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DECLARATION

I Ddumba Solomon John hereby declare to the best of my knowledge that the work presented in this report is original and has not been presented in any institution anywhere for any degree, diploma or any award. Signed ……………………… DDUMBA SOLOMON JOHN DATE ……………………..

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APPROVAL
This project proposal has been submitted with the approval of my supervisor

Signed……………………..... Mr. Kigozi John

Date…………………………

Signed ……………………… Mr. Odong Steven

Date………………………

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Bit Error Rate -Access Service Network -Connectivity Service Network -Line of sight . . .Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request -Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing -Multiple-Input Multiple-Output -Quality of Service -Adaptive Modulation and Coding iv .Virtual Private Networks.Third Generation -Fourth Generation.Uganda Telecom -Base Station -Frequency Modulation -Voice over Internet Protocol .Non Line of Sight -Radio Frequency .Wide Area Interoperability of Microwave Access .ABBREVIATIONS WiMAX UTL BS FM VoIP VPN BER ASN CSN LOS NLOS RF 3G 4G HARQ ODFM MIMO QoS AMC .

.........................................................................................5 2...............................2 Problem statement..........4 2........TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION...............................................................2 Specific Objectives.............4 2............................................................................................................................. 2 Justification.....6 2.............9 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ).......................... 3 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW...........................3 Objectives .............................................1 1....................................................................................................................................................................................................1 1................................8 WiMAX Frequencies..v CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION................................................... 1 1..............................................7 2...................................................................................6 Scope .............2 1...............................................................................................................................................3.......................................3 2........................................8 v ...........7 Non Line of Sight Communication (NLOS)..............................................16..4 2.................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS.........................................7 2.3......8 2...............4 Interference in Wimax Networks...................................... The Uganda Telecom 3G Project.......2 1...............1 Background .......................................................1 Main Objective .......................................................................................................................................... ii APPROVAL........3......................................1......16 Architecture ...2 1......................2 The WiMAX IEEE 802..............1 Related projects....................iii ABBREVIATIONS...............................4 2..............................................................................................................................................................1 WiMAX 802.............................1................................................................3 The Proposed Project..............ii .................................................................................................................2 Significance............................................3....................................................6 Line Of Sight Communication (LOS)............................................... ...................................................................................................................

....................14 REFERENCES................................................................... similar projects and documentation related to WiMAX............1 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Technology...................................................................................1 Procedures........................................9 3.......htm....................4 Expected Results...............................3...............4 Proposed Optimization tools and mechanisms................. this is going to be done through detailed research and in-depth analysis of the data that has been collected from various sources which include: the internet.3 WiMAX Customer Premise Equipment ...........16 WiMAX Model Layers ..10 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY.........3................................................................................3 IEEE 802.......2 Data Analysis ............................15 Appendix 1 TIME FRAME............................................................WiMAX ......................................9 3.....................com/ quality-of-service............................16...........................................................15 Appendix 2 BUDGET ........9 3.......................................... 2011...........................1 The WiMAX Base Station..................11 3.................. books......15 Does WiMAX have quality of service (QOS)? Retrieved October 13 2011 from http://www........................com Broadband Solutions (2011).......2 The WiMAX Access Service Network (ASN)................3................................................................................................................................11 3...........................13 3......................................2 Data Collection...............................2 Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)....................................12 3................................................................................3..........................9 3...................................3 System Design and Simulation................................................................................................11 3....................................4 Quality of Service (QOS)............16 vi .....13 3.. 11 Reviewing of the existing literature on WiMAX IEEE 802.........0 More on Wimax ......................12 3........................................................................... 14 WiMax..........3.13 3...........13 3................................................................................................

Virtual Private Networks. 2009) These cause delay in the access of business critical services like high speed Internet. (Iwan A. There exist a number of factors that limit that overall system capacity of the WiMAX radio channel for example attenuation over the air interface due to fading effects. Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP). WiMAX (IEEE 802. IEEE 802. This reduces on the quality of service of the Network and in turn it reduces on the income that is 1 . interference and obstruction.16d) and up to 15km for mobile stations (IEEE 802.16) stands for World Wide Interoperability of Microwave Access and it is a leading technology that is used in providing last mile broadband connectivity by radio link.2 Problem statement The performance of WiMAX in the Uganda Telecom’s Network is not at its optimum level in comparison to the expected standards of IEEE 802.16 quality of service (QoS) requirements. low cost of deployment. Virtual Private Networks (VPN) and other multimedia applications by UTL customers.16d for fixed WiMAX and IEEE 802. Voice Over Internet protocol (VoIP).1 Background Uganda Telecom LTD (UTL) is the Leading Telecommunication Service provider in Uganda offering voice and data communication services to its customers and subscribers country wide. Rosario G & Garroppo S. high bit error rates(BER) and congestion at the R6 interface (Between the WiMAX base station and the Access Service Network. wide coverage which makes it the most suitable option for support of business critical services and applications.16e) which is not the case for the existing UTL WiMAX network. 1.CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. Uganda Telecom has deployed Huawei WiMAX equipment on over 50 base stations countrywide ensuring broadband connectivity to subscribers countrywide offering services like High-speed Internet. The optimum performance of WiMAX networks as specified by the Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) is to provide connectivity to customers with data rates of up to 70mbps to a range of 50 km for fixed stations (IEEE 802. WiMAX is a packet based wireless technology that provides fixed and mobile high speed connection to end users.16e which has support for mobility and hence referred to as Mobile WiMAX. WiMAX is preferred because of its High data rates.

3 Objectives 1.1 Main Objective To optimize the system capacity and application delay in Uganda Telecom’s WiMAX network 1.generated by the Company (Low returns on investment) and also pauses a threat of loss of customers who are always looking out for better services. The system capacity of the WiMAX communication channel is going to be optimumly utilized and delays are going to be greatly reduced when the optimization mechanisms specified in this project are put into consideration.  To survey the existing system of the Uganda Telecom’s WiMAX Network in order to enable me to clearly identify the impairments to communication over the WiMAX Air Interface (Interface between the WiMAX Base Station and the User equipment) and the R6 interface (Interface between the Base station and the ASN)  To establish measures that should be taken to mitigate the identified problems. My project should be carried out because it is going to ensure increased data rates and improved network performance for the UTL WiMAX network which is necessary to ensure the support of the increasing demand of business critical applications and services that are accessed by WiMAX subscribers. Significance The Uganda Telecom WiMAX Network will be optimized after the implementation of my project.3. 1.2 Specific Objectives  To review the existing literature on WiMAX Technology. Justification WiMAX technology is designed to provide data rates of up to 70mbps to ranges of up to 50km for fixed WiMAX and 15 km for mobile users and my projects is going to conform the existing UTL Network to the ideal WiMAX communication system.3. Some of 2 .  To design an optimized WiMAX System for UTL using OPNET simulation software.

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP).6 Scope This study is going to be done with Uganda Telecom LTD. I am going to review the existing work that has been done as far as WiMAX Optimization is concerned. traffic congestion and high bit error rate (BER) among others. CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter. 1. The project will also involve establishing measures to mitigate the above mentioned problems and coming up with a design of the optimized WiMAX network using OPNET simulation software. Virtual Private Networks (VPN) and Video Streaming. interference. Some of these problems include: attenuation caused by fading effects. It will review existing literature and related projects and identify any 3 . It will involve identifying current problems with the current WiMAX communication over the AIR interface and the R6 Interface.these services include high speed internet connectivity. obstruction.

larger volumes of subscribers consume ever-growing quantities of data packets while continuing to utilize more minutes of voice.1.16 stands to be the optimum technology in the delivery of high speed connectivity and data access with data rates of up to 70Mbps. (Mukherjee.16 WiMAX stands for World Wide Interoperability of microwave access and it is a leading technology that is used in the provision of last mile wireless broadband connectivity by radio 4 .2 The Need For Optimization Wireless operators are increasingly pressured to enhance their networks and service capabilities in order to keep pace with the accelerating growth in wireless utilization and increasing demand for high performing connections. (June 2011).3 The Proposed Project 2.1 WiMAX 802. As bandwidth intensive. According to Edris Kisambira. Contrary to that WiMAX IEEE 802. Farouk Kiwala (2008). He also specifies Third Generation Technology (3G) that has just been deployed by Uganda Telecom as the best option for providing such services. Simply acquiring more spectrum channels and deploying more sites to resolve capacity issues can be decidedly inefficient and costly. video and audio streaming among others. The porpoise was to offer mobile broadband services to users which included high speed internet access. July 2010) 2. It is also going to clearly elaborate the proposed project and how it covers the gaps that are existent in some of the current work that has been done on WiMAX. The Uganda Telecom’s Business Solutions Manager further emphasizes the need for people to maintain connectivity and data access even when they are out of their formal office environment which usually have fixed data connections. 2.1.1 Related projects 2. 2.issues that could have been left out in the previous work. Uganda Telecom has deployed Third Generation (3G) broadband wireless technology in the capital city Kampala and several other districts.3. S. rich media applications are introduced. The Uganda Telecom 3G Project.

improved mobile performance. this is the interface between the Mobile Station and the Connectivity Service Network (CSN)  The R6 Interface This is the Interface between the WiMAX base station and the Access Service Network (ASN)  The R3 Interface This is the Interface between the Access Service Network (ASN) and the Connectivity Service Network (CSN) 5 . IEEE 802. Virtual Private Networks (VPN).3. The IEEE 802. WiMAX provides both Fixed and mobile connectivity to subscribers with the capability of providing data rates of 70mbps over a distance of around 50 km fixed stations.2 The WiMAX IEEE 802. The name WIMAX was created by the WiMAX Forum in June 2001 and the major purpose was to promote conformity and interoperability of the IEEE 802.16d standard was published in 2001 as a technology that was used for providing fixed WiMAX access to customers.link to subscribers. high speed Internet connectivity.16 technology is a leading technology in the provision of Wireless broadband access because of its advantages which include high data rates.16 Architecture The WiMAX network comprises of a number of components and Interfaces which include:  The Air Interface (R1) This is the interface between the WiMAX Base station and the Mobile Station  The R2 interface. wide coverage. wide coverage and low costs of deployment for both line of sight (LOS) and non line of sight communication (NLOS). WiMAX technology is very efficient in supporting high speed business critical services to users for example Voice over internet protocol (VoIP). audio and Video streaming 2. It offers Broadband connectivity to mobile users to a range of up to 15km.16e is has support for mobility and it is thus referred to as Mobile WiMAX.16 standard. IEEE 802.

the degree to which WiMAX succeeds will depend in large part on the ability to minimize channel interference. (Andrew. It is a technique that is used to increase the robustness of the transmission link against frequency selective fading. Error correction mechanisms and coding can be applied to only the few subcarriers that have encountered transmission errors.Figure 1 Showing the main interfaces and module in the WiMAX Architecture 2. antenna pattern shaping and interference control will play a significant role in successful WiMAX deployments. 2008) 2. Going forward.5 Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (ODFM) WiMAX Technology applies Orthogonal Frequency division multiplexing technique which is a special multicarrier transmission mode where a single data stream is transmitted over a number of lower rate orthogonal sub carriers. In single carrier radio transmission.4 Interference in Wimax Networks In short. This positions the base station antenna system as critical to WiMAX long term success. 6 . channel fading affects the entire transmission link and this is solved by using multicarrier transmission techniques like orthogonal frequency division Modulation where only a few subcarriers will be affected.

6 Line Of Sight Communication (LOS) Line of sight communication refers to communication in which the transmitting and receiving antenna have visual contact with each other in the absence of any obstacles like buildings. or hills that could impair signal transmission over the radio link. In this mode of communication. trees.7 Non Line of Sight Communication (NLOS) Non Line of sight communication refers to the transmission of radio signals over a path that is partially obstructed. 7 .ODFM subcarriers are individually modulated by Phase shift Keying (PSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). This mode of signal transmission usually encounters attenuation on the Air interface due to atmospheric weather conditions. Theses obstructions usually impair the transmission of signals over the radio channel especially when it is being done at low transmission power. 2. and hills among others. trees. In WiMAX communication this usually involves a receiving antenna at the customer premises that is appropriately oriented towards the transmitting antenna at the WiMAX Base station. fading effects and interference. Some of the advantages of using Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation include:  ODFM as a modulation scheme is divides the transmission channel into smaller narrowband sub channels and this makes the transmission link more resistant to frequency selective fading as compared to single carrier transmission systems. the radio signals have to penetrate physical objects which usually include Buildings.  Channel equalization in OFDM schemes is much simpler as compared to using adaptive equalization techniques which is the case for single carrier  ODFM modulation scheme also provides good protection against co channel interference and parasitic noise  Orthogonal Frequency division Modulation scheme also makes efficient use of the spectrum by allowing overlap  OFDM is less sensitive to sample timing offsets as compared single carrier systems 2.

As a result Hybrid ARQ performs better than ordinary ARQ in poor signal conditions. The physics of radio signals typically place two primary constrictions on spectrum. In hybrid ARQ. lower frequencies transport less bandwidth. a code is used that can perform both forward error correction(FEC) in addition to error detection (ED)(Such as Reed-Solomon. convolutional code or Turbo code). the lower the frequency the greater the carry range and penetration of a signal.16 operate in frequencies ranging from 2GHz to 66GHz which is a wide spectrum range. For example: A 900 MHz license free radio will travel farther and penetrate some tree cover fairly easily at ranges up to one to two miles. In standard ARQ.4 GHz signal which cannot penetrate any tree cover whatsoever. To generalize. but in its simplest form this comes at the expense of significantly lower throughput in good signal conditions. redundant bits are added to data to be transmitted using an error-detecting code such as cyclic redundancy check (CRC).5GHz spectrum was the first to enjoy WiMAX products.9 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) is a combination of high-rate forward error correcting coding and ARQ error-control for detectable-but-uncorrectable errors.8 WiMAX Frequencies The most recent versions of WiMAX standards in 802. (WiMax.2.com Broadband Solutions. Licensed band spectrum such as 2.8GHz has a few WiMAX vendors building products. to correct a subset of errors while relying on ARQ to correct that are uncorrectable using only the redundancy sent in the initial transmission. 2. The International standard of 3. 8 . The caveat that can somewhat alter this equation is power. But it can carry much less bandwidth than a 2. Secondly. but can deliver a lot more data. However the practical market considerations of the WiMAX forum members dictated that the first product profiles focus on spectrum ranges that offered Forum vendors the most utility and sales potential.5 GHz by virtue of being dedicated to one user is allotted significantly higher power levels which aids in tree and building wall penetration. 2011) The US license free spectrum at 5. There is typically a signal quality cross-over point below which simple Hybrid ARQ is better. the higher the spectrum frequency the greater the amount of bandwidth that can be transported. and above which basic ARQ is better.

(Ajay. The WiMAX physical layer also carries out a number of services which include orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. By leveraging multiple transmit and receive antennas to employ spatial multiplexing. R. adaptive antenna processing. Idle mode. LTE.16 WiMAX Model Layers WiMAX operates on two layers which are the Physical Layer (PHY) and the Media Access Layer (MAC). 9 .3. performance and interoperability of MIMO systems. Channel emulation is required to accurately characterize the effect of multi-channel RF interactions on the conformance. UMB and 802.3 IEEE 802. The ACE 400WB is a fully featured channel emulator designed for ease of test that can accurately create complex fading channels to test the most advanced MIMO technology (MIMO Channel Emulator for WiMAX Testing. Multiple input Multiple Output (MIMO) operations and Exponential Effective SIR mapping (EESM) among others.16m. 2007).Some of the services of the WiMAX MAC layer include: Automatic Repeat request –Enhanced Version.mht) 3. 3.0 More on Wimax 3. video and data services. while the transmission power remains constant. Multicasting and Broadcasting Services (MBS) and Mobility services (Hand off and Mobile IP). and space time coding. Connection established Channel Quality Indicator Channel (CQICH). MIMO products deliver greater wireless throughput and range enabling ubiquitous high-speed voice.2 Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) The adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) technique is used in order to compensate for variations in radio transmission conditions.1 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Technology Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technology is the foundation of the next generation of 4G mobile products like WiMAX. sleep mode alterations. Power Control and Hybrid automatic Repeat Request (HARQ).

com Broadband Solutions. jitter and packet loss. Solve these issue and you have a carrier-grade service. (WiMax. The chief detractors from good QoS are latency.4 Quality of Service (QOS) Quality of Service is what determines if a wireless technology can successfully deliver high value services such as voice and video. 2011) 10 .3.

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY This Chapter is going to specify the methods and procedures that I will undertake in order to achieve the objectives of my project. 11 . books.  Clearly specifying the impairments to communication over the WiMAX Air Interface (Interface between the WiMAX Base Station and the User equipment) and the R6 interface (Between the Base Station and the Radio Access Network)  Identifying the measures that should be taken to mitigate the specified problems. 3.2 Data Collection The data and information resource to be used in my project is going to be collected in the following ways:  Interviewing of Uganda telecom’s WiMAX customers and finding out what exact problems they face in the access of high speed data services and applications over the WiMAX Network. 3.  Designing of an optimized WiMAX Network for Uganda Telecom using OPNET simulation software.16.  Interacting and consulting Uganda Telecom and Huawei WiMAX Optimization Engineers on the challenges that are experienced in the use of WiMAX Technology from a technical perspective. this is going to be done through detailed research and in-depth analysis of the data that has been collected from various sources which include: the internet. similar projects and documentation related to WiMAX  Surveying the existing WiMAX communication system of Uganda Telecom.1 Procedures Reviewing of the existing literature on WiMAX IEEE 802.

 Clearly identifying and analyzing the operation parameters that are currently being implemented in Uganda Telecom’s WiMAX Network for example Carrier frequencies. transmit power. bandwidth allocation mechanisms and modulation schemes. I will establish the appropriate mechanisms and tools that are necessary for the Optimization work  The different network and equipment parameters are going to be adjusted so as to establish their effect on the WiMAX Network performance  The performance of the proposed WiMAX network is also going to be analyzed by simulation after the necessary adjustments have been done. deductions will be made as to what exactly is the cause of the problems. 3. Some of the WiMAX Network equipment and modules on which optimization will be carried out include: 12 .  Technically analyzing the physical environmental characteristics and terrain features in which the UTL WiMAX technology is operating. 3. Surveying and analyzing of the existing WiMAX technology and equipment that has been deployed in various parts of the country by UTL.  From the technical perspectives of the WiMAX Engineers.2 Data Analysis Data that will be collected from the above mentioned sources will be analyzed in various ways which include the following:  From the problems experienced by the WiMAX customers.3 System Design and Simulation The proposed Optimized WiMAX communication system is going to be designed and simulated using OPNET simulation software and it is going to clearly elaborate the different major components of the WiMAX Network Architecture along with the optimization mechanism that has been applied on each module.

Mechanisms include  Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing  Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)  Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)  Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna Technology  Adaptive Beamforming and antenna diversity techniques 13 . My project is going to implement the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Antenna System which ensures higher data rates and extended connectivity range for WiMAX networks. the WiMAX Base Station consists of three main modules which are the Radio receiver Unit.2 The WiMAX Access Service Network (ASN) My project is going to focus on implementing efficient congestion control mechanisms the will reduce other traffic congestion on the interface between the WiMAX base station and the Access Service Network (R6 Interface). 3.3 WiMAX Customer Premise Equipment This project will involve Huawei WiMAX customer premise equipment. they have to be appropriately oriented in the direction of the transmitting antenna at the base station 3.3.3. For the outdoor antennas.1 The WiMAX Base Station Uganda Telecom uses Huawei Equipment on its WiMAX base Stations.3.3. This includes WiMAX antennas that specifically designed for indoor non line of sight deployment and outdoor line of sight deployment.3. The Base Band Unit and the Antenna System. The software tool that will be used is OPNET and hardware tools include the G35 Protocol Analyzer.4 Proposed Optimization tools and mechanisms There are a number of mechanisms and tools that are going to be employed in my project for the Optimization of system capacity and application delay in WiMAX. 3.

the expected results are:  A detailed review of the existing literature on WiMAX will have been done.  Measures to mitigate the identified problems will be identified and implemented.  An Optimized WiMAX Network will be designed for UTL with enhanced system capacity and reduced application delay REFERENCES Ajay.3.  A clear identification of the impairments to communication over the WiMAX Air Interface (Interface between the WiMAX Base Station and the user equipment) and the Rs interface (Interface between the WiMAX Base station and the Access Service Network). Nokia 14 . Advanced Cellular Network Planning and Optimization. (2007).  A thorough system study of Uganda Telecom’s WiMAX network architecture. R.4 Expected Results After my project has been carried out the.

freguencies. (2008). Kisambira Edris (June 2008) Uganda Telecom Deploys 3G Data service Retrieved 3 October from http://www. A guide to MIMO and Beamforming. Appendix 1 TIME FRAME No Activity 2011 SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB 2012 MAR APR MAY 15 .com/ quality-of-service.Networks. 2011 WiMax.com/article/418013/Uganda_Telecom_Deploys_3G_Data_Service Mukherjee. Patterns of Success.org/wiki/WiMAX WiMax.com Broadband Solutions (2011) Does WiMAX have quality of service (QOS)? Retrieved October 13 2011 from http://www.cio. 1-4.WiMAX.htm. S. 468) Andrew. 3.html.wikipedia. Antenna Patterns to Play a Key Role in WiMAX Success. (10 July 2010 18:30). Wikipedia (2011) WiMAX.com/WiMAX FAQ rangee.WiMAX . WiMAX Antennas Primer. Retrieved 2 November 2011 from http://en.com Broadband Solutions (2011) What RF Frequencies does WiMAX work in? Retrieved September 18 2011 from http://www.

000 AND 1 AIR 10 trips 100.000 500.000 650. USB Modem TRANSPORT TIME 3. 2.1 Identifying Project Title 2 3 Proposal Writing Seeing supervisors 4 Proposal Presentation 5 Collecting Information 6 7 Field Study System Design and Simulation 8 Final Writing 9 10 Final Presentation Submission Report of Report Appendix 2 BUDGET S/N ITEM QUANTITY PRICE (USH) 1.000 COST 16 . OPNET Simulation Software 1 License 650.000 / UNIT TOTAL (USH) 100.000 50.

000 1.300.750. LAPTOP 1 1.000 Pens and Pencils Printing for Report and Presentation slides 5.4.000 17 . SECTRETARIAL SERVICES Reams of paper 2 Reams 200.000 200.000 3 copies TOTAL 2.300.