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101 Shortcuts To Become A Great Character Vol. 1
• Born in 8 June 1965 • Senior Manager in PT South Pacific Viscose, a manufacturing company of Lenzing Group, Austria. • Public Speaker (Talk Show: The Great Way in Jatiluhur TV) • Has written four books in between 2006 up to 2008, includes: i. 2006, Comprehensive Approach to Corporate Governance, USA ii. 2007, 7th Principle of Success, Canada iii. 2008, Leadership Greatness, USA iv.2008, How To Become A Highly Effective Leader, USA
THE GREAT WAY
101 Shortcuts To Become A Great Character Vol. 1
The Great Way: 101 Shortcuts to Become A Great Character
THE GREAT WAY
101 Shortcuts To Become A Great Character
THE GREAT WAY
101 Shortcuts To Become A Great Character
THE GREAT WAY
101 Shortcuts To Become A Great Character
Copyright © 2008 by Tri Junarso
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced by any means, graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping or by any information storage retrieval system without the written permission of the publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.
Published by SM@ART Jl. Industri 63 Purwakarta, West Java, Indonesia Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
This book is dedicated to The Audience of The Great Way, a television program of Jatiluhur TV. The Author understands there will be errors, misspellings, or omissions. For the time being it is the best the Author could do. If you find any error, please do not hesitate to let us know so that we can improve this book performance in future. The Author would also like to thank the many people who have supported, and helped with this book, especially my family, my wife, and my colleagues.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INTRODUCTION 1st: LEADERSHIP The Seven Golden Rules of Leadership Six Leadership Passages The 5C’s of Leadership Principles of Leadership The “Be, Know, Do” Model of Leader The Seven Demands of Leadership The Top 10 Ways To Strengthen Your Self-Leadership 10 Recommendations Toward Effective Leadership Definition Of A Leader 2nd: LEADER AND MANAGER Boss-Managers Versus Lead-Managers Leadership And Management 3rd : SUCCESSFUL ENTREPRENEURS AND BUSINESS LEADERS Nine Characteristic of Successful Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurial Leadership A Winning Business Attitude 4th : LEADER’S ATTITUDE Behavior The Leader Who Responds Negatively The Leader Who Responds Positively The Fred Factor – Factors To Make Difference Top 10 Saying Of Ineffective Leaders Key Attitude Adjustments Ten Habits of Incompetent Managers Un-Ethical Behavior Of A Leader Wisdom In Leadership Learning Leaders 5th : ORGANIZATION vi v 1 7 9 10 11 11 13 14 14 15 17 19 22 23 28 31 32 34 36 39 40 41 41 42 42 44 45 46 47 49
The Fifth Discipline of the Learning Organization Ten Essential Elements To Achieving Organizational Greatness Characteristics Of Admired Organizations Calculating the Value of a Great Leader The Leadership Culture Measurement The Effects Of Conflict And Consensus The Case for Succession Planning Problem-Solving Style Five Key Sub-Tasks Involved In Problem Solving General Ground Rules For Brainstorming Rules To Successful Brainstorming Effective Brainstorming Methods Of Decision Making 6th : WORK ETHICS Top 10 Ways to Be Happy at Work 5 Keys To Credibility 7 Ways You Can Grow The Action Habit Think Win-Win Courage The 8 Trust Me Principles Tips to Anticipate Strike “Or – And” Phenomena Personal Trustworthiness Three Aspects of Character Three Aspects of Competence The 7 Levels of Initiative The Seven Ingredients Of Maturity Strategies for Getting Tougher Mentally Win at Work Qualities of Good Problem Solvers Guidelines To Improve Staff Spirit Deal With An Individual Who Resists Doing Something Differently 9 Attitudes of Highly Creative People Techniques For Innovation Hands Free Leave Prioritization The Top 10 Work Values Employers Look For Reference vii
53 55 37 37 38 61 62 63 63 65 66 67 68 70 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 80 82 82 83 84 85 86 86 87 87 90
Character sets the foundation for leadership. The main ingredient of good leadership is good character. Behavior is an indication of one’s character. This behavior can be strong or weak, good or bad. A person with strong character shows drive, energy, determination, self-discipline, willpower, and nerve. She sees what she wants and goes after it. She attracts followers. Character is the core foundation on which individual leadership is based. Character refers to self-concepts and individual differences in goals and values, which influence choices, intentions, the meaning and salience of what is experienced in life. Differences in character are moderately influenced by sociocultural learning and maturity throughout life. Principle of character recognition is defined by what you do, not what you say or believe. Every choice you make helps define the kind of person you are choosing to be. Good character requires doing the right thing, even when it is costly or risky. You don't have to take the worst behavior of others as a standard for yourself. You can choose to be better than that. What you do matters, and one person can make a big difference. The payoff for having good character is that it makes you a better person and it makes the world a better place 1
Character is made, not born. It is a springboard from which all we do and say in life comes. Character is moral order seen through the medium of an individual nature. Each individual brings to bear on his or her life the formative forces of perseverance, hope, compassion and creativity. Character is what you are. Character is formed by a variety of minute circumstances, more or less under the regulation and control of the individual; not a day passes without its discipline, whether for good or for evil. Character is undergoing constant change, for better or for worse either being elevated on the one hand or degraded on the other. Character may bask in the limelight, surrounded by enormous popular acclaim, or he or she may labor lifelong in the shadows, hailed only by those whose lives they immediately touch. Character equals integrity that means you always do what is right; even when no one is watching you. It means that fear and guilt are all but eliminated from your life because you have nothing to hide and nothing to hold you back from achieving success The individual who has character is the potentially to accomplish at a far greater level; has fully absorbed and assimilated the present social environment and its conventions and ideas; has taken these a step further by personalizing, individualizing them with his own values, attitudes, and energies. A person of character shows a. Know the difference between right and wrong Promote to do what is right - solve moral dilemmas; morality of believing that there are real and objective standards of behavior, that there are such things as
virtues, and such things as vices; that certain things are unarguably good, and others unarguably bad b. Set a good example for everyone - Use wisdom and good judgment; and be positive; have faith in vision; excited, enthusiastic, and confident that his dreams can be accomplished; committed to excellence and continuous improvement; tolerate failure - learn from failure, realize not everything goes right; believe passionately in teamwork - discourage rivalry, interpersonal conflict, and competition between groups The best sort of character, however, can not be formed without effort. It needs exercise of self watchfulness, self discipline, and self-control. Character is not the richest in means, but in spirit; not the greatest in worldly position, but in true honor; not the most intellectual, but the most virtuous; not the most powerful and influential, but the most truthful, upright and honest; exhibits itself in conduct, guided and inspired by principle, integrity, and practical wisdom. Your characters will become symbolic if: a. Show your quality: Great quality doesn't come easy. It takes commitment. Leaders with the necessary leadership skills, trust of their colleagues, and the right attitude, overcome most challenges and get things done. b. Have dominant traits: Know how to embody the traits that a leader must embody to be effective, and how to perform the functions that a leader must perform to be effective.
A person of character is characterized by attributes which include trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship. A leader walks his/her talk and does what he/she says he/she will do; treating members of group or team fairly and consistently within the values he/she articulates. It means he/she must be sensitive to what he/she says and makes commitments to, so that there is no disconnect between what he/she says and does. Effective leaders are people of sound character. The character and living out of a set of principles grounds us and gives us stability. Our character is basically a combination of our habits. This will be an attempt to identify and establish the habits that, when combined with strong character, will produce highly effective people. Habits express our character and produce our effectiveness. Leaders increase effectiveness and productivity by focusing on the things most important to the organization.
Some persons believe that great leaders are born. Yes, it may be true, some people have are born with natural talents. Leaders are continually working on themselves and studying for self improvement of their natural talents. The integration of character and temperament reflects one’s personality. The temperament of any person depends on a. How he/she feels moved to action whenever something impresses him/her - Quickly and vehemently excited, or only slowly and superficially
b. How he/she reacts, when he/she is praised or rebuked or offended, when he/she feels sympathy for or aversion against somebody - act at once, quickly, in order to oppose the impression; or does he/she feel more inclined to remain calm and to wait c. How he/she act if in a storm, or in a dark forest, or on a dark night the thought of imminent danger comes to him/her - the excitement of the soul last for a long time or only for a moment; impression continue, so that at the recollection of such impression the excitement is renewed; he/she conquer such excitement speedily and easily, so that the remembrance of it does not produce a new excitement. A highly effective leader has strong personality. Personality plays a key role, principally in making it harder or easier for a particular individual to learn the key leader behaviors. If you have the right personality traits without the resulting behaviors, you'll see no improvement in leadership effectiveness; but if you do the right behaviors, even if you don't have the best personality traits, you'll be a long way along the road to leadership effectiveness. Personality is that peculiar, incalculable thing that distinct us from everyone else. Each human being is known for its personality. Our personality is what we show to others; which reflects our inner character and temperament. Our temperament is a combination of traits, as we were born with and that subconsciously affects our behavior. Personality plays a key role, principally in making it harder or easier for a particular individual to learn the key leader behaviors. If you have the right personality traits without the 5
resulting behaviors, you'll see no improvement in leadership effectiveness; but if you do the right behaviors, even if you don't have the best personality traits, you'll be a long way along the road to leadership effectiveness. To be a leader, you must be able to influence others to achieve organization goals. Leadership is not about personal power. It is not about harassing persons or managing them using fear factors. It is about encouraging others towards the goal of the organization. It is helping everyone in the business to see the big picture of the organization. You must be a leader, a respected personality but never a boss. Leader’s personality is about who you are, what you know, and what you do. The personality is not about what you make others work on. Personality embraces your moods, attitudes, opinions, motivations, and style of thinking, perceiving, speaking, and acting. An individual's personality is a combination of lifetime experiences as well as genetic characteristics. Personality is an indelible characteristic and results in a pattern of predictable behavior. You can not be a leader and unless you have right judgment, you must be able to determine situations, weigh the decision, and actively seek out for a solution. Good decision-making is vital to the successfulness of your personality and organization. Effective leadership is the foundation for creating value within the organization. To achieve success, you must be able to cultivate highly effective leaders throughout the organization.
Leadership demonstrates the ability to draw others into the active pursuit of the strategic goals of the organization. This ability energizes faculty to take the organization to greater heights of achievement. When you are step ahead against others, you are a leader. Leadership is not a role or a position. You can lead others from any role. Leadership is occasional initiatives that influence others. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become a leader. Leadership unleashes energy, sets the vision so we do the right thing. Leaders developed through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. But on other hand, the skills of a manager facilitate the work of an organization because they ensure that what is done is in accord with the organization's rules and regulations. Management controls, arranges, does things right. Manager needs to make the best use of all resources to achieve an existing direction. Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing. Management involves planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, and it is job oriented to the extent that people are viewed merely as instruments to accomplish jobs. Managerial motivators are money, prestige, promotions, and other material rewards. Leadership involves natural and 7
learned abilities, personal skills, and characteristics that inspire responsible subordinate actions through interpersonal relationships. Management is the activity that allocates and uses resources to achieve organizational goals. Managers are more interested in efficiency, current issues and doing things right. On the other hand, leadership is the art of influencing people to accomplish an organization's purpose. Leaders are more concerned with effectiveness, foresight and innovation while doing the right things. Management is about arranging and telling. Leadership is about nurturing and enhancing. One key difference is that a manager's authority derives from the organization while a leader's authority comes from the followers. People do as a manager says because the organization has given the manager the authority to speak and act on behalf of the organization. If employees wish to remain in the organization, they must respect the manager's authority. Employees may not respect the manager, but they do respect the authority the manager has been given. Followers follow the direction of leaders by choice. The leader remains in the lead role only as long as followers choose to follow. Followers can revoke a leader's authority by withdrawing their consent to follow. A consideration of authority leads to a discussion of power. Managers tend to use power derived from their position and their control of rewards and punishments. Positional or legitimate power derives from the manager's position in the organization. 8
The Seven Golden Rules of Leadership
1. Everyone’s time is valuable. Use other people’s time as you would use your own. Most people waste time in a hierarchical direction. Meaning, we “waste down.” We rarely “waste up.” Meaning we don’t waste the boss’s time. 2. No temper tantrums. If you have mastered courtesy — made it part of who and what you are — you are more than half way to being an effective leader. But, if you’re bold, courageous, dynamic and visionary with great skills and wouldn’t know courtesy from cotton candy, then you’ll never be a truly great leader. 3. Get to the point! The content of what we communicate, whether in writing or on our feet, should get across what’s on our minds in a way our audience can grasp. If you can’t make a point in one sentence and then summarize it in five words or less, you better go think about it some more. 4. Be candid. Convert opportunities to cash and problems to solutions. Display real amazing news, not only ‘happy talk’. 5. Just say thank you. And mean it. We are not the whole show. The show is you and a whole lot of other people. If you want them to be excited, passionate and committed, and keep it up for the long haul, then say thank you — lots and lots! 6. Integrity is everything. No body wants to work with you if you don’t have it. Be honest and faithful. 7. Aware. If you don’t know, who does? It is the leader’s quintessential role. Nobody else can do it. If you lead well, then the most potent of those gifts will be the one you’ve created — a winning team that believes you’re worth following. 9
Six Leadership Passages
1. From Managing Self to Managing Others - Contribute by doing the assigned work within given time frames and in ways that meet objectives. By sharpening and broadening their individual skills, they make increased contributions and are then considered "promotable" by organizations. 2. From Managing Others to Managing Managers - Able to identify value-based resistance to managerial work; select and develop the people who will eventually become the company's leaders. Coaching is essential. 3. From Managing Managers to Functional Manager Manage some areas that are outside their own experiences. They require an increase in managerial maturity - thinking and acting like a leader. His/her leadership entails creating functional strategy that enables them to do something better than the competition 4. From Functional Manager to Business Manager - The most satisfying as well as the most challenging of a manager's career and it's mission-critical in organizations. They should be able to see a clear link between their efforts and marketplace results. 5. From Business Manager to Group Manager - If he/she can run one business successfully, he/she can do the same with two or more businesses. CEOs usually undertake a group manager's responsibilities. 6. From Group Manager to Enterprise Manager - Much more focus on values than skills, reinvent their self10
concept, and be long-term, visionary thinkers. This new leadership role often requires well-developed external sensitivity, an ability to manage external constituencies, sense significant external shifts, and do something about them proactively (rather than reactively). CEOs value this outward-looking perspective.
The 5C’s of Leadership
1. Character: Internal makeup, your personal DNA. To develop a stronger sense of character, get to know yourself—assess, evaluate and correct. 2. Capacity: Mental ability to conceive or perceive. Internalize and lead a concept until it is expressed through your vision. 3. Credibility: Personal integrity, a mirror of your actions as opposed to words. 4. Courage: The inner strength required to overcome obstacles and move…toward your vision. 5. Communication: The ability to translate your vision into actions.
Principles of Leadership
1. Self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your ‘be, know, and do’ attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. 11
2. Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks. 3. Take responsibility - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later -- do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. 4. Sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools. 5. Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see 6. Know your people - Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. 7. Communication - Keep your workers informed. Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people. 8. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. 9. Tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished - Communication is the key to this responsibility. 10. Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams...they are just a group of people doing their jobs. 12
11. Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.
The “Be, Know, Do” Model of Leader
Effective leader development must focus on the leader’s character and values (”Be”), his/her competencies (”Know”), and his/her decisions and actions (”Do”); which includes: 1. “Be” - Character First! - stresses adherence to organizationally-shared values that bind together all members of the organization 2. “Know” - Know What and Know How! a. Interpersonal skills (communication, coaching, teaching, counseling, motivating and empowering). b. Conceptual skills (critical reasoning, creative thinking, ethical reasoning, and reflective thinking). c. Technical skills (skills with equipment and systems). d. Tactical skills (combat, and survival). 3. “Do” - Acting Well! a. Influencing (making decisions, communicating those decisions, and motivating people). b. Operating (accomplishing the mission through planning, executing, and assessing). c. Improving (developing subordinates, building teams and creating learning opportunities and selfimprovement).
The Seven Demands of Leadership
1. Visioning - able to look out, across, and beyond the organization. They have a talent for seeing and creating the future. 2. Maximizing values - highlighting what is important about work, make clear what is important to them in life, and clarify how their own values 3. Challenging Experiences - able to challenge their teams to achieve significant work goals 4. Mentoring - have a close relationship either with their manager or someone in the best position to advise them 5. Building a Constituency - create rapport at many levels across their organization and beyond 6. Making Sense of Experience - experience is to be cherished and absorbed
7. Knowing self - have an acute sense of their own
strengths and weakness; know who they are – and who they are not
The Top 10 Ways To Strengthen Your SelfLeadership
1. Clarify your purpose – Display the base of your personal foundation and defines your reason for living 2. Use Your Gifts -- and Use Them with Discipline Talent without discipline is like an octopus on roller skates 14
3. Reflect & Forward Your Life - Step back and learn from what life is revealing to you 4. Serve Others - Self-Leaders are servant leaders; they understand the power that is generated from serving others 5. Pull Up The Stake - Reach our true potential, never give up 6. Make the present perfect - Recognize that the past is gone and they have no control over the future. Living in the now --or present-- is healthy and more productive 7. Listen , listen, listen - Listen for what people say, what they don't say, and what they would like to say but don't know how to put into words. 8. Be 100% Honest--when speaking with others Develop the ability to give unconditionally and constructive feedback. 9. Stop Tolerating - Make decision to do one of 3 things: 1. eliminate it; 2. reframe how you view it; or 3. respond to it. Until you handle your tolerations, no significant changes can happen. 10. Take Calculated Risks & Focus On Success - SelfLeaders are risk takers. They focus on succeeding rather than on not failing.
10 Recommendations Toward Effective Leadership
1. Follow procedures and adhere to policies: Effective leaders are essentially good followers. They 15
understand that they are accountable to those in authority. 2. Submit to the authority of others: the recognition that we are all under the authority of someone, whether it is a supervisor, director, president, board of governors, or whomever else. 3. Take risks. Leaders need to step outside the box, to be innovative. Taking a risk is frightening, but such behavior can be invaluable, benefiting the entire group. 4. Commitment: Commit to using his or her ability to lead others, perform technical skills, and conceptualize situations, thus helping to ensure goal achievement. 5. Be proactive: Take the proverbial bull by the horns and move forward to be successful. 6. Expect conflict: Leader expects conflict and is able to manage it in a productive manner. 7. Tell the truth, but with compassion: The leader must compassionately tell the truth (e.g., about a faculty member’s job performance, etc.). 8. Listen: Ineffective listening undermines people’s selfesteem, self-confidence, and creativity. Hearing and listening are not synonymous terms. 9. Love people: Acknowledge the value of our coworkers and respect them with the dignity they deserve; people know that we care for them whether we like them or not. 10. Check your attitude: Begin with a correct mindset. 16
Definition Of A Leader
Ø ‘L à ‘LED’ - Be a model the way to follow. Leaders must set a good example for their followers Ø ‘E’ à ‘Encourager’ - A leader is supposed to look for ways that add value to his followers; help his/her followers realize their full potential; and invest time or training in his/her followers Ø ‘A’ à ‘Attitude’ - Leaders who do not want to be around people have a bad attitude. The leaders should be sensitive to people; attitude helps them to understand who they are. Ø ‘D’ à ‘Developer’ – A leader should equip people in the ministry in order to develop them; helps followers to get to a point where they would not need him/her to get things done. Ø ‘E’ à ‘Endurance’ – As a leader, we will be judged by not how we start but by how we finish. Ø ‘R’ à ‘Resilience’ - Have the ability to bounce back, ability to keep going up, irrespective of opposition, to reach a stronger and higher level.
Principles of Value Leadership
1. Value Human Relationships: Hire people who share corporate values and treat employees with respect; create an environment in which people who fit with their cultures create superior value 2. Foster Teamwork: Encourage people from different functions to work together for corporate ends; solve 17
problems more quickly and develop more profitable solutions to business problems 3. Experiment Frugally: Encourage employees to develop new products and processes without spending too much money; experiment frugally which can tap employees for ideas that lead to new products and streamlined operations 4. Fulfill Commitments: Say what you'll do and do what you say; build trust between company and employees, customers, and communities 5. Fight Complacency: Defeat the arrogance that often comes from success; encourage doing what allowed people to become successful in the first place. 6. Win Through Multiple Means: Sustain market leadership; create superior value for customers. Interaction among the skills is often the most difficult aspect of the strategy for competitors to understand and replicate 7. Give to Your Community: Contribute corporate time and money to people or organizations outside the company's core circle of operations. When companies let employees pick the recipients of corporate charity, they feel better about the company because the company is giving them a chance to feel the joy of giving. When companies enrich their local communities, they can overcome community resistance to change. When companies solve a big societal problem, they exercise a unique power to enhancing their global reputations.
2nd Leader And Manager
Leadership and management are vital to success, but organizations must recognize the difference between the two. The differences between leader and manager briefly include but not limited to: Leader Seek influence Attract followers Emphasize what is invisible Focus on becoming Concerned about the spiritual Show originality Mission oriented Focus on the whole Provide meaning Play with the boundaries Promote instability Do the right things Values-led Long-term perspective Create what does not yet exist Steward resources Train for self development Influence through love & Manager Seek control Pull, prod, push followers Emphasize what is visible Focus on doing Concerned about the physical Copy other Goal oriented Focus on the parts Provide form & structure Stay within the boundaries Preserve stability Do things right Needs-driven Short-term perspective Administer what already exists Administer resources Train for skill development Influence through power &
caring Seek to serve followers Where we are going Deal with the interpersonal aspects of a manager's job Seize opportunities Interpersonal influence directed toward the achievement of goals. Establish direction - develop a vision of the future and determine the strategies for producing the desired change. Align people - communicate the vision to those whose cooperation is needed and form coalitions to support the change. Motivate and inspire energize people to overcome barriers to change. Amplify strengths Deal with change, inspiration, motivation, and influence. Not possess the formal power to reward or sanction performance Produce change - disrupt
authority Expect followers to serve How we are going to get there Plan, organize, and control. Avert threats Given formal authority to direct the activity of others in fulfilling organization goals. Establish the steps needed to achieve specific results, create a timeline for completing those steps, and obtain the resources necessary for goal accomplishment. Establish the structure needed to implement the plan and then organize and staff acquire and assign the needed personnel. Control and problem solve monitor results and take action to correct deviations from the plan. Reduce weaknesses Deal more with carrying out the organization's goals and maintaining equilibrium. Have to rely on formal authority to get employees to accomplish goals. Produce order - establish
the status quo and encourage creativity and innovation. Deal with getting people to do what needs to be done Cope with change Execute the win with passion Harness the power inherent in human motivation. Leading people Have followers Facilitate decision Power comes from personal charisma Appeal to heart His/her energy is passion Proactive Persuade by selling Leadership style: transformational Excitement for work Preference - striving Want achievement Take risk Break rules Use conflict Show new direction Seek truth His/her concern - What is right Give credit Take blame
stability, predictability, and consistency. Task and process oriented Cope with complexity Set up the win with perfection for her team Rely on authority to make things happen Managing work Have subordinates Make decision Power comes from formal authority Appeal to head His/her energy is control Reactive Persuade by telling Leadership style: transactional Money for work Preference - action Want results Minimize risk Make rules Avoid conflict Use existing direction Establish truth His/her concern - Being right Take credit Blame others
Create future Plan from imagination Motivate people Process driven Value anchored Opportunity driven
Maintain present Plan from memory Manage things Product driven Technically anchored Crisis driven
One key difference is that a manager's authority derives from the organization while a leader's authority comes from the followers. People do as a manager says because the organization has given the manager the authority to speak and act on behalf of the organization. If employees wish to remain in the organization, they must respect the manager's authority. Employees may not respect the manager, but they do respect the authority the manager has been given. Followers follow the direction of leaders by choice. The leader remains in the lead role only as long as followers choose to follow. Followers can revoke a leader's authority by withdrawing their consent to follow. A consideration of authority leads to a discussion of power. Managers tend to use power derived from their position and their control of rewards and punishments. Positional or legitimate power derives from the manager's position in the organization.
Boss-Managers Versus Lead-Managers
A boss creates fear, a leader confidence. A boss fixes blame, a leader corrects mistakes. A boss knows all, a leader asks questions. A boss makes work drudgery, a leader makes it interesting. A boss is interested in himself/herself; a leader is 22
interested in the group. In management, “boss” has so many negative connotations. Bossing people around doesn’t mean becoming an effective manager. An effective leader wants to lead, not boss. The hallmark of an effective leader is his/her ability to set the tone of the organization. Most people leave their jobs because they don’t like their boss, as relationship with the boss. When the relationship is bad, everything else is becoming bad. When the relationship is good, even other less-than-satisfactory conditions are both more tolerable and more likely to be worked out. Leadership is a process of getting things done through people. Leader is getting things done by working through people. The leader uses the process of leadership to reach certain goals. He/she is the person in which the others look to get the job done; and expect him/her to take the responsibility of getting the job done. A boss pushes and orders other people around. What boss cares about is "getting the job done", and sap the energy of the individuals in his/her groups. Bosses consider themselves better than everyone else and they don't care who knows it. A boss is superior who constantly berates his/her people, creates division within the group instead of harmony, and condescends to talk to the individuals in their group, but never listens to anyone input. The boss can be a supervisor, executive or a manager. A boss may significantly decreases production and increases cost. He/she can make organization an unpleasant place to work. Boss-managers Lead-managers
Boss-managers set the task Lead-managers, however, and the standards for what the engage the workers in an 23
workers are to do, usually without consulting the workers. They do not compromise; the worker has to adjust to the job as the boss defines it or suffer any consequences the boss determines. Boss-managers usually tell, rather than show, the workers how the work is to be done and rarely ask for their input as to how it might possibly be done better. Boss-managers inspect the work or designate someone to do it. Because the boss does not involve the workers in this evaluation, they do only enough to get by; they rarely even think about what is required for quality. Boss-managers create a workplace in which the workers and managers are adversaries because coercion is used to try to make the workers do as they are told.
ongoing honest discussion of the quality of work that is needed for the program to be successful. They not only listen, but also encourage their workers to give them any input that will improve quality. Lead-managers show or model the job and work to increase workers’ sense of control over the work that they do. Lead-managers teach the workers to inspect or to evaluate their own work for quality with the understanding that they know what high quality work is. Lead-managers continually teach the workers that the essence of quality is constant improvement. The leadmanager’s job is as a facilitator – doing everything possible to provide the workers with the best tools and a friendly, non-coercive, non-adversarial atmosphere in which to work.
Leadership And Management
Complex organizations need management, while uncertain organizations need leadership. Management is about making sure that clear goals are established and then carried out, despite organizational size, number of offices, subspecialization, and other forms of complexity. Management focused on the short-term (usually one-year increments), and depends on analytical, rational, data-based, cognitive strategies to be effective. Leadership, on the other hand, is focused on a longer time horizon (five years or more); is much more people-focused, inspirational, emotional, non-linear and visceral. To lead, you must gain buy-in and commitment. The difference between managers and leaders is the way they motivate the people who work or follow them, and this sets the tone for most other aspects of what they do. Managers have a position of authority vested in them by the company, and their subordinates work for them and largely do as they are told. Management style is transactional, in that the manager tells the subordinate what to do, and the subordinate does this not because they are a blind robot, but because they have been promised a reward (at minimum their salary) for doing so. Leaders do not have subordinates - at least not when they are leading. Many organizational leaders do have subordinates, but only because they are also managers. But when they want to lead, they have to give up formal authoritarian control, because to lead is to have followers, and following is always a voluntary activity.
Leaders with a stronger charisma find it easier to attract people to their cause. As a part of their persuasion they typically promise transactional benefits, such that their followers will not just receive extrinsic rewards but will somehow become better people. Effective leaders must possess management capability, set of best practices, methods and systems to match with organization needs, i.e. communication management, crisis management, risk management, etc. Management science is objective, sees things as they are; and shows us how to do this. We will be fully aware of the consequences of what we are doing. In management, things are clearly defined, i.e. authority and responsibility; and how authority is balanced between top and bottom, participation in decision- making. A successful management is shown into organization effectiveness and results. Governance needs good management and administration Leadership is not a substitute for management. A modern organization can exist with woefully deficient leadership, but cannot exist without applied management skills. Leadership is an option. Leaders also perform their leadership functions outside of and beyond their realm of technical expertise. Management may require efficiency, profitability, depends on minimal inputs for maximum returns. Leader can both lead and manage. Leadership and management are like sales and marketing they serve different organizational purposes or functions. The larger the organization the more difficult it is to achieve the necessary degree of co-operation and that larger organizations are usually much less effective than smaller 26
ones as people are working against each other instead of cooperating. The effectiveness of the organization is determined by the way work is organized and by the way people work with or against each other. The way, in which people co-operate with each other, with the leadership and with the community, indeed the extent of their commitment to their organization, depend on management. Management is about making sure that clear goals are established and then carried out, despite organizational size, number of offices, sub-specialization, and other forms of complexity. It is focused on the short-term (usually one-year increments), and depends on analytical, rational, data-based, cognitive strategies to be effective. Leadership and management are not the same. To be a leader, one needs an exclusive set of human relations and interpersonal skills. This essence is being able to influence.
3rd Successful Entrepreneurs and Business Leaders
Entrepreneur is a French word meaning take an opening. Entrepreneurial leaders create a compelling vision of where the organization is headed. They also continuously communicate how to proceed, and energetically guide the development of the organization to advance that vision. Entrepreneurial start-ups exist in an environment where almost everything is new and many things have not been done before. Sense of entrepreneurship shows one’s ability to define importance, thought and urgency, action, and reward people, as well as be model of good behavior. It takes leadership to ensure and cultivate sense of entrepreneurship. Leaders understand that they, and the organizations they serve, are all parts of interacting relationships. Entrepreneurial action must be based on a clear, simple system of values. These values must be lived, creating loyalty. The continuity of shared cultural values will become more important to organizations. When you have disciplined people, you don’t need hierarchy. When you have disciplined thought, you don’t need bureaucracy. When you have 28
disciplined action, you don’t need excessive controls. When you combine a culture of discipline with an ethic of entrepreneurship, you get the magical alchemy of great performance. Today marks the last working day for Bill Gates at Microsoft. Bill Gates has demonstrated over nearly thirty years the importance of clarity of thought and execution. Along with focus, the ability to dream big and pursue that with singleminded determination sets Gates apart from other entrepreneurs. This is particularly true of entrepreneurs from emerging economies like India where an ultra-conservative attitude has stifled growth. Entrepreneurs need to develop confidence in themselves and their team that they can take on the world and come out winners. There cannot be many role models better than Bill Gates. The last thirty years have seen the emergence of an entrepreneur par excellence. (B.V. Krishnamurthy, Bill Gates: Entrepreneur, Manager, and Leader, 2007) Entrepreneurship emphasizes leadership abilities that can be used to motivate people in a growing business environment. Leaders constantly seek to perform at their best. They are open to feedback, are goal oriented, seek to be unique, and strive for accomplishments based on their own efforts; and risks. Leaders take moderate risk means you have the ability to influence events, but don’t have complete control. Entrepreneurs are risks takers. They show tolerance to uncertainty and risk. Leaders screen incoming information to constantly seek new growth opportunities; separate the useful from the useless. The entrepreneur focuses on innovation entrepreneur knows that differentiation is at least as important as innovation. 29
While innovation focuses upon the offering, differentiation focuses on the value. Leaders with entrepreneurship typically shows a high internal locus of control; which likely to experience success. When someone perceives events as under the control of others, fate, luck, the system, their boss, etc. They have an external locus of control. If they assume that any success they experience is due to their personal efforts and that they have the ability to influence events. People with internal also assume failure was also their fault. Entrepreneurial leadership is a boundless font of optimism that never seems to end. When faced with a problem, they view it as a challenge. When faced with a setback, they view it as a new direction. The leaders realize that their follower does not work for them, but with them in their joint and unified pursuit of common goals. The leaders will seek to lead an organization which reflects the substance, style and structure consistent with each one’s own visions and values. The field of entrepreneurship is one that relies heavily on the ability to change and exploit new opportunities. Entrepreneurship relies on creativity, self-initiative and longterm vision. Innovation and entrepreneurship are vital to any organization. They recognize that innovation and entrepreneurship are the essential counterbalances to efficiency and productivity. Entrepreneurial people need leaders to share ideas with, to help translate those ideas into action, to acknowledge successes and to put failures into perspective. Great leaders know that innovation and entrepreneurship can thrive only in a healthy environment. They make their people feel appreciated, successful and determined to achieve. They accept mistakes. 30
A leader might be born through a personal entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs in some ways resemble great leaders. Some are born entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship should not be something in the air. Leaders must do sense a gathering of forces that create the possibility for a new opportunity. An entrepreneurial leader's genius lies in bringing things together in a combination that no one has ever seen before.
Nine Characteristic of Successful Entrepreneurs and Business Leaders
1. Self-Esteem - high sense of one's own self-worth. Without that, individuals will never undertake tough challenges 2. Need to Achieve - seek to perform at their best. Who stops being better, stops being good. They are open to feedback, are goal oriented, seek to be unique, and strive for accomplishments based on their own efforts. They also take risks, not extreme risks, but moderate ones. 3. Screening For Opportunity - leaders screen incoming information to separate the useful from the useless; information which supports new growth opportunities. 4. Locus of Control - show a high internal locus of control, which is more likely to experience success, rather high on the external locus of control. Internal also assume failure was also their fault. 5. Goal Orientation - understand what the priorities are and continue to work at toward that goal, day in and day out. 6. Optimism – display a boundless font of optimism that never seems to end. When faced with a problem, 31
they view it as a challenge. When faced with a setback, they view it as a new direction 7. Courage - entrepreneurs are risks takers. It requires a great deal of courage to build a company from the ground up. 8. Tolerance to Ambiguity – show tolerance to uncertainty and risk. If one’s tolerance for ambiguity is low, one will gravitate toward large. 9. Strong Internal Motivation - The motivation that drives our behavior comes from two sources: internal (intrinsic) and external (extrinsic). Intrinsic factors include constructs like needs, desires, motives, and will power. Extrinsic factors include any type of motivational influence from the environment such as rewards and punishments. For entrepreneurs, the most important motivational factor is the intrinsic one.
Entrepreneurial Leadership is vital to any organization. The great leaders are those with a knack for building organizations where both performance and innovation thrive; and see themselves as champions of innovation. They know entrepreneurial people need leaders to share ideas with, to help translate those ideas into action, to acknowledge successes and to put failures into perspective. Entrepreneurship is the essential counterbalances to efficiency and productivity. Once we do the entrepreneurial spirit starts to bubble up. And that's what makes it all worthwhile. Great leaders are quietly introspective, always asking whether they are a cause of the organization's problems or whether they are doing what needs to be done. 32
Leaders with entrepreneurship make intelligent decisions when business conditions are difficult. When entrepreneurship comes naturally as part of your DNA, you've chosen the right path. Entrepreneurship emphasizes leadership skills that can be used to motivate. They must also be ready for constant change and be adaptable. The field of entrepreneurship is one that relies heavily on the ability to change and exploit new markets and opportunities. Great organizations require great people. It requires greater systems, processes, culture and organizational structures. Entrepreneurship is usually business-oriented and seeks to develop its own business, rather than entering an existing business. Entrepreneurs are risk takers who, in an effort to develop new approaches to business, try to stay ahead of the emerging trends by innovating and challenging the products and organizations already in existence. Entrepreneurship relies on creativity, self-initiative and long-term vision. Although all business majors should exhibit these traits, the emphasis in entrepreneurship is related to establishment and management of a small and growing venture. Entrepreneurship emphasizes leadership skills that can be used to motivate people in a growing business environment, particularly as related to starting and nurturing a new business, and the process of business planning. Entrepreneurial leadership is a boundless font of optimism that never seems to end. When faced with a problem, they view it as a challenge. When faced with a setback, they view it as a new direction. The leaders demonstrate as: 1. Leading Listeners - Use feedback to make things better 33
2. Customer-Centered Leaders - Create a culture that's dedicated to service 3. Profitable Players - Know that investments in service really pay off 4. High-Tech Achievers - Use technology not just to replace the human element but to improve the experience 5. Employee Innovators - Understand the inextricable link between good employees and happy customers.
A Winning Business Attitude
A winning business attitude comes from the top. People lower in a business cannot overcome pessimism, incompetence, negativism and lack of leadership from the top. Seven key characteristics describe which top managers are most likely to build winning business attitudes: 1. Plan makers - Plans cannot guarantee your future success but never face the future without planning. In the absence of planning, managers are reactive rather than pro active. 2. Information users - Managers must use information from within the business and from many outside sources. 3. Opportunity seekers - Seeing opportunity, that others miss, is a key to a winning attitude. Believe that there is a way. 4. Risk takers - No manager can know the future with certainty. Some decisions will fail to have the desired 34
outcome. Managers can reduce the uncertainty of their decisions through more and better information. 5. People helpers - Managers help their customers. They realize that customers are individuals wanting and deserving individual attention. Understanding what the customer expects in service, quality, price and timeliness is essential. 6. Organization builders - Failure to build an effective organization results in confusion, inefficiency and frustration for customers, employees and management. 7. Enthusiastic learners - The best managers want to learn more, understand more and apply more of what they are learning.
4th LEADER’S ATTITUDE
An important key to high productivity and effective leadership is to have and maintain a positive attitude. Nothing else will have a greater effect on you than your attitude. People have preferences that affect the way they see, decide, interact, and control other people and activities. Attitudes are usually defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, and situation). They encompass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences. A positive attitude may not solve all your problems, but it will annoy enough people to make it worth the effort. Our role as leaders is not to catch people doing things wrong, but to create an environment in which people can become heroes. Attitude is an independent measure of affect for or against the attitude object, which is a function of belief strength and evaluative aspect associated with each attribute. Attitude is a person's evaluation of an object of thought. Reasons we should focus on changing attitudes, i.e. a. We can't directly influence behavior and we have to find a proxy or indirect agent b. Attitudes play a major role in determining behavior. To change other people's behavior is to change their 36
attitudes. You don't have control over other people's actual behavior. People do have free choice and pretty much do as they please. Behavior is driven by attitude. They'll do that by themselves because their attitude is favorable toward that behavior. Attitudes drive behavior. Factors that make attitude drive behaviors include a. Attitude availability: available (r accessible or active. It is more likely to drive behavior. An attitude is available when you can think of it, when you know that you've got an attitude on this topic, and when that attitude is turned on. b. Attitude relevance: relevant or useful or applicable or pertinent. It is more likely to drive behavior. An attitude is relevant when it applies to the situation at hand; when the attitude is relevant in the situation. Attitudes represent our covert feelings of favorability or unfavorability toward an object, person, issue, or behavior. Attitude is a learned predisposition to response in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. Our learned attitudes serve as general guides to our overt behavior with respect to the attitude object, giving rise to a consistently favorable or unfavorable pattern of response. Our attitudes shape who we are, and how we live our lives. We potentially have total control over things in life is our attitude. Whatever the situation, we have a choice in how we react, and those reactions shape our future. It's not so much what happens to us, it's how we allow it to affect us. The more we allow external circumstances to affect us, the less powerful we are within, and vice versa. 37
Changes in opinions can result in attitude change depending upon the presence or absence of rewards. The learning of new attitudes is no different in nature than any other verbal or motor skill, except that opinions relate to a single proposition whereas other skills involve a series of propositions. The acceptance of a new opinion (and hence attitude formation) is dependent upon the incentives that are offered in the communication. Attitude determines our altitude. Attitude is to leadership as oxygen is to life form. It is the mindset of your disposition and the catalyst for your character. It could limit your comprehension, or allow you a limitless passion to overcome and succeed. Attitude is the action of toleration, distinguished by tactful ingenuity, the tenacity to unite, and the decisiveness to encourage. These are the primary ingredients for developing, strengthening, and sustaining quality leadership. Whether by choice, appointment, election, or default, once you've accepted a leadership position, you are responsible, and therefore accountable, for the outcome. Through your attitude, magnetism and persuasion, you must enlist others in your dreams. Attitude is more important than facts. It is more important than the past, than education, than money, than circumstances, than failures, than success, than what other people think, say or do. It is more important than appearance, gift, or skill. The remarkable thing is we have a choice every day regarding the attitude we will embrace for that day. We cannot change our past. The only thing we can do is play on the string we have, and that is our attitude. Attitude changes
that was influenced, when beliefs are unbalanced, stress is created and there is pressure to change attitudes. A leader’s attitude toward followers has a strong impact on performance.
Effective leadership is based in behavior, not in job title/position. A leader is someone who motivating, guiding, encouraging, and serving, no matter what job title/position he or she holds. If you want to become a more effective leader, you have to master the critical behaviors. Leadership is a product of awareness and command of the reactions and influences of a group on the individual as well as the individual on the group. Leaders become or remain successful because they are able to self manage and change their behavior. When a leader is shown how to self-manage himself or herself and significantly up-grade his or her mind, personal and professional skill sets, feel balanced, alert, in control and powerful - can he/she only then move into a zone of optimum, sustainable best performance and fulfill his/her potential. By choosing your behavior, you are empowering yourself and also allowing yourself greater control over your experience. Reacting may give you instant gratification of emotional release, and the consequences usually are far more detrimental than the payoff. It may be difficult, as you should catch yourself responding in an undesirable manner. But you are aware of it and the moment you become aware that you could respond differently; take the next step and change it. Mental condition is part of a complex interplay between our body and our environment. Brain controls behavior. But the 39
environment actually also creates the diversity of human behavior. Leadership, like other behavior, is learned. The leader's responsibility in learning a new, effective leadership behavior is to practice that behavior until it becomes a habit. Behavior is action or reaction of an object that in relation to the environment. Behavior describes a person's actions – which are controlled by the sum of their personality, attitudes and complexes of beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or other people. Mandela was often afraid during his time underground, during the Rivonia trial that led to his imprisonment, during his time on Robben Island. But as a leader, he suggests, you cannot let people know. ‘You must put up a front.’ And that’s precisely what he learned to do: pretend and, through the act of appearing fearless, inspire others. He knew that he was a model for others, and that gave him the strength to triumph over his own fear.(Richard Stengel, 2008) Since leaders have special roles where they affect the lives of others they also have a special responsibility to develop themselves and provide a role model. If a leader of people doesn't know who they are and hasn't worked on their own growth and development, how can they best impact other people effectively, help other people grow and affect positive individual and organizational results. The Leader Who Responds Negatively: • They will ultimately fall, but they will first bring much trouble, difficulty and dysfunction to those they lead. 40
They will provide a role model for others to follow which may mean that their style of leadership is perpetuated. The consequences for that organization will be that they continue wandering.
The Leader Who Responds Positively:
• • • They will find a sense of liberation. Mostly this is from fear, because most leaders live in fear. Their people will also be freed – from the sense of chaos that is present in many communities. They will have a sense of hope that things can be different and that they can be better.
The Fred Factor – Factors To Make Difference
1. Everyone Makes a Difference. Everybody is already making a difference every day. To make a difference everyday, you need to be doing something that you love and are passionate about. To make a difference you need to be aware as you journey through your day, looking for opportunities to “make a difference”. 2. Success is Built on Relationships. Relational interactions recognize that how people are treated is as important as the outcome! Relationships require an investment of your time, however the higher quality results produced by strong relationships is well worth the effort You must continually create value for others, and it doesn’t have to cost a penny. You compete against your own potential every day. Look for ways to add that which will 41
create value for others by adding the good stuff and subtracting the bad stuff. Top 10 Saying Of Ineffective Leaders 10. We don't do it that way around here. 9. I don't care what they told you in that training class, this is the real world. 8. Drop what you are doing and get this to me ASAP! 7. Don't worry about WHY, just do it! 6. Don't let me influence your decisions, but here's my opinion. 5. I want you to take risks, but remember our motto: "Do it right the first time!" 4. You're planning to work this weekend, aren't you? 3. You oughta, wanta do this. 2. We need teamwork. By the way, I'll be doing your individual rankings this week. 1. If and when I want your opinion, I'll give it to you. Key Attitude Adjustments 1. Measure what really matters. By the way — the numbers you’re using now don’t matter. You can divide any working population into three categories: people who are engaged (loyal and productive), those who are not engaged (just putting in time), and those who are actively disengaged (unhappy and spreading their discontent). The most important is you know where your organization’s culture is strong 42
and where it is weak, whether it is getting better or getting worse. 2. Stop trying to change people. Start trying to help them become more of who they already are. You can’t standardize human behavior. Get everyone to manage the same way…. The best managers don’t even try to fight that fight. People don’t change that much, so don’t waste your time trying to rewire them or trying to put in what was left out. To getting the best performance out of people, the most efficient route is to revel in their strengths, not to focus on their weaknesses. 3. You’re not the most important person in the company. Believe it or not, your middle managers are. The single most important determinant of individual performance is a person’s relationship with his or her immediate manager. Without a robust relationship with a manager who sets clear expectations, knows you, trusts you, and invests in you, you’re less likely to stay and perform. 4. Stop looking to the outside for help. The solutions to your problems exist inside your company. The best leaders are relentless at seeking out, shadowing, studying, and highlighting the lessons of their own top performers. You have some of the world’s best managers working inside your own company. Look to them first. Learn from your own people first. 5. Don’t assume that everyone wants your job — or that great people want to be promoted out of what they do best. Anyone can do your job and that nobody would want to do it if they were given a choice to do something else. We have to reward excellence on the 43
front lines is to promote people out of the very roles that they do best.
Ten Habits of Incompetent Managers
1. Bias against action: "There are always plenty of reasons not to take a decision, reasons to wait for more information, more options, more opinions. But real leaders display a consistent bias for action. People who don’t make mistakes generally don’t make anything." 2. Secrecy: "….If you treat employees like children, they will behave that way — which means trouble. If you treat them like adults, they may just respond likewise. Very few matters in business must remain confidential and good managers can identify those easily…. Secrets make companies political, anxious and full of distrust." 3. Over-sensitivity: "An inability to be direct and honest with staff is a critical warning sign. Can your manager see a problem, address it headlong and move on? If not, problems won’t get resolved, they’ll grow…… Interestingly, secrecy and over-sensitivity almost always travel together. They are a bias against honesty." 4. Love of procedure: "Managers who cleave to the rule book, to points of order and who refer to colleagues by their titles have forgotten that rules and processes exist to expedite business, not ritualize it." 5. Preference for weak candidates: "…Who did our manager want to hire? The junior. She felt threatened by the super-competent manager and hadn’t the
confidence to know that you must always hire people smarter than yourself." 6. Focus on small tasks 7. Allergy to deadlines: "A deadline is a commitment. The manager who cannot set, and stick to deadlines, cannot honor commitments. A failure to set and meet deadlines also means that no one can ever feel a true sense of achievement." 8. Inability to hire former employees: "… Every good manager has alumni, eager to join the team again; if they don’t, smell a rat." 9. Addiction to consultants: "A common — but expensive — way to put off making decisions is to hire consultants who can recommend several alternatives." 10. Long hours: "In my experience, bad managers work very long hours. They think this is a brand of heroism but it is probably the single biggest hallmark of incompetence. To work effectively, you must prioritize and you must pace yourself. The manager who boasts of late nights, early mornings and no time off cannot manage himself so you’d better not let him manage anyone else."
Un-Ethical Behavior Of A Leader
a. Abuse power: Large differentials in the relative power of leaders and followers can also contribute towards abuse. b. Hoard privileges: Leaders that hoard power are also likely to hoard wealth and status as well c. Encourage deceit: Patterns of deception, whether they take the form of outright lies or hiding or 45
distorting information, destroy the trust that binds leaders and followers together d. Act inconsistently: Diverse followers, varying levels of relationships and elements of situations make consistency an ethical burden of leadership. Shadows arise when leaders appear to act arbitrarily and unfairly. e. Misplace or betray loyalties: Leaders cast shadows when they violate the loyalty of followers and the community. f. Fail to assume responsibilities: Leaders act irresponsibly when they fail to make reasonable efforts to prevent follower’s misdeeds; ignore or deny ethical problems; don’t shoulder responsibility for the consequences of their directives; deny their duties to their followers; and hold followers to higher standards than themselves.
Wisdom In Leadership
a. Don't care who gets the credit as long as the job gets done – Leaders don't draw attention to themselves; they express appreciation for the contributions of others. b. Willing to put the mission ahead of their personal agenda – Leaders know that what they have done as individuals is far less important than what they can accomplish with and through others. c. Are quick to forgive – Leaders earn respect, but never demand it. They avoid petty squabbles and develop thick skins. 46
d. Are gratified by the achievements of others – Leaders realize that there's plenty of success to go around, and they help those around them reach for the stars. e. Give credit where it's due – Leaders know that there are no "little people" in the organization; every person's contribution is significant. Good leaders know how to say "Well done," and they say it often. f. Leaders should be generous and merciful to his/her opponents, as well as to those who are weaker than themselves.
Without learning, organizations, teams, and leaders are stuck in yesterday's world. Leaders are responsible for building organizations where people are continually expanding their capabilities to shape their future --that is, leaders are responsible for learning. There are built-in tensions between learning and performance, which organizations must learn to recognize and deal with. Leadership entails learning. Leaders are more powerful role models when they learn than when they teach. Leaders must be continuous, lifelong learners. Learning how to survive in an emergency situation is important for leaders. Learning is the engine of all innovation, growth and strategy. Continuous learning helps individuals and organizations maximize their innate capabilities. Effective leader promotes continuous learning, not only to improve overall performance, but also to involve all employees in the ongoing challenge to enhance value. To be successful, leadership must ensure that the organization captures and shares lessons learned. 47
Learning and growth constitute the essential foundation for organization’s success; which can be distinguished from behavioral changes. The purpose of learning is growth, and our minds can continue growing as we continue to live. The more educated, you would become more independent-minded and rational. Learning leadership is fundamentally a self-management task. Effective leaders recognize that what they know is very little in comparison to what they still need to learn. To be more proficient in pursuing and achieving objectives, you should be open to new ideas, insights, and revelations that can lead to better ways to accomplishing goals. This continuous learning process can be exercised, in particular, through engaging yourself in a constant dialogue. Leaders need to optimize success by focusing on key issues such as motivation, feedback and mentoring. Learning is process of acquiring modifications in existing knowledge, skills, habits, or tendencies through experience, practice, or exercise. It demonstrates continuous improvement; apply knowledge to provide the best services; individual performance and development; and passion. It demonstrates skills related to the functional area and exhibits commitment to developing personal abilities. Learning needs humility that means, in terms of leadership survival, we can eventually become wise enough by benefit of our own mistakes and experiences to realize our limitations and honest enough to recognize that the very best of us is but a vessel of clay; and therefore, none of us has all of the right answers all of the time about all of the questions. Learning fosters: 48
Effective leadership skill includes being certain that the thoughts and attitudes we hold are in alignment with the role we perform. Leaders are organizers. Accomplishing tasks in an organization requires assembling the right people and the right assets at the right time. Leaders should also have outstanding organizational development skills. At any given moment, able to be grounded about themselves; communicate effectively with others; hold individuals accountable for their actions; facilitate team needs, wants, and performance; and understand how those actions fit into the bigger picture of the organization and what steps need to taken, when, with whom, and how. Leaders must understand organizational development and the steps needed to fulfill each one. Organizations consist of these components: a. The s t r u c t u r e gives the organization its form and dictates the way it will interact. b. The f o l l o w e r s respond to the structure and the leaders. c. The l e a d e r s determine the ultimate effectiveness of the organization as the character and skills that 49
they bring determine the way problems are solved and tasks are accomplished. The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. A leader is to build better relationships by achieving member’s objectives, and organization’s objectives. He/she must set, communicate, and deploy: a. Organizational values: Leadership is the energetic process of getting people fully and willingly committed to a new and sustainable course of action, to meet commonly agreed objectives whilst having commonly held values. Values of an organization make a substantial difference in organizational performance. b. Performance expectations: The key of success for organizational expectations is member involvement. Leader and followers select and define the essential competencies for success and the related performance expectations. Effective leaders understand how their work fits into the broader organization and discern the essential context for achieving objectives. They keep up with the pace of change in their environment, actively developing this awareness and seeking opportunities to keep it comprehensive and current. Organizational skills required by a leader include: a. Team building: An effective team building requires a leader with specific skills and attributes which build trust between team members and the team leader. The leader take initiative to making sure each person is doing the part of the whole that they feel they can best contribute to the overall mission. 50
When building a team, the leader should consider the basic skills needed by members of the group. He/she should bring knowledge about the organization as a whole - belief systems, climate, desires, values, attitudes and motivations b. Organize meeting: Leaders plan, organize, and conduct productive meetings, i.e. all members should be involved in setting the agenda. Meetings should be carefully planned so that priority business is acted upon in a timely manner; meetings should start and end with summaries so that all members have a common understanding of what has transpired and what the priorities are; decisionmaking processes need to be determined; participate and share thoughts they have in the meeting, and achieve desired outcomes, etc. The skills will help to encourage participation and discourage counterproductive behaviors. The leader makes sure that effective followers tend to be highly participative, and become critical thinkers. c. Delegation: Effective delegation enables you to direct your focus and energy to other high-leverage activities that only you can do. Effective leaders are those who rely upon their ability to effectively delegate to others. Delegation empowers people, in which they will take initiative when opportunities are provided, accept responsibility, and be willing to be held accountable for their performance of the assignments delegated to them.
d. Succession: Many fail to recognize that developing others is a major part of every leader’s job. They underestimate what will take for a leader to develop the capabilities to take a complex organization into a future fraught with rapid and destabilizing change; that is a succession plan. The leaders may have fared poorly at selecting and developing organizational leaders. They don’t seem to understand what makes a leader or what the job entails. They focus on the wrong people for the wrong reasons. The greatest growth factor effective leaders have is how quickly they can develop leaders. Linkages must be created, particularly between succession planning and leadership development. e. Task Allocation: Leadership involves the ability of an individual to influence others to pursue defined goals and objectives. An individual’s capability, or competencies, will have significant influence on the effectiveness of that individual’s job performance. To be effective in task allocation, a leader must be highly responsive. f. The effective leaders passionately motivate the team to meet and exceed their objectives. They focus on people, set work standards that are high but obtainable, carefully organize tasks, identify methods to carry out tasks, closely supervise work of the people. In achieving its effectiveness the leaders explain what is to be done, how it is to be done, and when it is to be completed. They make sure allocation of organization resources to meet the objectives. 52
g. The leaders stress excellence in performance, sets goals that are challenging, and shows confidence in the ability of the people to achieve challenging performance standards. Effective leaders are generally task-oriented, set high performance goals, and focus on planning, coordinating, and facilitating work. They also give consideration to good interpersonal relationships, allowing subordinates some degree of autonomy in deciding how to conduct their work and at what pace. A leader must build not only individual commitment but also organizational capability. Organizational capability refers to the processes, practices, and activities that create value for the organization. The leader needs ability to translate organizational direction into roadmaps, vision into action, and purpose into process. To do so, he/she must demonstrate at least five abilities: to build the organizational infrastructure; to leverage diversity; to deploy team; to design human resource system; and to make change happened.
The Fifth Discipline - The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization
1. Systems Thinking: Business and other human endeavors are all systems. They are bound by invisible fabrics of interrelated actions, which often take years to fully play out their effects on each other. The essence of the discipline of systems thinking lies in a shift on mind: a) seeing interrelationships rather than linear cause-effect chains, and b) seeing processes of change rather than snapshots. 53
2. Personal Mastery: This is the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively. Three important elements of personal mastery are: a) Personal vision: Most people have goals and objectives, but little sense of a real vision. b) Creative tension: When we hold a vision that differs from current reality, a gap exists, which the author calls, "creative tension". 3. Mental Models: Mental models are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. The discipline of working with mental models starts with turning the mirror inward; learning to unearth our internal pictures of the world and scrutinize them. It also means carrying on "learningful" conversations that balance inquiry and advocacy, where people expose their own thinking effectively and make that thinking open to the influence of others. 4. Building Shared Vision: At its simplest level, a shared vision is the answer to the question "What do we want to create?" Many leaders have personal visions, which never get translated into shared visions that galvanize an organization. When there is a genuine shared vision (as opposed to the all-too-familiar "vision statement"), people excel and learn, not because they are told to, but because they want to. 5. Team Learning: Team learning is vital, because teams, not individuals are the fundamental learning unit in modern organizations. Team learning is the 54
process of aligning and developing the capacity of a team to create the results its members desire. Ten Essential Elements To Achieving Organizational Greatness 1. Believing In People Is Vital To Organizational Strategy. If you’re like many executives, you may be experiencing a sinking feeling associated with a “culture of slippage” – a feeling of limited control, limited points of reference and limited sense of reality. Not only does the effectiveness of your strategy depend the quality and effectiveness of your people, it depends on you believing in people. 2. You Get What You inspect, not what you expect. if you cannot measure results, you cannot manage results. Detailed reporting that places a spotlight on the variance between quantified expectations and actual results places your team’s focus squarely on what you’re inspecting. 3. Trust, Accountability and Disciplined Reporting. Develop a culture based on mutual trust, accountability and the disciplined reporting of reality. Mutual trust is the key to overcoming the greatest challenge of organizational development: getting accurate information in a timely manner. 4. Leadership Must Mediate The Inherent 30/70 Imbalances. The 30% relate better to creativity, innovation, new ideas, possibilities, etc. The other 70% relate better to consistency, repeatability, quality, facts, etc. Entrepreneurial type people are typically in the 30% and people seeking stability are typically in the 70%. 5. Circumvent Unintentional Sabotage Of Communication. To eliminate “unintentional sabotage 55
of communication,” communicate your message in writing; everyone reads the same message subject only to their interpretation. 6. Effective Leadership Sees the Horizon Not Perceived by the Majority. Consider your response to someone who expresses sincerity, and passionate commitment toward your interests. Leadership is leading people to a horizon beyond what they currently can perceive. 7. Change First – the Organization’s Ability to Execute; Not the Strategy. To achieve maximum potential, hold firm to your strategy until you understand the barriers to executing it. Maintain a disciplined focus on improving ability to execute your strategy; rather than, changing the strategy to match inability to execute. 8. Management Develops Repeatable Processes That Focus Team Attention. The key to effective management is separating organizational noise from the issues and details needing attention. Management develops repeatable systems, processes and reporting that clearly focuses the team’s attention on what isn’t working. 9. Leadership Sees What Management Does Not See – Extraordinary Results. Effective leadership inspires shared visions based on nothing more than an intangible vision of how things can be. Compelling visions offer meaning, purpose and excitement that energize individuals and teams. 10. Understanding Patterns of Interaction Can Result in Extraordinary Productivity. To achieve organizational greatness, leadership and management must understand patterns of interaction, talents and passion, and styles of communication. 56
The Organizational Differentiator is the Pillar of Communication. Leadership is energy or influence that pulls a team toward a center of focus, strategy or vision. Management is action or process associated with aligning accountability with expectation, strategy and vision. Communication is expectation associated with a purpose, strategy and vision.
Characteristics Of Admired Organizations, i.e.:
1. Satisfy with the quality and breadth of leadership at both their executive and senior management levels. 2. Less tolerant of inappropriate leadership behavior 3. Place more value on leadership development, and put more emphasis on efforts that are linked to strategic business goals and supported by reward programs. 4. Use competency models and a wide variety of developmental programs in selecting and advancing their leaders. 5. Demonstrate more emotional intelligence.
Calculating the Value of a Great Leader
A leader's value is based on their individual productivity, the productivity of their direct reports, and their ability to retain those direct reports. Great leaders demonstrate their value by incurring fewer costs while simultaneously increasing profit.
Leader Value Factors:
1. Average Salary: Ideally, leaders return more than what they are paid, thus producing profit. There is about a 40 percent deviation in performance for a given role. If an average leader might be worth $80,000, a great leader worth $112,000 (+ 40%), and a poor leader worth $48,000 (- 40%). 2. Number of Direct Reports: The more direct reports a leader has, the greater their impact on the organization. 3. Average Salary of Direct Reports: Great leader gets at least 10 percent more productivity out of his/her direct reports than an average leader; poor leaders get 10 percent less. 4. Turnover of Direct Reports: Poor leaders have 25 percent more turnover than average leaders; great leaders have 25 percent less. 5. Number of Days a Direct Report Position is Left Open Before Being Filled: When a position is left vacant, it has the impact of lost productivity. This lost productivity and stress equates to increased costs. 6. Cost to Replace a Direct Report: Poor leaders will have more turnover and greater vacancy rates, thus producing more costs.
The Leadership Culture Measurement
A. Leadership Competencies - key leadership behaviors and internal assumptions that lead to a high fulfillment, high achievement organizational culture. 58
a. Relationship - Relate to others in a way that brings out the best in people, groups and organizations. (It measures how well the leadership culture of the organization builds quality relationships, fosters teamwork, collaborates, develops people, involves people in decision making and planning, and demonstrates a high level of interpersonal skill). b. Self-Awareness - Orientation to ongoing professional and personal development, as well as the degree to which inner self-awareness is expressed through high integrity leadership. (It is a measure of emotional and interpersonal maturity. It also measures the extent to which the culture encourages the kind of personal/professional development that results in personal mastery) c. Authenticity - Capability to relate to others in an authentic, courageous, and high integrity manner. (It measures the extent to which their leadership is authentic—not masked by organizational politics, looking good, winning approval, etc. It also measures their ability to take tough stands, bring up the "undiscussables" (risky issues the group avoids discussing), to openly deal with relationship problems, and share personal feelings/vulnerabilities about a situation. Courage in the workplace involves authentically and directly dealing with risky issues in one-to-one and group situations) d. Systems Awareness - The degree to which your awareness is focused on whole system improvement and on community welfare (the symbiotic relationship between the long-term welfare of the community and the interests of the organization) 59
e. Achievement- Offer visionary, authentic, and high achievement leadership. (It measures the extent to which leaders encourage a focus on achieving end results that are at once purposeful and strategic. It measures the creative use of power and effective decision-making) B. Reactive Leadership Styles a. Control - Establish a sense of personal worth through task accomplishment and personal achievement. (It measures the extent to which leaders push themselves and others hard and use overly driven and aggressive tactics to get others to do what they want) b. Protection - Protect themselves and establish a sense of worth/security by emotionally withdrawing and remaining distant, hidden, aloof, cynical, superior, and/or rational. This stance is often intellectually bright, but overly critical and cold. c. Comply - Act in ways that are overly conservative, cautious, and/or polite. (It measures the extent to which leaders get a sense of self-worth and security by complying with the expectations of others rather than acting on what they intend and want)
The Effects Of Conflict And Consensus
1. Conflict can be seen as a dynamic that can enhance the quality of decision making. Conflict actually inhibits communication and stops the progress a team may have made. Conflict has a valuable effect on the outcome of a team's decision-making ability. 2. Conflict is generally a disagreement regarding interests or ideas. Whether it is within oneself, between two people, or within an organization, it has a negative connotation. "Conflict has historically been viewed as undesirable, something to be avoided". Conflict can be viewed within an organization as negative and not supporting the decisions of management. 3. Effective means get the things right. Effectiveness is a measure of quality. Since quality is often a qualitative term, the real measure of effectiveness is satisfaction. Effectiveness is indicated by how effectively a leader communicates and translates the vision and strategy of the organization 61
4. Members realize that it is important to stay focused on the issues relating to the task at hand while continually evaluating and settling differences. Team member acceptance is fostered by open and honest communication and through the utilization of members' skills and abilities. Conflict allows members to contribute openly and honestly to the team's decision-making process while maintaining acceptance by team members and creating greater commitment:"
The Case for Succession Planning
Organizations faced with executive turnover have simply recruited experienced leaders from other institutions. But attracting talent from the competition is no longer a viable option. Not only is this costly, but a staggering 66 percent of senior managers hired from the outside usually fail within the first 18 months. The smart way for succession crisis is to identify and develop the internal talent needed for key executive positions. Some organizations may find it more rewarding to promote a successor from within, while others prefer to get their candidates externally. Although internal promotions are a good motivation for incumbent people to do their best, it is also a good practice to bring in new blood into the organization once in a while.
Problem-solving style is only one aspect of overall leadership style. However, problem-solving style can fit into the four categories of leadership style found in Leadership and the One Minute Manager by Ken Blanchard, Patricia Zigarmi and Drea Zigarmi (1985): 1. Directing. The leader provides specific instructions and closely supervises task accomplishment. 2. Coaching. The leader continues to direct and closely supervise task accomplishment, but also explains decisions, solicits suggestions, and supports progress. 3. Supporting. The leader facilitates and supports subordinates' efforts toward task accomplishment and shares responsibility for decision making with them. 4. Delegating. The leader turns over responsibility for decision making and problem solving to subordinates. Five Key Sub-Tasks Involved In Problem Solving 1. Defining the problem. The leader makes a list of resources--people, books, Web sites, etc. that have some connection to and information about the problem. The leader then uses these resources to clarify any unfamiliar terms or concepts, and to clarify for the group what s/he understands the problem to be. At this point, the leader is looking for symptoms-the evidence that a problem exists--not causes of the problem. 63
2. Analyzing the problem. After the group has discussed the evidence for the existence of the problem and defined what the problem is, the leader turns his/her attention to analyzing the evidence more thoroughly, looking for relevant data that may explain why the problem exists, evaluating the data collected and the sources of the data. 3. Establishing criteria for evaluating solutions. The leader sets an objective with the group that all proposed solutions should strive for. Based on the definition of the problem and analysis of its cause(s), this objective should be the one specific goal that any acceptable solution should attain. If the problem is too complex to set only one objective, another way is to make a list of musts and wants. "Musts" are those basic requirements without which the solution will be unacceptable. "Wants" are those qualities that are desirable in any solution, and should be prioritized from "most desirable" to "least desirable." A "musts" and "wants" checklist may help the group maximize the effectiveness of any solution without omitting any essential requirements. 4. Proposing solutions. After the leader has established some basis for evaluating solutions, he/she can try brainstorming solutions (see the "Brainstorming" section of this chapter for additional information). From the list of solutions that emerge from the brainstorming session, the leader develops a realistic range of solutions and selects the one that best fits needs according to the evaluation criteria.
5. Taking action. The leader writes an action plan that details the steps and the resources needed to implement the solution.
General Ground Rules For Brainstorming:
1. No idea is a bad idea or, conversely, every idea is a good idea. 2. Everyone is encouraged to participate, but nobody is encouraged to over-participate at the expense of others. 3. Individual work sheets will be provided, utilized, and collected to ensure that every idea is captured. 4. Building on ideas from others is helpful. 5. Repetition of and/or repeating ideas is okay. 6. Ideas will be captured (on tear sheets, by a note taker, or by an audio or video recording). 7. All participants should respect other participants' ideas, even if they disagree with them. 8. People should not interrupt others when they are speaking. 9. Breaks will be taken when a consensus is reached that one is needed. 10. The time line for the session is (number of minutes or hours). 11. A summary of focus group findings will be provided to all participants by (person responsible) by (deadline).
Rules To Successful Brainstorming
1. A leader should take control of the session, initially defining the problem(s) to be solved or issue(s) to be addressed with any criteria that must be met, and then keeping the session on course. He or she should encourage enthusiastic, uncritical participation by all members of the team. The session should be announced as having a fixed length of time, and the leader should ensure that no train of thought is followed for too long. The leader should try to keep the brainstorming on subject, and should try to steer it toward the development of some practical solutions. 2. Participants in the brainstorming process should come from as wide a range of disciplines--with as broad a range of experience--as possible. This brings many more creative ideas to the session. 3. Brainstormers should be encouraged to have fun, coming up with as many 4. ideas as possible, from solidly practical to wildly impractical, in an environment where creativity is encouraged and welcome. 5. Ideas must not be criticized or evaluated during the brainstorming session. Criticism introduces an element of risk for a group member in putting forward an idea, and may dissuade others from participating. This stifles creativity and cripples the free-running nature of a good brainstorming session. 6. Participants should not only come up with new ideas, but also "spark off" other people's ideas. 66
7. A record should be kept of the session--minutes, tear sheet notations, or a tape recording. 8. Individual worksheets should be provided for participants to record their ideas prior to sharing them with the group. This approach is helpful for creative people who are somewhat shy in public venues, and can also provide useful data that may not be shared with the full group due to time limitations. 9. The group's ideas and findings should be subsequently studied for evaluation. 10. Findings or outcomes from the session should be shared with all participants.
1. Define the problem and lay out any criteria to be met. 2. Keep the session focused on the problem. 3. Ensure that no one criticizes or evaluates ideas during the session. 4. Encourage an enthusiastic, uncritical attitude among members of the group. Try to get everyone to contribute and develop ideas 5. Let people have fun brainstorming: Welcome creativity. 6. Ensure that no train of thought is followed for too long. 7. Encourage people to develop other people's ideas, or to use other ideas to create new ones.
8. Appoint one person to note down ideas that come out of the session.
Methods Of Decision Making
a. Decision made by authority without group discussion - The leader makes all decisions without consulting group members. b. Decision by expert – Select the expert from group, let the expert consider the issues, and let the expert make decisions. c. Decision by averaging individuals' opinions - Ask each team member his/her opinion and average the results. d. Decision made by authority after group discussion The team creates ideas and has discussions, but the leader makes the final decision. e. Decision by minority - A minority of the team, two or more members who constitute less than 50% of the team, make the team’s decision f. Decision by majority vote - Discuss the decision until 51% or more of the team members make the decision. g. Decision by consensus - Collective decision arrived at through an effective and fair communication process (all team members spoke and listened, and all were valued). h. Unanimous consent: Everyone truly agrees on the course of action to be taken A leader is individual whose values and character enable them to influence others by providing purpose, direction, and 68
motivation, in order to accomplish the mission and objectives of the organization.
6th WORK ETHICS
Work ethics is a behavior characterized work habits, values, and attitudes. Work ethic referred to a positive attitude toward work; i.e. work value, job satisfaction, loyalty, self concept, organizational commitment, beliefs, work performance, attitudes, and role conflict. Persons who enjoy their work would be regarded as having a better work ethic than persons who did not enjoy their work. Violations of work ethics may result in some form of disciplinary action, depending upon the seriousness of the offense involved. All offenses which lead to discipline are not of the same degree of seriousness.
Top 10 Ways to Be Happy at Work
1. Choose to Be Happy at Work. Happiness is largely a choice. You can choose to be happy at work. Sound simple? Yes. But, simplicity is often profoundly difficult to put into action 2. Do Something You Love Every Single Day. You may or may not love your current job and you may or may not believe that you can find something in your current job to love, but you can. , you can always make your current job work or decide that it is time to quit your job 3. Take Charge of Your Own Professional and Personal Development. You are the person with the most to gain from continuing to develop professionally. Take charge of your own growth; ask for specific and 70
8. 9. 10.
meaningful help from your boss, but march to the music of your personally developed plan and goals. Take Responsibility for Knowing What Is Happening at Work. Seek out the information you need to work effectively. Develop an information network and use it. Ask for Feedback Frequently. Talk to your customers, if you're serving them well, their feedback is affirming. Make Only Commitments You Can Keep. Create a system of organization and planning that enables you to assess your ability to complete a requested commitment. Don't volunteer if you don't have time. Avoid Negativity. No matter how positively you feel, negative people have a profound impact on your psyche. Don't let the negative Neds and Nellies bring you down. Practice Professional Courage. If you are like most people, you don't like conflict. Conflict can help you serve customers and create successful products. Make Friends. Your network provides support, resources, sharing, and caring If All Else Fails, Job Searching Will Make You Smile. You don't want to spend your life doing work you hate in an unfriendly work environment. You can secretly smile while you spend all of your non-work time job searching.
5 Keys To Credibility:
1. Admit weakness. Nothing’s perfect. You boost your credibility when you admit to those weaknesses rather than trying to sweep them under the table. Even better: turn a perceived weakness into a desired benefit. 71
2. Borrow credibility. When your prospect doesn’t know you or you believe your credibility with them is low, borrow the credibility of another to boost your own. 3. Stay positive. Talking badly about someone else does not make you look better. In fact, it has the opposite effect. 4. Subtly reveal qualifications. When people accept you as an expert, you’ll have their undivided attention. 5. Stay calm. People who stay calm and poised come across as highly competent and credible.
7 Ways You Can Grow The Action Habit:
1. Don’t wait until conditions are perfect - If you’re waiting to start until conditions are perfect, you probably never will. 2. Be a doer - Practice doing things rather than thinking about them. 3. Remember that ideas alone don’t bring success Ideas are important, but they’re only valuable after they’ve been implemented. 4. Use action to cure fear - Have you ever noticed that the most difficult part of public speaking is waiting for your turn to speak? 5. Start your creative engine mechanically - One of the biggest misconceptions about creative work is that it can only be done when inspiration strikes. 6. Live in the present - Focus on what you can do in the present moment. Don’t worry about what you should have done last week or what you might be able to do tomorrow. 7. Get down to business immediately - It’s common practice for people to socialize and make small talk at the beginning of meetings. 72
No one has to lose for you to win. Many people go for losewin rather than win-lose. Sometimes you go for win-win or no deal, which means you agree to disagree agreeably, particularly when there are opposing values. Sometimes you transcend opposing values by finding a higher, unifying value. Sometimes it's OK to go for win-lose or lose-win if the most important consideration is not the subjects you're discussing but rather the quality of the relationships. This may contribute to a win-win relationship, even though there are some decisions that are win-lose or lose-win. Conflict can be described as a situation where one person believes that another person's behavior (or anticipated behavior) makes it difficult for them to meet their personal outcomes or needs. Win/Win is one of six total philosophies of human interaction. a. Win/Win - People can seek mutual benefit in all human interactions. Principle-based behavior. b. Win/Lose - The competitive paradigm: if I win, you lose. The leadership style is authoritarian. In relationships, if both people aren't winning, both are losing. c. Lose/Win - The "Doormat" paradigm. The individual seeks strength from popularity based on acceptance. The leadership style is permissiveness. Living this paradigm can result in psychosomatic illness from repressed resentment. d. Lose/Lose - When people become obsessed with making the other person lose, even at their own expense. This is the philosophy of adversarial 73
conflict, war, or of highly dependent persons. (If nobody wins, being a loser isn't so bad.) e. Win - Focusing solely on getting what one wants, regardless of the needs of others. f. Win/Win or No Deal - If we can't find a mutually beneficial solution, we agree to disagree agreeably no deal. This approach is most realistic at the beginning of a business relationship or enterprise. In a continuing relationship, it's no longer an option.
Courage does not come just by wishing - it only happens as a consequence of one's level of consciousness, one's inner experience, one's self identity. Leaders with courage assert themselves and take risks. We gain strength, and courage, and confidence by each experience in which we really stop to look fear in the face; we must do that which we think we cannot. Courageous people trust their intuition. Courage is to stand by one’s heart or to stand by one’s core. People with courage tend to be restless, vivacious, and brazen. It’s characterized by: Ø Provide honest input and counsel Ø Choose not to lay people off simply for a short-term boost Ø Present outside-the-norm ideas Ø Share an alternative viewpoint Ø Speak up, rather than being complicit in silence Ø Not falling prey to the perception that "working longer hours equals increased productivity" 74
Ø Advocate for a potential new hire without much direct experience Ø Not settling for the status quo
The 8 Trust Me Principles
Qualities of a Trust Me Leadership Style: 1. Humility: “Not full of themselves”— the leaders who are open and teachable…and invite the same qualities in others. 2. Developer: “Realist”— the leaders who accept the truth and know how to train others to seize the benefits of adversity, loss, and change. 3. Commitment: “Steadfast”— the leaders who know that reaching a greater good requires a firm grip on the right values, causes, and goals. 4. Focus: “Desperate for excellence” — the leaders who do the right things, at the right time, in the right way. 5. Compassion: “Caring”— the leaders who serve the needs of everyone in their organization. 6. Integrity: “Good motives”— the leaders who hold high moral values regardless of personal cost. 7. Peace Making: “Calming the waters”— the leaders who stay steady in storms and build teams that stick together. 8. Endurance: “Graceful when under attack”— the leaders who overcome personal doubts and setbacks to courageously stay the course.
Tips to Anticipate Strike
Following tips might be beneficial to bring the people to decide rationally against strike: 1. Discussion: Invite your people to discuss openly about strike, positive and negative aspects, and consequences. Leaders are to guide towards the healthy environment. No one is allowed to dominate the others. Let people ask and answer their own questions. 2. Encouragement: Bring your people to the maturity of thought. Let they discuss thoroughly with their colleague, family, and parents what to choose the available options. Tell them the consequences of strike against their career, family, community and company. 3. Be a shield for the people: Stand before the people who are not joining into the strike. Leaders give their personal guarantee to protect the people against threats. It’s the ‘Show Time’ that you are great leaders. 4. Enforcement: Take proper action to the people who attend the strike, which depends on the Management decision and advice.
“Or – And” Phenomena
Great leaders do not accept such arguments as “What do you want, production or quality? I can’t do both.” Or “What’s more important, making sales calls or filling out reports? I can’t do both.” 76
Great leaders help the people they lead understand that their jobs have a number of priorities, and all are important. Great leaders will say “I want you to meet production targets and meet quality standards and do it safely and in a manner that complies with all the regulations that govern manufacturing.” Great leaders will say “I want you to make sales calls and close sales and complete all of your sales reporting on time.”
Trustworthiness comes from character and competence. Trust is the essential ingredient for a healthy organizational relationship between the followers and the leader. Trust is the glue that holds leaders and followers together. Trust is a risk. Trust indicates a depth and a sense of assurance. Trust makes for a sense of being safe or of being free of fear. Trust breeds confidence and conviction. What followers are looking for is someone in whom they can place their trust. Someone they know is working for the greater good - for them and for the organization. They're looking for someone not only that they can - but that they want to - follow. Because it is only when you have followers - people who have placed their trust in you - that you know you have moved into that leadership role.
Three Aspects of Character
1. Integrity. When dealing with people, projecting honesty, keeping promises, and showing a good 77
moral standard will demonstrate that the company has a sense of integrity. 2. Maturity. Deal with complicated problems after careful consideration and evaluation. Do not ‘jump the gun’. 3. Abundance Mentality. You see life as full of opportunities. You don’t have insecurities about others, and are not resentful of others’ success.
Three Aspects of Competence
1. Technical competence. The ability and knowledge needed to finish a task. 2. Conceptual knowledge. The ability to spot big opportunities by seeing the ‘big’ picture. 3. Interdependency. Being aware that everything in life is interconnected.
The 7 Levels of Initiative
1. Wait until you are told. People under this influence tend to loose their self confidence, showing negative behavior such as criticism, belligerence, bad judgment, rivalry, and contention. 2. Ask. Ask about something that is included in your job description but outside your circle of influence. 3. Make a recommendation. In making a recommendation, you should first analyze the problem then think of a possible solution to solve the problem. 78
4. I intend to. Once it has been approved, prepare to carry out the action or plan. 5. Do it and report immediately. Do an evaluation and present it to people who want to know. 6. Do it and report periodically. Self evaluation (within job description and the circle of influence). 7. Do it. Execute whatever needs to be executed.
The Seven Ingredients Of Maturity:
1. Maturity is the ability to control anger and settle differences without violence or destruction. 2. Maturity is patience. 3. Maturity is the capacity to face unpleasantness and frustration, discomfort and defeat, without complaint or collapse. 4. Maturity is humility. 5. Maturity is the ability to make a decision and follow through. 6. Maturity means dependability and coming through in a crisis. 7. Maturity is the art of living in peace.
5 levels of listening
Pay attention to somebody or something that you can hear 1. Ignoring - Refuse to pay attention to
2. Pretending to listen - Follow what they’re saying. It may not be the nicest thing to do, but it’s better than just completely ignoring someone 3. Selective listening - Listen for stressed words, find the important information 4. Attentive listening - Thinking and acting in ways that connect you with the speaker 5. Emphatic listening - Listen patiently to what the other person has to say
Strategies for Getting Tougher Mentally
1. Change your thinking to change how you feel - The way you’re feeling affects the way you’re thinking; the way you’re thinking affects the way you’re feeling. You can exercise substantial control over the direction and content of your thoughts. 2. If You Don’t Like the Feeling, Change the Picture— Images are more powerful triggers of emotion than words. 3. Take Full Responsibility For What and How You Think—Negative feelings often serve the vital purpose of signaling important unmet needs of various kinds. Say “Stop” to yourself and immediately begin processing positive thoughts and images. 4. Constantly Practice Positive Thinking—Positive thinking and positive imagery skills are acquired in the same way motor skills are—through repetition. 5. Never Think or Say Can’t; Never Think or Say Hate Inflexible, rigid thinking always leads to problems.
6. Think—Visualize in Vivid Emotional Terms—These Thoughts Daily - I will put myself on the line every day; I will not show weakness; etc 7. Think Humorously to Break Up Negative Emotions— When you think nutty, goofy, silly, funny, off-the-wall thoughts, fear and anger vaporize. 8. Think More Energetically—Energy is every thing, and attaining a high level of positive energy is the key to success. 9. Learn to Keep a Here-And-Now Focus— A presentcentered focus, particularly during critical moments of execution, is fundamental to performing well under pressure. 10. During critical moments of execution, focus your attention outside yourself— The more you can get “outside your head” and completely absorbed in the activity itself, the better you will typically perform. 11. Practice strategic visualization constantly—“See,” “hear,” and “feel” yourself overcome your weaknesses and accomplish important goals. 12. Be more disciplined in the way you think about your mistakes—If you fear mistakes, you will make them. If you fear losing, you will lose. 13. Be clear why it’s important; then make the commitment—Without a clear commitment, you probably won’t. 14. Use Adversity to get stronger—Adversity and crisis largely determines the impact these things will have on you. 15. Constantly remind yourself to love the battle—Loving to succeed is easy. Loving the process moves you to a whole new level of skill.
Win at Work
The pinnacle of career success is mental toughness, confidence, courage; which is the profound ability to stay in control and triumph when facing problems at work. The opposite of mental toughness is fear that has three common denominators, i.e.: 1. Stress - Overwhelmed with different types of work stress – deadlines, fear of failure or rejection, pressure from others, or confusion about his priorities. He/she procrastinates, works on the wrong things, or does the bare minimum. 2. Communicate poorly - The two most common mistakes are a. Passiveness – failing to address issues (leading to poor results) b. Aggressiveness – complaining and criticizing (leading to low trust).
De-motivate - Create low productivity and job dissatisfaction.
Qualities of Good Problem Solvers
Qualities of leaders with good problem-solving ability, i.e.: 1. Anticipate problems. Problems are inevitable and good leaders anticipate them. Have a positive attitude but plan for the worst. 2. Accept the truth. Denying problems only prolongs the agony. Be willing to look at the issues honestly, accept responsibility, and move forward. 82
3. See the big picture. Have a vision of the future and be able to see where the organization can be in five or ten years. Do not be overwhelmed by emotion or bogged down with details. Have someone trustworthy ferret out the details. 4. Handle one problem at a time. Eat the elephant one bite at a time. 5. Don't give up on a major goal when they're down. See life as a roller coaster--sometimes up and sometimes down. Don't give up on the vision just because some glitches occurred.
Guidelines To Improve Staff Spirit
1. Select people who are right for the organization. Over time transfer or even let go people who tend to tear the team or the organization apart. Like a coach, the leader can't develop a winning team without having the right team members to put forward a coordinated, highly motivated effort toward an agreed-upon goal. 2. Work to create a supportive environment for the team or staff. The entire organization can reward cooperative, collaborative work methods. 3. Challenge the team or staff to help the organization as a whole. Team spirit thrives in an atmosphere filled with short-term assignments, medium-term goals, and long-term missions linked directly to the organization's health and survival. 4. When the team or staff knows its work is important and valuable, each member tends to feel a stronger commitment level. 83
5. Create a unique team or staff identity. When a strong spirit and a good productivity level exist, people tend to carry the same goals and work toward them together. 6. Encourage the team or staff to use its initiative and creativity. Tackling problems and handling resources according to its own best judgment will boost the positive spirit. 7. Make the team or staff accountable. Part of taking responsibility for success is being willing to have effort measured and evaluated. The spirit of a team increases when members recognize that their contribution is a significant part of the success
Deal With An Individual Who Adamantly Resists Doing Something Differently
1. Confront the individual in a calm and reasonable manner to determine his/her objections to the change that's being made. 2. Challenge the reasons given for not accepting the change. Don't let excuses as to why the individual won't comply go unanswered. Otherwise, the employee will take this as agreement with his/her position. 3. Give the employee explicit directions that the change must be complied with. 4. After allowing time to comply with instructions, confront the worker if there is noncompliance. State calmly but firmly that further refusal to perform the
work in accordance with the new procedures will be grounds for possible disciplinary action. 5. Keep the boss posted about the problem if it appears that disciplinary action may become necessary. It also makes sense to coordinate with the Human Resources personnel to be certain the correct procedures are followed in terms of disciplinary actions in general and termination of the employee in particular.
9 Attitudes of Highly Creative People
1. Curiosity - Learning to ask ‘why’, ‘what if’, etc 2. See Problems as Interesting and Acceptable - See and feel symptoms that are there to tell us something important 3. Confront Challenge - Many of the most creative ideas through out history have come from people facing a challenge or crisis 4. Constructive Discontent - Have an acute awareness of what’s wrong with the world around you 5. Optimism - Belief that most (if not all) problems can be solved. 6. Suspend Judgment - Able to hold off on judging or critiquing an idea. Often great ideas start as crazy ones 7. Seeing Hurdles as leading to improvements and solutions - Sometimes problems or mistakes are on the journey of developing an idea that the real magic happens 85
8. Perseverance - Able to stick with the ideas and see them through 9. Flexible Imagination – Able to see a problem or challenge and its many potential solutions simultaneously.
Techniques For Innovation
Seven tips for becoming more innovative and regaining curiosity: 1. Be a novelty addict - High novelty seeking is a strong factor for innovation 2. Find the discontinuities: If there are discontinuities in between today’s need and the future’s need, innovation are having more and more relevance 3. Search out under-appreciated trends: Tomorrow's trends display "what's new" and "what's next". 4. Find the big story: There are many stories of great innovations done by big companies. Learn it. 5. Follow the chain of consequences: Innovation is an unexpected—but welcome—by-product. 6. Dig deeper: Keep abreast of new developments 7. Know what's not changing: Always watch the status quo and confront the challenge
Hands Free Leave
Free your hands against homework, whenever you leave office. Say "No" to homework. Don’t take work home for the evening or over the weekend unless absolutely necessary. 86
Workload "sprawl" can be the result of lazy time management or a need to have others think you're busy and therefore important. Learn to be efficient during the workweek so that you can reserve your personal time for refueling and personal fulfillment. Stop selling, start serving. Give yourself time. Give others time. It’s essential, if you truly want to improve your own prospects and advance a more civilized way of living and working.
You can simply prioritize tasks based on: 1. Time constraints: Other people are depending on you to complete a task. Identify the most important changes to make. Determine the different types of problem, and focus your efforts on resolving it. 2. Potential profitability or benefit: Based on financial evaluation. Compare each item on a list. Prioritize opportunities based on the attractiveness of the outcomes. 3. Task pressure: it’s a brave (and maybe foolish) person who resists his or her boss’s pressure to complete a task, when that pressure is reasonable and legitimate.
The Top 10 Work Values Employers Look For
1. Strong Work Ethic - understand and possess a willingness to work hard, learning the most efficient way to complete tasks and finding ways to save time;
maintaining a positive attitude; doing more than is expected 2. Dependable and Responsible - come to work on time, responsible for their actions and behavior, keep supervisors abreast of changes in your schedule, keeping your supervisor informed on where you are. 3. Possessing a Positive Attitude - take the initiative and have the motivation to get the job done in a reasonable period of time, motivate others to do the same, create an environment of good will and provide a positive role model for others, make the job more pleasant and fun to go. 4. Adaptable - adaptable and maintain flexibility in completing tasks in an ever changing workplace, being open to change and improvements, offering additional benefits to the corporation, the customer, and even the employee 5. Honesty and Integrity - maintain a sense of honesty and integrity, show relationships that built on trust 6. Self – Motivated - require little supervision and direction to get the work done in a timely and professional manner, their part by offering a safe, supportive, work environment that offer others an opportunity to learn and grow 7. Motivated to Grow & Learn - interested in keeping up with new developments and knowledge in the field, learning new skills, techniques, methods, and/or theories 8. Strong Self – Confidence - inspire others, not afraid to ask questions on topics where they feel they need more knowledge, willing to take risks, admit mistakes, 88
recognize their strengths as well as their weaknesses and are willing to work on the latter, have faith in themselves and their abilities, show positive attitude and outlook 9. Professionalism - exhibit professional behavior, learning every aspect of a job and doing it to the best, takes pride in their behavior and appearance, complete projects as soon as possible and avoid letting uncompleted projects pile up, complete high quality work and are detail oriented, providing a positive role model for others, enthusiastic about their work and optimistic about the organization and its future. 10. Loyalty - exhibit their loyalty to the company
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11. Watt, Willis M., 10 Recommendations Toward Effective Leadership, Magna Publications, Inc., USA, 2008 12. Dr. Tom Morris , Who is a Leader?, Kenya, Sword Of The spirit Ministries Online, 2004 13. Peter S. Cohan, Value Leadership, Peter S. Cohan & Associates, USA, 2008 14. Carol Kelley, Quality Leadership: Managing Ourselves and Others For Maximum Effectiveness, Hinds Community College, USA, 1997 15. Murray Johannsen, Leadership Entrepreneurial, Legacee Management Systems Inc., USA, 2008 16. Bernard L. Erven, A Winning Business Attitude, Ohio State University, USA, 1998 17. Michele Erina Doyle and Mark K. Smith, Shared Leadership, infed.org, England, 2008
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