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
pronunciation
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

public speaking apprehension


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
public speaking skills training
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
quality
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

302

rate
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

rehearsing
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
scripted speech
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
speaking notes
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
spontaneity
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
systematic desensitization
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
visualization
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
vocal expressiveness

303

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

volume
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Activities
Activity 14.1
Controlling Nervousness
Interview one or two people who give frequent speeches (a minister, a politician, a
lawyer, a businessperson, or a teacher). Ask what is likely to make them more or less
nervous about giving the speech. Find out how they cope with their nervousness. Write
a short paragraph summarizing what you have learned from the interviews. Then
identify the behaviors used by those people that you believe might work for you. This
activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 14.1 in your textbook.

Activity 14.2
Articulation Practice
The goal of this activity is to have you practice articulating difficult word combinations.
Go to www.jimpowell.com/ArticulationEx[BA1], where you will find a list of sentences
that are difficult to articulate. Practice saying each of these sentences until you can do
so without error. Then write a short paragraph describing your experience. This activity
corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 14.2 in your textbook.

304

Activity 14.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity
Evaluating Speaker Vocal and Body Action Behaviors
Attend a public speech event on campus or in your community. Watch and
evaluate the speakers use of vocal characteristics (voice and articulation), bodily action
(facial expressions, gestures, movement, poise, and posture), enthusiasm, spontaneity,
fluency, and eye contact. Which vocal or body action behaviors stood out and why?
How did the speakers use of voice, bodily actions, enthusiasm, spontaneity, fluency,
and eye contact contribute to or detract from the speakers message? What three
things could the speaker have done to improve the delivery of the speech?

Evaluating Speaker Vocal and Body Action Behaviors Worksheet


Evaluation of speakers voice and articulation:

Evaluation of speakers bodily actions (facial expressions, gestures, movement,


poise, and posture), enthusiasm, spontaneity, fluency, eye contact:

Which characteristics stood out? Why?

305

Which characteristics contribute to or detract from speakers message?

Three areas for improvement:

Activity 14.4
Practice Presenting Your Speech
Action Step 5
The goal of this activity is to rehearse your speech, analyze it, and rehearse it
again. One complete rehearsal includes (1) a practice, (2) an analysis, and (3) a
second practice.
1. Find a place where you can be alone to practice your speech. Follow the six points
of the First Practice as listed in the chapter.
2. Listen to the tape. Review your outline as you listen and then answer the
questions on the Rehearsal Analysis Checklist (see next page).
3. Go through the six steps outlined for the first practice. Then answer the
questions on the checklist for the second practice. Continue as needed.
You can complete this activity online, print out copies of the Rehearsal Analysis
Sheet, see a student sample of a practice round, and, if requested, e-mail your work to
your instructor. Use your Premium Website for Communicate! to access the Action Step
activities for Chapter 14.

306

Rehearsal Analysis Checklist


First Practice
Are you satisfied with how well:
The introduction got attention and led into the speech? _______
The main points were clearly stated? _______ And well developed? _______
The material adapted to the audience? _______
The section transitions were present? _______ And clear? _______
The conclusion summarized the main points? _______
The conclusion left the speech on a high note? _______
Visual aids were used? _______
The ideas were expressed vividly? _______ And emphatically? _______
You maintained a conversational tone throughout? _______
Sounding enthusiastic? _______ Sounding spontaneous? _______
Speaking fluently? _______
List the three most important changes you will make in your next practice
session.
One:
Two:
Three:

307

Rehearsal Analysis Checklist


Second Practice
Are you satisfied with how well:
The introduction got attention and led into the speech? _______
The main points were clearly stated? _______ And well developed? _______
The material adapted to the audience? _______
The section transitions were present? _______ And clear? _______
The conclusion summarized the main points? _______
The conclusion left the speech on a high note? _______
Visual aids were used? _______
The ideas were expressed vividly? _______ And emphatically? _______
You maintained a conversational tone throughout? _______
Sounding enthusiastic? _______ Sounding spontaneous? _______
Speaking fluently? _______
List the three most important changes you will make in your next practice
session.
One:
Two:
Three:
Go through the six steps outlined for the first practice. Then assess:
Did you achieve the goals you set for the second practice?

Yes ____ No ____

Reevaluate the speech using the checklist, and continue to practice until you are
satisfied with all parts of your presentation.

308

Activity 14.5
Visualizing Your Success
The goal of this activity is to have you visualize your success by mentally
imagining yourself effectively delivering your speech. To complete this activity, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 14.1: Visualizing
Your Success. Follow the directions to listen to an audio clip that will help you visualize.
Write a short paragraph describing this experience below or e-mail it to your instructor.

Activity 14.6
Presenting Your First Speech
1. Follow the Speech Plan Action Steps to prepare an informative or persuasive
speech. The time and other parameters for this assignment will be announced by
your instructor.
2. Criteria for evaluation include all the essentials of topic and purpose, content,
organization, presentation, but special emphasis will be placed on clarity of goal,
clarity and appropriateness of main points, and delivery. As you practice your
speech, you can use the diagnostic speech critique sheet as a checklist to ensure
that you are meeting the basic criteria in your speech.
3. Prior to presenting your speech, prepare a complete sentence outline and a written
plan for adapting your speech to the audience. If you have used Speech Builder
Express to complete the action step activities online, you will be able to print out a
copy of your completed outline. Your adaptation plan should describe how you plan
to verbally and visually adapt your material to the audience and should address how
you will
1. Indicate key aspects of audience that you will need to adapt to
2. Establish common ground
3. Build and maintain audience interest
4. Adjust to the audiences knowledge and sophistication
5. Build speaker credibility
6. Adapt to audiences attitudes toward your speech goal
7. Adapt to audiences from different cultures and language communities (if relevant
for you in this speech)
8. Use visual aids to enhance audience understanding and memory

309

If you completed the action step activities in Chapter 13, you can use them as the basis
of your written adaptation plan.

Speech Critique Checklist

Check all items that were accomplished effectively.


Content
_____ 1. Was the goal of the speech clear?
_____ 2. Did the speaker have high-quality information?
_____ 3. Did the speaker use a variety of kinds of developmental material?
_____ 4. Were visual aids appropriate and well used?
_____ 5. Did the speaker establish common ground and adapt the content to the audiences
interests, knowledge, and attitudes?

Organization
_____ 1. Did the introduction gain attention, gain goodwill for the speaker, and lead into the
speech?
_____ 2. Were the main points clear, parallel, and in meaningful complete sentences?
_____ 3. Did transitions lead smoothly from one point to another?
_____ 4. Did the conclusion tie the speech together?

Presentation
_____ 1. Was the language clear?
_____ 2. Was the language vivid?
_____ 3. Was the language emphatic?
_____ 4. Did the speaker sound enthusiastic?
_____ 5. Did the speaker show sufficient vocal expressiveness?
_____ 6. Was the presentation spontaneous?
_____ 7. Was the presentation fluent?
_____ 8. Did the speaker look at the audience?
_____ 9. Were the pronunciation and articulation acceptable?
_____ 10. Did the speaker have good posture?
_____ 11. Was speaker movement appropriate?
_____ 12. Did the speaker have sufficient poise?

Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):


_____ excellent _____ good _____ satisfactory _____ fair _____ poor

310

Activity 14.7
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Using InfoTrac College Edition, locate and read the article Breaking the
language barrier, by Stephanie Nickerson. Answer the following questions.
1. Under what speaking circumstances is it important to speak clearly and slowly?

2. Describe one suggestion offered in the article to slow down your rate of speech.

3. Why do you think Nickerson advocates not apologizing to an audience for speech
habits and accents? Do you feel you have any such habits?

311

Activity 14.8
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Access InfoTrac College Edition. Search to find the journal Vital Speeches.
Select and read a speech. Then evaluate the speech using the speech critique
checklist from Activity 14.6. How effective was the speech? What change would you
suggest based on your evaluation? Write a paragraph detailing your evaluation below.
Activity 14.9
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 14.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.
1. Is mocking behavior in a formal public speaking setting, either by an audience
member or a speaker, an ethical matter? Explain your answer.

2. What ethical obligations does an audience member have to a speaker? What about
a speaker to his or her audience?

312

Activity 14.10
Speech Analysis
Use the Speech Critique Sheet on the following page to analyze the sample
speech provided in Chapter 14. While you are reading the speech, cover the right side
of the page so you are unable to see the authors analysis. When your analysis is
complete, compare your results to that of the authors. Where do you agree with their
analysis? Where do you disagree?
Note: You will be unable to evaluate the speaker on some aspects of
presentation as the speech is in written, not verbal form.
You may use this form to also evaluate a recorded version of your own speech or
one of the speeches provided on the Communicate! Online Textbook Resources. An
extra copy of the form is provided here for that purpose.

313

Diagnostic Speech Checklist


(Check all items that were done effectively.)
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____

Content
1. Was the goal of the speech clear?
2. Did the speaker have high-quality information?
3. Did the speaker use a variety of kinds of developmental material?
4. Were visual aids appropriate and well used?
5. Did speaker establish common ground and adapt content to the audience?

Organization
_____ 6. Did the introduction gain attention, goodwill and lead into the body?
_____ 7. Were the main points clear, parallel and meaningful?
_____ 8. Did transitions lead smoothly from one point to another?
_____ 9. Did the conclusion tie the speech together?
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____

Presentation
10. Was the language clear?
11. Was the language vivid?
12. Was the language emphatic?
13. Did the speaker sound enthusiastic?
14. Was the speaker vocally expressive?
15. Was the presentation spontaneous?
16. Was the presentation fluent?
17. Did the speaker look at the audience?
18. Were pronunciation and articulation acceptable?
19. Did the speaker have good posture?
20. Was speaker movement appropriate?
21. Did the speaker have sufficient poise?
Comments

Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):


_____ excellent, _____ good, _____ satisfactory, _____ fair, _____ poor.

314

Web Resource 14.1


Visualizing Your Success
Try out this visualization exercise. It features a recorded and printed script that
can help you manage your anxiety as your prepare to deliver your speech.
Web Resource 14.2
Body Motions and Audience Attention
To explore how body motions affect audience attention during a speech, go to
the Presentation-Pointers site and read the article Capture an Audiences Attention:
Points on Posture, Eye, Contact and More by Marjorie Brody. PresentationPointers.com is a site that features many articles about how to give effective speeches.

315

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
___ 1. Because being nervous is natural, there is no way to cope with it.
___2. Speaking without having the exact wording of what you will say memorized is
the definition of extemporaneously.
___3. Movement can enhance the conversational quality of a speech.
___4. Because notes detract from eye contact, you should not use them when
delivering a speech.
___5. You should talk about your visual aid while showing it.
___6. The surge of anxiety you feel as you begin your speech is called the adaptation
reaction.
___7. Systematic desensitization is a method that reduces apprehension by gradually
having you visualize increasingly more frightening events.
___8. Pitch is the speed at which you talk.
___9. The practice of mocking public figures is largely a product of modern, masscommunication cultures.
Multiple Choice
___1. The vocal characteristic that is distinguished by the degree of loudness of the
tone you make is called:
a. pitch
b. volume
c. rate
d. quality
___2.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Saying libary instead of library is an error in


articulation
precision
pronunciation
expressiveness

316

___3.
A
b.
c.
d.

Saying What ya gonna do for What are you going to do? illustrates
slurring
dropping word endings
articulation errors
all of the above

___4. How many 3 x 5 note cards would normally be sufficient for a six- to eight-minute
speech?
a. one or two
b. two to four
c. six to eight
d. at least nine
___5.
a.
b.
c.
d.

What are the three major areas of emphasis for evaluating speeches?
content, presentation, and articulation
content, organization, and nervousness
content, organization, and presentation
articulation, emphasis, and vividness

___6.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Public speaking apprehension


is normal
is unusually high in about 15 percent of the U.S. population
varies over the course of the speech
all of the above
none of the above

___7. At the last minute, you are called upon to deliver a brief speech at your
managers retirement dinner. What type of delivery are you likely to use?
a. impromptu
b. scripted
c. extemporaneous
d. rehearsed
Essay
1. Identify the five different components of conversational quality, and discuss why it is
important to achieve a conversational quality in your speeches.

317

2. Discuss some guidelines for using visual aids in a speech. Focus on using the aid,
not creating it.

3. What can you do to reduce public speaking apprehension?

4. Review some of the criteria for measuring an effective speech.

5. Discuss the importance of rehearsal and how to schedule and perform rehearsals for
maximum benefit.

318

Helpful Links
Five Ways to Make Your Body Speak
http://www.ljlseminars.com/bodyspeaks.htm
A discussion of the impact of speakers body language on the audience by Lenny
Laskowski.
Practice
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#practice
Articles on practicing from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.
Stage Fright
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#stage
Articles on apprehension from the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.
Managing Speaking Apprehension
http://www.nvcc.edu/home/npeck/spd100/blueprintfiles/nervous.htm
Some additional tips for managing your public speaking apprehension.
Delivering Your Speech
http://www.speechtips.com/delivering.html
Tips on delivery from Speechtips.com.
(To go to the main page: http://www.speechtips.com)
See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.

319

CHAPTER 15: Informative Speaking


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:
What are the characteristics of informative speaking?
What are the major methods of informing?
What are the two most common informative speech frameworks?
What are the major elements of process speeches?
What are the major types of expository speeches?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. Characteristics of effective informative speaking
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Intellectually stimulating
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Relevant
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Creative
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Memorable
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

320

E. Address diverse learning styles


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
II. Methods of informing
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
A. Description
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Definition
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
C. Comparison and contrast
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
D. Narration
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
E. Demonstration

III. Common informative speech frameworks


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

321

A. Process speech frameworks


___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
B. Expository speech frameworks
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1. Exposition of political, economic, social, religious, or ethical issues
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Exposition of historical events and forces
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Exposition of a theory, principle, or law
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. Exposition of creative work
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

322

Key Terms
antonym
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
comparison and contrast
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
creative
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
definition
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
demonstration
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
description
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
expository speech
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
informative speech
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

323

intellectually stimulating
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
listener relevance links
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
narration
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
process speech
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
productive speaking
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
synonym
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

324

Activities
Activity 15.1
Creating through Productive Thinking
Use the table below to practice productive thinking. Create a list of all of the speech
ideas suggested by these data. This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 15.1
in your textbook.

Total

Table of Annual High School Dropout Rates


October 1999
Characteristics
Dropout Rate
4.7

Sex
Male
Female

4.3
5.1

Race and Hispanic Origin


White
White non-Hispanic
Black
Asian and Pacific Islander
Hispanic (of any race)

4.4
3.8
6.0
4.8
7.1

Family Income
Less than $20,000
$20,000$39,000
$40,000 and over

9.0
3.8
2.3

Grade Level
10th grade
11th grade
12th grade

2.7
3.7
8.5

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current


Population Survey, October, 1999.

325

Activity 15.2
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity:
Techniques to Emphasize Important Information
Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource
15.2: Characteristics of Change Agents, a speech by Billy O. Wireman that is
available through InfoTrac College Edition. Analyze the techniques that the speaker
used to emphasize important points. How could the speaker have improved his
emphasis? Can you identify specific places and techniques where this aspect of the
speech could have been improved? Write an essay in which you analyze this aspect of
the speech and make specific recommendations for improving it.
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 15.2 in your textbook.
Emphasis Analysis Data Sheet
Visu
al aids

Repe
tition

Transiti
ons

Hum
or

Mem
ory aids

Activity 15.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Evaluating Demonstrations
Watch an informative speech involving a demonstration and evaluate how
effectively the speaker performed the demonstration. (Do-it-yourself and home
improvement TV programs, like those shown on the cable DIY and HGTV channels,
often feature demonstrations.) Did the speaker perform a complete or modified
demonstration? Did the speaker only use the tools, equipment, or other items needed to
perform the demonstrated task, or did he or she also use other items such as visual
aids? How effective was the demonstration overall? Were there any areas of the
demonstration the speaker could have improved?
This activity corresponds to Skill Learning Activity 15.3 in your textbook.

326

Activity 15.4
An Informative Speech
1. Follow the Speech Plan Action Steps to prepare an informative speech. Your instructor
will announce the time limit and other parameters for this assignment.
2. Criteria for evaluation include all the general criteria of topic and purpose, content,
organization, presentation, but special emphasis will be placed on how intellectually
stimulating the topic is made for the audience, how creatively ideas are presented,
how well the relevance of this topic for the audience is conveyed, and how clearly
the important information is emphasized. Use the Informative Speech Critique
Checklist to critique yourself as you practice your speech.
3. Prior to presenting your speech, prepare a complete sentence outline and source list
(bibliography) as well as a written plan for adapting your speech to your audience. If
you have used Speech Builder Express to complete the action step activities online,
you will be able to print out a copy of your completed outline and source list. Your
adaptation plan should describe how you plan to verbally and visually adapt your
material to the audience and should address how you will: (1) establish common
ground, (2) build and maintain audience interest, (3) adjust to the audiences
knowledge and sophistication, (4) build speaker credibility, (5) adapt to audiences
attitudes toward your speech goal, (6) adapt to audiences from different cultures and
language communities (if relevant for you in this speech), and (7) use visual aids to
enhance audience understanding and memory.

327

Informative Speech Critique Checklist


Check all items that were accomplished effectively.
Primary criteria
____ 1.

Was the specific goal designed to increase audience information?

____ 2.

Did the speaker show creativity in idea development?

____ 3.

Was the information intellectually stimulating?

____ 4.

Did the speaker show the relevance of the information?

____ 5.

Did the speaker emphasize the information?

____ 6.

Were the methods use to present the information appropriate for the ideas
presented?

General criteria
____ 1.

Was the specific goal clear?

____ 2.

Was the introduction effective?

____ 3.

Were the main points clear?

____ 4.

Was the conclusion effective?

____ 5.

Was the language clear, vivid, and emphatic?

____ 6.

Was the speech delivered enthusiastically,


spontaneously, fluently, and with eye contact?

with

vocal

Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):


____ excellent ____ good ____ average ____ fair ____ poor

328

expressiveness,

Activity
Speech and Analysis

15.5

Making Ethanol
by Louisa Greene
1. Review the outline and adaptation plan developed by Louisa Greene in
preparing her speech on making ethanol.
2. Next, read the transcript of Louisas speech.
3. Use the Expository Speech Evaluation Checklist from Figure 15.7 to help you
evaluate this speech.
4. Use your Online Textbook Resources for Communicate! to watch a video clip
of Louisa presenting her speech in class.
5. Write a paragraph of feedback to Louisa describing the strengths of her
presentation and what you think she might do next time to be more effective.

329

Expository Speech Evaluation Checklist


Type of Expository Speech
_____

Exposition of political, economic, social, or religious issue

_____

Exposition of historical events or forces

_____

Exposition of a theory, principle, or law

_____

Exposition of creative work

Primary Criteria
_____ 1. Was the specific goal of the speech to provide well-researched information on
a complex topic?
_____ 2. Did the speaker effectively use a variety of methods to convey the
information?
_____ 3. Did the speaker emphasize the main ideas and important supporting
material?
_____ 4. Did the speaker use high quality sources for the information presented?
_____ 5. Was the speech well organized with clearly identifiable main points?
_____ 6. Did the speaker present in depth high quality information?
General Criteria
_____ 1. Was the specific goal clear?
_____ 2. Was the introduction effective in creating interest and introducing the process
to be explained?
_____ 3. Was the speech organized using time order?
_____ 4. Was the language clear, vivid, emphatic, and appropriate?
_____ 5. Was the conclusion effective in summarizing the steps?
_____ 6. Was the speech delivered enthusiastically, with vocal expressiveness,
fluency, spontaneity, and directness?
Based on these criteria, evaluate the speech as (check one):
____ excellent ____ good ____ average ____ fair ____ poor

330

Activity 15.6
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Using InfoTrac College Edition, conduct a subject search for learning, then click
on Learning, Psychology of. Look for articles that discuss how people learn and
how people think to gain additional information that is relevant to informative speaking.
Read one or more articles to help you better understand how to prepare your
informative speech. Summarize your findings below.

Activity 15.7
Using Technology
Adding humor to a speech is one way to add emphasis to a point and interest to
the speech in general. Visit http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speakingarticles.htm#humor or do an Internet search for humorous anecdotes. See if you can
find a way to add humor to at least one point in your speech. Summarize your efforts in
the space below. Be sure to record any necessary bibliographic information so that you
may cite your source in the speech.

331

Activity 15.8
What Would You Do? A Question of Ethics
Read the What Would You Do: A Question of Ethics scenario in Chapter 15.
Answer the following questions in the space provided here.
1. Is Pauls proposed behavior unethical? Why?

2. What should Gina say to challenge Pauls last statement?

332

Web Resource 15.1


A Theory about Genius
To read about techniques that can help stimulate productive rather than
reproductive thought, go to creativity expert Michael Michalkos site and find the article
A Theory about Genius in the Library of Articles.
Web Resource 15.2
Change Agents
To analyze a speech for its use of emphasis, use AccessMyLibrary.com (free
with registration) to find the article Characteristics of Change Agents by Billy O.
Wireman.

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
____ 1.
Your audience will perceive information to be intellectually stimulating
when it is new to them and when it is explained in a way that peaks audience
curiosity.
____2.
Creativity is using information in a way that yields different or original
ideas and insights.
____3. Listener relevance links clarify to the audience why the information presented
in the speech is important to them.
____4.

Antonyms are words that have the same or nearly the same meanings.

____5.

One way to define something is by using a familiar synonym or antonym.

____6.
events.

Narration is a method of informing that explains something by recounting

____7.
When giving an informative speech on drilling in the Arctic National
Wildlife Refuge, it would be acceptable to present only one side of the story.

333

Multiple Choice
____1.
Sara is giving her speech on tobacco production. After she gives a
statistic on how much tobacco is harvested each year in this country, she repeats
the statistic, pauses briefly, smiles, and says Thats a lot of smoke! Sara is trying
to
a. substitute for a visual aid
b. enhance credibility
c. add emphasis
d. show relevance
____2.
The letters NAACP are one example of a(n)
a. acronym
b. synonym
c. antonym
d. definition
e. word association
____3.
Stuart gives his speech on How to make chocolate chip cookies. His
speech is most likely to be
a. an extended example
b. a demonstration or process explanation
c. an extended definition
d. an exposition
____4.
The causes for juvenile delinquency is most likely a topic for
a. demonstrative speaking
b. extemporaneous speaking
c. definitional speaking
d. expository speaking
____5.
Which of the following are effective ways of enhancing your creativity?
a. gather plenty of useful information to work from
b. allow plenty of time for the creative process to work
c. create alternate choices and different perspectives
d. all of the above

334

____6.
In his speech about new financial aid options for college students, Neil
tells his audience that everyone in this room needs money for college, and this
scholarship is available to all of you! Neil is trying to:
a. make the topic relevant to the audience
b. enhance his credibility
c. demonstrate association
d. be expository
____7.
A speech on Intelligent Design would likely be an exposition of:
a. political, economic, social, or political issues.
b. historical people and events.
c. theory, principle, or law.
d. expositions of creative work.
____8.
Rhonda is giving an informative speech on how to construct a powered
model airplane. She chooses to complete some of the model at home and do only
part of the work in front of the audience. Rhonda is:
a. hurting the usefulness of the speech by leaving out some information
b. using a modified demonstration format
c. using exposition formally
d. speaking by definition
Essay
1. List and describe each of the methods of informing discussed in the text. Include an
example of each.

2. Describe how you might organize an informative speech on how to do some simple
process (such as a recipe). What method if informing would this be?

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3. What are the main criteria for evaluating an informative speech?

4. How does a speaker emphasize information? Why is this important? Provide


examples of each method you discuss.

5. Describe the role of creativity in speaking, and provide examples of how we can
improve our creative ability.

6. In your opinion, is information provided by the news media biased? Provide


examples to support your answer.

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Helpful Links
Mindtools memory page
http://www.mindtools.com/memory.html
A site for learning more about mnemonics and other skills used to improve
memory.
Online Etymology Dictionary
http://www.etymonline.com/
This great site allows you to research word origins. By Douglas Harper.
Online Speech Bank
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speechbank.htm
An index of over 5000 speeches presented by American Rhetoric.
Humor Techniques
http://www.public-speaking.org/public-speaking-articles.htm#humor
A list of links for tips, techniques and samples for using humor in speeches from
the Advanced Public Speaking Institute.
Speeches
http://www.historychannel.com/speeches/index.html
An archive of great speeches presented by The History Channel.
See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.

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CHAPTER 16: Persuasive Speaking


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:
How do people listen to and evaluate persuasive messages?
What are the different types of persuasive speaking goals or propositions?
How does the target audiences initial attitude toward your topic affect your proposition?
How do you develop strong arguments to support your proposition?
What are some common fallacies to avoid when developing your reasons?
How can you demonstrate goodwill in your speech?
How might you motivate your audience to act?
What are some common organizational patterns for persuasive speeches?

Interactive Chapter Outline


I. How We Process Persuasive Messages: The Elaboration Likelihood Model
(ELM)
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
II. Writing persuasive speech goals as propositions
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
A. Types of Persuasive Goals
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
B. Tailoring your proposition to your audience
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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1. Opposed
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
2. Neutral
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
3. In favor
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
III. Developing arguments (logos) that support your proposition
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
A. Finding reasons to use as main points
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
B. Selecting evidence to support reasons
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
C. Types and tests of arguments
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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D. Avoiding fallacies in your reasons and arguments


______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
III. Increasing audience involvement through emotional appeals (pathos)
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
IV. Cueing your audience through credibility (ethos): Demonstrating goodwill
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
V. Motivating your audience to act through incentives
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
A. Using incentives to satisfy unmet needs
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
B. Creating incentives that outweigh costs
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
VI. Organizational patterns for persuasive speeches
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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A. Statement of reasons
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
B. Comparative advantages
_____________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
C. Criteria satisfaction
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
D. Refutative
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
E. Problem-solution
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
F. Problem-cause-solution
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
G. Motivated sequence pattern
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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Key Terms
apathetic
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
argue from analogy
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
argue from causation
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
argue from example
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

argue from sign


______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
argument
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
comparative advantages pattern
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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criteria satisfaction pattern


______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

either-or
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
empathy
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
false cause
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
goodwill
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
hasty generalization
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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impartial
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
incentive
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
incremental change
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
logos
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
motivated sequence pattern
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
pathos
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
persuasive speech
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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problem-cause-solution pattern
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
problem-solution pattern
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
proposition
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
proposition of policy
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
proposition of value
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
reasons
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
refutative pattern
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

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statement of reasons
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
straw person
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
target audience
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
uninformed
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Activities
Activity 16.1
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity
A Specific Goal Statement in a Persuasive Speech
The goal of this activity is to find and analyze a specific goal statement.
1. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access Web Resource 16.1:
Maintaining the Faith, and read Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith, a
speech by Mahathir Bin Mohamad, Prime Minister of Malaysia given at the OIC
Conference of Ministers of Endowments and Islamic Affairs, in Kuala Lumpur, May
7, 2002. This speech is available through Infotrac College Edition. Identify the
specific goal statement.
2. Given the composition of the audience, what do you think their initial attitude was
toward the speakers position?
3. Write a paragraph in which you analyze this goal statement. What type of specific
speech goal is this? Does this goal seem appropriate for this audience? Explain
your reasoning.

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You can complete this activity on line at the Communicate! Online Textbook
Resources and e-mail your analysis to your instructor. This activity corresponds to Skill
Learning Activity 16.1 in your textbook.
Activity 16.2
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Giving Good Reasons and Evidence
The goal of this activity is to analyze reasons and evidence.
1. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access Web Resource 16.1:
Maintaining the Faith, and read Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith
Mahathir Bin Mohamad. Identify each of the main points or reasons that the speaker
offers in support of his thesis.
2. Are his reasons good? Are they supported? Relevant? Adapted to the Audience?
3. Analyze his supporting evidence. Assess the quality, currency, and relevancy to his
reasons.
4. Identify two kinds of reasoning links that he uses and then test them using the
appropriate questions. Are the links you tested logical? Explain.
5. Are there any fallacies that you can detect in his argument? Explain.

Activity 16.3
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Motivating Audiences
The goal of this activity is to analyze motivational tactics.
1. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access Web Resource 16.1:
Maintaining the Faith, and read Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith
Mahathir Bin Mohamad. Analyze the incentives that Mahathir presents.
2. What emotions do you think that he hopes to arouse? What information does he
present to stimulate emotions. Does he seem to phrase the ideas in a way that
elicits those emotions? Explain.
You can complete this activity at the Communicate! Online Textbook Resources
and e-mail your analysis to your instructor. This activity corresponds to Skill Learning
Activity 16.3.

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Activity 16.4
Observe & Analyze Journal Activity: Persuasive Organizational Methods
The goal of this activity is to analyze organizational patterns.
1. Use your Premium Web site for Communicate! to access Web Resource 16.1:
Maintaining the Faith, and read Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith
Mahathir Bin Mohamad. Analyze the organizational methods Mahathir uses.
2. How well does his pattern fit the attitudes you believe his audience holds toward his
position? Are there other patterns that might have served him better?

Activity 16.5
Speech and Analysis
Sexual Assault Policy a Must
by Maria Lucia R. Anton
1. Review the Outline and Adaptation Plan developed by Maria Lucia R. Anton in
preparing her speech on the need for strong and explicit policies to combat sexual
assault on college campuses.
2. Next, read the transcript of Maria Lucias speech.
3. Use the Persuasive Speech Evaluation Checklist from Figure 16.4 to help you
evaluate this speech.
4. Use your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to watch a video clip of Maria
Lucia presenting her speech in class.
5. Write a paragraph of feedback to Maria Lucia describing the strengths of her
presentation and what you think she might do next time to be more effective.

348

Persuasive Speech Evaluation Checklist


Primary Criteria
_____ 1. Was the specific goal phrased as a proposition (were you clear what position
on the issue the speaker was taking)?
_____ 2. Did the proposition appear to be adapted to the initial attitude of most
members of the audience?
_____ 3. Were emotional appeals used to involve the audience with the topic?
_____ 4. Were the reasons used in the speech
_____
directly related to the proposition?
_____
supported by strong evidence?
_____
persuasive for the particular audience?
_____ 5. Was the evidence (support) used to back the reasons (claims)
_____
from well respected sources?
_____
recent and/or still valid?
_____
persuasive for this audience?
_____
typical of all evidence that might have been used?
_____
sufficient (enough evidenced was cited)?
_____ 6. Could you identify the types of arguments that were used?
_____
Did the speaker argue from example?
_____ If so, was it valid?
_____
Did the speaker argue from analogy?
_____ If so, was it valid?
_____
Did the speaker argue from causation?
_____ If so, was it valid?
_____
Did the speaker argue from sign?
_____ If so, was it valid?
_____ 7. Could you identify any fallacies of reasoning in the speech?
_____
hasty generalizations
_____
arguing from false cause
_____
ad hominem attacks

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_____ 8. Did the speaker demonstrate goodwill?


_____ 9. If the speech called for the audience to take action,
_____ Did the speaker describe incentives and relate them to audience
needs?
_____ Did the speaker acknowledge any costs associated with the action?
_____ 8. Did the speaker use an appropriate persuasive organizational pattern?
_____
statement of reasons
_____
problem/solution
_____
comparative advantages
_____
criteria satisfaction
_____
motivated sequence
General Criteria
_____ 1. Was the proposition clear? Could you tell the speakers position on the issue?
_____ 2. Was the introduction effective in creating interest and involving the audience
in the speech?
_____ 3. Was the speech organized using an appropriate persuasive pattern?
_____ 4. Was the language clear, vivid, emphatic, and appropriate?
_____ 5. Was the conclusion effective in summarizing what had been said and
mobilizing the audience to act?
_____ 6. Was the speech delivered enthusiastically, with vocal expressiveness,
fluency, spontaneity, and directness?
_____ 7. Did the speaker establish credibility?
_____
expertise
_____
personableness
_____
trustworthiness
Overall evaluation of the speech (check one):
_____ excellent _____ good _____ average _____ fair _____ poor
Use the information from this checklist to support your evaluation.

350

Activity 16.6
A Persuasive Speech
1. Follow the speech plan action steps to prepare a persuasive speech in which you
affect audience belief or move your audience to action. Your instructor will announce
the time limit and other parameters for this assignment.
2. Criteria for evaluation include all the general criteria of topic and purpose, content,
organization, presentation, but special emphasis will be placed on the primary
persuasive criteria of how well the speechs specific goal was adapted to the
audiences initial attitude toward the topic, the soundness of the reasons, the
evidence cited in support of them, the use of motivational language, and the
credibility of the arguments.
3. Use the Persuasive Speech Critique Checklist to critique yourself as you practice
your speech.
4. Prior to presenting your speech you are to prepare a complete sentence outline and
source list (bibliography). If you have used Speech Builder Express to complete the
action steps online, you will be able to print out a copy of your completed outline and
source list. Also prepare a written plan for adapting your speech to the audience.
Your adaptation plan should address the following issues:
a. How does your goal adapt to whether your prevailing audience attitude is in
favor, no opinion, or opposed?
b. What reasons will you use, and how will the organizational pattern you select fit
your topic and audience?
c. How will you establish your credibility with this audience?
d. How will you motivate your audience by using incentives or by appealing to their
emotions?

Activity 16.7
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Under the subject attitude change, click on Periodical references. Look for
articles that discuss how audiences process information. Make a special effort to
find an article or articles by Richard Petty. Summarize your findings here.

351

Activity 16.8
Using InfoTrac College Edition
Using persuasion techniques as your search term, locate the article Get your
way using lawyers techniques by Noelle C. Nelson. Summarize the techniques the
article presents and how you may use them in your speech, focusing on the following:
1. How does Nelsons argument about the failure of the prosecutors in the O. J.
Simpson trial to clearly and explicitly ask for what they wanted fit in with Monroes
motivational pattern?
2. Draft a statement where you clearly and explicitly ask for what you want in your first
persuasive speech.
3. How is Nelsons advice to use everyday language consistent with the motivational
pattern of speech organization?
Activity 16.9
Using Technology
Who better to demonstrate persuasive speaking skills but a lawyer? Watch The
Practice, Law & Order, Family Law, or some other show that depicts a legal trial.
Evaluate the way the attorneys try to persuade the jury to accept their point of view.
What do they do to build their credibility? How do they incorporate emotional appeal in
their remarks? How do they reason with juries? What do they do that makes them
particularly effective or ineffective in their speeches? Summarize your findings here.
Activity 16.10
Using InfoTrac College
Access InfoTrac College and locate several articles related to the Elaboration
Likelihood Model. Using those articles, summarize the basic tenets of the theory. Then,
apply the model to a persuasive speech you heard in class. How well does the theory
explain the persuasive techniques used by your classmates during their speeches?
Write a short paragraph summarizing your findings.
*

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Web Resource 16.1


Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining the Faith
To read an interesting persuasive speech, use your Communicate! Online
Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 16.1: Terrorism and Islam: Maintaining
the Faith.
Web Resource 16.2
Evoking Negative and Positive Emotions
To read about the impact of emotions on persuasion, use your Communicate!
Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 16.2: Evoking Negative and
Positive Emotions.
Web Resource 16.3
Motivated Sequence Speech
To learn more about the motivated sequence organizational pattern, use your
Communicate! Online Textbook Resources to access Web Resource 16.3: Motivated
Sequence Speech.

Chapter Self-Test
(answers at the end of this workbook)
True/False
_____ 1.

Reasons and evidence are the same thing.

_____ 2.
If an audience is highly in favor of your speech goal, then you should
emphasize motivation and practical suggestions.
_____ 3.
Argument by analogy involves supporting a claim with a single
comparable example that is significantly similar to the subject of the claim.
_____ 4.

Arguing by sign is does not require observable data.

_____ 5.
The problem solution format works to clarify the nature of a problem and
for showing why a proposed solution is best.
_____ 6.
The motivated sequence pattern is identical to the problem solution
pattern except it deletes the attention step.

353

_____ 7.
One reason why an audience may have no opinion is that it is uninformed
of the goal.
_____ 8. Commercials, including infomercials, are a form of persuasion.

Multiple Choice
_____ 1.
Juan is giving a persuasive speech on why we should stiffen penalties for
child abuse. He wants to present three reasons why we should do this. His speech
is likely to be organized using
a. problem-solution pattern
b. statement of reasons pattern
c. motivated sequence pattern
d. comparative advantages pattern
_____ 2.
Leticia argues we should not do what George suggests because George
is an idiot! This is an example of
a. an ad hominem argument
b. a logical reasons argument
c. a motivational appeal
d. an appeal to authority
e. an appeal to credibility
_____ 3.
Gaining recognition is an example of
a. a physiological need
b. a cognitive need
c. a safety need
d. a belongingness and love need
e. an esteem need
_____ 4.
Which of the following is NOT a way to build credibility with your
audience?
a. resist personal attacks
b. give sources for all information
c. tell the truth
d. use a hasty generalization
e. all are acceptable for building credibility

354

_____ 5.

Review the following persuasive speech components:

Proposition
I want my audience to vote for the state income tax measure on the November ballot
Main ideas
I. Income from the measure will allow government to increase services.
II. Income from the measure will allow a reduction the sales tax.
III. Income from the measure will provide for state employee raises.
This speech is organized in
a. logical reasons order
b. problem solution order
c. comparative advantages order
d. motivational pattern
_____ 6.
The three attitudes an audience might have concerning your goal are:
a. In favor, no opinion, neutral
b. In favor, neutral, opposed
c. In favor, no opinion, reasoned
d. No opinion, opposed, reasoned
_____ 7.
You can judge the quality of the reasons you include in your persuasive
speech according to which of the following questions?
a. Is the reason directly related to providing the proposition?
b. Do I have strong evidence to support a reason?
c. Will this reason be persuasive for this audience?
d. All of the above are appropriate questions.
_____ 8.
When selecting evidence for your persuasive speech, you should consider
which of the following questions?
a. Does the evidence come from a well-respected source?
b. Is the evidence recent; if not, is it still valid?
c. Does the evidence really support the reason?
d. Will this evidence be persuasive for this audience?
e. All of these questions should be considered.

355

Essay
1. How can a speaker use voice and language to add emotional impact to a speech?
Why is this important?

2. Why is it important to have good reasons to support your speech goal? What is the
relationship between reasons and evidence?

3. What are some common fallacies? Provide examples.

4. How does a persuasive speaker motivate an audience to act? Describe the key
principles, and provide examples of each.

5. What are the different attitudes an audience might have toward a speech goal, and
why is it important to know this information when preparing a speech?

356

Helpful Links
Logical Fallacies
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logical_fallacy
An entry from Wikipedia regarding logical fallacies.
Translating Statistics
http://entrepreneurs.about.com/cs/marketing/a/presentingstats.htm?
terms=public+speaking
An interesting article on making statistical evidence more understandable to your
audience.
Motivating Your Audience
http://www.tlcsem.com/pmotivate.htm
Some interesting techniques for motivating an audience during public speaking.
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html
A site from the University of Tennessee offering more information on Maslows
hierarchy and related ideas.
See your Communicate! Online Textbook Resources for links to other websites
referenced in your text.

357

Answers to True/False and Multiple Choice Questions

358

Chapter 1:
T/F
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. T
8. F
M/C
1. B
2. A
3. C
4. D
5. C
6. B
7. E
8. A
Chapter 2:
T/F
1. T
2. T
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. T
M/C
1. A
2. B
3. D
4. B
5. A
6. B
7. A
8. C

7. D
8. E
Chapter 3:
T/F
1. T
2. F
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. T
M/C
1. C
2. C
3. E
4. C
5. A
6. A
7. D
8. A
Chapter 4:
T/F
1. F
2. T
3. F
4. T
5. T
6. T
7. F
M/C
1. D
2. C
3. D
4. C
5. A
6. D

Chapter 5:
T/F
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. F
5. F
6. F
7. T
M/C
1. A
2. C
3. B
4. D
5. B
6. D
7. C
8. B
CHAPTER 6
T/F
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

F
F
F
T
F
T
T
T
T

M/C
1. B
2. E
3. C
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

D
A
A
C
A
B

Chapter 7:
T/F
1. T
2. T
3. T
4. F
5. F
6. T
M/C
1. B
2. D
3. E
4. C
5. C
6. A
CHAPTER 8
T/F
1. F
2. F
3. F
4. T
5. T
6. F
7. T
M/C
1. B
2. C
3. A
4. D
5. C
6. D

7. B
8. C

APPENDIX
T/F
1. T
2. T
3. F
4. T
5. T
6. F
7. T
M/C
1. C
2. B
3. A
4. E
5. E
6. D
7. E
8. E
CHAPTER 9
T/F
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. T
M/C
1. A
2. D
3. D
4. B
5. B
6. D
7. D
8. B

CHAPTER 10
T/F
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. T
M/C
1. D
2. A
3. E
4. B
5. D
6. B
7. B
8. C
CHAPTER 11
T/F
1. F
2. F
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. F
7. F
8. T
M/C
1. A
2. C
3. D
4. D
5. B
6. D
7. C
8. B
CHAPTER 12
T/F

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

F
T
F
F
T
T
F
T

M/C
1. A
2. E
3. A
4. C
5. B
6. D
7. D
8. C
CHAPTER 13
T/F
1. T
2. T
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. T
8. T
9. F
M/C
1. B
2. D
3. B
4. D
5. A
6. C
7. E
8. A
9. C

T/F
1. F
2. F
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. T
8. F
9. F

CHAPTER 16
T/F
1. F
2. T
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. T
8. T

M/C
1. B
2. A
3. D
4. B
5. C
6. D
7. A

M/C
1. B
2. A
3. E
4. D
5. C
6. B
7. D
8. E

CHAPTER 15
T/F
1. T
2. T
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. F
M/C
1. C
2. A
3. B
4. D
5. D
6. A
7. C
8. B

CHAPTER 14
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