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Abstract In this paper, we consider the local existence of solutions to Euler equations with linear damping under the assumption of physical vacuum boundary condition. By using the transformation introduced in [13] to capture the singularity of the boundary, we prove a local existence theorem on a perturbation of a planar wave solution by using Littlewood-Paley theory and justies the transformation introduced in [13] in a rigorous setting. Key words Euler equations, physical vacuum boundary condition, LittlewoodPaley theory, local existence. A.M.S. Classication 35L67, 35L65, 35L05. 1. Introduction In this paper, we are interested in the time evolution of a gas connecting to vacuum with physical boundary condition. By assuming that the governed equations for the gas dynamics are Euler equations with linear damping, cf. [16] for physical interpretation, one can see that the system fails to be strictly hyperbolic at the vacuum boundary because the characteristics of dierent families coincide. As discussed in the previous works, cf. [5, 11, 12, 13], the canonical vacuum boundary behavior is the case when the space derivative of the enthalpy is bounded but not zero. In this case, the pressure has its non-zero nite eect on the evolution of the vacuum boundary. However, for this canonical (physical) case, the system becomes singular in the sense that it can not be symmetrizable with regular coecients so that the local existence theory for the classical hyperbolic systems can not be applied. Furthermore, the linearized equation at the boundary gives a Keyldish type equation for which general local existence theory is still not known. Notice that this linearized equation is quite dierent from the one considered in [18] for weakly hyperbolic equation which is of Tricomi type. To capture this singularity in the nonlinear settting, a transformation was introduced in [13] and some local existence results for bounded domain were also discussed. The transformed equation is a second order nonlinear wave equation of an unknown function (y, t) with coecients as functions of y 1 (y, t) and (0, t) 0. Along the vacuum boundary, the physical boundary condition implies that the coecients are functions of y (0, t) which are bounded and away from zero. Hence, the wave equation has no singularity or degeneracy. However, its coecients have the above special form so that the local existence theory developed for the classical nonlinear wave equation can not be applied directly, [8, 9]. There are other works on this system with vacuum, please refer to [6, 10] ect. and reference therein.

TO APPEAR IN J. DIFF. EQU.

1

XU AND YANG

Even though a transformation to capture the singularity in the physical boundary condition at vacuum interface is introduced in [13], the energy method presented there may not give a rigorous proof of the existence theory, especially in the general setting. It is because the coecients in the reduced wave equation which are power functions of y 1 correspond to the fractional dierentiations of . Under this consideration, we think the application of Littlewood-Paley theory based on Fourier theory is more appropriate. Therefore, as the rst step in this direction, in this paper we will study the local existence of solutions satisfying the physical boundary condition when the initial data is a small perturbation of a planar wave solution where the enthalpy is linear in the space variable, [11]. By applying the Littlewood-Paley theory, we obtain the solution local in time with the prescribed physical boundary condition. Precisely, we consider the one dimensional compressible Euler equations for isentropic ow with damping in Eulerian coordinates (1.1) t + (u)x = 0, ut + uux + p()x = u,

where , u and p() are density, velocity and pressure respectively. And the linear frictional coecient is normalized to 1. When the initial density function contains vacuum, the vacuum boundary is dened as = cl{(x, t) | (x, t) > 0} cl{(x, t) | (x, t) = 0}. Since the second equation in (1.1) can be rewritten as ut + uux + ix = u, with i being the enthalpy, one can see that the term ix represents the eect of the pressure on the particle path, in particular, on the vacuum boundary. It is shown in [12, 15, 19] that there is no global existence of regular solutions satisfying ix 0 along the vacuum boundary. That is, in general, i is not C 1 crossing the vacuum boundary. Hence, the canonical behavior of the vacuum boundary should satisfy the condition ix = 0 and is bounded. This special feature of the solution can be illustrated by the stationary solutions and some self-similar solutions, also for dierent physical systems, such as Euler-Poisson equations for gaseous stars and Navier-Stokes equations, cf. [5, 11, 13, 17]. Notice that the charateristics of Euler equations is u c, with c2 c = p (). And for isentropic polytropy gas, i = 1 , where > 1 is the adiabatic constant. Hence the characteristics are singular with innite space derivative at the vacuum boundary if physical boundary condition is assumed. This singularity yields the smooth reection of the characteristic curves on the vacuum boundary and then causes analytical diculty. Another way to view the canonical boundary condition comes from the study of porous media equation. It is known that the Euler equations with linear damping behave like the porous media equation at least away from vacuum when t , cf.[7] and some corresponding results in the weak sense with vacuum which will not be discussed here. For the porous media equation, the free boundary of the support of the solution has a canonical behavior which would be the same as or similar to the one described above for Euler equations with damping. However, there is still no satisfatory results on the change of solution behavior along the vacuum boundary

LOCAL EXISTENCE

even though the corresponding waiting time problem for porous media equation is well understood, cf.[1]. In this paper, we will concentrate on the Euler equations with linear damping when the initial data is a small perturbation of a planar wave in one dimensional space. Since our concern is the behavior of the solution related to vacuum and any shock wave vanishes at vacuum [14], it is reasonable to consider our problem without shock waves. In fact, any shock wave appears initially or in nite time will decay to zero exponentially in time because of the dissipation from the linear damping. By using the special property of the one dimensional gas dynamics, we can rewrite the system (1.1) by using Lagrangian coordinates to make all the particle paths, in particular the vacuum boundary, as straight lines. (1.1) in Lagrangian coordinates takes the form (1.2) vt u = 0, ut + p(v) = u,

x

1 where v = is the specic volume and = 0 (y, t)dy. Moreover, we assume that the pressure function satises the -law, i.e., p(v) = 2 v , > 1. Notice that the physical singularity, ix = 0 but bounded, along the vacuum boundary in Eulerian coordinates corresponds to 0 < |p (v)| < in the Lagrangian coordinates. In order to capture this singularity in the solution and symmetrize the system (1.2), the following coordinate transformation was introduced in [13],

= y 1 . Here, we assume that the initial density function 0 (x) = 0 for x < 0 in the Eulerian coordinates. Then the system (1.2) can be rewritten as (1.3) where (v) =

2 1 v 2 , 1

y > 0,

t > 0,

+1 2 +1 ( 1) (vy 1 ) 2 = (y 1 ) 1 ,

for some positive constant . Without any ambiguity and up to a scaling, can be chosen to be 1 and we still denote the independent variable by y for simplicity of notation. Notice that near the vacuum boundary, both (v)y and are bounded away from zero under the physical boundary condition. Therefore, the vacuum problem considered can be formulated into the following boundary value problem: (1.4) (1.5) (1.6) (1.7) (1 wt )t (wy )y + 1 wt = 0, (w, wt )|t=0 = (w0 , w1 ), w(0, t) = 0, 0 < C1 y 1 w(y, t) C2 , =

XU AND YANG

It is easy to see that the above equation has a special linear unbounded solution for y 0 given by w(y, t) = a0 y with constant a0 > 0. This solution is also obtained in [11] together with other self-similar solutions with physical boundary condition. To justify the above transformation for local existence purpose, we will consider the local existence of solution when the initial data is a small perturbation to the above special solution. That is, the initial data is assumed to be w0 (y) = y(a0 + v0 (y)), w1 (y) = yv1 (y), for some constant a0 > 0. And the solution is of following type w(y, t) = y(a0 + v(y, t)). Then the problem on (1.4)-(1.7) in this setting becomes (1.8)

2 +2 2 vt vy + vt = 0, y a0 + v (1.9) (v, vt )|t=0 = (v0 , v1 ) H s (R+ ) H s1 (R+ ), (1.10) v(0, t) = 0, t > 0, 1 (1.11) v L ([0,T ]R+ ) a0 , 2 with = (a0 + v(y, t)) and > 1. For this problem, we have the following main theorem in this paper. 2 vtt (2 vy )y + (a0 + v)31 vy

Theorem 1.1. Suppose that, for some b0 > 0, we have (1.12) Supp v0 , Supp v1 [b0 , +[, v0

L (

R+ ) 4 a0 ,

and s > 3 . Then there exists 0 < T < a b0 such that the problems (1.8)-(1.11) has a 0 2 unique solution v C([0, T ], H s (R+ )) C 0,1 ([0, T ], H s1 (R+ )). Notice that the case when b0 = 0 is more dicult and will not be discussed here. Since the solution is regular up to the vacuum boundary and the density function in positive except on the vacuum boundary, the result in Theorem 1.1 can be reduced straightforwardly to the solution to the Equations (1.1). Notice that here the initial perturbation is in a compact subset in (0, ) and the local time existence is proved before the perturbation inuence the propagation of the boundary. Therefore, it is interesting and important to consider how the behavior of the boundary changes in later time due to the perturbation. But this is not in the scope of this paper and will be pursued by the authors in the future. For this, the transformation introduced in [13] could still be useful. Furthermore, the physical boundary condition holds also for multi-dimensional space by considering the stationary solutions, [5]. Hence, the evolution of the vacuum interface in multi-dimensional space can also be considered with more diculty because there is no Lagrangian coordinates to x the vacuum interface. The rest of the paper is arranged as follows. In Section 2, we shall briey include the Littlewood-Paley theory for the proof of local existence. The proof of Theorem

LOCAL EXISTENCE

1.1 is given in Section 3 where a linearized system is analyzed to yield a sequence of solutions being convergent to the one in Theorem 1.1. 2. Littlewood-Paley theory In this section, we will recall some elementary properties of Littlewood -Paley theory for the Sobolev spaces, for the details please refer to [2, 3, 4]. Set H s (Rd ) = {f S ; (1 + ||2 )s/2 f L2 (Rd )}, with the norm f H s = (1 + ||2 )s/2 f L2 . We consider now a dyadic decomposition d of R . For K > 1 a xed constant, and p N+ , we set (2.1) Cp = { Rd ; K 1 2p || K2p+1 }, and C1 = B(0, K) = { Rd ; || K}, then {Cp }+ is a uniformly nite recover of 1 Rd , that means, if |p q| N1 = 2(1 + 2 log2 K) + 2, we have Cq Cp = . We can also construct two functions , C0 (Rd ), with Supp C1 , Supp C0 , such that for any Rd and N0 ,

N0 1

() +

p=0

(2 ) = 1, () +

p=0

(2p ) = (2N0 ).

Then one can dene the following operators of localization in Fourier space, for u S (Rd ), p u = up = F 1 ((2p )()) = 2pd u and 1 u = u1 = F 1 (()()), u where u = F(u) denotes the Fourier transformation of u, and f = F 1 (). It is evident that up S for any u S , Suppp Cp , and u = up , in sense of S . u p=1 Since Suppp Cp , Paley-Wienner-Schwartz theorem implies that up C and the u Sobolev space can be characterized as follows. Lemma 2.1. For s > 0, the following properties are equivalent. (a) u H s (Rd ); (b) u = up in S , Supp up Cp and up L2 cp 2ps , {cp } 2 ; p=1 (c) u = p=1 up in S , Supp up B(0, K1 2p ) and up L2 cp 2ps , {cp } (d) u = p=1 up in S , up C and for any Nd , || [s] + 1, D up

L2

Rd

cp, 2p(s||) ,

{cp, }pN

Remark : The equivalence of (a) and (b) holds for all s R. For the L estimate, we need the following lemma. Lemma 2.2. Suppose that a L (Rd ), Supp a B(0, R), then a C (Rd ), and for any Nd there exist C(d, ) > 0 such that (2.2) D a

L

C(d, )R|| a

L .

XU AND YANG

For some N0 large enough, B(0, 4K2N0 ) is a very small ball. Set C0 = C0 + B(0, 4K2N0 ), then {Cp } = {2p C0 } has the same properties as {Cp }. We dene Sq u =

1pqN0

up , T u v =

q

|pq|<N0

u p vq .

Then, we have uv = Tu v + Tv u + R(u, v), and the following lemma. Lemma 2.3. (a), For any a L , for any s R, the maps Ta : H s H s is continuous and (2.3) (2.4) Ta R(u, v)

L(H s ,H s )

Cs a C u

L .

H s1 +s2 d/2 H s1

H s2 .

(c) If s 0, then H s (Rd ) L is an algebra, and for any u, v H s (Rd ) L , we have (2.5) uv

Hs

C( u

Hs

+ v

H s ),

where C depends only on d, s. A more general case of lemma 2.3 is the following. Lemma 2.4. Let F C (R1 ), F (0) = 0. If f H s (Rd )L , s 0, is a real function, then the composition F (f ) H s (Rn ) and F (f ) with C(F, s, f

L ) Hs

C(F, s, f

[s]+2

L )

Hs ,

= Cd

j=1

Sup0t

|F (j) (t)| f

j1 L .

For later use, we also need the following estimate. Lemma 2.5. Let a, b H s (Rd ) with s > 1 + d/2, then for k N, we have (2.6) and (2.7) [k , a]y b

Hs(

[k , a]y b

H s1 (

Rd ) Cs a

Hs(

Rd ) b

H s1 (

Rd )

Rd ) Cs a

Hs(

Rd ) b

Hs(

Rd ) .

Proof : We prove only (2.6), following the notations of lemma 2.3, we have [k , a]y b = k (ay b) ak (y b) = k (Ta y b + Ty b a + R(a, y b)) (Ta k (y b) + Tk y b a + R(a, k (y b))). Since y b H s1 C s1d/2 L , (a) and (b) of lemma 2.3 give Ty b a + R(a, y b) + Tk y b a + R(a, k (y b))

H s1 (

Rd ) Cs a

Hs(

Rd )) b

H s1 (

Rd )) .

LOCAL EXISTENCE

|k k|N0

k L2 Hs dk

tf (t)

L1

k y b

L2

CN0 a

H s1 .

3. Proof of the Theorem In this section, we are going to prove the local existence of solution stated in Theorem 1.1. The proof is based on the study of a linearized problem. We want to construct a convergent sequence of solutions to the linearized problem and show that the limit is the solution to the nonlinear problem (1.8)- (1.11) with the property stated in Theorem 1.1. Under the hypothesis of theorem 1.1, we study now the sequence of functions {v n }nN dened inductively as follows. (3.1) (3.2) (3.3) with n (y, t) = (a0 + v n (y, t)) , f n (y, t) = (a0 + v n )31 (v n )2 + y For 0 < T1 < a b0 and 0 M 0 = B1 v0

2 Hs n +2 n 2 n vt n ( ) vy + v n vt . y a0 + v n t

n+1 (v n+1 , vt )|t=0 = (v0 , v1 ),

+ v1

1/2 2 H s1

with B1 = 2(8/a0 ) if a0 2, and B1 = 2(2a0 ) if a0 > 2, we dene Xs,T1 = v | v C 0 ([0, T1 ]; H s (R+ )) C 0,1 ([0, T1 ]; H s1 (R+ )), |||v|||Xs,T1 = v

L (

2 L ([0,T1 ];H s (

R+ )) + vt

2 L ([0,T1 ];H s1 (

R+ ))

1/2

M0 ;

XU AND YANG

Theorem 3.1. (a) For any s > 3/2, 0 < < b0 , 0 < T1 a (b0 ), if v n Xs,T1 , 0 then the Cauchy problem (3.2)-(3.3) has a solution v n+1 C 0 ([0, T1 ]; H s (R+ )) C 0,1 ([0, T1 ]; H s1 (R+ )), with Supp v n+1 {(y, t) [, +[[0, T1 ]; y + a t b0 }. 0 (b) For any s > 3/2, there exists 0 < T1 < a b0 , such that if v n Xs,T1 , then 0 the solution v n+1 of Cauchy problem (3.2)-(3.3) belongs to Xs,T1 , that means that the sequence {v n } is well-dened and uniformly bounded in Xs,T1 . (c) There exists 0 < T2 T1 such that the sequence {v n } is a Cauchy sequence in Xs1,T2 . Proof. First for part (a), since 0 < T1 a (b0 ), if v n Xs,T1 , then 0 Supp v n {(y, t) [, +[[0, T1 ]; y + a t b0 }. 0 We have that n C 0 ([0, T1 ]; H s (R)) C 0,1 ([0, T1 ]; H s1 (R)), and f n C 0 ([0, T1 ]; H s1 (R)) C 0,1 ([0, T1 ]; H s2 (R)). Thus, the existence theorem for linear Cauchy problem gives the existence of solution to (3.2) and (3.3), cf. [9] v n+1 C 0 ([0, T1 ]; H s (R)) C 0,1 ([0, T1 ]; H s1 (R)). Moreover for v n Xs,T1 , we have n (y, t) = a , f n (y, t) = 0, v0 = v1 = 0 for all 0 (y, t) R+ [0, T1 ]; y + a t b0 , so that in this domain, v n+1 is the solution of 0 problem n+1 n+1 vtt a2 vyy = 0, (v, vt )|t=0 = (0, 0). 0 Then v n+1 = 0 in this domain and this gives part (a). 1 We now turn to part (b). For 0 < < b0 , take C (R), (y) = y if y ; (y) = 2 if y /2. We suppose always 0 < T1 a (b0 ). For v Xs,T1 , we set 0 (y, t) = (a0 + v (y, t)) , t v2 +2 2 () vy + vt . f (y, t) = (a0 + v )31 ()2 + v y y a0 + v

1 Remark that (y)y = y vy , since vy (y, t) = 0 if y . Then by using Theorem 2.4, we v have

C 0 ([0, T1 ]; H s (R)) C 0,1 ([0, T1 ]; H s1 (R)), f C 0 ([0, T1 ]; H s1 (R)) C 0,1 ([0, T1 ]; H s2 (R)). And (3.4) f

L ([0,T1 ];H s1 ( )) 2 [s]+1 R M0 ;

L ([0,T1 ];H s ( ))

[s] R B2 M0 ,

LOCAL EXISTENCE

with constant B2 depends only on , a0 , b0 and s. We consider now the following linear problems (3.5) vtt (()2 vy )y = f , (3.6) (v, vt )|t=0 = (v0 , v1 ), In fact, part (b) is equivalent to the following claim. Claim: Suppose that Supp v0 , Supp v1 [b0 , +[, v0

L (

R+ ) 4 a0 ,

and s > 3 . There exists T1 > 0 depending on a0 , b0 , s, M0 , such that, for any v Xs,T1 , 2 the solution v of problem (3.5)-(3.6) is also in Xs,T1 . For the above claim, we only need to prove the following estimate for the solution v of problem (3.5)-(3.6). (3.7) v

2 L ([0,T1 ];H s ( ))

R + vt

2 L ([0,T1 ];H s1 ( ))

2 R M0 .

By using Sobolev embedding theorem, Lipschitz estimate and L boundedness of v0 , we get immediately, for T1 a0 /(4M0 Cs ), 1 a0 . 2 To apply the Lemma 2.1, we need the following estimate, v

L ( [0,T1 ])

(3.8)

k vt

2 L ([0,T1 ];L2 ( ))

R + k vy

2 L ([0,T1 ];L2 ( ))

2 2k(s1) , R ck 2

2 with c2 M0 for k N. k Since vtt L ([0, T1 ]; H s2 (R)), by applying k to the equation (3.5) and integrating its product with k vt over (y, t) in R [0, t], we have,

t

+

0

R R

0

Using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, we have 1 2 B1 ( k v1 2 2 (R) + k (v0 )y 2 2 (R) ) L L 4 2 2 2 2 +T1 B1 k (f ) 2 ([0,T1 ];L2 (R)) + T1 B1 2k k ([k , 2 ]vy ) 2 ([0,T1 ];L2 (R)) L L 1 1 2 + k (v)t 2 ([0,T1 ];L2 (R)) + T1 B1 t L (R[0,T1 ]) k vy 2 ([0,T1 ];L2 (R)) , L L 2 4 k vt

2 L2 ( ) (t)

+ k vy

2 L2 ( ) (t)

where k = t

|k k|N1

k , and k k = k . We have

L ( [0,T1 ])

L ( [0,T1 ])

(2a0 )21 vt

(2a0 )21 Cs vt

L ([0,T1 ];H s1 ( )) ,

10

XU AND YANG

2 T1 B1 (2a0 )21 Cs vt L ([0,T1 ];H s1 ( )) 2 21 Cs M0 2, R T1 B1 (2a0 )

we have k vt

2 L ([0,T1 ];L2 ( ))

R + k vy

2 L ([0,T1 ];L2 ( ))

2 R 2 B1 ( k v1

2 L2 ( )

R + k (v0 )y R

2 L2 ( ) )

2 2 +2T1 B1 k (f )

2 L ([0,T1 ];L2 ( ))

2 L ([0,T1 ];L2 ( )) .

L ([0,T1 ];L2 ( ))

R R

k ([k , 2 ]vy )

L ([0,T1 ];L2 ( ))

ck 2k(s1) f L ([0,T1 ];H s1 (R)) B2 [s]+1 k(s1) M ck 2 ; 0 ck 2ks 2 L ([0,T1 ];H s (R)) v L ([0,T1 ];H s (R)) B2 M0 ck 2ks v

[s] L ([0,T1 ];H s ( )) ,

[s] with c2 1. By choosing 0 < T1 B1 B2 M0 2/4 in the above estimate , we k complete the proof of the claim and then obtain the part (b). Finally, we want to prove part (c) of Theorem 3.1. Let {v n } be a sequence of functions dened by (3.1)-(3.3), we prove that there exists 0 < T2 T1 such that it is a Cauchy sequence in C 0 ([0, T2 ]; H s1 (R)) C 0,1 ([0, T2 ]; H s2 (R)). In fact we will prove the following estimate, for any n N, (3.9) v n+1 v n

2 L ([0,T2 ];H s1 ( )) n+1 n R + vt vt 2 L ([0,T2 ];H s2 ( )) n 2 R 2 M0 .

Set un+1 = v n+1 v n , n N, we have un+1 ((n )2 un+1 )y = (f n f n1 ) (((n )2 (n1 )2 )un )y tt y y (un+1 , un+1 )|t=0 = (0, 0). t where v n+1 , v n , v n1 Xs,T1 , and (n )2 (n1 )2 = b1 (v n , v n1 )un ; f n f n1 = b2 (v n , v n1 , v n , v n1 )un +b3 (v n , v n1 , v n , v n1 )un + b4 (v n , v n1 , v n , v n1 )un , t y with bj

L ([0,T1 ];H s1 ( ))

R A(, M0 ), j = 1, , 4.

t 0

un

L ([0,T ];H s1 ( )) n R + ut L ([0,T ];H s2 ( ))

L ([0,T ];L2 ( ))

LOCAL EXISTENCE

11

and

t 0

R

t 0

n k (((n )2 (n1 )2 )vy )y k un+1 dydt t n k ((n )2 (n1 )2 )vy k un+1 dydt ty L ([0,T ];L2 ( )) n R u L ([0,T ];H s1 ( )) .

t 0

2 2 L ([0,T ];L2 )

L ([0,T ];L2 ( )) n+1 R u L ([0,T ];H s1 ( )) .

+ k un+1 y

2 L ([0,T ];L2 )

2 L ([0,T ];H s2 ( )) )

2 L ([0,T ];H s2 ( ))

n R + uy

By multipling this inequality by 22k(s2) and summing over k, we have for 4T 2 B(M0 )2 1/2, un+1 t

n+1 2 2 L ([0,T ];H s2 ( )) L ([0,T ];H s2 ( )) + uy 8T 2 A(, M0 )2 ( un 2 ([0,T ];H s2 ( )) + un 2 ([0,T ];H s2 ( )) ). y L t L

Now by choosing 8T 2 A(, M0 )2 1/2, we have (3.9). This completes the proof of Theorem 3.1. Now the proof for Theorem 1.1 can be stated as a consequence of Theorem 3.1 as follows. Since the sequence {v n } is a Cauchy sequence in Xs1,T2 and bounded in Xs,T2 , it is also the Cauchy sequence in Xs ,T2 for all s < s by interpolation. Then the limit v is in C 0 ([0, T2 ]; H s (R+ )) C 0,1 ([0, T2 ]; H s1 (R+ )). Since s > 3/2, v is a solution of equation (1.8) and this yields Theorem 1.1. Acknowledgment: The research was supported CityU Direct Allocation Grant # 7100198. And the authors would like to thank the referees insightful idea on improving the theorem in this paper. References

[1] D. G. Aronson, L. A. Caarelli and S. Kamin, How an initial stationary interface begins to move in porous media ow, SIAM J. Math., Anal., 14(1983), 639-658. e e e e [2] J.-M. Bony, Calcul symbolique et propagation des singularits pour les quations aux drives partielles non linaires, Annales de lEcole Normale Suprieure, 14, 1981, pages 209246. e e [3] J.-Y. Chemin, Fluides parfaits incompressibles, Astrisque, 230 (1995). e [4] J.-Y. Chemin, B. Desjardins, I. Gallagher, E. Grenier, Fluids with anisotropic viscosity. Special issue for R. Temams 60th birthday. M2AN Math. Model. Numer. Anal. 34, (2000), no. 2, 315-335

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XU AND YANG

[5] Yinbin Deng, Tai-Ping Liu, Tong Yang and Zheng-an Yao, Solutions with vacuum of Euler-Poisson equations, Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal., 164(2002), 3, 261-285. [6] M. Grassin and D. Serre, Global smooth solutions to Euler equations for an isentropic perfect gas, C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sr. I Math, 325(1997), No. 7, 721-726. e [7] L. Hsiao and T.-P. Liu, Convergence to nonlinear diusion waves for solutions of a system of hyperbolic conservation laws with damping, Comm. Math. Phys.143 (1992), 599-605. [8] L. Hormander, Lectures on Nonlinear Hyperbolic Dierential Equations, 1997, Springer-Verlag. [9] T. Kato, The Cauchy problem for quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems, Arch. Rational. Mech. Anal., 58 (1975), 181-205. [10] L.W. Lin, On the vacuum state for the Equations of Isentropic Gas Dynamics, J. of Math. Anal. Appl., Vol. 121, No. 2 (1987) pp. 406425. [11] T.-P. Liu, Compressible ow with damping and vacuum, Japan J. Appl. Math., Vol. 13, No. 1, 25-32. [12] T.-P. Liu and T. Yang, Compressible Euler equations with vacuum, Journal of Dierential Equations, Vol. 140, No. 2, 1997, 223-237. [13] T.-P. Liu and T. Yang, Compressible ow with vacuum and physical singularity, Methods and Applications of Analysis, Vol. 7, No. 3, 495-510, 2000. [14] T.-P. Liu and J. Smoller, On the vacuum state for isentropic gas dynamics equations, Advances in Math., 1(1980), 345-359. [15] T. Makino, Blowing up solutions of the Euler-Poisson equation for the evolution of gaseous stars, Transport Theory and Statistical Physics 21 (1992), 615624. [16] T. Nishida, Nonlinear hyperbolic equations and related topics in uid dynamics, Publ. Math. DOrsay, (1978), 46-53. [17] M. Okada, Free boundary value problems for the equation of one-dimensional motion of viscous gas, Japan J. Appl. Math., 6, No.1, 161-177, 1989. [18] O.A. Oleinik, On the Cauchy problem for weakly hyperbolic equations, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., Vol., XXIII, (1970), 569-586. [19] Z. Xin, Blow-up of smooth solutions to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with compact density, Comm. Pure Appl. math., 51 (1998), 229-240. Chao-Jiang Xu, Universite de Rouen, Laboratoire de Mathematiques, 76821 MontSaint-Aignan, France E-mail address: Chao-Jiang.Xu@univ-rouen.fr Tong Yang, Department of Mathematics, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong E-mail address: matyang@cityu.edu.hk

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